4 - Changing the Principles of War?  pp. 72-82

Changing the Principles of War?

By Williamson Murray

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



The mere fact that the Office of Force Transformation in the Department of Defense would have funded a contest as well as several conferences about whether the principles of war have changed now that the world has entered the twenty-first century says much about the “American way of war” – and not necessarily in a positive vein. It is not that I am against the idea of conferences or intellectual argument. Indeed, I am delighted to praise the office for its effort to spark intellectual debate in a town (Washington) of contentless briefs and irrelevant joint concepts.

Let me begin with the question as to whether there is any validity to the remake or even to the concept of what has traditionally been termed the “principles of war.” The “principles” have been around as a plaything for military academics and theorists for at least two hundred years. They have littered the landscape of supposed intellectual discourse about the employment of military forces for that entire time. Every military organization has possessed its own slightly different set of principles. Not surprisingly, generals have added their two cents to the discussion. Even that severe critic of military orthodoxy and iconoclast, the British general and pundit in the period between World War I and World War II, J.F.C. Fuller, could not resist the opportunity to come up with his own set of principles.

4

Reference Type: notes

H.R. McMasterDereliction of Duty, Lyndon Johnson, Robert Strange McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Lies that Led to VietnamNew York1996
Carl von Clausewitz1976
1992
2011
Michael HowardPeter ParetClausewitz and the StatePrinceton, NJ1978
Barry D. WattsClausewitzian Friction and Future WarWashington, DC1996
Alan BeyerchenClausewitz, Nonlinearity, and the Unpredictability of WarInternational Security171992
William A. OwensLifting the Fog of WarNew York2001
Aylmer L. HaldaneThe Insurrection in Mesopotamia 1920London1922
Williamson MurrayRichard Hart SinnreichThe Past as Prologue, The Importance of History to the Military professionCambridge2005
Isabel V. HullAbsolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial GermanyIthaca, NY2006
Thucydides1954
Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayThe Lessons of WarThe National InterestCambridge University Press2010
1983
1985
Adam ToozeThe Wages of Destruction, The Making and Breaking of the Nazi War EconomyLondon2006
Kevin M. WoodsThe Mother of All Battles: Saddam Hussein's Plan for the Persian Gulf WarAnnapolis, MD2008
F.H. HinsleyBritish Intelligence during the Second World War31984

Reference Type: notes

Bernard KnoxBacking into the Future: The Classical Tradition and Its RenewalNew York199411
H.R. McMasterDereliction of Duty, Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to VietnamNew York199790
Aylmer L. HaldaneThe Insurrection in MesopotamiaLondon1922
T.E. LawrenceSeven Pillars of WisdomNew York1991
Williamson MurrayRichard Hart SinnreichThe Past as Prologue, The Importance of History to the Military ProfessionCambridge2006
MacGregor KnoxWhat History Can Tell Us about the ‘New Strategic Environment,’Brassey's Mershon American Defense Annual, 1995–1996Washington, DC1996
Robert GaskinThe Great 1996 Non-Debate on National SecurityBrassey's American Defense Annual, 1996–1997Washington, DC199617
Qiao LiangWang XiangsuiUnrestricted WarfareBeijing1999
Holger H. Herwig“Luxury” Fleet: The Imperial German Navy 1888–1918London1980
Carl von ClausewitzOn WarMichael HowardPeter ParetPrinceton, NJ197687
Winston S. ChurchillThe World CrisisToronto19316
Williamson MurrayMacGregor KnoxAlvin BernsteinThe Making of Strategy, Rulers, States, and WarCambridge1992
Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayCalculations: Net Assessment and the Coming of the Second World WarNew York1992
Colin S. GrayAnother Bloody Century, Future WarfareLondon200640
William H. McNeilThe Pursuit of Power, Technology, Armed Force, and Society since A.D. 1000Chicago1982
Thomas C. HoneNorman FriedmanMark MandelesAmerican and British Carrier Development, 1919–1941Annapolis, MD1999
Harold R. WintonTo Change an Army, General Sir John Burnett-Stuart and British Armored Doctrine, 1927–1938Lawrence, KS1988
J.P. HarrisMen, Ideas, and Tanks, British Military Thought, and Armoured Forces, 1903–1939Manchester1995
Stephen Peter RosenWinning the Next War, Innovation and the Modern MilitaryIthaca, NY1991
Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettMilitary Innovation in the Interwar PeriodCambridge1996
Barry D. WattsWilliamson MurrayMilitary Innovation in PeacetimeAllan R. MillettMilitary Innovation in the Interwar PeriodCambridge1996414
The Peloponnesian WarRex WarnerLondon195482
W. Robert ConnorThucydidesPrinceton19843
Max HastingsArmageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944–1945New York2004
2008
Michael HowardWar and the Liberal ConscienceNew Brunswick, NJ1987
Michael HowardThe Invention of Peace: Reflections on War and the International OrderNew Haven, CT2001
Norman AngellThe Great Illusion, The Study of the Relation of Military Power in NationsNew York1911
MacGregor KnoxTo the Threshold of Power, 1922/33, Origins and Dynamics of the Fascist and National Socialist DictatorshipsCambridge2007
Holger H. HerwigClio Deceived, Patriotic Self-Censorship in Germany after the Great WarInternational SecurityFall1987
Fredrick ManningMiddle Parts of FortuneLondon2000
Robert GravesGoodbye to All That: An AutobiographyLondon1995
Guy ChapmanA Passionate Prodigality: Fragments of AutobiographyLondon1967
Sigfried SassoonMemoirs of an Infantry OfficerLondon1980
2006
Vera BrittainTestament of YouthLondon2006
John SilkenThe Penguin Book of First World War PoetryLondon1979
Storm of SteelLondon2004
Barry D. WattsClausewitzian Friction and Future WarWashington, DC2004122
Williamson MurrayDoes Military Culture MatterOrbisWinter1999
MacGregor KnoxWilliamson MurrayThe Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300–2050Cambridge2002
Admiral Bill OwensLifting the Fog of WarNew York2000
Bruce CondellDavid T. ZabeckiOn the German Art of War, TruppenführungBoulder, CO200117
Alan BeyerchenClausewitz, Nonlinearity, and the Unpredictability of WarInternational Security171992
Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayMilitary EffectivenessLondon1988
Williamson MurrayMacGregor KnoxAlvin BernsteinThe Making of Strategy, Rulers, States, and WarCambridge1992615
2006
James S. CorumThe Roots of Blitzkrieg, Hans von Seeckt and German Military ReformLawrence, KS1992
C. KieslingArming against Hitler, France and the Limits of Military PlanningLawrence, KS1994
Robert Allan DoughtyThe Seeds of Disaster, The Development of French Army Doctrine, 1919–1939Hamden, CT1985
David N. SpiresImage and Reality, The Making of the German Officer, 1921–1933Westport, CT1984
Robin PriorTrevor WilsonPasschendaele, The Untold StoryNew Haven, CT1996
The SommeNew Haven, CT2005
J. P. HarrisDouglas Haig and the First World WarCambridge2008
Tim TraversThe Killing Ground, The British Army, the Western Front and the Emergence of Modern War, 1900–1918London1987
Michael HowardLessons of HistoryNew Haven, CT199116
Telford TaylorMunich: The Price of PeaceNew York1979884
Williamson MurrayThe Change in the European Balance of Power, 1938–1939, The Path to RuinPrinceton, NJ1984

Reference Type: notes

Leo TolstoyWar and PeaceNew York1968729
Carl von ClausewitzOn WarPrinceton, NJ1976141
Alan Beyerchen1992
Barry WattsClausewitzian Friction and Future WarWashington, DC1996
Thucydides1954
Bernard KnoxThucydides and the Peloponnesian War: Politics and PowerThe Naval War College Review1973
Williamson MurrayArmored WarfareInnovation in the Interwar PeriodCambridge19966

Reference Type: notes

Andrew KrepinevichThe Array in VietnamBaltimore1986
Timothy TraversThe Killing Ground, The British Army, the Western Front, and the Emergence of Modern War, 1900–1918London1987
E. B. PorterNimitzAnnapolis, MD1976136
William WestmorelandA Soldier ReportsNew York1989364
Robert S. McNamaraIn Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of VietnamNew York199548
1965
Alan BeyerchenClausewitz, Non-linearity, and the Unpredictability of WarInternational Security1992
Peter Grier1996
New World Vistas: Air and Space Power of the 21st CenturyWashington, DC1995
1996
Joseph S. Nye JrWilliam A. OwensAmerica's Information Edge,Foreign Affairs199620
A. J. BacevichMorality and High Technology,The National Interest1996
1986

Reference Type: notes

Generalship: Its Diseases and Their Cure: A Study of the Personal Factor in CommandLondon1936
Robert Debs HeinlDictionary of Military and Naval QuotationsAnnapolis, MD1966249
The Campaigns of NapoleonLondon1966
Carl von ClausewitzOn WarMichael HowardPeter ParetPrinceton, NJ197687
The Memoirs of U.S. GrantNew York1885
Azar GatA History of Military Thought, from the Enlightenment to the Cold WarOxford2001124
David Lloyd GeorgeWar Memoirs of David Lloyd GeorgeLondon19363497
Bernard BrodieWar and PoliticsNew York1973
Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettA War to Be Won, Fighting the Second World WarCambridge, MA2000
Gerhard L. WeinbergA World at Arms, A Global History of World War IICambridge1994
John Lawrence ToneThe Fatal Knot, The Guerrilla War in Navarre and the Defeat of Napoleon in SpainChapel Hill1995
Samir al-KhalilThe Republic of Fear, The Politics of Modern IraqBerkeley1989
Karl-Heinz FrieserBlitzkrieglegende, Der Westfeldzug, 1940Munich1995
Telford TaylorThe March of Conquest, The German Victories in Western Europe, 1940New York1958
Max HastingsArmageddon, The Battle for Germany, 1944–1945New York2004

Reference Type: notes

1999
Brian BondBritish Military Policy between the Two World WarsOxford1980
1999
Carl von ClausewitzOn WarMichael HowardPeter ParetPrinceton, NJ197595
John KeeganFace of BattleNew York1975
Victor David HansonThe Western Way of War, Infantry Battle in Ancient GreeceBerkeley, CA1989
The Rise of the West, A History of the Human CommunityChicago1964
The Pursuit of Power, Technology, Armed Force, and Society since AD 1000Chicago1984
Robert Debs Heinl, JrDictionary of Military QuotationsAnnapolis, MD1966328
Flavius JosephusThe Great Roman-Jewish WarWilliam WhistonNew York1960121
Graham WebsterThe Roman Imperial Army of the First and Second Centuries A.DNew York1979
Geoffrey ParkerThe Dutch RevoltIthaca, NY1977164
The Dawn of Modern WarfareWalter J. Renfroe, JrLincoln, NB1985155
Michael RobertsThe Military Revolution, 1560–1660,Essays in Swedish HistoryLondon1960
John A. LynnGiants of the Grand Siècle, The French Army, 1610–1715Cambridge1997281
William H. McNeillKeeping Time Together, Dance and Drill in Human HistoryCambridge, MA1998
Bruce I. GudmundssonStormtroop Tactics, Innovation in the German Army, 1914–1918New York1989
Omar BartovHitler's Army, Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third ReichOxford199196
MacGregor KnoxCommon Destiny: Dictatorship, Foreign Policy, and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi GermanyCambridge2000186
Williamson MurrayClausewitz Out, Computer In,The National Interest199757
Paul Van RiperMaj. Gen. Robert ScalesPreparing for War in the 21st Century,Strategic Review1997
Alistar HorneTo Lose a Battle, France, 1940Boston1969
Charles B. MacDonaldThe Battle of the BulgeLondon1984
Thomas E. RicksMaking the CorpsNew York1997171
Charles KrauthammerA World Imagined, The Flawed Premises of Liberal Foreign Policy,The New Republic199922
Williamson MurrayThe Emerging Strategic Environment. An Historian's View,Strategic Review1999
Mark BowdenBlack Hawk Down, A Story of Modern WarNew York1999

Reference Type: notes

Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayLessons of War,The National Interest1988
The Making of Strategy, Rulers, States, and WarWilliamson MurrayMacGregor KnoxAlvin BernsteinCambridge1992
Alan BeyerchenClausewitz, Nonlinearity, and the Unpredictability of War,International Security1992
Peter ParetClausewitz and the StateOxford1976379
Clifford J. RogersWar Cruel and Sharp, English Strategy under Edward III, 1327–1360Woodbridge, Suffolk2000
Edward LuttwakThe Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, From the First Century A.D. to the ThirdBaltimore, MD1976
Edward GibbonThe Rise and Fall of the Roman EmpireNew York19461
Chester G. StarrThe Roman Empire, 27 B.C.– A.D. 476, A Study in SurvivalOxford1982
S.S. FrereBritanniaLondon197816
Clifford J. RogersWar Cruel and Sharp, English Strategy under Edward III, 1327–1360Woodbridge, UK2000217
Winston S. ChurchillMarlborough, His Life and TimesLondon1933
David ChandlerMarlborough as Military CommanderLondon1973
David ChandlerThe Campaigns of NapoleonNew York1966
Crucible of War, The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766New York2000
Piers MackesyThe War for America, 1775–1783London197573
MacGregor KnoxMass Politics as Military Revolution: The French Revolution and After,MacGregor KnoxWilliamson MurrayThe Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300–2050Cambridge2002
Carl von ClausewitzOn WarMichael HowardPeter ParetPrinceton1976609
Cecil Woodham-SmithThe Reason WhyNew York1960
Christopher HibbertThe Destruction of Lord Raglan, A Tragedy of the Crimean WarLondon1961
Andrew D. LambertThe Crimean War, British Grand Strategy Against Russia, 1853–1856Manchester, UK1990
Ulysses S. GrantPersonal Memoirs of U.S. GrantNew York1886130
Dennis ShowalterThe Wars of German UnificationLondon2004
Dennis ShowalterRailroads and Rifles, Soldiers, Technology, and the Unification of GermanyHamden, CT1975
Geoffrey WarrowThe Austro-Prussian War, Austria's War with Prussia and Italy in 1866Cambridge1998
Gerhard RitterThe Prussian Tradition, 1740–1890Heinz NordenCoral Gables, FL1969
The Franco-Prussian War, The German Invasion of France, 1870–1871New York1969
Geoffrey WawroThe Franco-Prussian War, The German Conquest of France in 1870–1871Cambridge2003
Eric Dorn BroseThe Kaiser's Army, The Politics of Military Technology in Germany during the Machine Age, 1870–1918Oxford2001
Williamson MurrayGerman Military EffectivenessBaltimore, MD1992
Holger HerwigThe First World War, Germany and Austria-Hungary, 1914–1918New York1997
Robin PriorTrevor WilsonPasschendaele, The Untold StoryNew Haven1996
Leon WolffIn Flanders Fields, The 1917 CampaignNew York1958
H.P. HarrisDouglas Haig and the First World WarCambridge2008
Terence ZuberThe Schlieffen Plan Reconsidered,War in History19996
Albert PalazzoSeeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War ILondon2002
Isabelle V. HullAbsolute Destruction, Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial GermanyIthaca, NY2005206
Nicholas A. LambertSir John Fisher's Naval RevolutionColumbia, SC1999
Avner OfferThe First World War: An Agrarian InterpretationOxford1989
Andrew GordonThe Rules of the Game, Jutland and British Naval CommandLondon1996
Timothy LupferThe Dynamics of Doctrine: The Changes in German Tactical Doctrine During the First World WarLeavenworth1981
Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayMilitary EffectivenessLondon1988
Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettMilitary Innovation in the Interwar PeriodCambridge1996
Holger H. HerwigClio Deceived, Patriotic Self-Censorship in Germany after the Great War,International Security1987
Williamson MurrayGerman Net Assessment in the Interwar Period,Calculations, Net Assessment and the Coming of the Second World WarWilliamson MurrayAllan R. MillettNew York1992
Williamson MurrayThe Change in the European Balance of Power, 1938–1939, The Path to RuinPrinceton, NJ1984
Telford TaylorMunichGarden City, NY1979695
Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettA War To Be Won, Fighting the Second World WarCambridge2000110
Horst BoogJürgen FörsterJoachim HoffmannErnst KlinkRolf-Dieter MüllerGerd R. UeberschärDas Deutsche Reich und der Zweite WeltkriegStuttgart1983
Franz HalderThe Halder War Diary, 1939–1942Charles BurdickHans-Adolf JacobsenNovato, CA1988242
Holger HerwigThe Politics of Frustration: The United States in German Naval Planning, 1889–1941Boston1976
MacGregor KnoxMussolini Unleashed, Fascist Italy's Last WarCambridge1984
Richard FrankGuadalcanal, The Definitive Account of the Landmark BattleNew York1990
Mark ParilloThe Japanese Merchant Marine in World War IIAnnapolis, MD1993
Stephen RoskillHankey, Man of SecretsAnnapolis, MD1972
General Sir Leslie HollisOne Marine's TaleLondon195666
Eliot CohenSupreme Command, Soldiers, Statesmen, and Leadership in WartimeNew York2002
R.V. JonesThe Wizard War, British Scientific Intelligence, 1939–1945New York197892
Mark A. StolerAllies and Adversaries, The Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Grand Alliance, and U.S. Strategy in World War IIChapel Hill, NC2000
Thomas C. HoneNorman FriedmanMark D. MandelesAmerican and British Aircraft Development, 1919–1941Annapolis, MD1999
Williamson MurrayLuftwaffeBaltimore, MD1985
ThucydidesThe Peloponnesian WarRex WarnerNew York195486
John BrewerThe Sinews of Power, War, Money, and the English State, 1688–1788New York1989
D. W. JonesWar and Economy in the Age of William III and MarlboroughOxford1988
Michael HowardThe Continental CommitmentLondon197232

Reference Type: notes

Williamson MurrayThe Emerging Strategic Environment: An Historian's Thoughts,Strategic Review1999
MacGregor KnoxWhat History Can Tell Us About the ‘New Strategic Environment,’Williamson MurrayThe Mershon American Defense Annual, 1995–1996Washington, DC1996
Andrew GordonThe Rules of the Game: Jutland and British Naval CommandLondon1996
Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayMilitary EffectivenessLondon1988322
Timothy TraversThe Killing Ground, The British Army, the Western Front, and the Emergence of Modern War, 1900–1918London1987
Andrew KrepenevichThe Army in VietnamBaltimore, MD1986
Robin PriorTrevor WilsonPasschendaele, The Untold StoryNew Haven, CT1996
Leon WolffIn Flanders, The 1917 CampaignNew York1958
Peter H. LiddlePasschendaele in Perspective, The Third Battle of YpresLondon1997
Robert DoughtyThe Seeds of Disaster, The Development of French Army Doctrine, 1919–1939Hamden, CT1985
Trevor N. DupuyA Genius for War, The German Army and the General Staff 1807–1945Englewood Cliffs, NJ197751
Arden BucholzMoltke and the German Wars, 1864–1871New York200119
James CorumThe Roots of Blitzkrieg, Hans von Seeckt and German Military ReformLawrence, KS1992
Williamson MurrayGerman Military EffectivenessBaltimore, MD1992
Geoffrey WaroThe Austro-Prussian War, Austria's War with Prussia and Italy in 1866Cambridge1966
Michael HowardThe Franco-Prussian War, The German Invasion of France, 1870–1871London1961
Lloyd J. MatthewsThe Uniformed Intellectual and His Place in American Arms: Parts I and II,Army Magazine2002
Williamson MurrayMark GrimsleyIntroduction: On Strategy,Williamson MurrayMacGregor KnoxAlvin BernsteinThe Making of Strategy, Rulers, States, and WarCambridge19921
Williamson MurraySome Thoughts on War and Geography,Colin S. GrayGeoffrey SloanGeopolitics, Geography and StrategyLondon1999201
Dennis E. SchowalterRailroads and Rifles, Soldiers, Technology, and the Unification of GermanyHamden, CT197539
Alistair HorneThe Price of Glory, Verdun, 1916New York1962
Crown Prince RupprechtMein KriegstagebuchMunich1920179
Williamson MurrayArmored Warfare,Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettMilitary Innovation in the Interwar PeriodCambridge1996
Williamson MurrayMay 1940: Contingency and Fragility of the German RMA,The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300–2050Cambridge2001
Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettA War To Be Won, Fighting the Second World WarCambridge, MA2000135
Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettCalculations: Net Assessment and the Coming of World War IINew York1992
Winston S. ChurchillThe Second World WarBoston194946
Peter P. PerlaThe Art of Wargaming: A Guide for Professionals and HobbyistsAnnapolis, MD199071
Norman FriedmanThomas C. HoneMark D. MandelesAmerican and British Aircraft Carrier Development, 1919–1941Annapolis, MD199934
Stephen Peter RosenWinning the Next War, Innovation and the Modern MilitaryIthaca, NY199140
Chester W. Nimitz1923 Naval War College Thesis,Naval War College Review198312
Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettA War To Be Won, Fighting the Second World WarCambridge, MA2000210
Williamson MurrayThe Change in The European Balance of Power, 1938–1939, The Path To RuinPrinceton, NJ1984
Timothy T. LupferThe Dynamics of Doctrine: The Changes in German Tactical Doctrine During the First World WarLeavenworth, KS1981
Bruce I. GudmundssonStormtroop Tactics, Innovation in the German Army, 1914–1918Westport, CT1989
Sir David FraserKnight's Cross, A Life of Field Marshal Erwin RommelLondon1993
David N. SpiresImage and Reality, The Making of the German Officer, 1921–1933Westport, CT1984105
Wilhelm DeistThe Wehrmacht and German RearmamentLondon198116
1933
Brian BondBritish Military Policy Between the WarsOxford1980
Brian BondWilliamson MurrayBritish Military Effectiveness in the Interwar Period,Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayMilitary EffectivenessLondon1988
Anthony John Tryhall“Boney” Fuller: The Intellectual General, 1878–1966London1977136
J. P. HarrisMen, Ideas, and Tanks: British Military Thought and Tanks, 1903–1939Manchester1996216
Harold R. WintonTo Change an Army, General Sir John Burnett-Stuart and British Armored Doctrine, 1927–1938Lawrence, KS198880
Michael HowardThe Liddell Hart Memoirs,Journal of the Royal United Services Institute196661
James S. CorumA Comprehensive Approach to Change, Reform in the German Army in the Interwar Period,Harold WintonDavid R. MetsThe Challenge of Change, Military Institutions and New Realities, 1918–1941Lincoln, NE200048
Horst BoogJürgen ForsterJoachim HoffmanErnst KlinkRolf-Dieter MüllerGerd R. UeberschärDas Deutsche Reich und der Zweite WeltkriegStuttgart1983
Franz HalderThe Halder War Diaries, 1939–1942Charles BurdickHans-Adolf JacobsenNovato, CA1988506
John EricksonThe Soviet Union, 1930–1941,Knowing One's Enemies, Intelligence Assessment Before the Two World WarsErnest R. MayPrinceton, NJ1984418
David FrenchRaising Churchill's Army, The British Army and the War Against Germany, 1919–1945Oxford2000
Max HastingsOverlord, D-Day and the Battle for Normandy 1944London1984141
The Fall of FranceNew York196843
Eugenia C. KieslingArming Against Hitler, France and the Limits of Military PlanningLawrence, KS1995139
Marshall L. MichellAir Combat Over North Vietnam, 1965–1972Annapolis, MD1997
Carl von ClausewitzOn WarMichael HowardPeter ParetPrinceton, NJ1975607
Gerhard RitterThe Sword and the Scepter, The Problem of Militarism in GermanyHeinz NordenCoral Gables, FL1970205
Holger H. HerwigThe First World War, Germany and Austria-Hungry, 1914–1918London1997
H.R. McMasterDereliction of Duty, Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, The Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to VietnamNew York199790

Reference Type: notes

Jay LuvaasThe Education of an Army: British Military Thought, 1815–1940London1965
Williamson MurrayMacGregor KnoxThinking about Revolutions in Warfare,The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300–2050MacGregor KnoxWilliamson MurrayCambridge2002
Winston S. ChurchillThe World CrisisToronto19313
Luigi AlbertiniThe Origins of the War of 1914New York1952
John LynnGiant of the Grand Siècle, The French Army, 1610–1715Cambridge1997
Winston S. ChurchillMarlborough, His Life and TimesLondon1933
David ChandlerMarlborough as Military CommanderLondon1973
Clifford J. RogersThe Military Revolution Debate, Readings on the Military Transformation in Early Modern EuropeBoulder, CO1995
William H. McNeillThe Pursuit of PowerChicago1982
Felix GilbertMakers of Modern StrategyOxford1986
Geoffrey ParkerThe Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500–1800Cambridge1988
Graham WebsterThe Roman Imperial Army of the First and Second Centuries A.DLondon1969
Adrian Keith GoldsworthyThe Roman Army at War, 100 BC – AD 200Oxford1995
MacGregor KnoxThe Mainstream of CivilizationNew York198989
Julian S. CorbettsEngland in the Seven Years’ War21907
Fred AndersonsCrucible of War, The War for Empire in North America, 1756–1765New York2003
2005
Arthur HermanTo Rule the Waves, How the British Navy Shaped the Modern WorldNew York2004
Archives parlementaires de 1789 á 1860, première sérieParis1907674
David ChandlersThe Campaigns of NapoleonNew York1966
Georg WinterDie Reorganisation des Preussischen Staates unter Stein und Hardenberg19311
MacGregor KnoxCommon Destiny: Dictatorship, Foreign Policy, and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi GermanyCambridge2000
Martin SamuelsCommand or Control? Command, Training and Tactics in the British and German Armies, 1888–1918London1995
John Lawrence ToneThe Fatal Knot, The Guerrilla War in Navarre and the Defeat of Napoleon in SpainChapel Hill1994
Alfred Thayer MahanThe Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812Boston1894118
Stanley ChadorowMacGregor KnoxConrad SchirokauerThe Mainstream of CivilizationNew York1989685
Isabel V. HullAbsolute Destruction, Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial GermanyIthaca, NY2005
Holger HerwigThe First World War, Germany and Austria, 1914–1918London1997Cambridge1918
Andrew D. LambertThe Crimean War, British Grand Strategy against Russia, 1853–1856Manchester1990
Christopher HibbertThe Destruction of Lord RaglandLondon1963
Erich EyckBismarck and the German EmpireNew York1960
A.J.P. TaylorsThe Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848–1918Oxford1954
Dennis E. SchowalterRailroads and Rifles: Soldiers, Technology, and the Unification of GermanyHamden, CT1975
Charles Edward WhiteThe Enlightened Soldier – Scharnhorst and the Militärische Gesellschaft in Berlin, 1801–1805New York1989
Williamson MurrayThe Change in the European Balance of Power, 1938–1939, The Path to RuinPrinceton1984358
Otto von BismarckBismarck: Die gesammelten Werke192810140
Geoffrey WawroThe Austro-Prussian War, Austria's War with Prussia and ItalyCambridge1997
Sir Michael HowardThe Franco-Prussian WarLondon1961
Geoffrey WarrowsThe Franco-Prussian War, TheGerman Conquest of France in 1870–1871Cambridge2003
Williamson MurrayRichard Hart SinnreichThe Past as Prologue, The Importance of History to the Military ProfessionCambridge2006

Reference Type: notes

Geoffrey WarrowThe Austro-Prussian War, Austria's War with Prussia and Italy in 1866Cambridge1996
David ChandlerThe Campaigns of NapoleonNew York1966
Peter ParetsClausewitz and the StateOxford1976
1966
Holger HerwigThe Dynamics of Necessity: German Military Policy during the First World WarMilitary Effectiveness11988
Williamson MurrayMacGregor KnoxAlvin BernsteinThe Making of StrategyCambridge1994258
Wilhelm DeistThe Wehrmacht and German RearmamentLondon1981
Williamson MurrayGerman Net Assessment in the Interwar PeriodCalculations, Net Assessment and the Coming of World War IINew York1992
Gerhard RitterStaatskunst und Kriegshandwerk: Das Problem des ‘Militärismus’ in Deutschland21965262
Brian JonesThe Secret WarLondon1978
V.R. BerghanGermany and the Approach of War in 1914London1973
David SchoenbaumZabern, 1913, Consensus Politics in Imperial GermanyLondon1982
Holger HerwigClio Deceived, Patriotic Self-Censorship in Germany after the Great WarInternational SecurityFall1987
Gerhard RitterThe Sword and the SceptorCoral Gables, FL1972
Timothy LupferThe Dynamics of Doctrine: The Changes in German Tactical Doctrine during the First World WarLeavenworth, KS1981
James CorumThe Roots of Blitzkrieg, Hans von Seeckt and German Military ReformLawrence, KS1994
Harold J. GordonHitler and the Beer Hall PutschPrinceton1972
Peter HayesA Question Mark with Epaulettes? Kurt von Schleicher and Weimar PoliticsJournal of Modern History521980
Telford TaylorMunich, The Price of PeaceNew York1979
Jürgen FörsterHitler's War Aims against the Soviet Union and German Military LeadersMilitärhistorik Tidschrift1979
Horst BoogDas Deutsche Reich und der Zweite WeltkriegStuttgart1983
Gerhard RitterThe Schlieffen Plan, Critique of a MythNew York1958
Martin van CreveldSupplying War, Logistics from Wallenstein to PattonCambridge1977
Leo Geyer von
Holger HerwigThe Politics of Frustration, The United States in German Naval Planning, 1889–1941Boston1976225
Michael GeyerAufrüstung oder Sicherheit, Die Reichswehr in der Krise der Machtpolitik, 1924–1936Wiesbaden198080
Franz HalderThe Halder War Diary, 1939–1942Novato, CA1988506
Klaus ReinhardtDie Wende vor MoskauStuttgart1972123
Gerald FeldmanArmy, Industry, and Labor in GermanyPrinceton, NJ1966
Williamson MurrayForce Structure, Blitzkrieg Strategy, and Economic Difficulties: Nazi Grand Strategy in the 1930sGerman Military EffectivenessBaltimore, MD1992
Williamson MurrayLuftwaffeBaltimore, MD198592
MacGregor Knox'sMussolini Unleashed, Fascist Italy's Last WarCambridge1982
Walter WarlimontInside Hitler's HeadquartersNew York196454
British Air Ministry1983
Klaus MaierDas Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg21979
Telford TaylorThe Breaking WaveNew York1967
Williamson MurrayGerman Close Air SupportClose Air SupportWashington, DC1990
Bradley J. Meyer1988
Robert Debs HeinlDictionary of Military and Naval QuotationsAnnapolis, MD1966239
Barbara TuchmanThe Guns of AugustNew York1962163
Martin MiddlebrookThe First Day on the SommeNew York1972
Robin PriorTrevor WilsonThe SommeNew Haven2005
Erich LudendorffLudendorff's Own Story1New York1919324
Barry PittThe Last ActNew York1962143
James S. CorumThe Roots of Blitzkrieg: Hans von Seeckt and German Military ReformLawrence, KS1994
Robert DoughtySeeds of Disaster, The Development of French Army Doctrine, 1919–1939Hamden, CT1985
Michael HowardThe Continental CommitmentLondon197232
Brian BondBritish Military Policy between the Two World WarsOxford1980
Chef der HeeresleitungTruppenführungBerlin19331
Williamson MurrayThe German Response to Victory in Poland: A Case Study in Professionalism,Armed Forces and Society1980
Wilhelm DeistThe German Military in the Age of Total WarLeamington Spa1985305
Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayMilitary Effectiveness31988205
Omar BartovThe Eastern Front, 1941–1945, German Troops and the Barbarization of WarNew York1986
Horst BoogDas Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg4Stuttgart1983186
Gordon WelchmanThe Hut Six StoryNew York1982
Ralph BennettUltra in the West, The Normandy Campaign 1944–1945New York1979114
David GlantzSoviet Military Deception in the Second World WarLondon1982
Williamson MurrayLuftwaffeBaltimore, MD1985
Edward HomzeArming the Luftwaffe, The Reich's Air Ministry and the German Aircraft Industry, 1919–1939Lincoln1976223
Johannes SteinhoffMesserschmitts over SicilyBaltimore198759
U.S. Army Air Force1980
David IrvingThe Rise and Fall of the Luftwaffe, The Life of Field Marshal Erhard MilchBoston1973148
Horst BoogDie Deutsche Luftwaffenführung, 1933–1945Stuttgart1982
Horst BoogHigher Command and Leadership in the German Luftwaffe, 1933–1945Airpower and WarfareWashington, DC1979145
Francis K. MasonBattle over Britain, A History of German Air Assaults on Great Britain, 1917–1918 and July--December 1940 and the Development of Britain's Air Defenses between the World WarsGarden City, NY1969
Basil CollierThe Defence of the United KingdomLondon1957160
R.V. JonesThe Wizard WarNew York197892
Williamson MurrayStrategy for Defeat, The Luftwaffe, 1933–1945Maxwell, AL1983
Andrew GordonThe Rules of the Game, Jutland and British Naval CommandLondon1996
Michael SalewskiDie deutsche SeekriegsleitungFrankfurt am Main197029
Patrick BeesleyVery Special IntelligenceGarden City, NY1978
Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayLessons of War,The National Interest1988
Max HastingsArmageddon, The Battle for Germany, 1944–1945New York2004

Reference Type: notes

Reflections on the Combined Bomber Offensive,Militärgeschichtliche Mitteilungen511992
John Kenneth GalbraithA Life in Our Times, MemoirsBoston1981206
Timothy TraversThe Killing GroundLondon1988
Andrew KrepinevichThe Army and VietnamBaltimore1988
Williamson MurrayGerman Response to Victory in Poland: A Case Study in ProfessionalismArmed Forces and SocietyWinter1981
Sir Charles WebsterNoble FranklandThe Strategic Air Offensive Against GermanyLondon1961216
Williamson MurrayStrategy for Defeat, The Luftwaffe 1933–1945Montgomery, AL1983
Martin MiddlebrookThe Berlin Raids, R.A.F. Bomber Command, Winter 1943–1944London1988
Martin MiddlebrookThe Nuremberg Raid, 30–31 March 1944New York1974
Solly ZuckermanFrom Apes to WarlordsLondon1978216
Webster FranklandThe Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany374
Williamson MurrayLuftwaffeBaltimore, MD198560
Wesley E. CravenJames E. CateThe Army Air Forces in World War II11948149
Bernard M. BoylanThe Development of the American Long-Range FighterUniversity of Missouri Dissertation195568
Friedhelm GöluckeSchweinfurt und die strategische Luftkriegführung, 1943Paderborn1980
Albert SpeerInside the Third ReichNew York1970285
Robert E. FutrellIdeas, Concepts, Doctrine. A History of Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907–1964Montgomery1971139
Alfred C. MierzejewskiThe Collapse of the German War Economy, 1944–1945, Allied Airpower and the German National RailwayChapel Hill1988
Ian KershawVolksmeinung und Propaganda im Dritten ReichStuttgart1980176
Williamson MurrayThe Luftwaffe, 1933–1945, Strategy for DefeatWashington, DC, Brassey's1996254
Williamson MurrayThe Change in the European Balance of Power, 1938–1939: The Path to RuinPrinceton1984326
Allan R. MillettWilliamson MurrayMilitary Effectiveness21988
Anthony VerrierThe Bomber OffensiveLondon1968327
R. V. JonesThe Wizard WarNew York1978
David IrvingThe Mare's NestBoston1968109
David IrvingThe Rise and Fall of the Luftwaffe, The Life of Field Marshal Erhard MilchBoston1973202
USSBS1947
Richard OveryThe Air War, 1939–1945London1980123
USSBS1945
USSBS1945

Reference Type: notes

Strategic ReviewWinter1998
Eliot Cohen DirectorThe Gulf War Air Power SurveyWashington, DC1993
E. TrainorMichael E. GordonGeneral's War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the GulfNew York1995
1991
Barry D. WattsThomas KearneyGulf War Air Power Survey2199315
Samir al-KhalilThe Republic of Fear, The Politics of Modern IraqBerkeley, CA1989
1991
Williamson MurrayAir War in the Persian GulfBaltimore, MD1995
Williamson MurrayThe Gulf War Air Power Survey21993206
Peter PetreIt Doesn't Take a HeroNew York1992457
1991
HQCENTCOM1991

Reference Type: notes

Thucydides1954
David GlantzSoviet Military Deception in the Second World WarLondon1989
Carl von ClausewitzOn WarPrinceton, NJ1976117
R.V. JonesThe Wizard War, British Scientific Intelligence, 1939–1945New York1978
Ralph BennettUltra in the West, The Normandy Campaign, 1944–1945New York1980
Sir Michael HowardBritish Intelligence in the Second World War51990
Williamson MurrayAllan R. MillettA War to Be Won, Fighting the Second World WarCambridge, MA2000
Williamson MurrayThe Change in the European Balance of Power, 1938–1939, The Path to RuinPrinceton, NJ1984
Wesley WarkThe Ultimate Enemy, British Intelligence and Nazi Germany, 1938–1939Ithaca, NY1985
F.H. HinsleyBritish Intelligence in the Second World War, Its Influence on Strategy and Operations1197951
Truppenführung (Troop Leadership)Berlin1933
Bruce CondellDavid T. ZabeckiOn the German Art of War, TruppenführungBoulder, CO2001
David KahnSeizing the Enigma, The Race to Break the German U-Boat Codes, 1939–1943New York199180
Patrick BeeslyVery Special Intelligence, The Story of the Admiralty's Operational Intelligence Centre, 1939–1945Garden City, NY197811
Sir Charles WebsterNoble FranklandThe Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany41962
Winston S. ChurchillThe Second World War21949386
Williamson MurrayLuftwaffeBaltimore, MD1985
Hugh Sebag-MontefioreEnigma, The Battle for the CodeNew York200047
F.H. HinsleyBP, Admiralty, and Naval EnigmaCode Breakers, The Inside Story of Bletchley ParkOxford199378
Winston S. ChurchillThe Second World War21949598
Michael GannonOperation Drumbeat, The Dramatic True Story of Germany's First U-Boat Attacks Along the American Coast in World War IINew York1991
Eliot A. CohenJohn GoochMilitary Misfortunes, The Anatomy of Failure in WarNew York1990
Solly ZuckermanFrom Apes to Warlords, The Autobiography (1904–1946) of Solly ZuckermanLondon1978

Reference Type: notes

MacGregor KnoxConquest, Foreign and Domestic, in Fascist Italy and Nazi GermanyJournal of Modern History5619841
Williamson MurrayGerman Military EffectivenessBaltimore, MD199239
George H. SteinThe Waffen SS, Hitler's Elite Guard at WarIthaca, NY196676
Max HastingsDas Reich, The March of the 2nd SS Panzer Division through FranceLondon1993
1979
Horst BoogDas Deutsche Reich und der Zweite WeltkriegStuttgart1983413
Jürgen FörsterHitler's War Aims Against the Soviet Union and the German Military LeadersMilitärhistorik Tidshrift197983
Christian StreitThe German Army and the Policies of GenocideThe Policies of Genocide: Jews and Soviet Prisoners of War in Nazi GermanyGerhard HirschfeldLondon1966
Peter WilliamsDavid WallaceUnit 731: Japan’s Secret Biological Warfare in World War IINew York1989
John CharmleyChurchill: The End of Glory: A Political BiographyNew York1993
Franz HalderThe Halder War Diary, 1939–1942Novato, CA1988506
Klaus ReinhardtDie Wende vor Moskau, Das Scheitern der Strategie Hitlers im Winter 1941/1942Stuttgart1972140
Williamson MurrayReflections on the Combined Bomber OffensiveMilitärgeschichtliche Mitteilungen511992
Sir Charles WebsterNoble FranklandThe Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany31962239
Alfred C. MierzejewskiThe Collapse of the German War Economy, 1944–1945; Allied Air Power and the German National RailwayChapel Hill, NC1988
Paul FussellThank God for the Atomic Bomb: Hiroshima, A Soldier's ViewThe New Republic198126
Peter MazlowskiTruman, the Bomb, and the Numbers GameMilitary History Quarterly71995103