6 - The Political Geography of Distributive Justice  pp. 153-184


By Jeffrey L. Dunoff

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



The gruesome facts of global inequality and poverty are depressingly familiar. Nevertheless, the enormous disparities in wealth and power that mark our world still have the power to shock. Consider the following:

  • There are 1.4 billion people who live at or below the poverty line of $1.25 per day and over 3 billion people who live on less than $2.50 per day. At least 80 percent of humanity lives on less than $10 per day.
  • The net worth of the three richest individuals in the world exceeds the aggregate gross domestic product (GDP) of the forty-eight least developed states, and one-half of the world's population possesses less than 1 percent of its wealth.
  • The world's forty-nine poorest states account for 10 percent of the world's population, yet they account for 0.4 percent of world trade.
  • Each day, over 26,000 children die of hunger and other preventable diseases. This is equivalent to one child every three seconds, and almost 10 million deaths annually. In addition, more than 500,000 women die in pregnancy and childbirth each year; 99 percent of these deaths are in developing countries.
  • Approximately 2.5 billion people do not have access to improved sanitation, and roughly 1.2 billion lack access to clean water.
  • Gender inequality is endemic: Some 70 percent of the 1.3 billion people living in poverty are women, and women work two-thirds of the world's working hours yet earn only 10 percent of the world's income. They own less than 1 percent of the world's property.

The brutal social and economic realities that lie behind these facts render demands for distributive justice increasingly salient and urgent. Nevertheless, meaningful response to the plight of the poor in general and in developing countries in particular has proven to be both frustratingly inadequate and extraordinarily challenging. Some difficulties result from the enormous diversity among developing states. For example, while some developing states have been at the forefront of global economic growth, another group – much greater in number, if smaller in population – is falling further behind. Moreover, the barriers to economic growth and development vary enormously across countries. As a result, generalized policies are unlikely to be effective, and more nuanced approaches are needed.

6

Reference Type: notes

Mark Osiel The End of Reciprocity: Terror, Torture, and the Law of War New York Cambridge University Press 2009
Paul Eden Matthew Happold Symposium: The Relationship between International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law Journal of Conflict and Security Law 14 2009 441
Onora O’Neill Bounds of Justice Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2000 126
Thomas Christiano John Christman Contemporary Debates in Political Philosophy West Sussex Wiley-Blackwell 2009 17
John Rawls The Law of Peoples Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1999
David Luban Just War and Human Rights Philosophy and Public Affairs 9 1980 160
Thomas Nagel The Problem of Global Justice Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 2005 113
Richard A. Posner The Decline of Law as an Autonomous Discipline: 1962–1987 Harvard Law Review 100 1987 761
Francis J. Mootz III Legal Classics: After Deconstructing the Legal Canon North Carolina Law Review 72 1994 977
Marci Hoffman Katherine Topulos Tyranny of the Available: Under-Represented Topics, Approaches, and Viewpoints Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 35 2008 175
Joel P. Trachtman The Economic Structure of International Law Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2009
Andrew T. Guzman How International Law Works: A Rational Choice Theory Oxford Oxford University Press 2009
Eric A. Posner The Perils of Global Legalism Chicago University of Chicago Press 2009
Eric A. Posner Jack L. Goldsmith The Limits of International Law Oxford Oxford University Press 2006
Steven R. Ratner Anne-Marie Slaughter Appraising the Methods of International Law: A Prospectus for Readers American Journal of International Law 93 1999 291
Jeffrey L. Dunoff Why Constitutionalism Now? Text, Context and the Historical Contingency of Ideas Journal of International Law and International Relations 1 2005 191
Anne Marie Slaughter International Law and International Relations Theory: A Dual Agenda American Journal of International Law 87 1993 205
Fernando Tesón Remarks,” in Robyn Lipsky, “Ethical Foundations of International Law American Society of International Law Proceedings 81 1987 415
Jeremy Waldron Hart and the Principles of Legality Matthew Kramer Claire Grant Ben Colburn Antony Hatzistavrou The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart: Legal, Political and Moral Philosophy Oxford Oxford University Press 2008 67
Brian D. Lepard Customary International Law: A New Theory with Practical Applications Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2010
Joost Pauwelyn Frank Garcia Christian Barry Susan Esserman Just Trade under Law: Do We Need a Theory of Justice for International Trade Relations American Society of International Law Proceedings 100 2006 375
Frank J. Garcia Trade, Inequality and Justice: Towards a Liberal Theory of Just Trade Leiden Brill 2003
Joost Pauwelyn Just Trade George Washington International Law Review 37 2005 559
Gillian Brock Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account Oxford Oxford University Press 2009
Simon Caney Justice beyond Borders: A Global Political Theory Oxford Oxford University Press 2005
Kok-Chor Tan Justice without Borders: Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism, and Patriotism Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2004
Chris Brown International Relations Theory: New Normative Approaches Hemel Hempstead Harvester Wheatsheaf 1992
Janna Thompson Justice and World Order: A Philosophical Inquiry London Routledge 1992
Charles Jones Global Justice: Defending Cosmopolitanism Oxford Oxford University Press 2001 15
Simon Caney International Distributive Justice Political Studies 49 2001 975
Jeremy Waldron What Is Cosmopolitanism? Journal of Political Philosophy 8 2000 227
Charles Beitz Social and Cosmopolitan Liberalism International Affairs 75 1999 515
Allen E. Buchanan Assessing the Communitarian Critique of Liberalism Ethics 99 1989 852
David Miller On Nationality Oxford Clarendon Press 1995
Michael Walzer Spheres of Justice New York Basic Books 1983
Michael Walzer Thick and Thin: Moral Argument at Home and Abroad South Bend, IN University of Notre Dame Press 2006
Bruno Simma Yoram Dinstein International Law at a Time of Perplexity Dordrecht Springer 1989 821
Alan Boyle Christine Chinkin The Making of International Law Oxford Oxford University Press 2007 17
David J. Bederman The Spirit of International Law Athens University of Georgia Press 2002 49
Frank J. Garcia Globalization and the Theory of International Law International Legal Theory 11 2005 9
James L. Drier Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory Hoboken, NJ Wiley-Blackwell 2006 57
Michael Blake Distributive Justice, State Coercion, and Autonomy Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 2001 257
Norman Daniels Norman Daniels Reading Rawls New York Basic Books 1975
John Rawls A Theory of Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1999 10
John Charvet David R. Mapel Terry Nardin International Society: Diverse Ethical Perspectives Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1999 115
Charles R. Beitz Justice and International Relations Philosophy and Public Affairs 4 1975 360
Gerald A. Cohen Rescuing Justice and Equality Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2008
Liam B. Murphy Institutions and the Demands of Justice Philosophy and Public Affairs 27 1998 251
Thomas Pogge Cosmopolitanism and Sovereignty Ethics 103 1992 48
Amartya Sen The Idea of Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2009 5
Ronald H. Coase The Institutional Structure of Production American Economic Review 82 1992 713
Douglass C. North Institutions Matter American Economic Review 84 1994 359
Douglass C. North Torsten Persson Nobel Lectures: Economics 1991–1995 Singapore World Scientific 1997
Carol C. Gould Marx's Social Ontology: Individuality and Community in Marx's Theory of Social Reality Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1978

Reference Type: notes

Peter Singer Famine, Affluence, and Morality Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 1972 229
Charles Beitz Political Theory and International Relations Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1979
Thomas Pogge World Poverty and Human Rights Cambridge Polity Press 2002
Darrel Moellendorf Cosmopolitan Justice Boulder, CO Westview Press 2002
Simon Caney Justice beyond Borders Oxford Oxford University Press 2005
Peter Singer Practical Ethics Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1999 246
Peter Singer One World: The Ethics of Globalization New Haven, CT Yale University Press 2004 187
Charles Beitz Political Theory and International Relations Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1979
Thomas Pogge Realizing Rawls Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press 1989
Kok-Chor Tan Justice without Borders Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2004
David Miller Citizenship and National Identity Cambridge Polity Press 2000 161
2005
Thomas Pogge Severe Poverty as a Violation of Negative Duties Ethics & International Affairs 19 2005 55
Carol C. Gould Rethinking Democracy: Freedom and Social Cooperation in Politics, Economy, and Society Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1988
2004
Carol C. Gould Coercion, Care, and Corporations: Omissions and Commissions in Thomas Pogge's Political Philosophy The Journal of Global Ethics 3 2007 381
C. B. Macpherson Democratic Theory: Essays in Retrieval Oxford Oxford University Press 1973
Amartya Sen S. McMurrin Tanner Lectures on Human Values Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1980 195
1985
Martha Nussbaum Amartya Sen The Quality of Life Oxford Oxford University Press 1993 30
Carol C. Gould Marx's Social Ontology Cambridge, MA The MIT Press 1978
Carol C. Gould Group Rights and Social Ontology The Philosophical Forum 1996 73
Isaiah Berlin Isaiah Berlin Liberty Oxford Oxford University Press 2002 166
Martha Nussbaum Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2001
Alan Gewirth Reason and Morality Chicago University of Chicago Press 1980
Rebecca J. Cook Human Rights of Women Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press 1994 58
Donna Sullivan Julie Peters Andrea Wolper Women's Rights, Human Rights New York Routledge 1995 126
Iris Marion Young Responsibility and Global Justice: A Social Connections Model Social Philosophy and Policy 23 2006 102
2004
Thomas Nagel The Problem of Global Justice Philosophy & Public Affairs 33 2005 113
Rawls The Law of Peoples Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1999
Philippe Van Parijs Real Freedom for All Oxford Oxford University Press 1995
Gregory H. Fox Brad R. Roth Democratic Governance and International Law Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2000
Carol C. Gould Self-Determination beyond Sovereignty: Relating Transnational Democracy to Local Autonomy Journal of Social Philosophy 37 2006 44
Henry Shue Basic Rights Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1980
Carol C. Gould Structuring Global Democracy: Political Communities, Universal Human Rights, and Transnational Representation Metaphilosophy 40 2009 24
Carol C. Gould Transnational Solidarities Carol Gould Sally Scholz Journal of Social Philosophy 38 2007 146
Ronald K. Mitchell Bradley R. Agle Donna J. Wood Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts Academy of Management Review 22 1997 853
Robert A. Phillips Stakeholder Legitimacy Business Ethics Quarterly 13 2003 25
Bert van de Ven Human Rights as a Normative Basis for Stakeholder Legitimacy Corporate Governance 5 2005 48
Gillian Brock Taxation and Global Justice: Closing the Gap between Theory and Practice Journal of Social Philosophy 39 2008 161
Ruth W. Grant Robert O. Keohane Accountability and Abuses of Power in World Politics American Political Science Review 99 2005
Joseph E. Stiglitz Globalization and Its Discontents New York Norton 2002
David Held Mathias Koenig-Archibugi Taming Globalization Cambridge Polity 2003 47
Peter Willetts P. Griffith J. Thurston Free and Fair: Making the Progressive Case for Removing Trade Barriers London Foreign Policy Centre 2004 131
Carol C. Gould Technology, Science and Social Justice, Social Philosophy Today Charlottesville, VA Philosophy Documentation Center 2007 73
Carol C. Gould Global Democracy: Normative and Empirical Perspectives Daniele Archibugi Mathias Koenig-Archibugi Raffaele Marchetti Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2011
Carol C. Gould K. Kipnis D. T. Meyers Economic Justice: Private Rights and Public Responsibilities Totowa, NJ Rowman & Allanheld 1985 202
David Schweickart After Capitalism Lanham, MD Rowman & Littlefield 2002

Reference Type: notes

John Rawls The Law of Peoples Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1999 6
G. A. Cohen Rescuing Justice and Equality Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2008
John Rawls A Theory of Justice Oxford Oxford University Press 1972 3
Richard Wollheim P. Laslett W. G. Runciman Philosophy, Politics and Society: Second Series Oxford Blackwell 1962 71
John Rawls Political Liberalism New York Columbia University Press 1995
T. M. Scanlon Samuel Freeman The Cambridge Companion to Rawls Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2002 157
Samuel Freeman Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawlsian Political Philosophy New York Oxford University Press 2007 117n
Joseph H. Carens B. Barry R. Goodin Free Movement: Ethical Issues in the Transnational Migration of People and of Money Hemel Hempstead Harvester Wheatsheaf 1992 26
Andrea Sangiovanni Global Justice, Reciprocity and the State Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 2007 6
Darrel Moellendorf Cosmopolitan Justice Boulder, CO Westview Press 2002 32
Michael Blake Distributive Justice, State Coercion, and Autonomy Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 2002 258
Thomas Nagel The Problem of Global Justice Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 2005 128
Daniel Butt Rectifying International Injustice: Principles of Compensation and Restitution Between Nations Oxford Oxford University Press 2009 115
David Miller National Responsibility and Global Justice Oxford Oxford University Press 2007 62
Simon Caney Cosmopolitan Justice and Equalizing Opportunities Metaphilosophy 32 2001 120
Sylvia Loriaux Global Equality of Opportunity: A Proposal Journal of International Relations and Development 11 2008 2
Martha C. Nussbaum Amartya Sen The Quality of Life Oxford Clarendon Press 1993
Richard A. Epstein Forbidden Grounds: The Case against Employment Discrimination Laws Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1992 27
Gillian Brock Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account Oxford Oxford University Press 2009 61
Paula Casal Why Sufficiency Is not Enough Ethics 117 2007 296
Terry Macdonald Global Stakeholder Democracy: Power and Representation Beyond Liberal States New York Oxford University Press 2008
Cass Sunstein Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict Oxford Oxford University Press 1996 44
Pius N. Langa Transformative Constitutionalism Stellenbosch Law Review 17 2006 352
Chantal Mouffe Noel O’Sullivan Political Theory in Transition London Routledge 2000 113
A. J. Simmons Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations Cambridge University Press 2001 122

Reference Type: notes

Paul Samuelson Foundations of Economic Analysis Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1948 310
Ronald M. Dworkin Taking Rights Seriously Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1977
Richard Crasswell Taking Information Seriously: Misrepresentation and Disclosure in Contract Law and Elsewhere Virginia Law Review 92 2006 565
Jon D. Hanson Douglas A. Kysar Taking Behavioralism Seriously: The Problem of Market Manipulation New York University Law Review 74 2000 45
Daniel Farber Taking Slippage Seriously Harvard Environmental Law Review 23 1999 1
George A. Berman Taking Subsidiarity Seriously: Federalism in the European Union and the United States Columbia Law Review 94 1994 1
Michael Bratman Taking Plans Seriously Social Theory & Practice 9 1983 271
Mark Kelman Taking Takings Seriously: An Essay for Centrists California Law Review 74 1986 1829
William E. Forbath Taking Lefts Seriously Yale Law Journal 92 1983 1041
David A. J. Richards Taking Taking Rights Seriously Seriously New York University Law Review 52 1977 1265
John Lyons An Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1968 350
Bernard Comrie Language Universals and Linguistic Typology: Syntax and Morphology Chicago University of Chicago Press 1989 42
Ronald Dworkin Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2000 303
Daniel Markovits How Much Redistribution Should There Be? Yale Law Journal 112 2003 2295
Louis Kaplow Steven Shavell Fairness versus Welfare Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2002 421
John Rawls A Theory of Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1999 54
J. Rawls The Law of Peoples Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2000
R. J. Arneson Equality and Equal Opportunity for Welfare Philosophical Studies 56 1989 77
R. J. Arneson Liberalism, Distributive Subjectivism, and Equal Opportunity for Welfare Philosophy & Public Affairs 19 1990 158
L. Billera R. Bixby A Characterization of Pareto Surfaces Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society 41 1973 261
E. Kalai M. Smorodinsky Other Solutions to Nash's Bargaining Problem Econometrica 43 1975 513
Nicholas Kaldor Welfare Propositions of Economics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility Economic Journal 49 1939 549
John R. Hicks Foundations of Welfare Economics Economic Journal 49 1939 696
Richard A. Posner Economic Analysis of Law Boston Little, Brown 1973
J. L. Coleman Efficiency, Utility and Wealth Maximization Hofstra Law Review 8 1980 509
Tibor Scitovsky The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer Dissatisfaction Oxford Oxford University Press 1976
John R. Hicks Value and Capital Oxford Oxford University Press 1940
Maurice Allais Généralisation des Théories de L’Equilibre Economique Général et du Rendement Global au Cas du Risque Econometrie, Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 11 1953 81
Kenneth J. Arrow Le Rôle de Valeurs Boursières par la Répartition la Meilleure des Risques Econometrie, Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 11 1953 41
Gerard Debreu Theory of Value New Haven, CT Yale University Press 1959
Robert Hockett Just Insurance Through Global Macro-Hedging University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law 25 2004 107
Michael Magill Martine Quinzii Theory of Incomplete Markets I Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1996
T. E. Daniel A Revised Concept of Distributional Equity Journal of Economic Theory 11 1975 94
Duncan Foley Resource Allocation and the Public Sector Yale Economic Essays 7 1967 45
E. A. Pazner David Schmeidler Egalitarian-Equivalent Allocations: A New Concept of Economic Equity Quarterly Journal of Economics 92 1978 1
Elisha Pazner David Schmeidler A Difficulty in the Concept of Fairness Review of Economic Studies 41 1974 441
H. R. Varian Equity, Envy and Efficiency Journal of Economic Theory 9 1974 63
H. R. Varian Two Problems in the Theory of Fairness Journal of Public Economics 5 1976 249
William Jaffé William Jaffé's Essays on Walras Donald A. Walker Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1983 17
Kenneth J. Arrow An Extension of the Basic Theorems of Classical Welfare Economics Proceedings of Second Berkeley Symposium 1951 507
Richard J. Arneson Primary Goods Reconsidered Nous 24 1990 429
Colin M. MacCleod Liberalism, Justice, and Markets: A Critique of Liberal Equality Oxford Clarendon Press 1998
Daniel Markovits How Much Redistribution Should There Be? Yale Law Journal 112 2003 2291
Alexander Tabarrok Trumping the Genetic Tarot Card Contingencies 9 1997 20
J. H. Cochrane Time-Consistent Health Insurance Journal of Political Economy 103 1995 445
Margaret Jane Radin Market-Inalienability Harvard Law Review 100 1987 1849
Michael Sandel Public Philosophy Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2005
John Ruskin Unto This Last and Other Writings Clive Wilmer New York Penguin Classics 1985 155
Elisabeth M. Landes Richard A. Posner The Economics of the Baby Shortage Journal of Transnational Legal Studies 7 1978 323
1987
Richard Titmuss The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Global Policy New York Pantheon Books 1971
Robert C. Merton Lifetime Portfolio Selection Under Uncertainty: The Continuous-Time Case Review of Economics & Statistics 51 1969 247
Robert C. Merton Optimum Consumption and Portfolio Rules in a Continuous-Time Model Journal of Economic Theory 3 1971 373
Robert C. Merton Continuous-Time Portfolio Theory and the Pricing of Contingent Claims Cambridge, MA A.P. Sloan School of Management, MIT 1976
Hockett Just Insurance Through Global Macro-Hedging George Washington Law Review 37 2005 167
Hockett What Kinds of Stock-Ownership Plans Should There Be? Of ESOPs, Other SOPs, and ‘Ownership Societies Cornell Law Review 92 2007 1
Oliver D. Hart On the Optimality of Equilibrium When the Market Structure Is Incomplete Journal of Economic Theory 11 1975 418
Hockett A Jeffersonian Republic by Hamiltonian Means Southern California Law Review 79 2006 45
Jon Elster Local Justice European Journal of Sociology 31 1990 117
Alistair McIntyre After Virtue Notre Dame, IN University of Notre Dame Press 1984
David Miller Principles of Global Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1999
Michael Walzer Spheres of Justice New York Basic Books 1983
H. Peyton Young Equity in Theory and Practice Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
Chris W. Sanchirico Taxes versus Transnational Legal Rules as Instruments for Equity: A More Equitable View Journal of Legal Studies 29 2000 797
Louis Kaplow Steven Shavell Should Transnational Legal Rules Favor the Poor? Clarifying the Role of Transnational Legal Rules and the Income Tax in Redistributing Income Journal of Legal Studies 29 2000 821
Hockett Why Paretians Can't Prescribe: Preferences, Principles and Imperatives in Law and Economics, Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy 18 2008 391
Robert Skidelsky John Maynard Keynes New York Penguin Books 1983

Reference Type: notes

Thomas Pogge World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitan Responsibilities and Reforms Cambridge Polity Press 2002 155
Thomas Pogge Recognized and Violated by International Law: The Human Rights of the Global Poor Leiden Journal of International Law 18 2005 717
Leif Wenar Property Rights and the Resource Curse Philosophy and Public Affairs 36 2008 2
Charles R. Beitz Political Theory and International Relations Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1999
Allan Buchanan Rawls's Law of Peoples: Rules for a Vanished Westphalian World Ethics 110 2000 697
Kok-Chor Tan Justice without Borders: Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism, and Patriotism Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2004
Aaron James Distributive Justice without Sovereign Rule: The Case of Trade Social Theory and Practice 31 2005 533
2006
John Rawls A Theory of Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1971
G. A. Cohen Facts and Principles Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 2003 211
G. A. Cohen Rescuing Justice and Equality Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2008
Aaron James Constructing Justice for Existing Practice: Rawls and the Status Quo Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 2005 281
Michael Walzer Just and Unjust Wars New York Basic Books 1977
John Rawls The Law of Peoples Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1999
T. M. Scanlon The Difficulty of Tolerance Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2003 113
James Nickel Making Sense of Human Rights Oxford Blackwell 2007
Charles Beitz The Idea of Human Rights New York Oxford University Press 2009
Lon Fuller The Morality of Law New Haven, CT Yale University Press 1964
Ernest Weinrib The Idea of Private Law Cambridge Harvard University Press 1995
Michael Walzer Spheres of Justice New York Basic Books 1983
Martti Koskenniemi From Apology to Utopia: The Structure of International Legal Argument Helsinki Lakimiesliiton Kustannus: Finnish Lawyers’ Publishing Company 1989
Alexander Wendt Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics International Organization 46 1992 391
1991
1991
1994
Ronald Dworkin Law's Empire Cambridge Belknap Press 1986
John G. Ruggie International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order International Organization 38 1982 379
Robert Howse From Politics to Technocracy – and Back Again: The Fate of the Multilateral Trading Regime The American Journal of International Law 96 2002 94
Paul Krugman What Should Trade Negotiators Negotiate About? Journal of Economic Literature 35 1977 113
Douglas A. Irwin Against the Tide: An Intellectual History of Free Trade Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1996 216
T. M. Scanlon What We Owe to Each Other Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1998
H. L. A. Hart Are There Any Natural Rights? Philosophical Review 64 1955 175
Robert Howse Michael Trebilcock The Fair Trade-Free Trade Debate: Labor, and the Environment International Review of Law and Economics 1996 61
Carsten Fink Intellectual Property and Development: Lessons from Recent Economic Research Washington, D.C. World Bank 2005
Peter Drahos Ruth Mayne Global Intellectual Property Rights: Knowledge, Access and Development New York Palgrave Macmillan 2002
Christian Barry Sanjay Reddy International Trade and Labor Standards: A Proposal for Linkage New York Columbia University Press 2008
Robert E. Hudec The GATT Legal System and World Trade Diplomacy New York Praeger 1975
Douglas Irwin Free Trade Under Fire Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 2002
Joseph Stiglitz Globalization and Its Discontents London Penguin Books 2002 196

Reference Type: notes

Robert E. Hudec Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System Brookfield, VT Gower 1987 44
John H. Jackson World Trade and the Law of GATT Indianapolis Bobbs-Merrill 1969 577
Kenneth Dam Regional Economic Arrangements and the GATT: The Legacy of a Misconception University of Chicago Law Review 30 1963 615
Neil MacCormick H.L.A. Hart Palo Alto, CA Stanford University Press 1981 37
Robert Hudec Robert E. Hudec Essays on the Nature of International Trade Law London Cameron 1999 227
John H. Barton The Evolution of the Trade Regime Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 2006 2
Bernard M. Hoekman Michel M. Kostecki The Political Economy of the World Trading System Oxford Oxford University Press 2001 390
Ann Capling Australia and the Global Trade System Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2001 23
1947
1947
Patricia Hughes Recognizing Substantive Equality as a Foundational Constitutional Principle Dalhousie Law Journal 22 1999 5
Raj Bhala International Trade Law: Interdisciplinary Theory and Practice Alexandria, VA LexisNexis 2008 428
1980
1959
1946
C. L. Lim Neither Sheep nor Peacocks: T.O. Elias and Post-Colonial International Law Leiden Journal of International Law 21 2008 295
Dan Danielsen Book Review American Journal of International Law 2006 757
John Linarelli Christopher Harding C. L. Lim Renegotiating Westphalia Dordrecht Nijhoff 1999 351
Paul Krugman What Should Trade Negotiators Negotiate About? Journal of Economic Literature 35 1997 113
Robert E. Hudec The GATT Legal System and World Trade Diplomacy Salem, NH Butterworth 1990 240
Rachel McColloch United States Preferences: The Proposed System Journal of World Trade Law 8 1974 216
Gene M. Grossman Alan O. Sykes George A. Bermann Petros C. Mavroidis Law and Developing Countries Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2007 255
1930
G. J. H. van Hoof Rethinking the Sources of International Law Deventer Kluwer 1983 187
O. A. Elias C. L. Lim The Paradox of Consensualism in International Law The Hague Kluwer 1998 230
Joseph Raz The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality Oxford Oxford University Press 1979 38
Robert P. George The Autonomy of Law: Essays on Legal Positivism Oxford Oxford University Press 1996 195
Gardner Patterson Would Tariff Preferences Help Economic Development? Lloyd's Bank Review 18 1965 76
Harry G. Johnson Harry G. Johnson Economic Policies toward Less Developed Countries Washington, D.C. The Brookings Institute 1967 163
Bernard Hoekman Çaĝlar Özden Trade Preferences and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries Washington, D.C. The World Bank 2006 23
Myres S. McDougal Harold D. Lasswell The Identification and Appraisal of Diverse Systems of Public Order American Journal of International Law 53 1953 1
Myres S. McDougal W. Michael Reisman R. St. J. MacDonald Douglas M. Johnston The Structure and Process of International Law The Hague Nijhoff 1983 131
1963
H. L. A. Hart The Concept of Law Oxford Oxford University Press 1994 256
Thomas M. Franck The Power of Legitimacy among Nations Oxford Oxford University Press 1990
Hermann von Bertrab Negotiating NAFTA: A Mexican Envoy's Account Westport, CT Praeger 1997 68
Alan K. Henrikson Alan K. Henrikson Negotiating World Order: The Artisanship and Architecture of Global Diplomacy Wilmington, DE Scholarly Resources 1986 217
Franklin A. Gevurtz Colin B. Picker International Economic Law: The State and Future of the Discipline Oxford Hart 2008 171
Ronald M. Dworkin Is Wealth a Value? Journal of Legal Studies 9 1980 191
Richard A. Posner The Economics of Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1981 107ff
Jules L. Coleman Risks and Wrongs Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1992
2004

Reference Type: notes

2008
2005
Sudhir Anand Joseph Stiglitz Measuring Global Poverty Oxford Oxford University Press 2008
Branko Milanovic Worlds Apart: Measuring International and Global Inequality Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 2005
Thomas Nagel The Problem of Global Justice Philosophy & Public Affairs 33 2005 215
Kwame Anthony Appiah Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers New York Norton 2006
Jeremy Waldron What Is Cosmopolitan Journal of Political Philosophy 8 2000 227
Joshua Cohen Charles Sabel Extra Rempublicam Nulla Justitia? Philosophy & Public Affairs 34 2006 149
Amartya Sen The Idea of Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2009
Amartya Sen The Idea of Justice Journal of Human Development 9 2008 331
Amartya Sen What Do We Want from a Theory of Justice? Journal of Philosophy 103 2006 215
Ilan Kapoor Deliberative Democracy and the WTO Review of International Political Economy 11 2004 522
Daniele Archibugi David Held Cosmopolitan Democracy: An Agenda for a New World Order Cambridge Polity Press 1995
David Held Democracy and the Global Order Cambridge Polity Press 1995
William Smith James Brassett Deliberation and Global Governance: Liberal, Cosmopolitan, and Critical Perspectives Ethics & International Affairs 22 2008 69
James Bohman International Regimes and Democratic Governance International Affairs 75 1999 499
Tara Bedi More than a Pretty Picture: Using Poverty Maps to Design Better Policies and Interventions Washington, D.C. World Bank 2007 5
Kevin Danaher 50 Years Is Enough: The Case against the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Boston South End Press 1994
Thomas Pogge World Poverty and Human Rights Cambridge Polity Press 2002
Peter Singer One World: The Ethics of Globalization New Haven, CT Yale University Press 2002
Joseph E. Stiglitz Globalization and Its Discontents New York Norton 2002
George Monbiot Manifesto for a New World Order New York The New Press 2004
Douglas A. Irwin The Genesis of the GATT Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2008
Thomas W. Zeiler Free Trade, Free World: The Advent of the GATT Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press 1999
Robert E. Hudec Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System Brookfield, VT Gower 1987
John H. Jackson World Trade and the Law of GATT: A Legal Analysis of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Indianapolis Bobbs-Merrill 1969
Richard N. Gardner Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy Oxford Clarendon Press 1956
William Adams Brown The United States and the Restoration of World Trade: An Analysis and Appraisal of the ITO Charter and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Washington, D.C. Brookings Institute 1950
Clair Wilcox A Charter for World Trade New York Macmillan 1949
Jack L. Goldsmith Eric A. Posner Moral and Legal Rhetoric in International Relations: A Rational Choice Perspective Journal of Legal Studies 31 2002 S115
Hans Morgenthau Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace New York Knopf 1948 61
Hans Morgenthau In Defense of the National Interest: A Critical Examination of American Foreign Policy New York Knopf 1951 35
John Torpey Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices Lanham, MD Rowman & Littlefield 2003
Lukas H. Meyer Justice in Time: Responding to Historical Injustice Baden-Baden Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft 2004
Jason Brennan Beyond the Bottom Line: The Theoretical Aims of Moral Theorizing Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 28 2008 277
1945
William T. Diebold, Jr. The End of the ITO Princeton Essays in International Finance 16 1952
Thomas W. Zeiler Managing Protectionism: American Trade Policy in the Early Cold War Diplomatic History 22 1998 337
Leo Amery The Empire at Bay: The Leo Amery Diaries, 1929–45 John Barnes David Nicholson London Hutchinson 1988
Hugh Dalton The Second World War Diary of Hugh Dalton, 1940–1945 Ben Pimlott London Jonathan Cape 1986
Norma Breda dos Santos Generalized System of Preferences in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization: History and Current Issues Journal of World Trade 39 2005 637
Gardner Patterson Discrimination in International Trade: The Policy Issues 1945–1965 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1966 14
1958
Diana Tussie The Less Developed Countries and the World Trading System: A Challenge to the GATT New York St. Martin's Press 1987
Kenneth W. Dam The GATT: Law and International Economic Organization Chicago University of Chicago Press 1970 235
Raul Prebisch 1950
Hans Singer The Distribution of Gains between Investing and Borrowing Countries American Economic Review 40 1950 473
2005
Abdulqawi Yusuf Legal Aspects of Trade Preferences for Developing States Dordrecht Nijhoff 1982 21
1971
Robert Rothstein The Weak in the World of the Strong: The Developing Countries in the International System New York Columbia University Press 1977 146
Jason Gutierrez Philippines Claims Victory over Europe Using WTO Mediation in Tuna Tariff Dispute BNA International Trade Reporter 20 2003
Daniel Pruzin Yerxa to Mediate EU, Thailand, Philippines Canned Tuna Dispute BNA International Trade Reporter 19 1836 2002
2004
George Bermann Petros C. Mavroidis WTO Law and Developing Countries Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2007 283
Frank J. Garcia Trade, Inequality, and Justice: Toward a Liberal Theory of Just Trade New York Transnational 2003
James M. Devault Competitive Need Limits and the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences Contemporary Economic Policy 14 1996
Simon J. Evenett Bernard M. Hoekman Economic Development and Multilateral Trade Cooperation London Palgrave Macmillan 2005
U.S. International Trade Commission 2007
Patricia Augier Michael Gasiorek Charles Lai-Tong The Impact of Rules of Origin on Trade Flows Economic Policy 20 2005
Paul Brenton Miriam Manchin Making EU Trade Agreements Work: The Role of Rules of Origin The World Economy 26 2003 755
Miriam Manchin Preference Utilisation and Tariff Reduction in EU Imports from ACP Countries The World Economy 29 2006 1243
Aaditya Mattoo Devesh Roy Arvind Subramanian The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act and Its Rules of Origin: Generosity Undermined? The World Economy 26 2003 829
Denis Audet Smooth as Silk? A First Look at the Post MFA Textiles and Clothing Landscape Journal of International Economic Law 10 2007 267
Drusilla K. Brown General Equilibrium Effects of the US Generalized System of Preferences Southern Economic Journal 54 1987 27
U.S. International Trade Commission 2004
Marcelo Olarreaga Çaglar Özden AGOA and Apparel: Who Captures the Tariff Rent in the Presence of Preferential Market Access? The World Economy 28 2005 63
Craig R. MacPhee Victor Iwuagwu Oguledo The Trade Effects of the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences Atlantic Economic Journal 19 1991 19
Drusilla K. Brown Trade and Welfare Effects of the European Schemes of the Generalized System of Preferences Economic Development and Cultural Change 37 1989 757
John Whalley Non-Discriminatory Discrimination: Special and Differential Treatment under the GATT for Developing Countries The Economic Journal 100 1990 1318
André Sapir Lars Lundberg Anne O. Krueger Robert E. Baldwin The Structure and Evolution of Recent US Trade Policy Chicago University of Chicago Press 1984 191
Çaglar Özden Eric Reinhardt The Perversity of Preferences: GSP and Developing Country Trade Policies, 1976–2000 Journal of Development Economics 78 2005 1
Judith L. Goldstein Institutions in International Relations: Understanding the Effects of the GATT and the WTO on World Trade International Organization 61 2007 37
Christopher Stevens Jane Kennan Comparative Study of G8 Preferential Access Schemes for Africa Sussex, U.K. Institute of Development Studies 2004
Judith M. Dean 2002
Peter Kleen Sheila Page Special and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries in the World Trade Organization Report for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sweden 2004
Claire Melamed Doing ‘Development’ at the World Trade Organization: The Doha Round and Special and Differential Treatment IDS Bulletin 34 2003 12
T. Ademola Oyejide Development, Trade and the WTO: A Handbook Washington, D.C. World Bank 2002 504
Chantal Thomas Joel Trachtman Essays on Developing States in the WTO Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2009
2005
UNCTAD 2003
Thomas W. Pogge Thomas W. Pogge Global Justice Oxford Blackwell 2001 6
Robert J. Barro Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1998
Philippe Aghion Steven Durlauf Handbook of Economic Growth New York Elsevier 2005
Douglass C. North Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance New York Cambridge University Press 1990 3
Douglass C. North Structure and Change in Economic History New York Norton 1981
William Easterly The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists’ Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics Cambridge, MA MIT Press 2001
Lant Pritchett David Lindauer What's the Big Idea? Three Generations of Development Advice Economia 3 2002 1
Dani Rodrik Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Washington Confusion? A Review of the World Bank's Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform Journal of Economic Literature 44 2006 973
Frank J. Garcia Beyond Special and Differential Treatment Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 27 2004 291
Bela Balassa Exports and Economic Growth: Further Evidence Journal of Developmental Economics 5 1978 181
Andrew K. Rose Do We Really Know that the WTO Increases Trade? American Economic Review 94 2004 98
Michael Tomz Do We Really Know that the WTO Increases Trade? – Comment American Economic Review 97 2007 2005
Arvind Subramanian Shang-Jin Wei The WTO Promotes Trade, Strongly but Unevenly Journal of International Economics 72 2007 151
Thomas Pogge Samantha Besson John Tasioulas The Philosophy of International Law Oxford Oxford University Press 2010 417
2005
2005
Phoenix X.F. Cai Aid for Trade: A Roadmap for Success Denver Journal of International Law & Policy 36 2008 283
Millennium Development Goals Gap Task Force Delivering on the Global Partnership for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals New York United Nations 2008 24
Daron Acemoglu Institutional Causes, Macroeconomic Symptoms: Volatility, crises and growth Journal of Monetary Economics 50 2003 49
Chantal Thomas Poverty Reduction, Trade, and Rights American University International Law Review 18 2003 1399

Reference Type: notes

Paul Krugman http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/30/dead-doha/?scp=1&sq=&st=nyt 2006 http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2006/jul/13/comment.globalisation
Susan C. Schwab 2001
Robert O. Keohane Joseph S. Nye Roger B. Porter Efficiency, Equity, Legitimacy: The Multilateral Trading System at the Millennium Washington, D.C. Brookings Institute 2001
Lori Wallach Michelle Sforza Whose Trade Organization? Corporate Globalization and the Erosion of Democracy Washington, D.C. Public Citizen 1999 138
2001
2003
Robert O. Keohane Joseph S. Nye Joseph S. Nye John D. Donahue Governance in a Globalizing World Washington, D.C. Brookings Institute 2000 19
Joel Trachtman The Economic Structure of International Law Princeton, NJ Harvard University Press 2008
Joel Trachtman Economic Analysis of Prescriptive Jurisdiction Virginia Journal of International Law 42 2001 1
Joel Trachtman The Domain of WTO Dispute Resolution Harvard International Law Journal 40 1999 333
Kenneth Arrow A Difficulty in the Concept of Social Welfare Journal of Political Economy 58 1958 328
Gregory Shaffer Can WTO Technical Assistance and Capacity Building Serve Developing Countries? Wisconsin International Law Journal 23 2006 643
World Trade Organization WTO Agriculture Negotiations: The Issues, and Where We Are Now 2004
2000
Susan C. Schwab 2001
Larry Crump Global Trade Policy Development in a Two-Track System Journal of International Economic Law 9 2006 488
Andrew T. Guzman Why LDCs Sign Treaties That Hurt Them: Explaining the Popularity of Bilateral Investment Treaties Virginia Journal of International Law 38 1997 639
Douglass C. North Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance New York Cambridge University Press 1990
Max Weber M. Weber From Max Weber Oxford Oxford University Press 1958 280
Thomas M. Franck Legitimacy in the International System American Journal of International Law 82 1988 705
Alexander Wendt Social Theory of International Politics Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1999 20
Jürgen Habermas Between Fact and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1996 299
Anthony Giddens The Consequences of Modernity Cambridge Polity Press 1990 64
Justin Rosenberg The Follies of Globalization Theory London Verso 2000 118
Gunther Teubner Global Law Without a State Aldershot Dartmouth 1997 3
Michael Trebilcock Michael Fishbein Research Handbook in International Economic Law Andrew T. Guzman Alan O. Sykes Cheltenham, UK Edward Elgar 2007
Robert E. Hudec Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System Aldershot, Hampshire, U.K.; Brookfield, Vt., USA Gower, for the Trade Policy Research Center, London 1987
Robert E. Hudec Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System New York Cambridge University Press 2010
Tracy B. Strong Political Theology Chicago University of Chicago Press 2005
Samuel Huntington The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order New York Simon & Schuster 1998
Andrew Moravcsik Taking Preferences Seriously: A Liberal Theory of International Politics International Organization 51 1997 513
Peter Andreas U.S.–Mexico: Open Markets, Closed Borders Foreign Policy 103 1996
1979
2004
1998
1997
1997
Niklas Luhmann A Sociological Theory of Law Boston Routledge & Kegan Paul 1985
Gunther Teubner Autopoietic Law: A New Approach to Law and Society New York de Gruyter 1988
John Jackson The World Trading System: Law and Policy of International Economic Relations Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1994 127
Niklas Luhmann A Sociological Theory of Law Elizabeth King Martin Albrow Boston Routledge & Kegan Paul 1985
Gunther Teubner Self-Subversive Justice: Contingency or Transcendence Formula of Law? The Modern Law Review 72 2008 1
Raúl Prebisch The Economic Development of Latin America and Its Principal Problems New York United Nations 1950
Milton Friedman Capitalism and Freedom University of Chicago Press 1962
Robert E. Hudec Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System Aldershot, Hampshire, U.K Brookfield, Vt., USA: Gower, for the Trade Policy Research Center, London 1987
Robert E. Hudec Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System New York Cambridge University Press 2010
Alice H. Amsden Wan-wen Chu Beyond Late Development: Taiwan's Upgrading Policies Cambridge, MA MIT Press 2003
Stephan Haggard Pathways from the Periphery: The Politics of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press 1995
Frank Garcia Trade and Inequality Michigan Journal of International Law 21 2000 1023
Thomas Pogge Realizing Rawls Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press 1989 211
Robert Hockett The Limits of Their World Minnesota Law Review 90 2006 1720
Robert Hockett The Deep Grammar of Distribution: A Meta-Theory of Justice Cardozo Law Review 26 2005 1179
Thomas Pogge An Egalitarian Law of Peoples 23 Philosophy & Public Affairs 195 1994
Simon Caney Cosmopolitanism and the Law of Peoples Journal of Political Philosophy 10 95 2002
John Rawls A Theory of Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1971
John Rawls Political Liberalism New York Columbia University Press 1993
Frank Michelman The Constitution, Social Rights, and Liberal Political Justification International Journal of Constitutional Law 1 2003 32
Alasdair MacIntyre After Virtue Notre Dame, IN University of Notre Dame Press 1981
Carol Gould Globalizing Democracy and Human Rights Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2004 31
Michael Dorf The Coherentism of Democracy and Distrust Yale Law Journal 114 2005 1237
Michael Dorf Legal Indeterminacy and Institutional Design New York University Law Review 78 2003 875
Roberto M. Unger Democracy Realized: A Progressive Alternative London Verso 2000
Peter Sutherland The Doha Development Agenda: Political Challenges to the World Trading System – A Cosmopolitan Perspective Journal of International Economic Law 8 2005 363
Jeffery Atik Democratizing the WTO George Washington International Law Review 33 2001 451
Robert Howse Jean-Marc Coicaud Veijo Heiskanen The Legitimacy of International Organizations Tokyo UNU Press 2001 355
Chantal Thomas Constitutional Change and International Government Hastings Law Journal 52 2000 1
Robert Howse From Politics to Technocracy and Back Again: The Fate of the Multilateral Trading System American Journal of International Law 96 2002 94
Gráinne De Búrca Developing Democracy beyond the State Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 2008 221
Daniel D. Bradlow The Times They Are A-Changin’: Some Preliminary Thoughts on Developing Countries, NGOs and the Reform of the WTO George Washington International Law Review 33 2001 503
Gregory Fox Brad Roth Democratic Governance and International Law Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2000
Thomas Pogge An Egalitarian Law of Peoples Philosophy and Public Affairs 23 1994

Reference Type: notes

2007
John O. McGinnis Mark L. Movsesian The World Trade Constitution Harvard Law Review 114 2000 511
Jerry Mander Debi Baker David Korten Does Globalization Help the Poor? San Francisco, CA International Forum on Globalization 2001
Jay Mandle Globalization and The Poor Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2003 100
Jagdish Bhagwati In Defense of Globalization Oxford Oxford University Press 2004 51
John J. Jackson The World Trading System: Law and Policy of International Economic Relations Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1997 18
Fernando R. Tesón A Philosophy of International Law Boulder, CO Westview Press 1998
John Rawls A Theory of Justice Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1999 13
George F. De Martino Global Economy, Global Justice: Theoretical Objections and Policy Alternatives to Neoliberalism London Routledge 2000 10
Daniel M. Hausman Michael S. McPherson Economic Analysis and Moral Philosophy Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1996 84
Will Kymlicka Contemporary Political Philosophy Oxford Oxford University Press 2002 10
Jagdish Bhagwati Protectionism The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics 1988 9
Kyle Bagwell Robert W. Staiger The WTO as a Mechanism for Securing Market Access Property Rights: Implications for Global Labor and Environmental Issues Journal of Economic Perspectives 15 2001 70
Kyle Bagwell Robert W. Staiger The Economics of the World Trading System Cambridge, MA MIT Press 2002 57
Amartya Sen How to Judge Globalism The American Prospect 2 2002 A2
Amartya Sen Development as Freedom Oxford Oxford University Press 2000 121
Gary S. Becker Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis Journal of Political Economics 70 1962 9
R. S. Eckaus Investment in Human Capital: A Comment Journal of Political Economics 71 1963 501
Mark A. Loewenstein James R. Spletzer Dividing the Costs and Returns to General Training Journal of Labor Economics 16 1998 142
R. Dornbusch Comparative Advantage, Trade, and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods American Economic Review 67 1977 823
Jagdish Bhagwati Arvind Panagariya T. N. Srinivasani Lectures on International Trade Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1998
Robert Feenstra Advanced International Trade: Theory and Evidence Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 2004 32
Nicholas Kaldor Welfare Propositions of Economics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility Economics Journal 49 1939 549
J. R. Hicks The Foundations of Welfare Economics Economics Journal 49 1939 696
William Baumol Community Indifference Review of Economic Studies 14 1946 44
Philippe Aghion Peter Howitt Endogenous Growth Theory Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1998 392
Paul Krugman The Narrow-Moving Band, the Dutch Disease, and the Competitive Consequences of Mrs. Thatcher: Notes on Trade in the Presence of Dynamic Scale Economies Journal of Development Economics 27 1987 41
Luis Rivera-Batiz Paul Romer Economic Integration and Endogenous Growth Quarterly Journal of Economics 106 1991 531
Dan Ben-David Michael Loewy Knowledge Dissemination, Capital Accumulation, Trade, and Endogenous Growth Oxford Economic Papers 52 2000 637
Murray Kemp The Mill-Bastable Infant-Industry Dogma Journal of Political Economics 68 1960 65
Mitsuhiro Kaneda Policy Designs in a Dynamic Model of Infant Industry Protection Journal of Development Economics 72 2003 91
Dani Rodrik Hollis Chenery T. N. Srinivasan Handbook of Development Economics 3 New York North-Holland 1995 2925
David T. Coe Elhanan Helpman International R&D Spillovers European Economic Review 39 1995 859
Chihwa Kao Min-Hsien Chiang Bangtian Chen International R&D Spillovers: An Application of Estimation and Inference in Panel Cointegration Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 61 1999 691
Chris Edmond Some Panel Cointegration Models of International R&D Spillovers Journal of Macroeconomics 23 2001 241
Wolfgang Keller Are International R&D Spillovers Trade-Related? Analyzing Spillovers among Randomly Matched Trade Partners European Economic Review 42 1998 1469
Frank Lichtenberg Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie International R&D Spillovers: A Comment European Economic Review 42 1998 1483
Tamim Bayoumi David T. Coe Elhanan Helpman R&D Spillovers and Global Growth Journal of International Economics 47 1999 399
Gwanghoon Lee International R&D Spillovers Revisited Open Economic Review 16 2005 249
Gene Grossman Elhanan Helpman Protection for Sale American Economic Review 84 1994 833
Thomas A. Pugel Peter H. Lindert International Economics New York McGraw-Hill 2000 33
Laura LaHayes www.econlib.org; 2007
John Rawls Phillipe van Parijs Three Letters on The Law of Peoples and the European Union Revue de Philosophie Économique 8 2003 7
L. Alan Winters 2000 http://www.wto.org/English/news_e/pres00_e/pov3_e.pdf
T. N. Srinivasan Jessica S. Wallack Globalization, Growth, and the Poor Journal of Economic Literature 152 2004 251
Neil McCulloch Trade Liberalization and Poverty: A Handbook Washington, D.C. Centre for Economic Policy Research 2001
Jagdish Bhagwati T. N. Srinivasan Trade and Poverty in the Poor Countries American Economic Review 92 2002 180
Dani Rodrik Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development Journal of Economic Growth 9 2004 131
David Dollar Aart Kraay Institutions, Trade, and Growth Journal of Monetary Economics 50 2003 133
Douglass C. North Robert Thomas The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1973
Douglass C. North Structure and Change in Economic History New York Norton 1981
Douglass C. North Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1990
Hernando De Soto The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World New York HarperCollins 1989
Hernando De Soto The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else New York Basic Books 2000
Daron Acemoglu Simon Johnson James A. Robinson The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation American Economic Review 91 2001 1369
Daron Acemoglu Simon Johnson James A. Robinson Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution Quarterly Journal of Economics 17 2002 1231
Niclas Berggren The Benefits of Economic Freedom Independent Review 8 2003 193
William Easterly Ross Levine Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development Journal of Monetary Economics 50 2003 3
Dani Rodrik Arvind Subramanian, and Francesco Trebbi, “Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Geography and Integration in Economic Development Journal of Economic Growth 9 2004 131
Daron Acemoglu Simon Johnson Unbundling Institutions Journal of Political Economics 113 2005 949
Rafael La Porta Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes Andrei Shleifer Robert W. Vishny Legal Determinants of External Finance Journal of Finance 52 1997 1131
Rafael LaPorta Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes Andrei Shleifer Robert W. Vishny Law and Finance Journal of Political Economics 106 1998 1113
Simeon Djankov Rafael LaPorta Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes Andre Shleifer The Regulation of Entry Quarterly Journal of Economics 117 2002 1
Geoffrey J. Bannister Kamau Thugge International Trade and Poverty Alleviation Finance and Development 2001 48
Elias Dinopoulos Paul Segerstrom A Schumpeterian Model of Protection and Relative Wages American Economic Review 89 1999 450
Andrew Altman Christopher Heath Wellman A Liberal Theory of International Justice Oxford Oxford University Press 2010
Darrel Moellendorf Cosmopolitan Justice Boulder, CO Westview Press 2002
Kok-Chor Tan Justice without Borders Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2004
Kok-Chor Tan Toleration, Diversity, and Global Justice University Park Pennsylvania State University 2000
Charles K. Jones Global Justice Oxford Oxford University Press 1999
Thomas Pogge World Poverty and Human Rights Cambridge Polity Press 2002
Simon Caney Justice beyond Borders Oxford Oxford University Press 2005
Pablo De Grieff Ciaran Cronin Global Justice and Transnational Politics Cambridge, MA MIT Press 2001
Allen Buchanan Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination: Moral Foundations of International Law Oxford Oxford University Press 2004
Thomas Nagel The Problems of Global Justice Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 2005 113
Joshua Cohen Charles Sabel Extra Republicam Nulla Justitia? Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 2006 147
A. J. Julius Nagel's Atlas Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 2006
Altman Wellman 1999
Bryan Caplan The Myth of the Rational Voter Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 2008
Guido Pincione Fernando Tesón Rational Choice and Democratic Deliberation Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2006
Robert Cooter 2005 Madd Lecture: Law, Innovation, and the Poverty of Nations Florida State University Law Review 33 2005 373
Mancur Olson The Logic of Collection Action Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 1965
Jagdish Bhagwati Going Alone: The Case for Relaxed Reciprocity in Trade Liberalization Cambridge, MA MIT Press 2002
James Bovard The Morality of Protectionism New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 25 1992 236
Steven Matusz International Trade, the Division of Labor, and Unemployment International Economic Review 37 1996 71
Richard Nisbett Lee Ross Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgement Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall 1980 45
Mathias Risse Justice in Trade I: Obligations from Trading and the Pauper-Labor Argument Politics, Philosophy, and Economics 6 2007 356
Leif Wenar Property Rights and the Resource Curse Philosophy & Public Affairs 36 2008 2
Thomas Pogge Recognized and Violated By International Law: The Human Rights of the Global Poor Leiden Journal of International Law 18 2005 717
Peter Singer One World: The Ethics of Globalization New Haven Yale University Press 2004 96
Horacio Spector Philosophical Foundations of Labor Law Florida State University Law Review 33 2006 1119
Matt Zwolinski Sweatshops, Choice, and Exploitation Business Ethics Quarterly 17 2007 689
Matt Zwolinski Ben Powell 2011
Fernando R. Tesón The Kantian Theory of International Law Columbia Law Review 92 1992 53
James W. Nickel Economic Liberties Victoria Davion Clark Wolf The Idea of Political Liberalism Lanham, MD Rowman & Littlefield 2000 155
Loren Lomasky Liberalism without Borders Social Philosophy and Policy 24 2007 206
1997
2002
Guido Pincione Fernando R. Tesón Self-Defeating Symbolism in Politics Journal of Philosophy 98 2001 636
Joseph L. Love The Rise and Decline of Economic Structuralism in Latin America: New Dimensions Latin American Research Review 40 2005 105
Henry J. Burton A Reconsideration of Import Substitution Journal of Economic Literature 36 1998 903

Reference Type: notes

2010
Peter Singer One World: The Ethics of Globalization Yale University Press New Haven, CT 2004 81
Joseph Stiglitz Globalization and Its Discontents New York Norton 2003
Eric Konisberg A New Class War: The Haves vs. the Have Mores N.Y. Times 2006
Jeff Zeleny Obama Proposes Tax Cut for Middle Class and Retirees N.Y. Times 2007
Jeffrey Sachs The End of Poverty New York Penguin Press 2005
John Linarelli What Do We Owe Each Other in the Global Economic Order? Constructivist and Contractual Accounts Journal of Transnational Law and Policy 15 2006 181
Kerry Rittich Enchantments of Reason/Coercions of Law University of Miami Law Review 57 2003 727
Carol C. Gould Marx's Social Ontology Cambridge, MA MIT Press 1978
Tony Judt Goodbye to All That? New York Review of Books 53 2006 9
Joseph A. Schumpeter 1942
Karl Marx Fredrick Engels Manifesto of the Communist Party The Marx–Engels Reader Robert C. Tucker New York Norton 1978 489
Susan Marks Empire's Law Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 10 2003 449
Arturo Escobar Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World Princeton Princeton University Press 1994 21
Joseph Stiglitz Making Globalization Work New York Norton 2007 238
Paul Collier The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It Oxford Oxford University Press 2007 67
David Barboza China Unveils Sweeping Plan for Economy N.Y. Times 2008
Stark Distributive Justice and the Limits of International Economic Law Boston College Third World Law Journal 30 2010 16
Chios Carmody A Theory of WTO Law Journal of International Economic Law 11 2008 1
Frank J. Garcia Trade, Inequality, and Justice: Toward a Liberal Theory of Just Trade Amsterdam Hotei 2003
Arturo Escobar Encountering Development: the Making and Unmaking of the Third World Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1995 72
Audre Lourde Cherrie Moraga Gloria Anzaldua This Bridge Called My Back Watertown, MA Persephone Press 1981
Jean-Francois Lyotard The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge Geoff Bennington Brian Massumi Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press 1984
Fredric Jameson Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism Durham, NC Duke University Press 1991
Gillian Rose The Melancholy Science: An Introduction to the Thought of Theodor W. Adorno London Macmillan 1978 19
Hilary Charlesworth Feminist Methods in International Law American Journal of International Law 93 1999 379
Pierre Schlag Laying Down the Law: Mysticism, Fetishism, and the American Legal Mind New York New York University Press 1996 24
Theodor Adorno Max Horkheimer Dialectic of Enlightenment John Cummings New York Herder and Herder 1972
James C. Scott Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed New Haven, CT Yale University Press 1998
Bob Sutcliffe Ronaldo Munck Dennis O’Hearn Critical Development Theory: Contributions to a New Paradigm London Zed Books 1999 135
Thomas Pogge World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitan Responsibilities and Reforms Cambridge Polity Press 2002 2
Roy Boyne Ali Rattansi Roy Boyne Ali Rattansi Postmodernism and Society London Palgrave Macmillan 1990 10

Reference Type: notes

William Vickrey Agenda for Progressive Taxation New York Ronald Press 1947
James A. Mirrlees An Exploration in the Theory of Optimum Income Taxation Review of Economic Studies 38 1971 175
Klaus R. Scherer Issues in the Study of Justice K. R. Scherer Justice: An Interdisciplinary Perspective Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1992 1
Louis Kaplow Steven Shavell Fairness versus Welfare Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press 2002

Reference Type: notes

Michael Blake Distributive Justice, State Coercion and Autonomy Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 2002 257
Jagdish Bhagwati In Defense of Globalization Oxford Oxford University Press 2007
Pierre Bourdieu Acts of Resistance: Against the Tyranny of the Market Richard Nice New York The New Press 1998
Joseph E. Stiglitz Globalization and Its Discontents New York Norton 2003
Michael Walzer Thick and Thin: Moral Argument at Home and Abroad Notre Dame, IN University of Notre Dame Press 1994