10 - Temperament and anxiety in children and adolescents  pp. 198-224

By Christopher J. Lonigan, Beth M. Phillips, Shauna B. Wilson and Nicholas P. Allan

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter

Problematic anxiety and anxiety disorders are common forms of emotional disturbance affecting children and adolescents. Estimates of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in child and adolescent populations range from 3% to 25%, depending on the specific anxiety disorder diagnosis, the classification system used, and whether or not a stringent functional impairment criterion is employed (e.g., Costello, Egger, & Angold, 2005; Costello, Egger, Copeland, Erkanli, & Angold, Chapter 3, this volume). Although anxiety disorders in childhood often remit within 3 to 4 years (Last, Perrin, Hersen, & Kazdin, 1996), some cases of childhood anxiety disorder have a chronic course (Keller, Lavori, Wunder, Beardslee, Schwartz, & Roth, 1992; Last et al., 1996; Orvaschel, Lewinsohn, & Seeley, 1995), and many adult anxiety disorders may have their onset in childhood or adolescence (Burke, Burke, Regier, & Rae, 1990; Kendler, Neale, Kessler, Heath, & Eaves, 1992). Moreover, even when a specific anxiety disorder in youth does not persist, it may represent significant risk for other disorders, particularly other anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse (Kendall, Safford, Flannery-Schroeder, & Webb, 2004; Last et al., 1996; Lewinsohn, Zinbarg, Seeley, Lewinsohn, & Sack, 1997; Moffitt et al., 2007; Orvaschel et al., 1995; Woodward & Fergusson, 2001). These findings indicate that anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are both common and associated with significant negative sequelae. Consequently, there is significant need to understand factors that are associated with the development and maintenance of anxiety.

Achenbach, T. M.1991Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 profileBurlington, VTUniversity of Vermont Department of Psychiatry
Achenbach, T. M.1991Manual for the Youth Self-ReportBurlington, VTUniversity of Vermont Department of Psychiatry
Ahadi, S. A.,Rothbart, M. K.,Ye, R.1993Children's temperament in the US and China: similarities and differencesEuropean Journal of Personality7359
Ahadi, S. A.Rothbart, M. K.1994Temperament, development, and the Big FiveC. F. Halverson, Jr.G. A. Kohnstamm,R. P. MartinThe Developing Structure of Temperament and Personality from Infancy to Adulthood189Hillsdale, NJErlbaum
Akiskal, L. Y.,Hirschfeld, R. M. A.,Yerevanian, B. J.1983The relationship of personality to affective disordersArchives of General Psychiatry40801
Allen, J. L.,Rapee, R. M.,Sandberg, S.2008Severe life events and chronic adversities as antecedents to anxiety: a matched control studyJournal of Abnormal Child Psychology261047
Allport, G. W.1937Personality: A Psychological InterpretationNew YorkHolt
Angleitner, A.Ostendorf, F.1994Temperament and the big five factors of personalityC. F. Halverson, JrG. A. Kohnstamm,R. P. MartinThe Developing Structure of Temperament and Personality from Infancy to Adulthood69Hillsdale, NJErlbaum
Anthony, J. L.,Lonigan, C. J.,Hooe, E. S.,Phillips, B. M.2002An affect based, hierarchical model of temperament and its relations with internalizing symptomatologyJournal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology31480
Austin, A. A.Chorpita, B. F.2004Temperament, anxiety, and depression: comparisons across five ethnic groups of childrenJournal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology33216
Bar-Haim, Y.,Lamy, D.,Pergamin, L.,Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.,van IJzendoorn, M. H.2007Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: a meta-analytic studyPsychological Bulletin1331
Barbaranelli, C.,Caprara, G. V.,Rabasca, A.,Pastorelli, C.2003A questionnaire for measuring the Big Five in late childoodPersonality and Individual Differences34645
Bengtsgard, K.Bohlin, G.2001Social inhibition and overfriendliness: two-year follow-up and observational validationJournal of Clinical Child Psychology30364
Biederman, J.,Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R.,Rosenbaum, J. F.,Herot, C.,Friedman, D.,Snidman, N.,2001Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in childrenAmerican Journal of Psychiatry1581673
Biederman, J.,Rosenbaum, J. F.,Bolduc-Murphy, E. A.,Faraone, S. V.,Chaloff, J.,Hirshfeld, D. R.,1993A three-year follow-up of children with and without behavioral inhibitionJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry32814
Birmaher, B.,Khetarpal, S.,Brent, D.,Cully, M.,Balach, L.,Kaufman, J.,1997The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristicsJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry36545
Brady, E. U.Kendall, P. C.1992Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescentsPsychological Bulletin111244
Brown, T. A.,Chorpita, B. F.,Barlow, D. H.1998Structural relations among dimensions of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders and dimensions of negative affect, positive affect, and autonomic arousalJournal of Abnormal Psychology107179
Brown, T. A.2007Temporal course and structural relationships among dimensions of temperament and DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorder constructsJournal of Abnormal Psychology116313
Burke, C. B.,Burke, J. D.,Regier, D. A.,Rae, D. S.1990Age at onset of selected mental disorders in five community populationsArchives of General Psychiatry47511
Buss, A. H.Plomin, R.1984Temperament: Early Developing Personality TraitsHillsdale, NJWiley & Sons
Capaldi, D. M.Rothbart, M. K.1992Development and validation of an early adolescent temperament measureJournal of Early Adolescence12153
Caspi, A.Silva, P. A.1995Temperamental qualities at age three predict personality traits in young adulthood: longitudinal evidence from a birth cohortChild Development66486
Chorpita, B. F.,Albano, A. M.,Barlow, D. H.1998The structure of negative emotions in a clinical sample of children and adolescentsJournal of Abnormal Psychology10774
Chorpita, B. F.,Yim, L.,Moffitt, C.,Umemoto, L. A.,Francis, S. E.2000Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: a revised child anxiety and depression scaleBehaviour Research and Therapy38835
Chorpita, B. F.Barlow, D. H.1998The development of anxiety: the role of control in the early environmentPsychological Bulletin1243
Chorpita, B. F.Daleiden, E. L.2002Tripartite dimensions of emotion in a child clinical sample: measurement strategies and implications for clinical utilityJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology701150
Clark, L. A.2005Temperament as a unifying basis for personality and psychopathologyJournal of Abnormal Psychology114505
Clark, L. A.Watson, D.1991Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implicationsJournal of Abnormal Psychology100316
Clark, L.A.,Watson, D.,Mineka, S.1994Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disordersJournal of Abnormal Psychology103103
Costello, E. J.,Egger, H. L.,Angold, A.2005The developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders: phenomenology, prevalence, and comorbidityChild and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America14631
Degnan, K. A.,Henderson, H. A.,Fox, N. A.,Rubin, K. H.2008Predicting social wariness in middle childhood: the moderating roles of childcare history, maternal personality and maternal behaviorSocial Development17471
Degnan, K. A.Fox, N. A.2007Behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders: multiple levels of a resilience processDevelopment and Psychopathology19729
Derryberry, D.Reed, M. A.2002Anxiety-related attentional biases and their regulation by attentional controlJournal of Abnormal Psychology111225
Derryberry, D.Rothbart, M. K.1984Emotion, attention, and temperamentH. C. Izard,J. Kagan,R. ZajoncEmotion, Cognition, and Behavior132Cambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Derryberry, D.Rothbart, M. K.1997Reactive and effortful processes in the organization of temperamentDevelopment and Psychopathology9633
Diamond, S.1974The Roots of Psychology: A Sourcebook in the History of IdeasNew YorkBasic Books
Digman, J. M.1994Child personality and temperament: does the five-factor model embrace both domainsC. F. Halverson, Jr.,G. A. Kohnstamn,R. P. MartinThe Developing Structure of Temperament and Personality from Infancy to Adulthood323Hillsdale, NJErlbaum
Eisenberg, N.,Cumberland, A.,Spinrad, T. L.,Fabes, R. A.,Shepard, S. A.,Reiser, M.,2001The relations of regulation and emotionality to children's externalizing and internalizing problem behaviorChild Development721112
Eisenberg, N.,Sadovsky, A.,Spinrad, T. L.,Fabes, R. A.,Losoya, S. H.,Valiente, C.,2005The relations of problem behavior status to children's negative emotionality, effortful control, and impulsivity: concurrent relations and prediction of changeDevelopmental Psychology41193
Eisenberg, N.,Valiente, C.,Spinrad, T. L.,Cumberland, A.,Liew, J.,Reiser, M.,2009Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality, and co-occurring behavior problemsDevelopmental Psychology45988
Ekman, P.,Friesen, W. V.,Ellsworth, P.1972Emotion in the Human FaceNew YorkPergamon
Ellis, L. K.Rothbart, M. K.2001Revision of the early adolescent temperament questionnairePoster presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child DevelopmentMinneapolis, MN
Essau, C. A.,Conradt, J.,Petermann, F.2000Frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of anxiety disorders in German adolescentsJournal of Anxiety Disorders14263
Eysenck, H. J.Eysenck, S. B. G.1975Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Adult and Junior)LondonHodder & Stoughton
Fan, J.,Wu, Y.,Fossella, J. A.,Posner, M. I.2001Assessing the heritability of attentional networksBMC Neuroscience3
Field, A. P.,Lawson, J.,Banerjee, R.2008The verbal threat information pathway to fear in children: the longitudinal effects on fear cognitions and the immediate effects on avoidance behaviorJournal of Abnormal Psychology117214
Field, A. P.2006The behavioral inhibition system and the verbal information pathway to children's fearsJournal of Abnormal Psychology115742
Fox, N. A.,Henderson, H. A.,Rubin, K. H.,Calkins, S. D.,Schmidt, L. A.2001Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first four years of lifeChild Development721
Goldsmith, H. H.,Buss, A.,Plomin, R.,Rothbart, M. K.,Thomas, A.,Chess, S.,1987Roundtable: What is temperament? Four approachesChild Development58505
Goldsmith, H. H.,Reilly, J.,Lemery, K. S.,Longley, S.,Prescott, A.1995Preliminary Manual for the Preschool Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery, Version 0.5Madison, WIUniversity of Wisconsin Department of Psychology
Goldsmith, H. H.Campos, J. J.1982Toward a theory of infant temperamentR. N. EmdeR. J. HarmonThe Development of Attachment and Affiliative Systems161New YorkPlenum Press
Goldsmith, H. H.Lemery, K. S.2000Linking temperamental fearfulness and anxiety symptoms: a behavior-genetic perspectiveBiological Psychiatry481199
Gray, J. A.1982The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal SystemNew YorkOxford University Press
Hagekull, B.Bohlin, G.1998Preschool temperament and environmental factors related to the five-factor model of personality in middle childhoodMerrill-Palmer Quarterly44194
Hartman, C. A.,Hox, J.,Mellenbergh, G. J.,Boyle, M. H.,Offord, D. R.,Racine, Y.,2001DSM-IV internal construct validity: when a taxonomy meets dataJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry42817
Hayward, C.,Killen, J. D.,Kraemer, H. C.,Taylor, C. B.1998Linking self-reported childhood behavioral inhibition to adolescent social phobiaJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry371308
Hirshfeld, D. R.,Rosenbaum, J. F.,Biederman, J.,Bolduc, E. A.,Faraone, S. V.,Snidman N.,1992Stable behavioral inhibition and its association with anxiety disorderJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry31103
Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R.,Biederman, J.,Calltharp, S.,Rosenbaum, E. D.,Faraone, S. V.,Rosenbaum, J. F.2003Behavioral inhibition and disinhibition as hypothesized precursors to psychopathology: implications for pediatric bipolar disorderBiological Psychiatry53985
Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R.,Biederman, J.,Henin, A.,Faraone, S. V.,Davis, S.,Harrington, K.,2007Behavioral inhibition in preschool children at risk is a specific predictor of middle childhood social anxiety: a five-year follow-upJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics28225
Hudson, J. L.,Comer, J. S.,Kendall, P. C.2008Parental responses to positive and negative emotions in anxious and nonanxious childrenJournal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology37303
John, O. P.,Caspi, A.,Robins, R. W.,Moffitt, T. E.,Stouthamer-Loeber, M.1994The “little five”: exploring the nomological network of the five-factor model of personality in adolescent boysChild Development65160
Joiner, T. E., Jr.,Catanzaro, S.,Laurent, J.1996The tripartite structure of positive and negative affect, depression, and anxiety in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatientsJournal of Abnormal Psychology105401
Joiner, T. E., Jr.Lonigan, C. J.2000Tripartite model of depression and anxiety in youth psychiatric inpatients: relations with diagnostic status and future symptomsJournal of Clinical Child Psychology29372
Kagan, J.,Reznick, J. S.,Snidman, N.1987The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in childrenChild Development581459
Kagan, J.,Snidman, N.,Arcus, D.,Reznick, S. J.1994Galen's Prophecy: Temperament in Human NatureNew YorkBasic Books
Kagan, J.,Snidman, N.,Arcus, D.1998Childhood derivatives of high and low reactivity in infancyChild Development691483
Kasch, K. L.,Rottenberg, J.,Arnow, B. A.,Gotlieb, I. H.2002Behavioral activation and inhibition systems and the severity and course of depressionJournal of Abnormal Psychology111589
Keller, M. B.,Lavori, P. W.,Wunder, J.,Beardslee, W. R.,Schwartz, C. E.,Roth, J.1992Chronic course of anxiety disorders in children and adolescentsJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry31595
Kendall, P. C.,Safford, S.,Flannery-Schroeder, E.,Webb, A.2004Child anxiety treatment: outcomes in adolescence and impact on substance use and depression at 7.4-year follow-upJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology72276
Kendler, K. S.,Neale, M. C.,Kessler, R. C.,Heath, A. C.,Eaves, L. J.1992The genetic epidemiology of phobias in women: the interrelationship of agoraphobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobiaArchives of General Psychiatry49273
Kessler, R. C.,McGonagle, K. A.,Zhao, S.,Nelson, C. B.,Hughes, M.,Eshleman, S.,1994Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity SurveyArchives of General Psychiatry518
King, K. M.,Molina, B. S. G.,Chassin, L.2008A state-trait model of negative life event occurrence in adolescence: predictors of stability in the occurrence of stressorsJournal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology37848
Krueger, R. F.,Caspi, A.,Moffitt, T. E.,Silva, P. A.,McGee, R.1996Personality traits are differentially linked to mental disorders: a multitrait--multidiagnosis study of an adolescent birth cohortJournal of Abnormal Psychology105299
Lahey, B. B.,Applegate, B.,Waldman, I. D.,Loft, J. D.,Hankin, B. L.,Rick, J.2004The structure of child and adolescent psychopathology: generating new hypothesesJournal of Abnormal Psychology113358
Lahey, B. B.,Rathouz, P. J.,Van Hulle, C.,Urbano, R. C.,Krueger, R. F.,Applegate, B.,2008Testing structural models of DSM-IV symptoms of common forms of child and adolescent psychopathologyJournal of Abnormal Child Psychology36187
Last, C. G.,Perrin, S.,Hersen, M.,Kazdin, A. E.1996A prospective study of childhood anxiety disordersJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry351502
Last, C. G.,Strauss, C. C.,Francis, G.1987Comorbidity among childhood anxiety disordersJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease175726
Lemery-Chalfant, K.,Doelger, L.,Goldsmith, H. H.2008Genetic relations between effortful and attentional control and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhoodInfant and Child Development17365
Lewinsohn, P. M.,Zinbarg, R.,Seeley, J. R.,Lewinsohn, M.,Sack, W. H.1997Lifetime comorbidity among anxiety disorders and between anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in adolescentsJournal of Anxiety Disorders11377
Lindhout, I. E.,Markus, M. M.,Hoogendijk, T. H.,Boer, F.2009Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhoodEuropean Child and Adolescent Psychiatry18439
Lonigan, C. J.,Carey, M. P.,Finch, A. J., Jr.1994Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: negative affectivity and the utility of self-reportsJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology621000
Lonigan, C. J.,Hooe, E. S.,David, C. F.,Kistner, J. A.1999Positive and negative affectivity in children: confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depressionJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology67374
Lonigan, C. J.,Phillips, B. M.,Hooe, E. S.2003Tripartite model of anxiety and depression in children: evidence from a latent variable longitudinal studyJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology71465
Lonigan, C. J.,Vasey, M. W.,Phillips, B. M.,Hazen, R. A.2004Temperament, anxiety, and the processing of threat-relevant stimuliJournal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology338
Lonigan, C. J.1998Development of a measure of effortful control in school-age childrenFlorida State University, Tallahassee, FL
Lonigan, C. J.2007Temperamental influences on the development of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents: the role of reactive and effortful processesKeynote paper given at the Conference on Temperament and PsychopathologyKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuven, Belgium
Lonigan, C. J.Phillips, B. M.2001Temperamental influences on the development of anxiety disordersM. W. VaseyM. R. DaddsThe Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety60New YorkOxford University Press
Lonigan, C. J.Vasey, M. W.2009Negative affectivity, effortful control, and attention to threat-relevant stimuliJournal of Abnormal Child Psychology37387
Majdandžić, M.,van den Boom, D. C.,Heesbeen, D. G. M.2008Peas in a pod: biased in the measurement of sibling temperamentDevelopmental Psychology441354
Markon, K. E.,Krueger, R. F.,Watson, D.2005Delineating the structure of normal and abnormal personality: an integrative hierarchical approachJournal of Personality and Social Psychology88139
McCrae, R. R.Costa, P. T.1987Validation of the five factor model across instruments and observersJournal of Personality and Social Psychology49710
McLeod, B. D.,Wood, J. J.,Weisz, J. R.2007Examining the association between parenting and child anxiety: a meta-analysisClinical Psychology Review27155
Meesters, C.,Muris, P.,& van Rooijen, B.2007Relations of neuroticism and attentional control with symptoms of anxiety and aggression in non-clinical childrenJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment29149
Mineka, S.Zinbarg, R.1995Conditioning and ethological models of social phobiaR. G. Heinberg,M. R. Liebowitz,D. A. Hope,F. R. SchneiderSocial Phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment134New YorkGuilford Press
Moffitt, T. E.,Harrington, H.,Caspi, A.,Kim-Cohen, J.,Goldberg, D.,Gregory, A. M.,2007Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cummulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 yearsArchives of General Psychiatry64651
Muris, P.,de Jong, P. J.,Engelen, S.2004Relationships between neuroticism, attentional control, and anxiety disorders symptoms in non-clinical childrenPersonality and Individual Differences37789
Muris, P.,Mayer, B.,van Lint, C.,Hofman, S.2008Attentional control and psychopathological symptoms in childrenPersonality and Individual Differences441495
Muris, P.,Meesters, C.,Blijlevens, P.2007Self-reported reactive and regulative temperament in early adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and “Big Three” personality factorsJournal of Adolescence301035
Muris, P.,Meesters, C.,Rompelberg, L.2006Attention control in middle childhood: relations to psychopathological symptoms and threat perception distortionsBehaviour Research and Therapy45997
Muris, P.,van der Penne, E.,Sigmond, R.,Mayer, B.2008Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and aggression in non-clinical children: relationships with self-report and performance-based measures of attention and effortful controlChild Psychiatry and Human Development39455
Muris, P.2006Unique and interactive effects of neuroticism and effortful control on psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical adolescentsPersonality and Individual Differences201409
Muris, P.Meesters, C.2002Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms in normal adolescentsJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment2497
Muris, P.Meesters, C.2009Reactive and regulative temperament in youths: psychometric evaluation of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire--RevisedJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment317
Nigg, J. T.2006Temperament and developmental psychopathologyJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry47395
Oldehinkel, A. J.,Hartman, C. A.,De Winter, A. F.,Veenstra, R.,Ormel, J.2004Temperament profiles associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescenceDevelopment and Psychopathology16421
Oldehinkel, A. J.,Hartman, C. A.,Ferdinand, R. F.,Verhulst, F. C.,Ormel, J.2007Effortful control as a modifier of the association between negative emotionality and adolescents’ mental health problemsDevelopment and Psychopathology19523
Oosterlaan, J.2001Behavioral inhibition and the development of childhood anxiety disordersW. K. SilvermanP. D. A. TreffersAnxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Research, Assessment, and InterventionCambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Ormel, J.,Oldehinkel, A. J.,Ferdinand, R. F.,Hartman, C. A.,De Winter, A. F.,Veenstra, R.,2005Internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence: general and dimension-specific effects of familial loadings and preadolescent temperament traitsPsychological Medicine351825
Orvaschel, H.,Lewinsohn, P. M.,Seeley, J. R.1995Continuity of psychopathology in a community sample of adolescentsJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry341525
Phillips, B. M.,Lonigan, C. J.,Driscoll, K.,Hooe, E. S.2002Positive and negative affectivity in children: a multitrait--multimethod evaluationJournal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology31465
Posner, M. R.Rothbart, M. K.2000Developing mechanisms of self-regulationDevelopment and Psychopathology12427
Putnam, S. P.,Rothbart, M. K.,Gartstein, M. A.2008Homotypic and heterotypic continuity of fine-grained temperament during infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhoodInfant and Child Development17387
Reynolds, C. R.Richmond, B. O.1978What I think and feel: a revised measure of children's manifest anxietyJournal of Abnormal Child Psychology6271
Reznick, J.,Hegeman, I.,Kaufman, E.,Woods, S.,Jacobs, M.1992Retrospective and concurrent self-report of behavioral inhibition and their relation to adult mental healthDevelopmental Psychopathology4301
Rothbart, M. K.,Ahadi, S. A.,Hershey, K. L.,Fisher, P.2001Investigation of temperament at three to seven years: the Children's Behavior QuestionnaireChild Development721394
Rothbart, M. K.,Ahadi, S. A.,Hershey, K. L.1994Temperament and social behavior in childhoodMerrill-Palmer Quarterly4021
Rothbart, M. K.,Posner, M. I., &Hershey, K. L.1995Temperament, attention, and developmental psychologyD. CicchettiD. J. CohenDevelopmental Psychopathology315New YorkWiley & Sons
Rothbart, M. K.,Sheese, B. E.,Posner, M. I.2007Executive attention and effortful control: linking temperament, brain networks, and genesChild Development Perspectives12
Rothbart, M. K.1989Temperament and developmentG. A. Kohnstamm,J. E. Bates,M. K. RothbartTemperament in Childhood187New YorkWiley & Sons
Rothbart, M. K.Bates, J. E.1998TemperamentW. DamonN. EisenbergHandbook of Child Psychology105New YorkWiley & Sons
Rothbart, M. K.Bates, J. E.2006Temperament in children's developmentW. DamonR. LernerHandbook of Child Psychology99New YorkWiley & Sons
Rubin, K. H.,Burgess, K. B.,Hastings, P. D.2002Stability and social–behavioral consequences of toddlers’ inhibited temperament and parenting behaviorsChild Development73483
Rubin, K. H.,Coplan, R. J.,Bowker, J. C.2009Social withdrawal in childhoodAnnual Review of Psychology60141
Rubin, K. H.Burgess, K. B.2001Social withdrawal and anxietyM. W. VaseyM. R. DaddsThe Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety407New YorkOxford University Press
Sanson, A.,Pedlow, R.,Cann, W.,Prior, M.,Oberklaid, F.1996Shyness ratings: stability and correlates in early childhoodInternational Journal of Behavioral Development19705
Scarpa, A.,Raine, A.,Venables, P. H.,Mednick, S. A.1995The stability of inhibited/uninhibited temperament from ages 3 to 11 years in Mauritian childrenJournal of Abnormal Child Psychology23607
Schwartz, C. E.,Snidman, N.,Kagan, J.1999Adolescent social anxiety as an outcome of inhibited temperament in childhoodJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry381008
Selbom, M.,Ben-Porath, Y.,Bagby, R. M.2008On the hierarchical structure of mood and anxiety disorders: confirmatory evidence and elaboration of a model of temperament markersJournal of Abnormal Psychology117576
Shamir-Essakow, G.,Ungerer, J. A.,Rapee, R. M.2005Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in preschool childrenJournal of Abnormal Child Psychology33131
Shiner, R.Caspi, A.2003Personality differences in childhood and adolescents: measurement, development, and consequencesJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry442
Silverman, W. K.,Kurtines, W. M.,Jaccard, J.,Pina, A. A.2009Directionality of change in youth anxiety treatment involving parents: an initial examinationJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology77474
Silverman, W. K.Albano, A. M.1996Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children--IV: Child and Parent VersionsSan Antonio, TXThe Psychological Corporation
Tellegen, A.,Watson, D.,Clark, L. A.1999On the dimensional and hierarchical structure of affectPsychological Science10297
Tellegen, A.Waller, N. G.2008Exploring personality through test construction: development of the Multidimensional Personality QuestionnaireG. J. Boyle,G. Matthews,D. H. SaklofskeThe SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment261Thousand Oaks, CASage Publications
Thomas, A.,Chess, S.,Birch, S. D.1996Temperament and Behavior Disorders in ChildrenNew YorkNew York University Press
Trull, T. J.Sher, K. J.1994Relationship between the five-factor model of personality and axis I disorders in a nonclinical sampleJournal of Abnormal Psychology103350
van Brakel, A. M. L.,Muris, P.,Bögels, S. M.,Thomassen, C.2006A multifactorial model for the etiology of anxiety in non-clinical adolescents: main and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition, attachment and parental rearingJournal of Child and Family Studies15569
Vasey, M. W.,Daleiden, E. L.,Williams, L. L.,Brown, L. M.1995Biased attention in childhood anxiety disorders: a preliminary studyJournal of Abnormal Child Psychology23267
Vasey, M. W.,Lonigan, C. J.,Hazen, R.,Ho, A.,Hirai, K.,Anderson, M.2002
Vasey, M. W.Dadds, M. R.2001An introduction to the developmental psychopathology of anxietyM. W. VaseyM. R. DaddsThe Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety3New YorkOxford University Press
Verduin, T. L.Kendall, P. C.2003Differential occurrence of comorbidity within childhood anxiety disordersJournal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology32290
Watson, D.,Clark, L. A.,Carey, G.1988Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disordersJournal of Abnormal Psychology97346
Watson, D.,Clark, L. A.,Harkness, A. R.1994Structures of personality and their relevance to psychopathologyJournal of Abnormal Psychology10318
Watson, D.,Clark, L. A.,Tellegen, A.1988Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scalesJournal of Personality and Social Psychology541063
Watson, D.2005Rethinking mood and anxiety disorders: a quantitative hierarchical model for DSM-VJournal of Abnormal Psychology114522
Whittle, S.,Allen, N. B.,Lubman, D. I.,Yücel, M.2006The neurobiologiocal basis of temperament: towards a better understanding of psychopathologyNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews30511
Wood, J. J.,McLeod, B. D.,Sigman, M.,Hwang, W. C.,Chu, B. C.2003Parenting and childhood anxiety: theory, empirical findings, and future directionsJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry44134
Woodward, L. J.Fergusson, D. M.2001Life course outcome of young people with anxiety disorders in adolescenceJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry401086