Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Buchman, R. G. , Pederson, S. P. , and Walters, N. R. 1983. A tree survival model with application to species of the Great Lakes region. Canadian Journal Forest Research 13: 601–608.
Castello, J. D. , Leopold, D. J. , and Smallidge, P. J. 1995. Pathogens, patterns, and processes in forest ecosystems. BioScience 45: 16–24.
Caswell, H. 1989. Matrix Population Models: Construction, Analysis and Interpretation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Dayton, P. K. 1972. Toward an understanding of community resilience and the potential effects of enrichments to the benthos at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. In: Proceedings of the Colloquium on Conservation Problems in Antarctica. Parker B. C. (ed.). Allen Press, Lawrence, KS.
De Liocourt, F. 1898. De l'amenagement des sapinieres. Bull. Triemestriel Societe Forestiere de Franche-Comte et Belfort, Besancon: 396–409.
Edmonds, R. L. , Agee, J. K. , and Gara, R. I. 2000. The concept of forest health. In: Forest Health and Protection. McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA.
Ehrenfeld, D. 1992. Ecosystem health and ecological theories. In: Ecosystem Health. Costanza, R. , Norton, B. G. , and Haskell, B. D. (eds.). Island Press, Washington, DC.
Ellison, A. M. , Bank, M. S. , Clinton, B. D. et al. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3: 479–486.
Harcombe, P. A. 1987. Tree life tables: Simple birth, growth and death data encapsulate life histories and ecological roles. BioScience 37: 557–568.
Helms, J. A. (ed.). 1998. The Dictionary of Forestry. The Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, MD.
Hughes, T. P. 1984. Population dynamics based on individual size rather than age: a general mode with a coral reef example. American Naturalist 123: 778–795.
Kolb, T. E. , Wagner, M. R. , and Covington, W. W. 1994. Concepts of forest health. Journal Forestry 92: 10–15.
Kraus, N. E , 2003. Relationships between forest health and plant diversity in western New York State forest lands. MS Thesis SUNY-ESF.
Malthus, T. R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. J. Johnson. London.
Manion, P. D. and Griffin, D. H. 2001. Large landscape scale analysis of tree death in the Adirondack Park, New York. Forest Science 47: 542–549.
Monnig, E. and Byler, J. 1992. Forest health and ecological integrity in the northern Rockies. USDA Forest Service FPM Rep. 92–7.
More, T. A. 1996. Forestry's fuzzy concepts: An examination of ecosystem management. Journal Forestry 94: 19–23.
Raffa, K. , Aukema, B. , Bentz, B. J. et al. 2009. A literal use of “forest health” safeguards against misuse and misapplication. Journal Forestry 107: 276–277.
Rubin, B. D. , Manion, P. D. , and Faber-Langendoen, D. 2006. Diameter distributions and structural sustainability in forests. Forest Ecology & Management 222: 427–438.
USDA Forest Service , 1993a. Healthy forests for America's future: A strategic plan. USDA Forest Service MP-1513.
USDA Forest Service , 1993b. National Center of Forest Health Management strategic plan. USDA Forest Service. Morgantown, WV.
USDA Forest Service , 2003. Strategic Plan for Forest Health Protection: 2003–2007. USDA Forest Service MP-1590.
Vanbergen, A. J. , Watt, A. D. , Mitchell, R. et al. 2007. Scale-specific correlations between habitat heterogeneity and soil fauna diversity along a landscape structure gradient. Oecologia 153: 713–725.
Werner, P. A. 1975. Predictions of fate from rosette size in teasel (Dipsacus fullonum). Oecologia 20: 197–201.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Abrams, M.D. 1992. Fire and development of oak forests. BioScience 42: 346–353.
Abrams, M.D. 1998. The red maple paradox. BioScience 48: 355–364.
Alerich, C.L. , Klevgard, L. , Liff, C. , and Miles, P.D. 2004. The Forest Inventory and Analysis Database: Database Description and User's Guide Version 1.7. 193.US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, Arlington, VA.
Avery, T. E. and Burkhart, H. E. 2002. Forest Measurements. 5th edition. McGraw-Hill, NY.
Bailey, R. L. and Dell, T. R. 1973. Quantifying diameter distributions with the Weibull function. Forest Science 19: 97–104.
Boscoe, F. P. , McLaughlin, C. , Schymura, M. J. , and Kielb, C. L. 2003. Visualization of the spatial scan statistic using nested circles. Health & Place 9: 273–277.
Castello, J. D. , Leopold, D. J. , and Smallidge, P. J. 1995. Pathogens, patterns and processes in forest ecosystems. BioScience 45: 16–24.
Clutter, J. L. , Fortson, J. C. , Pienaar, L. V. , et al. 1992. Timber Management: a Quantitative Approach. Krieger Publishing Company. Malabar, FL.
Condit, R. , Sukumar, R. , Hubbell, S. P. , and Foster, R. B. 1998. Predicting population trends from size distributions: a direct test in a tropical tree community. American Naturalist 152: 495–509.
Coomes, D. A. , Duncan, R. P. , Allen, R. B. , and Truscott, J. 2003. Disturbances prevent stem size-density distributions in natural forests from following scaling relationships. Ecology Letters 6: 980–989.
Coulston, J. W. and Riitters, K. H. 2003. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics. Environmental Management 31: 764–773.
De Liocourt, F. 1898. De l'amenagement des sapinieres. Bulletin Triemestriel Societe Forestriere de Franche Comte et Belfort, Besancon: 396–409.
Dobbertin, M. 2005. Tree growth as an indicator of tree vitality and of tree reaction to environmental stress: a review. European Journal of Forest Research 124: 319–333.
Duchesne, L. , Ouimet, R. , Moore, J. -D. , and Paquin, R. 2005. Changes in structure and composition of maple-beech stands following sugar maple decline in Québec, Canada. Forest Ecology & Management 208: 223–236.
Enquist, B. J. and Niklas, K. J. 2001. Invariant scaling relationships across tree-dominated communities. Nature 410: 655–660.
Franklin, J. F. , Shugart, H. H. , and Harmon, M. E. 1987. Tree death as an ecological process: The causes, consequences, and variability of tree mortality. BioScience 37: 550–556.
Gillis, M. D. , Omule, A. Y. , and Brierley, T. 2005. Monitoring Canada's forests: the National Forest Inventory. Forestry Chronicle 81: 214–221.
Goff, F. G. and West, D. 1975. Canopy-understory interaction effects on forest -population structure. Forest Science 21: 98–108.
Goodburn, J. M. and Lorimer, C. G. 1999. Population structure in old-growth and managed northern hardwoods: an examination of the balanced diameter distribution concept. Forest Ecology & Management 118: 11–29.
Grenier, Y. , Blais, L. , and Lavoie, É. 1991. Aire minimum d'échantillonnage ou nombre se points de prisme nécessaires pour établir la structure d'un peuplement inéquienne. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21: 1632–1638.
Hafley, W. L. and Schreuder, H. T. 1977. Statistical distributions for fitting diameter and height data in even-aged stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 7: 481–487.
Hansen, E. M. and Goheen, E. M. 2000. Phellinus weirii and other native root pathogens as determinants of forest structure and process in western North America. Annual Review Phytopathology 38: 315–339.
Hartmann, H. , Beaudet, M. , and Messier, C. 2008. Using longitudinal survival probabilities to test field vigor estimates in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). Forest Ecology & Management 256: 1771–1779.
Hawksworth, F. G. 1977. The 6-class dwarf mistletoe rating system. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-48. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station., Ft. Collins, CO.
Hyink, D. M. and Moser, J r., J. W. 1983. A generalized framework for projecting forest yield and stand structure using diameter distributions. Forest Science 29: 85–95.
Hett, J. M. 1971. A dynamic analysis of age in sugar maple seedlings. Ecology 52: 1071–1074.
Hett, J. M. and Loucks, O. L. 1968. Application of life-table analyses to tree seedlings in Quetico Park, Ontario. Forestry Chronicle 44: 29–32.
Hett, J. M. and Loucks, O. L. 1971. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedling mortality. Journal Ecology 59: 507–520.
Hett, J.M. and Loucks, O. L. 1976. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. Journal Ecology 64: 1029–1044.
Holdenrieder, O. , Pautasso, M. , Weisberg, P. J. , and Lonsdale, D. 2004. Tree diseases and landscape processes: the challenge of landscape pathology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19: 446–452.
Huang, L. , Tiwari, R. , Zuo, J. , Kulldorff, M. , and Feuer, E. J. 2009. Weighted normal spatial scan statistic for heterogeneous population data. Journal American Statistical Association 104: 886–898.
Kamei, M. and Nakagoshi, N. 2006. Geographic assessment of present protected areas in Japan for representativeness of forest communities. Biodiversity Conservation 15: 4583–4600.
Kohira, M. and Ninomiya, I. 2003. Detecting tree populations at risk for forest conservation management: using single-year vs. long-term inventory data. Forest Ecology & Management 174: 423–435.
Kulldorff, M. 1997. A spatial scan statistic. Communication in Statistics – Theory & Methods 26: 1481–1496.
Kulldorff, M. 2009. SaTScan User's Guide. Version 8.0. 65.Online at: www.satscan.org [Accessed November 2010].
Kulldorff, M. , Heffernan, R. , Hartman, J. , et al. 2005. A space-time permutation scan statistic for disease outbreak detection. PLoS Medicine 2: e59.
Kulldorff, M. , Huang, L. , Pickle, L. , and Duczmal, L. 2006. An elliptical spatial scan statistic. Statistics in Medicine 25: 3929–3943.
Kulldorff, M. , Tango, T. , and Park, P. J. 2003. Power comparisons for disease clustering tests. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 42: 665–684.
Kulldorff, M. , Zhang, Z. , Hartman, J. , et al. 2004. Benchmark data and power calculations for evaluating disease outbreak detection systems. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 53: 144–151.
Leak, W. B. 1964. An expression of diameter distribution for unbalanced, uneven-aged stands and forests. Forest Science 10: 39–50.
Leak, W. B. 1965. The J-shaped probability distribution. Forest Science 11: 405–409.
Leak, W. B. 1996. Long-term structural change in uneven-aged northern hardwoods. Forest Science 42: 160–165.
Liu, C. , Zhang, L. , Davis, C. J. , et al. 2002. A finite mixture model for characterizing the diameter distribution of mixed-species forest stands. Forest Science 48: 653–661.
Lorimer, C. G. and Frelich, L. E. 1984. A simulation of equilibrium diameter distribution of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club 111: 193–199.
Lorimer, C. G. and Frelich, L. E. 1998. A structural alternative to chronosequence analysis for uneven-aged northern hardwood stands. Journal Sustainable Forestry 6: 347–366.
Lundquist, J. E. and Beatty, J. S. 1999. A conceptual model for defining and assessing condition of forest stands. Environmental Management 23: 519–525.
Lundquist, J. E. , Goheen, E. M. , and Goheen, D. J. 2002. Measuring positive, negative, and null impacts of forest disturbances: a case study using dwarf mistletoe on douglas fir. Environmental Management 30: 793–800.
Manion, P. D. 2003. Evolution of concepts in forest pathology. Phytopathology 93: 1052–1055.
Manion, P. D. and Griffin, D. H. 2001. Large landscape scale analysis of tree death in the Adirondack Park, New York. Forest Science 47: 542–549.
Manion, P. D. , Griffin, D. H. , and Rubin, B. D. 2001. Ice damage impacts on the health of the northern New York State forest. Forestry Chronicle 77: 619–625.
Manion, P. D. and Lachance, D. 1992. Forest Decline Concepts. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
Marquis, D. A. , Eckert, P. L. , and Roach, B. A. 1976. Acorn weevils, rodents, and deer all contribute to oak-regeneration difficulties in Pennsylvania. Res. Pap. NE-356, 5.USDA Forest Service, Upper Derby, PA.
Mathiasen, R. L. , Nickrent, D. L. , Shaw, D. C. , and Watson, D. M. 2008. Mistletoes: pathology, systematics, ecology and management. Plant Disease 92: 998–1006.
Meyer, H. A. 1952. Structure, growth, and drain in balanced uneven-aged forests. Journal Forestry 50: 85–92.
Meyer, H. A. and Stevenson, D. D. 1943. The structure and growth of virgin beech-birch-maple-hemlock forests in northern Pennsylvania. Journal Agricultural Research 67: 465–484.
Midgley, J. J. 2001. Do mixed-species mixed-size indigenous forests also follow the self thinning line? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16: 661–662.
Morin, R. S. , Liebhold, A. M. , and Gottschalk, K. W. 2004. Area-wide analysis of hardwood defoliator effects on tree conditions in the Allegheny Plateau. Northern Journal Applied Forestry 21: 31–39.
Muller-Landau, H. C. , Condit, R. S. , et al. 2006. Comparing tropical forest tree size distributions with the predictions of metabolic ecology and equilibrium models. Ecology Letters 9: 589–602.
Munck, I. A. and Manion, P. D. 2006. Landscape-scale impact of beech bark disease in response to slope and aspect in New York State. Forest Science 52: 503–510.
OMNR . 2004. Ontario Tree Marking Guide. version 1.1. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON.
Pulido, F. J. , Díaz, M. , and Hidalgo de Trucios, S. J. 2001. Size structure and regeneration of Spanish holm oak Quercus ilex forests and dehesas: effects of agroforestry use on their long-term sustainability. Forest Ecology & Management 146: 1–13.
Rawlings, J. O. , Pantula, S. G. , and Dickey, D. A. 1998. Applied Regression Analysis. A Research Tool. 2nd edition. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Riitters, K. H. and Coulston, J. W. 2005. Hot spots of perforated forest in the eastern United States. Environmental Management 35: 483–492.
Rouvinen, S. and Kuuluvainen, T. 2005. Tree diameter distributions in natural and managed old Pinus sylvestris-dominated forests. Forest Ecology & Management 208: 45–61.
Rubin, B. D. and MacFarlane, D. W. 2008. Using the space-time permutation scan statistic to map anomalous diameter distributions drawn from landscape-scale forest inventories. Forest Science 54: 523–533.
Rubin, B. D. and Manion, P. D. 2001. Landscape-scale forest structure in northern New York and potential successional impacts of the 1998 ice storm. Forestry Chronicle 77: 613–618.
Rubin, B. D. and Manion, P. D. 2005. Characterizing regional forest health and sustainability from diameter distributions, baseline mortality, and cumulative liabilities. In: Lundquist, J. E. and Hamlin, R. C. (eds). Forest Pathology: from Genes to Landscapes. American Phyopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN.
Rubin, B. D. , Manion, P. D. , and Faber-Langendoen, D. 2006. Diameter distributions and structural sustainability in forests. Forest Ecology & Management 222: 427–438.
Schwartz, J. W. , Nagel, L. M. , and Webster, C. R. 2005. Effects of uneven-aged management on diameter distribution and species composition of northern hardwoods in Upper Michigan. Forest Ecology & Management 211: 356–370.
Solberg, S. and Strand, L. 1999. Crown density assessments, control surveys and reproducibility. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 56: 75–86.
Song, C. and Kulldorff, M. 2003. Power evaluation of disease clustering tests. Journal of Health Geographics 2: 1–8.
Steinman, J. 2000. Tracking the health of trees over time on forest health monitoring plots. In: Proceedings of the IUFRO Conference Integrated Tools for Natural Resources: Inventories for the 21st Century, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-212. Hansen, M. and Burk, T. (eds).
Tuia, D. , Ratle, F. , Lasaponara, R. , et al. 2008. Scan statistics analysis of forest fire clusters. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 13: 1689–1694.
Vadrevu, K. P. 2008. Analysis of fire events and controlling factors in Eastern India using spatial scan and multivariate statistics. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 90: 315–328.
Vanclay, J. K. 1994. Modeling Forest Growth and Yield: Application to Mixed Tropical Forests. CAB International, Oxford, UK.
Weiss, N. A. 2008. Introductory Statistics. 8th edition. Pearson, San Fransisco.
West, D. C. , Shugart, H. H. , and Ranney, R. W. 1981. Population structure of forests over a large area. Forest Science 27: 701–710.
Westphal, C. , Tremer, N. , von Oheimb, G. , et al. 2006. Is the reverse J-shaped diameter distribution universally applicable in European virgin beech forests? Forest Ecology & Management 223: 75–83.
Zhang, L. , Packard, K. C. , and Liu, C. 2003. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull and Johnson's SB distributions to mixed spruce-fir stands in northeastern North America. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 1340–1347.
Zhang, L. , Gove, J. H. , Liu, C. , and Leak, W. B. 2001. A finite mixture of two Weibull distributions for modeling the diameter distributions of rotated-sigmoid, uneven-aged stands. Canadian Journal Forest Research 31: 1654–1659.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Brokaw, N. V. L. 1998. Cecropia schreberiana in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Botanical Reviews 64: 91–120.
Cale, J. A. , McNulty, S. A. , Teale, S. A. , and Castello, J. D. 2010. Beech thickets impact northern hardwood forest biodiversity. Journal of Forestry 108: 423.
Hane, E. N. 2003. Indirect effects of beech bark disease on sugar maple seedling survival. Canadian Journal Forest Research 33: 807–813.
Houston, D. R. 1975. Beech bark disease: the aftermath forests are structured for a new outbreak. Journal of Forestry 73: 660–663.
Hurst, J. M. , Allen, R. B. , Coomes, D. A. , and Duncan, R. P. 2011 Size-specific tree mortality and neighbourhood interactions in montane Nothofagus forest. Journal of Ecology (in review).
Jones, R. H. and Raynal, D. J. 1987. Root sprouting in American beech: production, survival, and the effect of parent tree vigor. Canadian Journal Forest Research 17: 539–544.
MacKenzie, M. 2005. Survival of the fittest – Beech bark disease-resistant beech will leave more offspring. In: Beech Bark Disease: Proceedings of the Beech Bark Disease Symposium; 2004 June 16–18; Saranac Lake, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-331. Evans, C. A. , Lucas, J. A. and Twery, M. J. , (eds). Newtown Square, PA: USA. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.
Rubin, B. D. and Manion, P. D. 2005. Characterizing regional forest health and sustainability – A case study using diameter distributions, baseline mortality, and cumulative liabilities. In: Forest Pathology: From Genes to Landscapes. Lundquist, J. E. and Hamelin, R. C. (eds.). APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
Swaine, M. D. and Whitmore, T. C. 1988. On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical rain forests. Vegetatio 75: 81–86.
USDA Forest Service . Yagrumo Macho. Didymopanax morototoni. Silvics Manual, Volume 2. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_2/didymopanax/morototoni.htm [Accessed November 2010].
Wardle, J. A. and Allen, R. B. 1983. Dieback in New Zealand Nothofagus forests. Pacific Science 37: 397–404.
Wardle, J. A. 1984. The New Zealand Beeches: Ecology, Utilization, and Management. New Zealand Forest Service, Christchurch.
Werner, R. A. , Holsten, E. H. , Matsuoka, S. M. , and Burnside, R. E. 2006. Spruce beetles and forest ecosystems in south-central Alaska: A review of 30 years of research. Forest Ecology & Management 227: 195–206.
Zimmerman, J. K. , Everham III, E. M. , Waide, R. B. et al. 1994. Responses of tree species to hurricane winds in subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico: Implications for tropical tree life histories. Journal of Ecology 82: 911–922.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Altenkirch, W. 1991. Zyklische Fluktuationen beim Kleinen Frostspanner (Operophthera brumata L.). Allg. Forst-u. Jagdz. 162: 2–7.
Asaro, C. and Allen, D. C. 2001. History of a pine false webworm (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) outbreak in northern New York. Canadian Journal Forest Research 31: 181–185.
Augspurger, C. K. 1984. Seedling survival of tropical tree species: Interactions of dispersal distance, light-gaps, and pathogens. Ecology 65: 1705–1712.
Baltensweiler, W. and Fischlin, A. 1988. The larch budmoth in the Alps In: Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations: Patterns, Causes, Implications. Berryman, A. A. (ed.). Plenum Press, New York.
Berryman, A. A. 1981. Population Systems: A General Introduction. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Berryman, A. A. 1986. Forest Insects: Principles and Practice of Population Management. Plenum Press, New York.
Berryman, A. A. 1987. The theory and classification of outbreaks, In: Insect Outbreaks. Barbosa, P. and Schultz, J. C. (eds). Academic Press, New York.
Berryman, A. A. 1999. Principles of Population Dynamics and their Application. Stanley Thornes, Cheltenham.
Berryman, A. A. and Kindlmann, P. 2008. Population Systems: A General Introduction. Springer, Dordrecht.
Boone, R. D. , Sollins, P. , and Cromack, Jr., K. 1988. Stand and soil changes along a mountain hemlock death and regrowth sequence. Ecology 69: 714–722.
Boyce J. S. 1961. Forest Pathology. 3rd edition. Mc-Graw-Hill Book Co., Inc. New York, USA.
Burdon, J. J. and Shattock, R. C. 1980. Disease in plant communities. Applied Biology 5: 145–219.
Byler, J. W. , Marsden, M. A. , and Hagle, S. K. 1990. The probability of root disease on the Lolo National Forest, Montana. Canadian Journal Forest Research 20: 987–994.
Cao, S. 2008. Why large-scale afforestation efforts in China have failed to solve the desertification problem. Environmental Science & Technology 42: 1826–1831.
Castello, J. D. , Leopold, D. J. , and Smallidge, P. J. 1995. Pathogens, patterns, and processes in forest ecosystems. BioScience 45: 16–24.
Coulson, R. N. , Hennier, P. B. , Flamm, R. O. , et al. 1983. The role of lightning in the epidemiology of the southern pine beetle. Z. Ang. Entomol. 96: 182–193.
Delb, H. 1999. Folgewirkungen der Schwammspinner-Kalamitaet 1992 bis 1995 (Lymantria dispar L.) in einem mitteleuropaeischen Eichenwaldgebiet am Beispiel des Bienwaldes in Rheinland-Pfalz. Thesis, Goettingen, Germany: University Goettingen, Faculty of Forest Sciences.
Dinoor, A. and Eshed, N. 1984. The role and importance of pathogens in natural plant communities. Annual Review Phytopathology 22: 443–466.
Dobson, A. and Crawley, M. 1994. Pathogens and the structure of plant communities. Trends Ecology & Evolution 9: 393–398.
Dwyer, G. , Dushoff, J. , and Harrell Yee, S. 2004. The combined effects of pathogens and predators on insect outbreaks. Nature 430: 341–345.
Eichhorn, J. and Paar, U. 2000. Oak decline in Europe. Methods and results of assessments in the ICP forests. In: Recent Advances on Oak Health in Europe. Oszako, T. and Delatour, C. (eds). Forest Research Institute, Warsaw.
Esper, J. U. Buntgen, D. C. Frank, D. et al. 2007. 1200 years of regular outbreaks in alpine insects. Proceedings Royal Society 274: 671–679.
Foahom, B. 2003. Preliminary investigations on insect pest attacks in a disturbed evergreen forest of south Cameroon. International Forestry Review 6: 195–200.
Grubb, P. J. 1977. The maintenance of species richness in plant communities: The importance of the regeneration niche. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc 52: 107–145.
Haack, R. A. and Byler, J. W. 1993. Insects and pathogens: regulators of forest ecosystems. Journal Forestry 91: 32–37.
Hartmann, G. and Blank, R. 1998. Aktuelles Eichensterben in Niedersachsen-Ursachen und Gegenmaβbnahmen. Forst Holz. 53: 733–735.
Isaev, A. S. , Khlebopros, R. G. , Nedorezov, L. V. , et al. 1984. The Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations. Nauka, Novosibirsk.
Keever, C. 1953. Present composition of some stands of the former oak-chestnut forest in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains. Ecology 34: 44–54.
Kile, G. A. , McDonald, G. I. , and Byler, J. W. 1991. Ecology and disease in natural forests. In: Armillaria Root Disease. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook No. 691. Shaw III, C. G. , and Kile, G. A. (eds). USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO.
Krause, C. 1997. The use of dendrochronological material from buildings to get information about past spruce budworm outbreaks. Canadian Journal Forest Research 27: 69–75.
Li, H. 2008. J. Heilongjiang Vocational Inst. Ecol. Eng 21: 23–24.
Long, G. E. 1988. The larch casebearer in the intermountain northwest, In: Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations, Patterns, Causes, Implications. Berryman, A. A. (ed.). Plenum Press, New York.
Lundquist, J. E. and Hamelin, R. C. (eds.) 2005. Forest Pathology – From Genes to Landscapes. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
Lundquist, J. E. 2005. Landscape pathology: Forest pathology in the era of landscape ecology. In: Forest Pathology – From Genes to Landscapes. Lundquist, J. E. and Hamelin, R. C. (eds). APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
Lundquist, J. E. and Beatty, J. S. 2002. A method for characterizing and mimicking forest canopy gaps caused by different disturbances. Forest Science 48: 582–594.
Lundquist, J. E. , Goheen, E. M. , and Goheen, D. J. 2002. Measuring positive, negative, and null impacts of forest disturbances: A case study using dwarf mistletoe on Douglas-fir. Environmental Management 30: 793–800.
Mackey, H. E., Jr. and Sivec, N. 1973. The present composition of a former oak-chestnut forest in the Allegheny Mountains of western Pennsylvania. Ecology 54: 915–919.
Maloney, P. E. and Rizzo, D. M. (2002). Pathogens and insects in a pristine forest ecosystem: The Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja, Mexico. Canadian Journal Forest Research 32: 488–457.
Manion, P. D. 1991. Tree Disease Concepts. Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Manion, P. D. and Griffin, D. H . 2001. Large landscape scale analysis of tree death in the Adirondack Park, New York. Forest Science 47: 542–549.
Manion, P. D. and D. Lachance (eds). 1992. Forest Decline Concepts. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
McCauley, K. J. and Cook, S. A. 1980. Phellinus weirii infestation of two mountain hemlock forests in the Oregon Cascades. Forest Science 26: 23–29.
McCormick, J. F. and Platt, R. B. 1980. Recovery of an Appalachian forest following the chestnut blight or Catherine Keever – you were right! American Midland Naturalist 104: 264–273.
Muesel, H. , Jaeger, E. , and Weinert, E. 1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropaeischen Flora. Jena, Germany: VEB G. Fischer.
Otvos, I. S. , Cunningham, J. C. , MacLaughlan, L. , et al. 1999. The development and operational use of a management system for control of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae), populations at pre-outbreak levels. In: Proceedings: Population Dynamics, Impacts, and Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insects. General Technical Report NE-27. McManus, M. L. and Liebhold, A. M. (eds). USDA Forest Service. Radnor, Pennsylvania.
Read, D. J. 1968. Some aspects of the relationship between shade and fungal pathogenicity in an epidemic disease in pines. New Phytologist 67: 39–48.
Root, R. B. 1973. Organization of a plant-arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: the fauna of collards (Brassica oleracea). Ecological Monographs 43: 94–125.
Shaw, C. G. III and Kile, G. A. 1991. Armillaria Root Disease. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook No. 691. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO.
Shea, K. 1998. Management of populations in conservation, harvesting, and control. Trends Ecology & Evolution 13: 371–375.
Stephenson, S. L. 1986. Changes in a former chestnut-dominated forest after a half century of succession. American Midland Naturalist 116: 173–179.
Swetnam, T. W. and Lynch, A. M. 1993. Multicentury, regional-scale patterns of western spruce budworm outbreaks. Ecological Monographs 63: 399–424.
Thomas, F. M. , Blank, R. , and Hartmann, G. 2002. Abiotic and biotic factors and their interactions as causes of oak decline in Central Europe. Forest Pathology 32: 277–307.
Thomas, F. M. 2008. Recent advances in cause-effect research on oak decline in Europe. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 2008 3, No 037.
Turchin, P. , Wood, S. N. , Ellner, S. P. , et al. 2003. Dynamical effects of plant quality and parasitism on population cycles of larch budmoth. Ecology 84: 1207–1214.
Van der Kamp, B. J. 1991. Pathogens as agents of diversity in forested landscapes. Forestry Chronicle 67: 353–354.
Vehviläinena, H. , Koricheva, J. , Ruohomäki, K. et al. 2006. Effects of tree stand species composition on insect herbivory of silver birch in boreal forests. Basic and Applied Ecology 7: 1–11
Veteli, T. O. , Koricheva, J. , Niemelä, P. , and Kellomäki, S. 2006. Effects of forest management on the abundance of insect pests on Scots pine. Forest Ecology & Management 231: 214–221.
Wachter, H. 2001. Untersuchungen zum Eichensterben in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Teil 2 (1951–2000). Schriftenr. Landesforstvwerw. Nordrhein-Westfalen 13. Arnsberg/Germany: Forstl. Dokumentationsstelle.
Weste, G. 1986. Vegetation changes associated with invasion by Phytophthora cinnamomi of defined plots in the Brisbane Ranges, Victoria, 1975–1985. Australian Journal Botany 34: 633–648.
Whitmore, T. 1998. An Introduction to Tropical Rain Forests. Oxford University Press, New York.
Williams, D. W. , Lee, H. P. , and Kim, I. K. 2004. Distribution and abundance of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in natural Acer stands in South Korea. Environmental Entomologist 33: 540–545.
Worrall, J. J. and Harrington, T. C. 1988. Etiology of canopy gaps in spruce-fir forests at Crawford Notch, New Hampshire. Canadian Journal Forest Research 18: 1463–1469.
Yamanaka, T. and Liebhold, A. M. 2009. Mate-location failure, the Allee effect, and the establishment of invading populations. Population Ecology 51: 37–340.
Yang, H. K. 2005. Review of the Asian longhorned beetle: research, biology, distribution and management in China. For. Dep. Work. Pap., FBS/6E, Food Agriculture Organization, Rome.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Allen, D. and Bowersox, T. W. 1989. Regeneration in oak stands following gypsy moth defoliation. In: Proceedings of the 7th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-132, Rink, G. and Budelsky, C. A. (eds).
Anulewicz A. C. , McCullough, D. G. , Cappaert, D. L. , and Poland, T. M. 2008. Host range of the Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: Results of multiple-choice field experiments. Environmental Entomology 37: 230–241.
Asner, G. P. , Hughes, R. F. , Vitousek, P. M. , et al. 2008. Invasive plants transform 3-D structure of rainforests. Proceedings National Academy Sciences 105: 4519–4523.
Aukema, J. E. , McCullough, D. G. , Von Holle, B. , et al. 2010. Historical accumulation of non-indigenous forest pests in the continental US. BioScience 60: 886–897.
Bain, J. 1977. Overseas wood- and bark-boring insects intercepted at New Zealand ports. New Zealand Forest Service Technical Paper No. 63.
Baranchikov, Y. , Mozolevskaya, E. , Yurchenko, G. , and Kenis, M. 2008. Occurrence of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis in Russia and its potential impact on European forestry. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 38: 233–238.
Beeche-Cisternas, M. A. 2000. Riesgos cuarentenarios de insectos asociados a embalajes de madera y maderas de estiba de cargas de internacion en Chile. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Quarantine Pests for the Forestry Sector and their Effects on Foreign Trade, 27–28 June 2000, Concepcion, Chile. Concepcion, Chile, CORMA.
Blossey, B. , Nuzzo, V. , Hinz, H. , and Gerber, E. 2001. Developing biological control of Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara and Grande (garlic mustard). Natural Areas Journal 21: 357–367.
Bohlen. P. J. , Groffman, P. M. , Fahey, T. J. , et al. 2004. Ecosystem consequences of exotic earthworm invasion of north temperate forests. Ecosystems 7: 1–12.
Brockerhoff, E. G. , Liebhold, A. M. , Richardson, B. , and Suckling, D. M. 2010. Eradication of invasive forest insects: concepts, methods, costs and benefits. New Zealand Journal Forest Science 40 suppl.: S117–S135.
Brockerhoff, E. L. , Knízek, M. , and Bain, J. 2003. Checklist of indigenous and adventive bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) of New Zealand and interceptions of exotic species (1952–2000). New Zealand Entomologist 26: 29–44.
Brooks, M. L. , D'Antonio, C. M. , Richardson, D. M. , et al. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. BioScience 54: 677–688.
Brothers, T. S. and Spingarn, A. 1992. Forest fragmentation and alien plant invasion of central Indiana old-growth forests. Conservation Biology 6: 91–100.
Campbell, R. W. and Sloan, R. J. 1977. Forest stand responses to defoliation by the gypsy moth. Forest Science Monographs 19: 1–34.
Carnegie, A. J. , Matsuki, M. , and Haugen, D. A. 2006. Predicting the potential distribution of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), a significant exotic pest of Pinus plantations. Annals Forest Science 63: 119–128.
Carter, M. , Smith, M. , and Harrison, R. 2010. Genetic analyses of the Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Anoplophora glabripennis), in North America, Europe and Asia. Biological Invasions 12: 1165–1182.
Ciesla, W. M. 1991. Cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi, a new pest of conifers in eastern and southern Africa. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 39: 82–93.
Cock, M. J. W. 2003. Biosecurity and forests: an introduction with particular emphasis on forest pests. Forest Health and Biosecurity Working Paper FBS/2E. Rome, FAO, www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/J1467E/J1467E00.HTM [Accessed November 2010].
Colautti, R. A. , Grigorovich, I. A. , and MacIsaac, H. J. 2006. Propagule pressure: a null model for biological invasions. Biological Invasions 8: 1023–1037.
Colautti, R. I. and MacIssac, H. J. 2004. A neutral terminology to define ‘invasive’ species. Diversity and Distributions 10: 135–141.
Coyle, D. R. , Mattson, W. J. , and Raffa, K. F. 2008. Invasive root feeding insects in natural forest ecosystems of North America. In: Root Feeders: An Ecosystem Perspective. Johnson, S. and Murray, P. (eds). CABI Press, London.
Crooks, J. A. and Soulé, M. E. 2001. Lag times in population explosions of invasive species: Causes and implications. In: Invasive Species and Biodiversity Management. Sandlund, O. T. , Schei, P. J. , and Viken, A. (eds). Kluwer Academic Press. Dordrecht.
Cunard, C. and Lee, T. D. 2009. Is patience a virtue? Succession, light, and the death of invasive glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus). Biological Invasions 11: 577–586.
Cunningham, J. C. and Entwistle, P. F. 1981. Control of sawflies by baculoviruses. In: Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases. Burges, H. D. (ed.). Academic Press. Inc., New York.
Davidson, C. B. , Gottschalk K. W. , and Johnson, J. E. 1999. Tree mortality following -defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in the United States: a review. Forest Science 45: 74–84.
Day, M. D. , Wiley, C. J. , Playford, J. , and Zalucki, M. P. 2003. Lantana: Current Management, Status and Future Prospects. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra.
Day, R. K. , Kairo, M. T. K. , Abraham, Y. J. , et al. 2003. Biological control of homopteran pests of conifers in Africa. In: Biological Control in IPM Systems in Africa. Neuenschwander, P. , Borgemeister, C. , and Langewald, J. (eds). Wallingford, UK, CAB International.
Dodds, K. J. , Cooke, R. R. , and Gilmore, D. W. 2007. Silvicultural options to reduce pine susceptibility to attack by a newly detected invasive species, Sirex noctilio . Northern Journal Applied Forestry 24: 165–167.
Dorning, M. and Cipollini, D. 2006. Leaf and root extracts of the invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii, inhibit seed germination of three herbs with no autotoxic effects. Plant Ecology 184: 287–296.
Duncan, R. S. and Chapman, C. A. 2003. Tree-shrub interactions during early secondary forest succession in Uganda. Restoration Ecology 11: 198–207.
Elkinton, J. S. and Liebhold, A. M. 1990. Population dynamics of gypsy moth in North America. Annual Review Entomology 35: 571–596.
Elkinton, J. S. , Parry, D. , and Boettner, G. H. 2006. Implicating an introduced generalist parasitoid in the enigmatic demise of the invasive browntail moth. Ecology 87: 2664–2672.
Ellison, A. M. , Barker-Plotkin, A. A. , Foster, D. R. , and Orwig, D. A. 2010. Experimentally testing the role of foundation species in forests: the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment. Methods Ecology Evolution 1: 168–179.
Ellison, A. M. , Bank, M. S. , Clinton, B. D. , et al. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 479–486.
Eschtruth A. K. , Cleavitt, N. L. , Battles, J. J. , et al. 2006. Vegetation dynamics in declining eastern hemlock stands: 9 years of forest response to hemlock woolly adelgid infestation. Canadian Journal Forest Research 36: 1435–1450.
Eschtruth, A. K. and Battles, J. J. 2009a. Assessing the relative importance of disturbance, herbivory, diversity, and propagule pressure in exotic plant invasion. Ecological Monographs 79: 265–280.
Eschtruth, A. K. and Battles, J. J. 2009b. Acceleration of exotic plant invasion in a forested ecosystem by a generalist herbivore. Conservation Biology 23: 388–399.
Di Tomaso, J. M. 1998. Impact, biology, and ecology of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the southwestern United States. Weed Technology 12: 326–336.
Fine, P. V. A. 2002. The invasibility of tropical forests by exotic plants. Journal Tropical Ecology 18: 687–705.
Fujihara, M. 1996. Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in Western Japan. Journal Vegetation Science 7: 729–738.
Fujihara, M. , Hada, Y. , and Toyohara, G. 2002. Changes in the stand structure of a pine forest after rapid growth of Quercus serrata Thunb. Forest Ecology & Management 170: 55–65.
Gandhi, K. J. K. and Herms, D. A. 2010. Direct and indirect effects of alien insect herbivores on ecological processes and interactions in forests of eastern North America. Biological Invasions 12: 389–405.
Ganser, D. A. , Arner, S. L. , Widman, R. H. , and Alerich, C. L. 1993. After two decades of gypsy moth is there any oak left? Northern Journal Applied Forestry 10: 184–186.
Gibbs. J. N. 1978. Intercontinental epidemiology of Dutch elm disease. Annual Review Phytopathology 16: 287–307.
Gibson, I. A. S. 1974. Impact and control of Dothistroma blight of pines. European Journal Forest Pathology 4: 89–100.
Gomi, T. 2007. Seasonal adaptations of the fall webworm Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) following its invasion of Japan. Ecological Research 22: 855–861.
Gooden, B. , French, K. , Turner, P. J. , and Downey, P. O. 2009. Impact threshold for an alien plant invader, Lantana camara L., on native plant communities. Biological Conservation 142: 2631–2641.
Gordon, D. R. 1998. Effects of invasive, non-indigenous plant species on ecosystem processes: lessons from Florida. Ecological Applications 8: 975–989.
Gottschalk, K. W. , Colbert, J. J. , and Feicht, D. L. 1998. Tree mortality risk of oak due to gypsy moth. European Journal Forest Pathology 28: 121–132.
Haack, R. A. 2001. Intercepted Scolytidae (Coleoptera) at U.S. ports of entry: 1985–2000. Integrated Pest Management Review 6: 253–282.
Haack, R. A. 2006. Exotic bark- and wood-boring Coleoptera in the United States: recent establishments and Interceptions. Canadian Journal Forest Research 36: 269–288.
Hajek, A. E. , Humber, R. A. , and Elkinton, J. 1995. Mysterious origin of Entomophaga maimaiga in North America. American Entomologist 41: 31–42.
Hanks, L. M. , Paine, T. D. , Millar, J. G. , and Hom, J. L. 1995. Variation among Eucalyptus species in resistance to Eucalyptus longhorned borer in California. 74: 185–194.
Hansen, E. M. 2008. Alien forest pathogens: Phytophthora species are changing world forests. Boreal Environment Research 13: 33–41.
Hardin, J. W. , Leopold, D. J. , and White, F. M. 2001. Harlow and Harrar's Textbook of Dendrology. 9th edition. McGraw-Hill, Boston, Massachusetts.
Hartman, K. M. and McCarthy, B. C. 2007. A dendro-ecological study of forest overstorey productivity following the invasion of the non-indigenous shrub Lonicera maackii . Applied Vegetation Science 10: 3–14.
Hartman, K. M. and McCarthy, B. C. 2008. Changes in forest structure and species composition following invasion by a non-indigenous shrub, Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii). Journal Torrey Botanical Society 135: 245–259.
Haugen, D. A. 1990. Control procedures for Sirex noctilio in the Green Triangle: Review from detection to severe outbreak. (1977–1987). Australian Forestry 53: 24–32.
Haugen, L. 2001. How to identify and manage Dutch elm disease In: Shade Tree Wilt Diseases. Ash, C. L. (ed.). APS Press. St. Paul, MN.
Havill, N. P. , Montgomery, M. E. , Yu, G. , et al. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA from hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) suggests cyrptic speciation and pinpoints the source of the introduction to eastern North America. Annals Entomological Society, 99: 195–203.
Hobbs, R. J. and Huenneke, L. F. 1992. Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 6: 334–337.
Hobbs, R. J. , Arico, S. , Aronson, J. , et al. 2006. Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Global Ecology and Biogeography 15: 1–7.
Hoebeke, E. R. , Haugen, D. A. , and Haack, R. A. 2005. Sirex noctilio: discovery of a Palearctic siricid woodwasp in New York. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society 50: 24–25.
Hulme, P. E. 2009. Trade, transport and trouble: managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization Journal Applied Ecology 46: 10–18.
Hurley, B. P. , Slippers, B. , and Wingfield, M. J. 2007. A comparison of control results for the alien invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in the southern hemisphere. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 9: 159–171.
Inderjit and Callaway, R. M. 2003. Experimental designs for the study of allelopathy. Plant and Soil 256: 1–11.
Iwahori H. , Tsuda K. , Kanzaki N. , et al. 1998. PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis of ribosomal DNA of Bursaphelenchus nematodes related to pine wilt disease. Fundamentals Applied Nematology 21: 655–666.
Jelinka, J. and Vandermeer, J. 2004. Gypsy moth defoliation of oak trees and a positive response of red maple and black cherry: An example of indirect interaction. American Midland Naturalist 152: 231–236.
Kay, M. K. 2008. Are island forests vulnerable to invasive defoliators? In: Invasive Forest Insects, Introduced Forest Trees, and Altered Ecosystems. Paine, T. D. (ed.). Springer. Dordrecht.
Kenis, M. , Auger-Rozenberg, M. , Roques, A. , et al. 2009. Ecological effects of invasive alien insects. In: Ecological Impacts of Non-Native Invertebrates and Fungi on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Langor, D. W. and Sweeney, J. (eds). Springer, Dordrecht.
Knight T. M. , Dunn, J. L. , Smith, L. A. , et al. 2009. Deer facilitate Invasive plant success in a Pennsylvania forest understory. Natural Areas Journal 29: 110–116.
Kobayashi, F. 1988. The Japanese pine sawyer. In: Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations. Berryman, A. A. (ed.)., Plenum Publishing, New York.
Kolar, C. S. and Lodge, D. M. 2001. Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecology Evolution 16: 199–204.
Kondo, K. , Foundin, A. , Linit, M. , et al. 1982. Pine wilt disease-nematological, entomological, and biochemical investigations. Univ Missouri-Columbia Agric. Exp. Stn. SR 282: 1–56.
Kovacs, K. F. , Haight, R. G. , McCullough, D. G. , et al. 2010. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009–2019. Ecol. Econ. 69: 569–578.
Kulman, H. M. 1971. Effects of insect defoliation on growth and mortality of trees. Annual Review Entomology 16: 289–324.
Langor, D. , DeHaas, L. , and Foottit, R. 2009. Diversity of non-native terrestrial arthropods on woody plants in Canada. Biological Invasions 11: 5–19.
Lanier, G. N. and Peacock, J. W. 1981. Vectors of the pathogen. Compendium of Elm Diseases. Stipes, R. J. and Campana, R. J. (eds). APS Press. St. Paul, MN.
Levine, J. M. , Adler, P. B. , and Yelenik, S. G. 2002. A meta-analysis of biotic resistance to exotic plant invasions. Ecology Letters 10: 975–989.
Liao, C. , Peng, R. , Luo, Y. , et al. 2007. Altered ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles by plant invasion: a meta-analysis. New Phytologist 177: 706–714.
Liebhold A. M. , Macdonald, W. L. , Bergdahl, D. , and Maestro V. C. 1995. Invasion by exotic forest pests – A threat to forest ecosystems. Forest Science 41: 1–49.
Lockwood, J. L. , Cassey, P. , and Blackburn, T. 2005. The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends Ecology Evolution 20: 223–228.
Lonsdale, W. M. 1999. Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80: 1522–1536.
Loo, J. L. 2009. Ecological impacts of non-indigenous invasive fungi as forest pathogens. Biological Invasions 11: 81–96.
Lovett G. M. , Canham, C. D. , Arthur, M. A. , et al. 2006. Forest ecosystem responses to exotic pests and pathogens in eastern North America. BioScience 56: 395–405.
Lozon, J. D. and MacIssac, H. J. 1997. Biological invasions: are they dependent on disturbance? Environmental Reviews 5: 131–144.
Lugo, A. E. 2004, The outcome of alien tree invasions in Puerto Rico. Frontiers Ecology and the Environment 2: 265–273.
Mack, M. C. and D'Antonio C. M. 1998. Impacts of biological invasions on disturbance regimes. Trends Ecology Evolution 13: 195–198.
Mack, R. N. , Simberloff, D. , Lonsdale, W. M. , et al. 2000. Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications 10: 689–710.
Madden, J. L. 1975. An analysis of an outbreak of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera, Siricidae), in Pinus radiata . Bulletin Entomological Research 65: 491–500.
Madden, J. L. 1988. Sirex in Australasia. In: Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations. Berryman, A. A. (ed). Plenum Publishing, New York.
Mamiya, Y. 1988. History of pine wilt disease in Japan. Journal Nematology 20: 219–226.
Martin, P. H. , Canham, C. D. , and Marks, P. L. 2009. Why forests appear resistant to exotic plant invasions: intentional introductions, stand dynamics, and the role of shade tolerance. Frontiers Ecology Environment 7: 142–149.
Mascaro J. , Becklund, K. K. , Hughes, R. F. , and Schnitzer, S. A. 2008. Limited native plant regeneration in novel, exotic-dominated forests on Hawai'i Forest Ecology & Management 256: 593–606.
Mattson, W. J. , Herms, D. A. , Witter, J. A. , and Allen, D. C. 1991. Woody plant grazing systems: North American outbreak folivores and their host plants. In: Forest Insect Guilds: Patterns of Interactions with Host Trees. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-153. Baranchikov, Y. N., Mattson, W. J., Hain, F. P., and Payne, T. L. (eds).
Mattson W. , Niemelä, P. , Millers, I. , and Inguanzo Y. 1994. Immigrant phytophagous insects on woody plants in the United States and Canada: An annotated list. USDA Report no. NC-169. St. Paul, MN, USA.
Mattson W. , Vanhanen H. , Veteli T. , Sivonen S. , and Niemela P. 2007. Few immigrant phytophagous insects on woody plants in Europe: legacy of the European crucible? Biological Invasions 9: 957–974.
McCullough D. G. , Poland, T. M. , Anulewicz, A. C. , et al. 2009. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) attraction to stressed or baited ash trees. Environmental Entomology 38: 1668–1679.
McDougall, K. L. , Hobbs, R. J. , and St Hardy, G. E. 2002. Vegetation of Phytophthora cinnamomi-infested and adjoining uninfested sites in the northern jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of Western Australia. Australian Journal Botany 50: 277–288.
Mckimm, R. J. and Walls, J. W. 1980. A survey of damage caused by the Sirex woodwasp in the radiata pine plantations at Delatite, north-eastern Victoria, between 1972–1979. For. Comm. Vic 28: 3–11.
Merkel, H. W. 1906. A deadly fungus on the American chestnut. Annual Report NY Zoological Society 10: 97–103.
Meyerson, L. A. and Mooney, H. A. 2007. Invasive alien species in an era of globalization. Frontiers Ecology Environment 5: 199–208.
Morin, R. S. , Liebhold, A. M. , and Gottschalk, K. W. 2009. Anisotropic spread of hemlock woolly adelgid in the eastern United States. Biological Invasions 11: 2341–2350.
Mota, M. M. , Braasch H. , Bravo M. A. , et al. 1999. First report of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal and in Europe. Nematology, 1: 727–734.
Murphy, S. T. 1996. Status and impact of invasive conifer aphid pests in Africa. In: Impact of Diseases and Insect Pests in Tropical Forests. Proceedings of the IUFRO Symposium 23–26 November 1993, Peechi, India. Nair, K. S. S. Sharma, J. K. , and Varma, R. V. (eds). Kerala, India, Kerala Forest Research Institute and Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific.
Nair, K. S. S. 2007. Tropical Forest Insect Pests: Ecology, Impact, and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Niemela P. and Mattson W. J. 1996. Invasion of North American forests by European phytophagous insects: Legacy of the European crucible? BioScience 46: 741–753.
Nuckolls, A. E. , Wurzburger, N. , Ford, C. R. , et al. 2009. Hemlock declines rapidly with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation: impacts on the carbon cycle of southern Appalachian forests. Ecosystems 12: 179–190.
Orondo, S. B. O. and Day, R. K. 1994. Cypress aphid (Cinara cupressi) damage to a cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) stand in Kenya. International Journal Pest Management 40: 141–144.
Orwig, D. A. , Foster, D. R. , and Mausel, D. L. 2002. Landscape patterns of hemlock decline in New England due to the introduced hemlock woolly adelgid. Journal Biogeography 29: 1475–1488.
Paillet, F. L. 2002. Chestnut: history and ecology of a transformed species. Journal Biogeography 29: 1517–1530.
Paine, T. D. and Millar, J. G. 2002. Insect pests of eucalypts in California: implications of managing invasive species. Bulletin Entomological Research 92: 147–151.
Paine, T. D. , Hanks, L. M. , Millar, J. G. , and Paine, E. O. 2000. Attractiveness and suitability of host tree species for colonization and survival of Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Canadian Entomologist 132: 907–913.
Pimentel D. , Lach L. , Zuniga R. , and Morrison D. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. BioScience 50: 53–65.
Poland, T. M. and McCullough, D. G. 2006. Emerald ash borer: Invasion of the urban forest and the threat to North America's ash resource. Journal Forestry 104: 118–124.
Pringle, A. J. D. , Bever, M. , Gardes, J. L. , et al. 2009. Mycorrhizal symbioses and plant invasions. Annual Review Ecology, Evolution Systematic 40: 699–715.
Pureswaran, D. S. and Poland, T. M. 2009. Host selection and feeding preference of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Ash (Fraxinus spp.). Environmental Entomology 38: 757–765.
Reaser J. K. and Waugh, J. A. 2007. Denying Entry: Opportunities to Build Capacity to Prevent the Introduction of Invasive Species and Improve Biosecurity at US Ports. IUCN-World Conservation Union, Washington, DC Panel.
Richardson, D. M. , Pysek, P. , Rejmanek, M. , et al. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: Concepts and definitions Diversity and Distributions 6: 93–107.
Ridley, G. S. , Bain, J. , Bultman, L. S. , et al. 2000. Threats to New Zealand's indigenous forests from exotic pathogens and pests. Science for Conservation 142: 1–68.
Roane, M. K. , Griffin, G. J. , and Elkins, J. R . 1986. Chestnut Blight, Other Endothia Diseases, and the Genus Endothia. APS Press. St. Paul, MN.
Roberts, S. W. , Tankersley, Jr., R. , and Orvis, K. H. 2009. Assessing the potential impacts to riparian ecosystems resulting from hemlock mortality in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Environmental Management 44: 335–345.
Rodgers, V. L. , Stinson, K. A. , and Finzi, A. C. 2008. Ready or not, garlic mustard is moving in: Alliaria petiolata as a member of eastern North American forests. BioScience 58: 426–436.
Roland, J. and Embree, D. G. 1995. Biological control of the winter moth. Annual Review Entomology 40: 475–492.
Ruiz, G. and Carlton, J. 2003. Global Pathways of Biotic Invasions. Island Press, New York, USA.
Sawyer, A. J. 2003. Annotated categorization of ALB host trees. USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Otis Plant Protection Laboratory. http://www.uvm.edu/albeetle/hosts.htm. [Accessed November 2010].
Sharma G. R. , Raghubanshi, A. S. , and Singh, J. S. 2005. Lantana invasion: An overview. Weed Biology & Management 5: 157–165.
Simberloff, D. 2009. The role of propagule pressure in biological invasions Annual Review Ecology Systematic 40: 81–102.
Small, M. J. , Small, C. J. , and Dreyer, G. D. 2005. Changes in a hemlock-dominated forest following woolly adelgid infestation in southern New England. Journal Torrey Botanical Society 132: 458–470.
Sousa, E. , Bravo, M. A. , Pires, J. , et al. 2001. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda; Aphelenchoididae) associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae) in Portugal. Nematology 3: 89–91.
Stadler, B. , Muller, T. , Orwig, D. , and Cobb, R. 2005. Hemlock woolly adelgid: transforming ecosystem processes and landscapes. Ecosystems 8: 233–247.
Stevens, J. T. and Beckage, B. 2009. Fire feedbacks facilitate invasion of pine savannas by Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius). New Phytologist 184: 365–375.
Stinson K. A. , Campbell, S. A. , Powell, J. R. , et al. 2006. Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms. PLoS Biology 4: 727–731.
Stinson, K. A. , Kaufman, S. K. , Durbin, L. , and Lowenstein, F. 2007. Impacts of garlic mustard invasion on a forest understory community. Northeastern Naturalist 14: 73–88.
Suckling, D. M. , Gibb, A. R. , Dentener, P. R. , et al. 2005. Gum leaf skeletoniser Uraba lugens in New Zealand: pheromone trapping for delimitation and phenology. Journal Economic Entomology 98: 1187–1192.
Theoharides, K. A. and Dukes J. S. 2007. Plant invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous species success during four stages of invasion. New Phytologist 176: 256–273.
Togashi, K. and Shigasada, N. 2006. Spread of the pinewood nematode vectored by the Japanese pine sawyer: modeling and analytical approaches. Population Ecology 48: 271–283.
Tribe, G. D. and Cillié, J. J. 2004. The spread of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in South African pine plantations and the introduction and establishment of its biological control agents. African Entomologist 12: 9–17.
Van der Pas, J. B. 1981. Reduced early growth rates of Pinus radiata by Dothistroma pini. New Zealand Journal Forest Science 11: 210–220.
Vanhellemont, M. , Wauters, L. , Baeten, L. , et al. 2010. Prunus serotina unleashed: invader dominance after 70 years of forest development Biological Invasions 12: 1113–1124.
Van Kleunen, M. and Fischer, M. 2009. Release from foliar and floral fungal pathogen species does not explain the geographic spread of naturalized North American plants in Europe. Journal Ecology 97: 385–392.
Vitousek, P. M. , D'Antonio, C. M. , Loope, L. L. , and Westbrooks, R. 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. American Scientist 84: 468–478.
Vitousek, P. M. , D'Antonio C. M. , Loope, L. L. , et al. 1997. Introduced species: A significant component of human-caused global change New Zealand. Journal Ecology 21: 1–16.
Von Holle, B. V. and Simberloff, D. 2005. Ecological resistance to biological invasion overwhelmed by propagule pressure. Ecology 86: 3212–3218.
Walker, B. and Steffen, W. 1997. An overview of the implications of global change for natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems. Conservation Ecology 1: 2.
Ward, J. 2008. The historical and future Impacts of exotic insects and diseases on Connecticut's forests. In: Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Hartford, CT. Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (eds). USDA Forest Service FHTET-2008–01.
Watson, G. W. , Voegtlin, D. J. , Murphy, S. T. , and Foottit, R. G. 1999. Biogeography of the Cinara cupressi complex (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Cupressaceae, with description of a pest species introduced into Africa. Bulletin Entomological Research 89: 271–283.
Weeks, E. P. , Weaver, H. L. , Campbell, G. S. , and Tanner, B. D. 1987. Water use by saltcedar and by replacement vegetation in the Pecos River floodplain between Acme and Artesia, New Mexico. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 491-G.
Wei, X. , Reardon D. , Wu, Y. , and Sun, J. H. 2004. Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in China: a review and distribution survey. Acta Entomologica Sinica 47: 679–685.
Wei, X. , Wu, Y. , Reardon, R. , et al. 2007. Biology and damage traits of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in China. Insect Science 14: 367–373.
Weste, G. , Brown, K. , Kennedy, J. , et al. 2002. Phytophthora cinnamomi infestation – a 24-year study of vegetation change in forests and woodlands of the Grampians, Western Victoria. Australian Journal Botany 50: 247–274.
Wilcove, D. S. , Rothstein, D. , Dubow, J. , et al. 1998. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. BioScience 48: 607–615.
Williamson, M. and Fitter, A. 1996. The characters of successful invaders. Biological Conservation 78: 163–170.
Woods, F. W. and Shanks, R. E. 1959. Natural replacement of chestnut by other species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ecology 40: 349–361.
Wright, S. J. 2005. Tropical forests in a changing environment. Trends Ecology Evolution 20: 553–560.
Yang, Z. Q. , Wang, X. Y. , Wei, J. R. , et al. 2008. Survey of the native insect natural enemies of Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in China Bulletin Entomological Research 98: 293–302.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Amacher, M. C. , O'Neil, K. P. , and Perry, C. H. 2007. Soil vital signs: A new soil quality index (SQI) for assessing forest soil health. Research Paper RMRS-RP-65WWW. Fort Collins, CO, USDA Forestry Service Rocky Mountains Research Station.
Arnolds E. 1991. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Europe. Agriculture Ecosystem & Environment 35: 209–244.
Avis, P. G. , McLaughlin, D. J. , Dentinger, B. C. , and Reich, P. B. 2003. Long-term increase in nitrogen supply alters above- and below-ground ectomycorrhizal communities and increases the dominance of Russula spp. in a temperate oak savanna. New Phytologist 160: 239–253.
Blum, J. D. , Klaue, A. , Nezat, C. A. , et al. 2002. Mycorrhizal weathering of apatite as an important calcium source in base-poor forest ecosystems. Nature 417: 729–731.
Briggs, R. D. 1994. Site classification field guide. CFRU Tech. Note 6, Maine Ag. and For. Exp. Stn. Misc. Pub. 724. University of Maine, Orono.
Brundrett, M. , Bougher, N. , Dell, B. , et al. 1996. Working with Mycorrhizas in Forestry and Agriculture. ACIAR Monograph, Canberra.
Burger, J. A. , 1994. Cumulative effects of silvicultural technology on sustained forest productivity. In: Assessing the Effects of Silvicultural Practices on Sustained Productivity. Proceedings of the IEA/BE Workshop'93, May 16–22, Fredericton, NB, Canada. IEA/BA Task IX, Activity 4, Report 3, Info. Rep. M-X-191. Mahendrappa, M. K. , Simpson, C. M. , and Smith, C. T. (Compilers). Canadian Forest Service – Maritimes Region, Natural Resources Canada, Fredericton, NB.
Duchesne, L. , Ouimet, R. , Moore, J. D. , and Paquin, R. 2005. Changes in structure and composition of maple-beech stands following sugar maple decline in Quebec, Canada. Forest Ecology & Management 208: 223–236.
Dulmer K , 2006. Mycorrhizal Associations of American Chestnut Seedlings: a Lab and Field Bioassay, Environmental and Forest Biology. W. S. thesis SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, New York.
Duncan, M. J. , Baker, T. G. , Appleton, R. , and Stokes, R. C. 2000. Growth of Eucalypt plantation species across twelve sites in Gippsland, Victoria. CFTT Report No.:99/056, Department of Natural Resources and Environment.
Environment Canada . 2008. Models The Second Generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM2) http://www.cccma.bc.ec.gc.ca/models/cgcm2.shtml [Accessed November 2010].
Ferwerda, J. A. and Young, H. E. 1981. The relationship between spruce and fir biomass production and four soil series of a major soil catena in Maine. In: Proceedings of the 1981 IUFRO World Congress Kyoto, Japan, 6–17 September.
Fisher, R. F. and Binkley, D. 2000. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York.
Flato, G. M. , Boer, G. J. , Lee, W. G. , et al. 2000: The Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis Global coupled model and its climate. Climate Dynamics 16: 451–467.
Florence, R. G. 1996. Ecology and Silviculture of Eucalypt Forests. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, VIC.
Grove, T. S. and Le Tacon F. 1993. Mycorrhiza in plantation forestry. Advances in Plant Pathology 23: 191–227.
Hobbie, E. A. and Colpaert, J. V. 2003. Nitrogen availability and colonization by mycorrhizal fungi correlate with nitrogen isotope patterns in plants. New Phytologist 157: 115–126.
Hobbie, E. A. , Jumpponen, A. , and Trappe J. 2005. Foliar and fungal 15N:14N ratios reflect development of mycorrhizae and nitrogen supply during primary succession: testing analytical models. Oecologia 146: 258–268.
Horsley, S. B. and Long, R. P. (eds.). 1999. Sugar Maple Ecology and Health: Proceedings of an International Symposium. USDA Forest Service, NE Res. Stn., GTR NE-261.
Horsley, S. B. , Long, R. P. , Bailey, S. W. , et al. 2002. Health of eastern North American sugar maple forests and factors affecting decline. Northern Journal Applied Forestry 19: 34–44.
Horsley, S. B. , Bailey, S. W. , Ristau, T. E. , et al. 2008. Linking environmental gradients, species composition, and vegetation indicators of sugar maple health in the northeastern United States. Canadian Journal Forest Research 38: 1761–1774.
Horton, T. R. and Bruns, T. D. 1998. Multiple-host fungi are the most frequent and abundant ectomycorrhizal types in a mixed stand of Douglas fir (Pseudostuga menziesii) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata). New Phytologist 139: 331–339.
Horton, T. R. and Bruns, T. D. 2001. The molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: peeking into the black-box. Molecular Ecology 10: 1855–1871.
Horton, T. R. , Bruns, T. D. , and Parker, T. 1999. Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Arctostaphylos contribute to Pseudotsuga menziesii establishment. Canadian Journal Botany 77: 93–102.
Horton, T. R. and van der Heijden, M.G.A. 2008. The role of symbiosis in seedling establishment and survival. In: Seedling Ecology and Evolution. Leck, M. , Parker, V. T. , and Simpson, B. (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Houston, D. R. 1999. History of sugar maple decline. In: Sugar Maple Ecology and Health: Proceedings of an International Symposium. Horsley, S. B. and Long, R. P. (eds.). USDA Forest Service, NE Res. Stn., GTR NE-261.
Johnson, D. L. , Ambrose, S. H. , Bassett, T. J. , et al. 1997. Meanings of environmental terms. Journal Environmental Quality 26: 581–589.
Johnson, N. C. 1993. Can fertilization of soil select less mutualistic mycorrhizae. Ecological Applications 3: 749–757.
Karlen, D. J. , Mausbauch, M. J. , Doran, J. W. , et al. 1997. Soil quality: A concept definition, and framework for evaluation. Soil Science Society America Journal 61: 4–10.
Kretzer, A. , Dunham, S. , Molina, R. , and Spatafora, J. W. 2004. Microsatellite markers reveal the below ground distribution of genets in two species of Rhizopogon forming tuberculate ectomycorrhizas on Douglas fir. New Phytologist 161: 313–320.
Lerat, S. , Rachel, R. , Catford, J. G. , et al. 2002. 14C transfer between the spring ephemeral Erythronium americanum and sugar maple saplings via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in natural stands. Oecologia 132: 181–187.
Lian, C. L. , Narimatsu, M. , Nara, K. , and Hogetsu, T. 2006. Tricholoma matsutake in a natural Pinus densiflora forest: correspondence between above- and below-ground genets, association with multiple host trees and alteration of existing ectomycorrhizal communities. New Phytologist 171: 825–836.
Likens, G. E. , Driscoll, C. T. , and Buso, D. C. 1996. Long-term effects of acid rain: response and recovery of a forest ecosystem. Science 272: 244–246.
Lilleskov, E. A. , Fahey, T. J. , Horton, T. R. , and Lovett, G. M. 2002. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal community change over a nitrogen deposition gradient in Alaska. Ecology 83: 104–115.
Lin, Y. and Augspurger, C. K. 2008. Long-term spatial dynamics of Acer saccharum during a population explosion in an old-growth remnant forest in Illinois. Forest Ecology Management 256: 922–928.
Marx, D. H. 1969. The influence of ectotrophic ectomycorrhizal fungi on the resistance of pine roots to pathogenic infections. I. Antagonism of mycorrhizal fungi to pathogenic fungi and soil bacteria. Phytopathology 59: 153–163.
Mejstrik, V. 1989. Ectomycorrhizas and forest decline. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 28: 325–337.
Meyer, F. H. 1988. Ectomycorrhiza and decline of trees. In: Ectomycorrhiza and Acid Rain. Jansen, A. E. , Dighton, J. , and Bresser, A.H.M. (eds). Berg en Dal.
Molina, R. , Massicotte, H. , and Trappe, J. M. 1992. Specificity phenomena in mycorrhizal symbioses: Community-ecological consequences and practical implications. In: Mycorrhizal Functioning an Integrative Plant-fungal Process. Allen. M. F. (ed.). Chapman and Hall, New York.
Molina, R. and Trappe, J. M. 1982a. Lack of mycorrhizal specificity by the ericaceous hosts Arbutus menziesii and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi . New Phytologist 90: 485–509.
Molina, R. and Trappe, J. M. 1982b. Patterns of ectomycorrhizal host specificity and potential among pacific northwest conifers and fungi. Forest Science 28: 423–458.
Moore, J. D. and Ouimet, R. 2006. Ten-year effect of dolomitic lime on the nutrition, crown vigor, and growth of sugar maple. Canadian Journal Forest Research 36: 1834–1841.
Morris, E. C. 2003. How does fertility of the substrate affect intraspecific competition? Evidence and synthesis from self thinning. Ecological Research 18: 287–305.
NRCS . 1999. Soil Quality Test Kit Guide. USDA Agricultural Research Service, Natural Resource Conservations Service, Soil Quality Institute. August 1999.
Nuñez, M.T.A. , Horton, T. R. , and Simberloff, D. 2009. Lack of belowground mutualisms hinders Pinaceae invasions. Ecology 90: 2352–2359.
Parrent, J. L. and Vilgalys, R. 2007. Biomass and compositional responses of ectomycorrhizal fungal hypahe to elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. New Phytologist 176: 164–174.
Perry, D. A. , Amaranthus, M. P. , Borcher, J. G. , et al. 1989. Bootstrapping in ecosystems. BioScience 39: 230–237.
Peter, M. , Ayer, F. , and Egli, S. 2001. Nitrogen addition in a Norway spruce stand altered macromycete sporocarp production and below-ground ectomycorrhizal species composition. New Phytologist 149: 311–325.
Peterson, L. R. , Massicotte, H. B. , and Melville, L. H. 2004. Mycorrhizas: Anatomy and Cell Biology. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario.
Quinn, R. Q. , Canham, C. D. , Weathers, K. C. , and Goodale, C. L. 2010. Increased tree carbon storage in response to nitrogen deposition in the U.S. Nature Geoscience 3: 13–17.
Redecker D. , Szaro, T. M. , Bowman, R. J. , and Bruns, T. D. 2001. Small genets of Lactarius xanthogalactus, Russula cemoricolor and Amanita francheti in late-stage ectomycorrhizal successions. Molecular Ecology 10: 1025–1034.
Schimel J. P. and Bennett J , 2004. Nitrogen mineralization: challenges of a changing paradigm. Ecology 85: 591–602.
Schiltz, H. M. and Grisi, B. F. 1980. Soil-site Relationships of Spruce-Fir Stands on the Chesuncook Catena Soils. Soil Conservation Service, Orono, Maine, USA.
Seybold, C. A. , Dick, R. P. , and Pierce, F. J. 2001. USDA Soil quality test kit: Approaches for comparative assessments. Soil Survey Horizons 42: 43–52.
Simard S. W. , Jones, M. D. , Durall, D. M. , et al. 1997a. Reciprocal transfer of carbon isotopes between ectomycorrhizal Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii . New Phytologist 137: 529–542.
Simard S. W. , Perry, D. A. , Jones, M. D. , et al. 1997b. Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field. Nature 388: 579–582.
Sims, R. A. , Baldwin, K. A. , Kershaw, H. M. , and Wange, Y. 1996. Tree species in relation to soil moisture regime in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 39: 471–484.
Smith, D. B. 2009. Geochemical studies of North American soils: Results from the pilot study phase of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Applied Geochemistry 24: 1355–1356.
Smith S. E. and Read, D. J. 1997. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. 2nd edition. Academic Press, London.
Sojka, R. E. and Upchurch, D. R. 1999. Reservations regarding the soil quality concept. Soil Science Society America Journal 63: 1039–1054.
Stone, E. L. 1984. Site quality and site treatment. In: Forest Soils and Treatment Impacts. Proc. of the Sixth North American Forest Soils Conference, Knoxville, TN. Stone, E. L. (ed.).
SSSA . 1997. Glossary of soil science terms 1996. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA.
Tichelen K.K. Van , Colpaert J. V. , and Vangronsveld, J. 2001. Ectomycorrhizal protection of Pinus sylvestris against copper toxicity. New Phytologist 150, 203–213.
Trappe J. M. , 2005. On the nutritional dependence of certain trees on root symbiosis with belowground fungi [Translation of Frank A. B. (1885) Ueber die auf Wurzelsymbiose beruhende Ernährung gewisser Bäume durch unterirdische Pilze. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellshaft 3: 128–145.] Mycorrhiza 15: 267–275.
Tugel, A. J. , Wills, S. A. , and J. E. Herrick . 2008. Soil change guide: Procedures for soil survey and resource inventory, version 1.1. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE. http://soils.usda.gov/technical/soil_change/ [Accessed November 2011].
Vozzo, J. A and Hacskaylo, E , 1971. Inoculation of Pinus caribaea with ecomycorrhizal fungi in Puerto Rico. Forest Science 17: 239–245.
Warkentin, B. P. 1992. Soil science for environmental quality- how do we know what we know? Journal Environmental Quality 21: 163–166.
Westoby, M. 1984. The self-thinning rule. Advances in Ecological Research 14. Macfadyen, A. and Ford, E. D. (eds). Academic Press, London.
Williams, R. A. 1986. Comparison of site index and biomass production on four soil drainage classes from the Chesuncook catena for spruce-fir stands in northwestern Maine. PhD dissertation, University of Maine, Orono.
Young, H. E. 1954. Forest soils-site index studies in Maine. Soil Science America Proc 18: 95–87.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Agee, J. K. 1990. The historical role of fire in Pacific Northwest forests. In: Natural and Prescribed Fire in Pacific Northwest Forests. Walstad, J. et al. (eds). Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.
Agee, J. K. 1993. Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Island Press, Washington DC, USA.
Agrios, G. N. 2005. Plant Pathology. 5th edition. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Allen, C. D. , Savage, M. , and Falk, D. A. 2002. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: a broad perspective. Ecological Applications 12: 1418–1433.
Amatulli, G. , Peréz-Cabello, F. , and de la Riva, J. 2007. Mapping lightning/human-caused wildfires occurrence under ignition point location uncertainty. Ecological Modelling 200: 321–333.
Ancelin, P. , Courbaud, B. , and Fourcaud, T. Y. 2004. Development of an individual tree-based mechanical model to predict wind damage within forest stands. Forest Ecology & Management 203: 101–121.
Aril, K. and Lechowicz, M. J. 2007. Changes in understory light regime in a beech-maple forest after a severe ice storm. Candian Journal Forest Research 37: 1770–1776.
Augustaitis, A. and Bytnerowicz, A. 2008. Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: A Lithuanian case study. Environmental Pollution 155: 436–445.
Ayres, M. P. and Lombardero, M. J. 2000. Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbance from herbivores and pathogens. The Science of the Total Environment 262: 263–286.
Bailey, S. W. , Horsley, S. B. , and Long, R. P. 2005. Thirty years of change in forest soils of the Allegheny Plateau, Pennsylvania. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 681–690.
Baker, P. J. , Bunyavejchewin, S. , and Robinson A. P. 2008. The impacts of large-scale low- intensity fires on the forests of continental South-east Asia. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17: 782–792.
Baker, W. L. 1992. The landscape ecology of large disturbances in the design and management of nature reserves. Landscape Ecology 7: 181–194.
Bale, J. S. , Masters, G. J. , Hodkinson, I. D. , et al. 2002. Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores. Global Change Biology 8: 1–16.
Barber, V. A. , Juday, G. P. , and Finney, B. P. 2000. Reduced growth of Alaska white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature 405: 668–673.
Brasier, C. M. 1996. Phytophthora cinnamomi and oak decline in southern Europe. Environmental constraints including climate change. Annales Des Sciences Forestieres 53: 347–358.
Basnet, K. , Likens, G. E. , Scatena, F. N. , and Lugo, A. E. 1992. Hurricane Hugo: damage to a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico. Journal Tropical Ecology 8: 47–55.
Basnet, K. , Likens, G. E. , Scatena, F. N. , and Lugo, A. E. 1993. Ecological consequences of root grafting in tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa) trees in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 25: 28–35.
Battles, J. , Robards, T. , Das, A. , et al. 2008. Climate change growth on forest growth and tree mortality: a data-driven modeling study in mixed conifer forest of the Sierra Nevada, California. Climatic Change 87(Suppl 1): S193–S213.
Bazzaz, F. A. , Jasienski, M. , Thomas, S. C. , and Wayne, P. 1995. Microevolutionary responses in experimental populations of plants to CO2-enriched environments: parallel results from two model systems. Proceedings National Academy Science USA 92: 8161–8165.
Beatty, S. W. 1984. Influence of microtopography and canopy species on spatial patterns of forest understory plants. Ecology: 65: 1406–1419.
Benito-Espinal, F. P and Benito-Espinal, E. 1991. L'Ouragan Hugo. Genèse, Incidences, Géographiques et Ecologiques su la Guadeloupe. Les Presses de l'Imprimerie Désormeaux à Fort-de-France, Guadeloupe.
Benning, T. L. , LaPointe, D. , Atkinson, C. T. , and Vitousek, P. M. 2002. Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system. Proceedings National Academy Science USA 99: 14246–14249.
Bernal-Salazar, S. , Terrazas, T. , and Alvarado, D. 2004. Impact of air pollution on ring width and tracheid dimensions in Abies religiosa in the Mexico City basin. Iawa Journal 25: 205–215.
Berry, P. M. , Dawson, T. P. , Harrison, P. A. , and Pearson, R. G. 2002: Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and Ireland. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11: 453–62.
Black, M. P. , Mooney, S. D. , and Haberle, S. G. 2007. The fire, human, and climate nexus in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia. The Holocene 17: 469–480.
Blood, E. R. , Anderson, P. , Smith, P. A. , et al. 1991. Effects of Hurricane Hugo on coastal soil solution chemistry in South Carolina. Biotropica 23(suppl.): 348–355.
Boose, E. R. , Foster, D. R. , and Fluet, M. 1994. Hurricane impacts to tropical and temperate forest landscapes. Ecological Monographs 64: 369–400.
Bormann, F. H. and Likens, G. E. 1979. Catastrophic disturbance and the steady-state in northern hardwood forests. American Scientist 67: 660–669.
Bormann, F. H. , Spaltenstein, H. , McClellan, M. H. , et al. 1995. Rapid soil development after windthrow disturbance in pristine forests. Journal Ecology 83: 747–757.
Boucher, D. H. 1990. Growing back after hurricanes; catastrophes may be critical to rain forest dynamics. BioScience 40: 163–166.
Bouget, C. and Duelli, P. 2004. The effects of windthrow on insect communities: a literature review. Biological Conservation 118: 281–299.
Bouwman, A. F. , Van Vuuren, D. P. , Derwent, R. G. , and Posch, M. 2002. A global analysis of acidification and eutrophication of terrestrial ecosystems. Water Air Soil Pollution 141: 349–382.
Bowman, D. M. J. S. 2003. Australian landscape burning: a continental and evolutionary perspective. In: Fire in Ecosystems of South-West Western Australia: Impacts and Management. Abbott, I. and Burrows N. (eds). Backhuys.
Boykoff, M. 2007. Changing patterns in climate change reporting in United States and United Kingdom media. Presentation at Carbonundrums: Making Sense of Climate Change Reporting around the World, Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism and Environmental Change June 27, 2007.
Bradstock, R. A. 2008. Effects of large fires on biodiversity in south-eastern Australia: disaster or template for diversity? International Journal of Wildland Fire 17: 809–822.
Bréda, N. , Roland, H. , Granier, A. , and Dreyer, E. 2006. Temperate forest trees and stands under severe drought: a review of ecophysiological responses, adaptation processes and long-term consequences. Annals Forest Science 63: 625–644.
Bush, M. B. , Silman, M. R. , and Urrego, D. H. 2004. 48 000 years of climate change in a biodiversity hotspot. Science 303: 827–829.
Bytnerowicz, A. , Arbaugh, M. , Schilling, S. , et al. 2008. Ozone distribution and phytotoxic potential in mixed conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains, Southern California. Environmental Pollution 155: 398–408.
Bytnerowicz, A. , Omasa, K. , and Paoletti, E. 2007. Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: A northern hemisphere perspective. Environmental Pollution 147: 438–445.
Camp, A. , Oliver, C. , Hessburg, P. , and Everett, R. 1997. Predicting late-successional fire refugia pre-dating European settlement in the Wenatchee Mountains. Forest Ecology & Management 95: 63–77.
Canham, C. D. and Loucks, O. L. 1984. Catastrophic windthrow in the presettlement forests of Wisconsin. Ecology 65: 803–809.
Carrion, J. S. , Sanchez-Gomez, P. , Mata, J. F. , et al. 2003. Holocene vegetation dynamics, fire, and grazing in the Sierra de Gader, southern Spain. The Holocene 13: 839–849.
Chakraborty, S. 2005 Potential impact of climate change on plant–pathogen interactions. Aust. Plant Pathol 34: 443–448.
Chakraborty, S. , Tiedemann, A. V. , and Teng, P. S. 2000. Climate change: potential impact on plant diseases. Environmental Pollution 108: 317–326.
Chapin, F. S. III, Yarie, J. , Van Cleve, K. , and Viereck, L. A. 2006a. The conceptual basis of LTER studies in the Alaskan boreal forest. In: Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest. Chapin, F. S. III, Oswood, M. W. , and Van Cleve, K. , et al. (eds). Oxford University Press, New York.
Chapin, F. S. III, Oswood, M. W. , Van Cleve, K. , et al. (eds). 2006b. Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest. Oxford University Press, New York.
CIRMOUNT Committee . 2006. Mapping new terrain: climate change and America's West. Report of the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT). Misc. Pub., PSW-MISC-77, Albany, CA. Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service.
Coakley, S. M. , Scherm, H. , and Chakraborty, S. 1999. Climate change and plant disease management. Annual Review Phytopathology 37: 399–426.
Coder K. D. 1999. Drought damage to trees. University of Georgia School of Forest Resources Extension Publication FOR99-010
Cohen, D. , Dellinger, B. , Klein, R. , and Buchanan, B. 2007. Patterns in lightning-caused fires at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Fire Ecology 3: 68–82.
Condit, R. , Hubbell, S. P. , and Foster, R. B. 1995. Mortality rates of 205 neotropical tree and shrub species and the impact of a severe drought. Ecological Monographs 65: 419–439.
Connell, J. H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199: 1302–1310.
Costermans, L. 1983. Native Trees and Shrubs of South-eastern Australia. Weldon, Sydney, Australia.
Coulson, R. N. , Hennier, P. B. , Flamm, R. O. , et al. 1983. The role of lightning in the epidemiology of the southern pine beetle. Z. Ang. Entomol 96: 182–193.
Covington, W. W. , Fule, P. Z. , Moore, M. M. , et al. 1997. Restoring ecosystem health in ponderosa pine forests of the southwest. Journal Forestry 95: 21–29.
Craig, B. W. and Friedland, A. J. 1991. Spatial patterns in forest composition and standing dead red spruce in montane forests of the Adirondacks and Northern Appalachians. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 18: 129–143.
Dale, V. H. , Joyce, L. A. , McNulty, S. , et al. 2001. Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience 51: 723–734.
Davis, K. M. and Mutch, R. W. 1994. Applying ecological principles to manage wildland fire. In: Fire in Ecosystem Management. National Advanced Resources Technology Center.
Davis, K. M. , Clayton, B. D. , and Fischer, W. C. 1980. Fire ecology of Lolo National Forest habitat types. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-79.
de Hayes, D. H. , Schaberg, P. G. , Hawley, G. J. , and Strimbeck, G. R. 1999. Acid rain impacts on calcium nutrition and forest health-alteration of membrane-associated calcium leads to membrane destabilization and foliar injury in red spruce. BioScience 49: 789–800.
Deal, R. L. , Oliver, C. D. , and Bormann, B. T. 1991. Reconstruction of mixed hemlock-spruce stands in coastal southeast Alaska. Canadian Journal Forest Research 21: 643–654.
Deal, R. L. , Tappeiner, J. C. , and Hennon, P. E. 2002. Developing silvicultural systems based on partial cutting in western hemlock-Sitka spruce stands of southeast Alaska. is the profession embracing the science, art, and practice of creating, managing, using and conserving forests and associated resources for human benefit and in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values. 75: 425–431.
Deuber, C. G. 1940. The glaze storm of 1940. American Forests 46: 210–211, 235.
Dickson, R. E. and Isebrands, J. G. 1991. Leaves as regulators of stress response. In: Response of Plants to Multiple Stresses. Mooney H. A. , Winner, W. E. , and Pell, E. J. (eds). Academic Press, New York.
Dittus, W. P. J. 1985. The influence of cyclones on the dry evergreen forest of Sri Lanka. Biotropica 17: 1–14.
Doyle, T. W. 1981. The role of disturbance in the gap dynamics of a montane rain forest: an application of a tropical succession model. In: Forest Succession Concepts and Application. West, D. C. , Shugart, H. H. , and Botkin, D. B. (eds). Springer-Verlag, New York.
Driscoll, C. T. , Lawrence, G. B. , Bulger, A. J. , et al. 2001. Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: Sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies. BioScience 51: 180–198.
Drohan, P. , Stout, S. , and Petersen, G. 1999. Spatial relationships between sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh), sugar maple decline, slope, aspect, and atmospheric deposition in northern Pennsylvania. In: Sugar Maple Ecology and Health: Proceedings of an International Symposium. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Radnor, PA, Warren, PA, U.S.A. Horsley, S. B. and Long, R. P. (eds).
Drollette, D. 2005. Fire down under. Natural History 114: 44–50.
Duguay, S. M. , Arii, K. , Hooper, M. , and Lechowicz, M. J. 2001. Ice storm damage and early recovery in an old-growth forest. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 67: 97–108.
Eberhart, K. E. and Woodward, P. M. 1987. Distribution of residual vegetation associated with large fires in Alberta. Canadian Journal Forest Research 17: 1207–1212.
Eckberg, T. B. , Schmid, J. M. , Mata, S. A. , and Lundquist, J. E. 1994. Primary focus trees for the mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills. USDA For. Serv. Res. Note RM-531.
Emanuel, K. 2005. Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature 436: 686–688.
Evans, A. M. , Camp, A. E. , Tyrrell, M. L. , and Riely, E. E. 2007. Biotic and abiotic influences on wind disturbance in forests of NW Pennsylvania, USA. Forest Ecology & Management 245: 44–53.
Everham, E. M. and Brokaw, N. V. L. 1996. Forest damage and recovery from catastrophic wind. Botanical Reviews 62: 113–185.
Felzer, B. S. , Cronin, T. , Reilly, J. M. , et al. 2007. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops. C. R. Geoscience 339: 784–798.
Fischer, R. , Mues, V. , Ulrich, E. , et al. 2007. Monitoring of atmospheric deposition in European forests and an overview on its implication on forest condition. Applied Geochemistry 22: 1129–1139.
Flanagan, P. T. , Morgan, P. , and Everett, R. L. 1998. Snag recruitment in subalpine forests. Northwest Science 72: 303–309.
Fonseca Gonzalez, J. , Santos Posadas, H. M. D. , Llanderal Cazares, C. , et al. 2008. Ips and woodborer insects in Pinus montezumae trees damaged by fire. Madera y Bosques 14: 69–80. [In Spanish].
Foster, D. R. 1988. Species and stand response to catastrophic wind in central New England, USA. Journal Ecology 76: 135–151.
Foster, D. R. and Boose, E. R. 1992. Patterns of forest damage resulting from catastrophic wind in central New England, USA. Journal Ecology 80: 79–98.
Foster, D. R. and Boose, E. R. 1994. Hurricane disturbance regimes in temperate and tropical forest ecosystems. In: Wind Effects on Trees, Forests and Landscapes. Coutts, M. (ed.). Cambridge University Press, New York.
Foster, D. R. , Knight, D. H. , and Frankin, J. F. 1998. Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large, infrequent forest disturbances. Ecosystems 1: 497–510.
Foster, D. R. , Fluet, M. , and Boose, E. R. 1999. Human or natural disturbance: Landscape-scale dynamics of the tropical forests of Puerto Rico. Ecological Applications 9: 555–572.
Foster, P. 2001. The potential negative impacts of global climate change on tropical montane cloud forests. Earth-Science Reviews 55: 73–106.
Fowler, D. , Cape, J. N. , Coyle, M. , et al. 1999. The global exposure of forests to air pollutants. Water Air Soil Pollution 116: 5–32.
Frelich, L. E. and Lorimer, C. G. 1991. Natural disturbance regimes in hemlock-hardwood forests of the upper Great Lakes Region. Ecological Monographs 61: 145–164.
Frelich, L. E. and Reich, P. B. 1995. Spatial patterns and succession in a Minnesota southern-boreal forest. Ecological Monographs 65: 325–346.
Fule, P. Z. 2008. Does it make sense to restore wildland fire in a changing climate? Restoration Ecology 16: 526–531.
Furley, P. A. and Newey, W. W. 1979. Variations in plant communities with topography over tropical limestone soils. Journal Biogeography 6: 1–15.
Gandhi, K. J. K. , Gilmore, D. W. , Katovich, S. A. , et al. 2007. Physical effects of weather events on the abundance and diversity of insects in North American forests. Environmental Reviews 15: 113–152.
Gandhi, K. J. K. , Gilmore, D. W. , Haack, R. A. , et al. 2009. Application of semiochemicals to assess the biodiversity of subcortical insects following an ecosystem disturbance in a sub-boreal forest. Journal Chemical Ecology 35: 1384–1410.
Gardiner, B. , Byrne, K. , Hale, S. , et al. 2008. A review of mechanistic modeling of wind damage risk to forests. is the profession embracing the science, art, and practice of creating, managing, using and conserving forests and associated resources for human benefit and in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values. 81: 447–463.
Gardner, L. R. , Michner, W. K. , Blood, E. R. , et al. 1991. Ecological impacts of Hurricane Hugo–salinization of a coastal forest. Journal Coastal Research 8: 301–317.
Garrett, K. A. , Dendy, S. P. , Frank, E. E. , et al. 2006. Climate change effects on plant disease: genomes to ecosystems. Annual Review Phytopathology 44: 489–509.
Gill, A. M. 1981. Fire adaptive traits of vascular plants. In: Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. WO26. Mooney H. A. et al. (eds).
Gill, A. M. and Grant, A. 2008. Large fires, fire effects and the fire-regime concept. International Journal Wildland Fire 17: 688–695.
Goldammer, J. G. 1993. Historical biogeography of fire: tropical and subtropical In: Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires. Crutzen, P. J. and Goldammer, J. G. (eds). Wiley and Sons, New York.
Goldammer, J. G. 1999. Forests on fire. Science 284: 1782–1783.
Gregory, F. A. and Sabat, A. M. 1996. The effect of hurricane disturbance on the fecundity of sierra palms (Prestoea montana). Bios 67: 135–139.
Gresham, C. A. , Williams, T. M. , and Lipscomb, D. J. 1991. Hurricane Hugo wind damage to southeastern U.S. coastal forest tree species. Biotropica 23: 420–426.
Grulke, N. E. , Minnich, R. A. , Paine, T. D. , et al. 2009. Air pollution increases forest susceptibility to wildfires: A case study in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. In: Air Pollution and Fire, Developments in Environmental Science, Vol. 8. Bytnerowicz, A. , Arbaugh, M. , Riebau, A. , and Anderson, C. (eds). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Guarin, A. and Taylor A. H. 2005. Drought-triggered tree mortality in mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Forest Ecology & Management 218: 229–244.
Guyette, R. P. , Spetich, M. A. , and Stambaugh, M. C. 2006. Historic fire regime dynamics and forcing factors in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas, USA. Forest Ecology & Management 234: 293–304.
Harden, J. W. , Trumbore, S. E. , Veldhuis, H. , and Stocks, B. J. 1997. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 102: 28805–28816.
Hardy, C. C. 2005. Wildland fire hazard and risk: problems, definitions, and context. Forest Ecology & Management 211: 73–82.
Harrington R. , Fleming, R. A. , and Woiwod, I. P. 2001. Climate change impacts on insect management and conservation in temperate regions: can they be predicted? Agricultural and Forest Entomology 3: 233–240.
Harris, A. S. 1989. Wind in the forests of southeast Alaska and guides for reducing damage. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-244.
Harrison, R. D. 2001. Drought and the consequences of El Nino in Borneo: a case study of figs. Population Ecology 43: 63–75.
Hauer, R. J. , Wang, W. , and Dawson, J. O. 1993. Ice storm damage to urban trees. Journal Arboriculture 19: 187–194.
Heartsill-Scalley, T. , Scatena, F. , Estrada, N. C. , et al. 2007. Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico. Journal Hydrology 333: 472–485.
Heinselman, M. L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forest of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quaternary Research 3: 329–382.
Heinselman, M. L. 1981. Fire intensity and frequency as factors in the distribution and structure of northern ecosystems. In: Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties: USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. WO 26. Mooney, H. A. et al. (eds).
Hennon, P. E. , D'Amore, D. V. , Wittwer, D. T. , and Caouette, J. P. 2008. In: Integrated Restoration of Forested Ecosystems to Achieve Multiresource Benefits: Proc. 2007 National Silviculture Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTP73. Deal, R. L. (tech. ed.). Portland OR: USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Hessburg, P. F. , Mitchell, R. G. , and Filip, G. M. 1994. Historical and current roles of insects and pathogens in eastern Oregon and Washington forested landscapes. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-327.
Heyerdahl, E. K. , Lertzman, K. , and Karpuk, S. 2007. Local-scale controls of a low-severity fire regime (1750–1950), southern British Columbia, Canada. Ecoscience 14: 40–47.
Hildebrand, D. 2003. Lightning tracking an important tool in land management and wildland fire suppression. Vaisala News 162: 32–33.
Hobbs, R. J. , Arico, S. , Aronson, J. , et al. 2006. Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Global Ecology and Biogeography 15: 1–7.
Hood, S. M. 2007. Evaluation of a post-fire tree mortality model for western USA conifers. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16: 679–689.
Hood, S. M. , Smith, S. L. , and Cluck, D. R. 2007. Delayed conifer tree mortality following fire in California. In: Restoring Fire-adapted Ecosystems: Proceedings 2005 National Silviculture Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-203. Powers, R. F. (tech. ed.). USDA Forest Service, Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station.
Hooper, M. C. , Arii, K. , and Lechowicz, M. J. 2001. Impact of a major ice storm on an old-growth hardwood forest. Canadian Journal Botany 79: 70–75.
Hope, G. , Chokkalingam, U. , and Anwar, S. 2005. The stratigraphy and fire history of the Kutai Peatlands, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Quarternary Research 64: 407–417.
Hopkin, A. , Williams, T. , Sajan, R. , et al. 2003. Ice storm damage to eastern Ontario forests: 1998–2001. Forestry Chronicle 79: 47–53.
Horsley, S. B. , Long, R. P. , Bailey, S. W. , et al. 1999. Factors contributing to sugar maple decline along topographical gradients on the glaciated and unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. In: Sugar Maple Ecology and Health: Proceedings International Symposium. Horsley, S. B. and Long, R. P. (eds). USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Radnor, PA.
Hoyos, C. D. , Agudelo, P. A. , Webster, P. J. , and Curry, J. A. 2006. Deconvolution of the factors contributing to the increase in global hurricane intensity. Science 312: 94–97.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . 2001. Climate Change 2001: the Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, New York.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, New York.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) . 2007. Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon, S , Qin, D , Manning, M , et al. (eds). Cambridge University Press, New York.
Irland, L. C. 1998. Ice storm 1998 and the forests of the northeast. Journal Forestry 96: 32–40.
Irland, L. C. 2000. Ice storms and forest impacts. Science of the Total Environment 262: 231–242.
James, A. and Dupuis, J. 2005. The impacts of brush fires on the vegetation of Dominica. In: 12th Meeting of the Caribbean Foresters. Weaver, P. L. and González, K. A. (eds). USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Río Piedras.
Johnson, E. A. 1992. Fire and Vegetation Dynamics: Studies from the North American Boreal Forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Johnson, D. W. and Curtis, P. S. 2001. Effects of forest management on soil C and N storage: meta analysis. Forest Ecology & Management 140: 227–238.
Johnson, E. A. and Van Wagner, C. E. 1985. The theory and use of two fire history models. Canadian Journal Forest Research 15: 214–220.
Jones, N. 2005. Wildland fires, management, and restoration in Barbados. In: 12th Meeting of the Caribbean Foresters. Weaver, P. L. and González, K. A. (eds). USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Río Piedras.
Jurskis, V. 2000. Vegetation changes since European settlement of Australia: an attempt to clear up some burning issues. Australian Forestry 63: 166–173.
Jurskis, V. 2005. Eucalypt decline in Australia, and a general concept of tree decline and dieback. Forest Ecology & Management 215: 1–20.
Kamimura, K. and Shiraishi, N. A review of strategies for wind damage assessment in Japanese forests. Journal Forest Research 12: 162–176.
Kamimura, K. , Gardiner, B. , Kato, A. , et al. 2008. Developing a decision support approach to reduce wind damage risk – a case study on sugi (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.)D.Don) forests in Japan. is the profession embracing the science, art, and practice of creating, managing, using and conserving forests and associated resources for human benefit and in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values. 81: 429–445.
Karnosky, D. F. , Skelly, J. M. , Percy, K. E. , and Chappelka, A. H. 2007. Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests. Environmental Pollution 147: 489–506.
Katovich, S. A. , McDougall, D. , and Chavez, Q. 1998. Impact of forest stressors on the tree species of the Nicolet National Forest- past, present and future. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, Forest Health Protection, NA-TP-02–98
Kayll, A. J. 1968. Heat tolerance of tree seedlings. Proceedings Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 8: 89–105.
Keane, R. E. , Agee, J. K. , Fule, P. , et al. 2008. Ecological effects of large fires on US landscapes: benefit or catastrophe. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17: 696–712.
Keane, R. E. , Austin, M. , Field, C. , et al.. 2001. Tree mortality in gap models: application to climate change. Climate Change 51: 509–540.
Kenderes, K. , Aszalos, R. , Ruff, J. , et al. 2007. Effects of topography and tree stand characteristics on susceptibility of forests to natural disturbances (ice and wind) in Borzsony Mountains (Hungary). Community Ecology 8: 209–220.
Kershaw, A. P. , Clark, J. S. , Gill, A. M. , and D'Costa, D. M. 2002. A history of fire in Australia. In: Flammable Australia: the Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent. Bradstock, R. A. et al. (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kimmins, J. P. 2003. Forest Ecology. 3rd edition. Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co., San Francisco, CA.
Kitzberger, T. and Veblen, T. T. 1997. The influence of humans and ENSO on fire history of Austrocedrus chilensis woodlands in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Ecoscience 4: 508–520.
Klenner, W. , Walton, R. , Arsenault, A. , and Kremsater, L. 2008. Dry forests in the southern interior of British Columbia: historic disturbances and implications for restoration and management. Forest Ecology & Management 256: 1711–1722.
Kliejunas, J. T. , Geils, B. , Micales Glaeser, J. , et al. 2008. Climate and forest diseases of western North America: A literature review. White Paper prepared for The Western Wildlands Environmental Threat Assessment Center, Prineville, OR.
Klotzbach, P. J. 2006. Trends in global tropical cyclone activity over the past twenty years (1986–2005). Geophysical Research Letters 33: L10805.
Krieger, D. J. 2001. Economic Value of Forest Ecosystem Services: A Review. The Wilderness Society, Washington DC.
Kulakowski, D. and Veblen, T. T. 2002. Influences of fires history and topography on the pattern of a severe wind blowdown in a Colorado subalpine forest. Journal Ecology 90: 806–819.
Lafon, C. W. 2004. Ice-storm disturbance and long-term forest dynamics in the Adirondack Mountains. Journal Vegetation Science 15: 267–276.
Lafon, C. W. and Kutac, M. J. 2003. Effects of ice storms, southern pine beetle infestation, and fire on table mountain pine forests of southwestern Virginia. Physical Geography 24: 502–519.
Larsen, J. A. 1980. The boreal ecosystem. Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, New York.
Larjavaara, M. , Kuuluvainen, T. , and Rita, H. 2005. Spatial distribution of lightning-ignited forest fires in Finland. Forest Ecology & Management 208: 177–188.
Lawton, R. O. , Nair, U. S. , Pielke Sr., R. A. , and Welch, R. M. 2001. Cimate impact of tropical lowland deforestation on nearby montane cloud forests. Science 294: 584–587.
Lemon, P. C. 1961. Forest ecology of ice storms. Bulletin Torrey Botanical club 88: 21–29.
Likens, G. E. and Bormann, F. H. 1995. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. 2nd edition. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Liu, K. B , Lu, H. , and Shen, C. 2008. A 1200-year proxy record of hurricanes and fires from the Gulf of Mexico coast: testing the hypothesis of hurricane-fire interactions. Quarternary Research 69: 29–41.
Lloret, F. , Siscart, D. , and Dalmases, C. 2004. Canopy recovery after drought dieback in holm-oak Mediterranean forests of Catalonia (NE Spain). Global Change Biology 10: 2092–2099.
Lorimer, C. G. 1977. The presettlement forest and natural disturbance cycle of Northeastern Maine. Ecology 58: 139–48.
Lugo, A. E. and Scatena, F. N. 1995. Ecosystem-level properties of the Luquillo Experimental Forest with emphasis on the tabonuco forest. In: Tropical Forests: Management and Ecology. Lugo, A. E. and Lowe, C. (eds). Springer-Verlag, New York.
Lugo, A. E. and Scatena, F. N. 1996. Background and catastrophic tree mortality in tropical moist, wet and rain forests. Biotropica 28 (suppl.): 585–599.
Lundquist, J. E. and Hamelin, R. C. (eds.). Forest Pathology – From Genes to Landscapes. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Lundquist, J. E. and Negron, J. F. 2000. Endemic forest disturbances and stand structure of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Upper Pine Creek Research Natural Area, South Dakota, USA. Natural Areas Journal 20: 126–132.
Lyford, W. H. and MacLean, D. W. 1966. Mound and pit relief in relation to soil disturbance and tree distribution in New Brunswick, Canada. Harvard Forest Paper 15.
Major, J. 1951. A functional factorial approach to plant ecology. Ecology 32: 392–412.
Malingreau, J. P. , Stephens, G. , and Fellows, L. 1985. Remote sensing of forest fires: Kalimantan and North Borneo in 1982–83 El Niño-Southern Oscillation event. In: Tropical Forests and the World Atmosphere. AAAS Selected Symposium 101. Prance, G. T. (ed.). American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.
Manion, P. D. 1991. Tree Disease Concepts. 2nd edition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Manion, P. D. , Griffin, D. H. , and Rubin, B. D. 2001. Ice damage impacts on the health of northern New York State Forest. Forestry Chronicle 77: 619–625.
Mann, M. E. and Emanuel, K. A. 2006. Atlantic hurricane trends linked to climate change. EOS 87: 233–244.
Martin, H. C. and Weech, P. S. 2001. Climate change in the Bahamas? Evidence in the meterological records. Bahamas Journal of Science 5: 22–32.
McCarthy, J. W. and Weetman, G. 2007. Stand structure and development of an insect-mediated boreal forest landscape. Forest Ecology & Management 241: 101–114.
McDowell, N. , Pockman, W. T. , Allen, C. D. , et al. 2008. Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New Phytologist 178: 719–739.
McLeod, R. 2003. The inquiry into the operational response to the January 2003 bushfires. Australia Capital Territory Government report prepared for Chief Minister. Canberra.
Millenium Ecosystem Assessment . 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington DC, USA.
Miller, J. D. , Saafford, H. D. , Crimmins, M. , and Thodes, A. E. 2009. Quantitative evidence for increasing forest fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascade Mountains, California and Nevada, USA. Ecosystems 12: 16–32.
Miller, M. J. and Smolarkiewicz, P. K. 2008. Predicting weather, climate, and extreme events. Journal of Computational Physics 227: 3429–3430.
Miller, R. M. and Lodge, D. J. 2007. Fungal responses to disturbance–Agriculture and Forestry In: The Mycota, IV, Environmental and Microbial Relationships. 2nd edition. Esser, K. , Kubicek, P. , and Druzhinina, I. S. (eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Millward, A. A. and Kraft, C. E. 2004. Physical influences of landscape on a large-extent ecological disturbance: The northeastern North American ice storm of 1998. Landscape Ecology 19: 99–111.
Mueller, O. P. and Cline, M. G. 1959. Effects of mechanical soil barriers and soil wetness on rooting of trees and soil mixing by blow-down in central New York. Soil Science 88: 107–111.
Mueller, R. C. , Scudder, C. M. , Porter, M. E. , et al. 2005. Differential tree mortality in response to severe drought: evidence for long-term vegetation shifts. Journal Ecology 93: 1085–1093.
Munton, D. 2002. Fumes, forests and further studies: environmental science and policy inaction in Ontario. Journal of Canadian Studies 37: 130–163.
Myers, R. K. and van Lear, D. H. 1998. Hurricane–fire interactions in coastal forests of the south: a review and hypothesis. Forest Ecology & Management 103: 265–276.
Myneni, R. B. , Keeling, C. D. , Tucker, C. J. , et al. 1997. Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes due to enhanced spring time warming. Nature 386: 698–702.
Natural Resources Canada . 1995. Silvicultural terms in Canada. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. 2nd edition. Ottawa.
Nealis, V. and Peter, B. 2008. Risk assessment of the threat of mountain pine beetle to Canada's boreal and eastern pine forests. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Information Report BC-X-417, Victoria, British Columbia.
Neelin, J. D. , Münnich, M. , Su, H. , et al. 2006. Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations. Procedings National Academy Science USA 103: 6110–6115.
Negri, A. J. , Burkardt, N. , Golden, J. H. , et al. 2005, The hurricane-flood-landslide continuum. Bulletin American Meteorological Society 86: 1241–1247.
Nepstad, D. C. , Tohver, I. M. , Ray, D. , et al. 2007. Mortality of large trees and lianas following experimental drought in an Amazon forest. Ecology 88: 2259–2269.
Nowacki, G. J. and Kramer, M. G. 1998. The effects of wind disturbance on temperate rain forest structure and dynamics of southeast Alaska. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-421.
Oliver, C. D. and Larson, B. C. 1996. Forest Stand Dynamics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
Palik, B. J. and Robl, J. 1999. Structural legacies of catastrophic windstorm in a mature Great Lakes aspen forest. North Central Research Station Res. Pap. NC-337, St. Paul, MN.
Park, B. B. , Yanai, R. D. , Fahey, T. J. , et al. 2008. Fine root dynamics and forest production across a calcium gradient in northern hardwood and conifer ecosystems. Ecosystems 11: 325–341.
Parker, T. J. , Clancy, K. M. , and Mathiasen, R. L. 2006. Interactions among fire, insects, and pathogens in coniferous forests of the interior western United States and Canada. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 8: 167–189.
Parrent, J. L. , Morris, W. F. , and Vilgalys, R. 2006. CO2-enrichment and nutrient availability alter ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Ecology 87: 2278–2287.
Parrotta, J. A. 1993. Secondary forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. In: Restoration of Tropical Forest Ecosystems. Lieth, H. and Lohmann, M. (eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague.
Parrotta, J. A. and Lodge, D. J. 1991. Fine root dynamics in a subtropical wet forest following hurricane disturbance. Biotropica 23: 343–347.
Parrotta, J. A. , Turnbull, J. W. , and Jones, N. 1997. Catalyzing native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. Forest Ecology & Management 99: 1–7.
Parsons, M. , McLoughlin, C. A. , Kotschy, K. A. , et al. 2005. The effects of extreme floods on the biophysical heterogeneity of river landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3: 487–494.
Pausas, J. G. , Llovet, J. , Rodrigo, A. , and Vallejo, R. 2008. Are wildfires a disaster in the Mediterranean Basin? A review. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17: 713–723.
Pennanen, J. 2002. Forest age distribution under mixed-severity fire regimes: a simulation-based analysis for middle boreal Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica 36: 213–231.
Peterson, C. J. 2000. Catastrophic wind damage to North American forests and the potential impact of climate change. The Science of the Total Environment 262: 287–311.
Peterson, C. J. and Leach, A. D. 2008. Limited salvage logging effects on forest regeneration after moderate-severity windthrow. Ecological Applications 18: 407–420.
Peterson, C. J. and Pickett, S. T. A. 1991. Treefall and resprouting following catastrophic windthrow in old-growth hemlock-hardwoods forest. Forest Ecology & Management 42: 205–217.
Peterson, C. J. and Rebertus, A. J. 1997. Tornado damage and initial recovery in three adjacent, lowland temperate forests in Missouri. Journal Vegetation Science 8: 559–564.
Peterson, D. L. and Ryan, K. C. 1986. Modeling post-fire conifer mortality for long-range planning. Environmental Management 10: 797–808.
Phillips, J. D. 2002. Global and local factors in earth surface systems. Ecological Modelling 149: 257–272.
Platt, W. J. B. , Beckage, R. , Doren, F. , and Slater, H. H. 2002. Interactions of large-scale disturbances: prior fire regimes and hurricane mortality of Savanna pines. Ecology 83: 1566–1577.
Platt, W. J. and Connell, J. H. 2003. Natural disturbances and directional replacement of species. Ecological Monographs 73: 507–522.
Podur, J. J. , Martell, D. L. , and Csillag, F. (2003) Spatial patterns of lightning caused forest fires in Ontario, 1976–1998. Ecological Modeling 164: 1–20.
Poulos, H. M , Camp, A. E. , Gatewood, R. G. , and Loomis, L. 2007. A hierarchical approach for scaling forest inventory and fuels data from local to landscape scales in the Davis Mountains, Texas, USA. Forest Ecology & Management 244: 1–15.
Proulx, O. J. and Greene, D. F. 2001. The relationship between ice thickness and northern hardwood tree damage during ice storms. Canadian Journal Forest Research 31: 1758–1767.
Puhe, J. and Ulrich, B. 2001. Implications of the deposition of acid and nitrogen. In: Global Climate Change and Human Impacts on Forest Ecosystems. Puhe, J. and Ulrich, B. (eds). Springer, Berlin.
Pyne S. J. 1995. World Fire: The Culture of Fire on Earth. Henry Holt, New York, USA.
Resh, V. H. , Brown, A. V. , Covich, A. P. , et al. 1988. The role of disturbance in stream ecology. Journal North American Benthological Society 7: 433–455.
Rhoads, A. G. , Hamburg, S. P. , Fahey, T. J. , et al. 2002. Effects of an intense ice storm on the structure of a northern hardwood forest. Canadian Journal Forest Research 32: 1763–1775.
Rich, R. L. , Frelich, L. E. , and Reich, P. B. 2007. Wind-throw mortality in the southern boreal forest: effects of species, diameter and stand age. Journal Ecology 95: 1261–1273.
Richardson, D. M. , Rundel, P. W. , Jackson, S. T. , et al. 2007. Human impacts in pine forests: past, present, and future. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 38: 275–297.
Romme, W. H. and Knight, D. H. 1981. Fire frequency and subalpine forest succession along a topographic gradient in Wyoming. Ecology 62: 319–326.
Romme, W. H. , Everham, E. H. , Frelich, L. E. , et al. 1998. Are large, infrequent disturbances qualitatively different from small, frequent disturbances? Ecosystems 1: 524–534.
Rouault, G. , Candau, J. N. , Lieutier, F. , et al. 2006. Effects of drought and heat on forest insect populations in relation to the 2003 drought in Western Europe. Annals of Forest Science 63: 613–624.
Rowe, J. S. 1981. Concepts of fire effects on plant individuals and species. In: The Role of Fire in Northern Circumpolar Ecosystems. Wein, R. W. and Maclean D. A. (eds). John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Ryan, K. C. 2002. Dynamic interactions between forest structure and fire behavior in boreal ecosystems. Silva Fennica 36: 13–39.
Ryerson, D. E. , Swetnam, T. W. , and Lynch A. M. 2003. A tree-ring reconstruction of western spruce budworm outbreaks in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Canadian Journal Forest Research 33: 1010–1028.
Sanford, R. L., Jr., Parton, W. J. , Ojima, D. S. , and Lodge, D. J. 1991. Hurricane effects on soil organic matter dynamics and forest production in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico: Results of simulation modelling. Biotropica 23: 364–372.
Sartwell, C. 1971. Thinning ponderosa pine to prevent outbreaks of Mountain Pine Beetle. In: Proceeding Short Course on Precommerical Thinning of Coast and Intermountain Forests in the Pacific Northwest, February 3–4, 1971, Pullman, Washington, DC.
Scatena, F. N. 1998. Climate change and the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico: Assessing the impacts of various climate change scenarios. American Water Resources Association TPS-98–2: 193–198.
Scatena, F. N. and Larsen, M. C. 1991. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23(suppl.): 317–323.
Scatena, F. N. and Lugo, A. E. 1995. Geomorphology, disturbance, and -the soil and vegetation of two subtropical wet steepland watersheds of Puerto Rico. Geomorphology 13: 199–213.
Schaberg, P. G. , DeHayes, D. H. , and Hawley, G. J. 2001. Anthropogenic calcium depletion: A unique threat to forest ecosystem health? Ecosystem Health 7: 214–228.
Schaetzl, R. J. , Johnson, D. L. , Burns, S. F. , and Small, T. W. 1989. Tree uprooting: a review of terminology, process, and environmental implications. Canadian Journal Forest Research 19: 1–11.
Schellekens, J. , Bruijnzeel L. A. , Scatena F. N. , et al. 2000. Evaporation from a tropical rain forest, Luquillo Experimental Forest, eastern Puerto Rico. Water Resources Research 36: 2183–2196
Schellhaas, R. , Camp, A. E. , Spurbeck, D. , and Keenum, D. 2000. Report to the Colville National Forest on the results of the South Deep watershed fire history research. USDA Forest Service PNW Research Station, Wenatchee Forestry Sciences Laboratory.
Shepon, A. and Gildor, H. 2007. The lightning-biotic climatic feedback. Global Change Biology 14: 440–450.
Shinneman, D. J. and Baker, W. I. 1997. Nonequilibrium dynamics between catastrophic disturbances and old-growth forests in ponderosa pine landscapes of the Black Hills. Conservation Biology 11: 1276–1288.
Shorohova, E. , Fedorchuk, V. , Kuznetsova, M. , and Shvedova, O. 2008. Wind-induced successional changes in pristine boreal Picea abies forest stands: evidence from long-term permanent plot records. is the profession embracing the science, art, and practice of creating, managing, using and conserving forests and associated resources for human benefit and in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values. 81: 335–359.
Shortle, W. C. and Smith, K. T. 1988. Aluminum-induced calcium deficiency syndrome in declining red spruce. Science 240: 1017–1018.
Shortle, W. C. , Smith, K. T. , and Dudzik, K. R. 2003. Tree survival and growth following ice storm injury. USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station, Research Paper NE-723
Siccama, T. G. , Bliss, M. , and Vogelmann, H. W. 1982. Decline of red spruce in the Green Mountains of Vermont. Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club 109: 162–168.
Siegert, F. , Ruecker, G. , Hinrichs, A. , and Hoffman, A. A. 2001. Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Nino. Nature 414: 437–440.
Skärby, L. , Ro-Poulsen, H. , Wellburn, F. A. M. , and Sheppard, L. J. 1998. Impacts of ozone on forests: a European perspective. New Phytologist 139: 109–122.
Slik, J. W. F. 2004. El Niño droughts and their effects on tree species composition and diversity in tropical rain forests. Oecologia 141: 114–120.
Soja A. J. , Tchebakova, N. M. , French, N. H. F. , et al. 2006. Climate-induced boreal forest change: Predictions versus current observations. Global and Planetary Change 56: 274–296.
Stark, R. W. 1987. Impacts of forest insects and diseases: significance and measurement. CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 5: 161–201.
Stone, R. 2008. Natural disasters: Ecologists report huge storm losses in China's forests. Science 319: 1318–1319.
Strauss, S. , Bednar, L. , and Mees, R. 1989. Do one percent of the forest fires cause ninety-nine percent of the damage? Forest Science 35: 319–328.
Sturm, M. , Racine, E. , and Tape, K. 2001. Climate change: increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature 411: 546–547.
Swetnam, T. W. and Lynch, A. M. 1993. Multi century, regional-scale patterns of western spruce budworm outbreaks. Ecological Monographs 63: 241–246.
Takahashi, K. , Aril, K. and Lechowicz, M. J. 2007. Quantitative and qualitive effects of a severe ice storm on an old-growth beech-maple forest. Canadian Journal Forest Research 37: 598–606.
Tainter, F. H. and Baker, F. A. 1996. Principles of Forest Pathology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. 2006. Plant Physiology. 4th edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.
Tanaka, N. 2009. Vegetation bioshields for tsunami mitigation: review of effectiveness, limitations, construction, and sustainable management. Landscape Ecological Engineering 5: 71–79.
Tanner, E. J. V. and Kapos, V. 1991. Hurricane effects on forest ecosystems in the Caribbean. Biotropica 23: 513–521.
Tao, F. and Feng, Z. 2000. Terrestrial ecosystem sensitivity to acid deposition in South China. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 118: 231–243.
Thies, W. G. 2001. Root diseases in eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science 75: (Special Issue) 38–45.
Thompson, J. , Brokaw, N. V. L. , Zimmerman, J. , et al. 2002. Land use history, environment, and tree composition in a tropical forest. Ecological Applications 12: 1344–2002.
Throop, H. L. and Lerdau, M. T. 2004. Effects of nitrogen deposition on insect herbivory: Implications for community and ecosystem processes. Ecosystems 7: 109–133.
Turner, M. G. , Baker, W. L. , Peterson, C. J. , and Peet, R. K. 1998. Factors influencing succession: lesson from large, infrequent, natural disturbances. Ecosystems 1: 511–523.
Turner, M. G. and Dale, V. H. 1998. Comparing large, infrequent disturbances: what have we learned? Ecosystems 1: 493–496.
Uriarte, M. , Rivera, L. W. , Zimmerman, J. K. , et al. 2004. Effects of land use history on hurricane damage and recovery in a neotropical forest. Plant Ecology 174: 49–58.
Valladares, F. 2008. A mechanistic view of the capacity of forests to cope with climate change. In: Managing Forest Ecosystems: The Challenge of Climate Change. Bravo, F. et al. (eds). Kluwer Academic Press.
Van der Molen , 2002. Meteorological impacts of land use change in the maritime tropics. PhD dissertation, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Van Dyke, O. 1999. A literature review of ice storm impact on forests in Eastern North America. SCSS Technical Report #112. Pembroke, Ontario: Landmark Consulting.
Van Mantgem, P. J. , Stephenson, N. , Byrne, J. C. , et al. 2009. Widespread increase in tree mortality rates in the Western United States. Science 323: 521–524.
Van Wagner, C. E. 1973. Height of crown scorch in forest fires. Canadian Journal Forest Research 3: 373–378.
Veblen, T. T. , Kitzberger, T. , and Donnegan, J. 2000. Climatic and human influences on fire regimes in ponderosa pine forests in the Colorado Front Range. Ecological Applications 10: 1178–1195.
Veblen, T. T. , Kitzberger, T. , Raffaele, E. , et al. 2008. The historical range of variability of fires in the Andean – Patagonian Nothofagus forest region. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17: 724–741.
Veblen, T. T. , Kitzberger, T. , Villalba, R. , and Donnegan J. 1999. Fire history in northern Patagonia: the roles of humans and climatic variation. Ecological Monographs 69: 47–67.
Vygodskaya, N. N. , Schulze, E. D. , Tchebakova, N. M. , et al. 2002. Climatic control of stand thinning in unmanaged spruce forests in the southern taiga in European Russia. Tellus Series B – Chemical and physical meteorology 54: 443–461.
Walker, L. R. 1991. Tree damage and recovery from Hurricane Hugo in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23(suppl.): 379–385.
Walker, L. R. , Zimmerman, J. K. , Lodge, D. J. , and GuzmánGrajales, S. 1996. An elevational comparison of growth and species composition in hurricane-damaged forests in Puerto Rico. Journal Ecology 84: 877–889.
Wallenius, T. 2002. Forest age distribution and traces of past fires in a natural boreal landscape dominated by Picea abies . Silva Fennica 36: 201–211.
Wallenius, T. , Kuuluvainen, T. , Heikkilä, R. , and Lindholm, T. 2002. Spatial tree age structure and fire history in two old-growth forests in eastern Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica 36: 185–199.
Weaver, P. L. 1989. Forest changes after hurricanes in Puerto Rico's Luquillo Mountains. Interciencia 14: 181–192.
Weaver, P. L. and González, K. A. 2005. Wildland fire management and restoration. In: 12th Meeting of the Caribbean Foresters. Weaver, P. L. and González, K. A. (eds). USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Río Piedras.
Weber, M. H. , Hadley, K. S. , Frenzen, P. M. , and Franklin, J. F. 2006. Forest development following mudflow deposition, Mount St. Helens, Washington. Canadian Journal Forest Research 36: 437–449.
Westerling, A. L. , Hidalgo, H. G. , Cayan, D. R. , and Swetnam, T. W. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increases western U.S. forest wildlife activity. Science 313: 940–943.
Whigham, D. F. , Olmsted, I. , Cabrera Cano, E. , and Harmon, M. E. 1991. The impact of Hurricane Gilbert on trees, litterfall, and woody debris in a dry tropical forest in the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula. Biotropica 23(suppl.): 434–441.
White, P. S. and Jentsch, A. 2001. The search for generality in studies of disturbance and ecosystem dynamics. Prog. Bot 62: 399–450.
White, P. S. and Pickett, S. T. A. 1985. Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: An introduction. In: The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics. Pickett, S. T. A. and White, P. S. (eds). Academic Press, New York.
Whitney, G. G. 1986. Relation of Michigan's presettlement pine forests to substrate and disturbance history. Ecology 67: 1548–1559.
Wiens, J. A. 1989. Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology 3: 385–397.
Williams, D. W. and Liebhold, A. M. 1995. Herbivorous insects and global change – potential changes in the spatial-distribution of forest defoliator outbreaks. Journal Biogeography 22: 665–671.
Williams, R. J. and Bradstock, R. A. 2008. Large fires and their ecological consequences: an introduction to the special issue. International Journal Wildland Fire 17: 685–687.
Wilmking, M. , Juday, G. P. , Barber, V. A. , and Zald, H. S. 2004. Recent climate warming forces contrasting growth responses of white spruce at treeline in Alaska through temperature thresholds, Global Change Biology 10: 1724– 1736.
Wittig, V. E. , Ainsworth, E. A. , and Long, S. P. 2007. To what extent do current and projected increases in surface ozone affect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of trees? A meta-analytic review of the last 3 decades of experiments. Plant Cell and Environment 30: 1150–1162.
Wittig, V. E. , Ainsworth, E. A. , Naidu, S. L. , et al. 2009. Quantifying the impact of current and future tropospheric ozone on tree biomass, growth, physiology and biochemistry: a quantitative meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 15: 396–424.
Wolf, A. , Kozlov, M. V. , and Callaghan, T. V. 2008. Impact of non-outbreak insect damage on vegetation in northern Europe will be greater than expected during a changing climate. Climate Change 87: 91–106.
Wunderle Jr., J. 2009. From the past to the globalized future of Caribbean birds. Journal Caribbean Ornithology 21: 69–79.
Wunderle Jr., J. M. , Lodge, D. J. , and Waide, R. B. 1992. Short-term effects of Hurricane Gilbert on terrestrial bird populations on Jamaica. Auk 109: 148–166.
Xi, W. N. , Reet, R. K. , Decoster, J. K. , and Urban, D. L. 2008. Tree damage risk factors associated with large, infrequent wind disturbances of Carolina forests. is the profession embracing the science, art, and practice of creating, managing, using and conserving forests and associated resources for human benefit and in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values. 81: 317–334.
Yanagisawa, H. , Koshimura, S. , Goto, K. , et al. 2009. The reduction effects of mangrove forest on a tsunami based on field surveys at Pakarang Cape, Thailand and numerical analysis. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 81: 27–37.
Yih, K. , Boucher, D. H. , Vandermeer, J. H. , and Zamorra, Z. 1991. Recovery of the rain forest of southestern Nicaragua after destruction by Hurricane Joan. Biotropica 23: 106–113.
Zausen G. L , Kolb, T. E. , Bailey, J. D. , and Wagner, M. R. 2005 Long-term impacts of stand management on ponderosa pine physiology and bark beetle abundance in northern Arizona: A replicated landscape study. Forest Ecology & Management 218: 291–305.
Zeng, G. M. , Zhang, G. , Huang, G. H. , et al. 2005. Exchange of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ and uptake of H+, NH4+ for the subtropical forest canopies influenced by acid rain in Shaoshan forest located in Central South China. Plant Science 168: 259–266.
Zeng, H. C. , Talkkari, A. , Peltola, H. , and Kellomaki, S. 2007. A GIS-based decision support system for risk assessment of wind damage in forest management Environmental Modelling & Software 22: 1240–1249.
Zimmerman, J. K. , Everham, III, E. M. , Waide, R. B. , et al. 1994. Responses of tree species to hurricane winds in subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico: implications for tropical tree life histories. Journal Tropical Ecology 82: 911–922.
Zimmerman, J. K. , Aide, T. M. , Rosario, M. , et al. 1995. Effects of land management and a recent hurricane on forest structure and composition in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology & Management 77: 65–76.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Agrawal, A. , Chatre, A. , and Hardin, R. 2008. Changing governance of the world's forests. Science 320: 1460–1462.
Barbour, M.G. , Burk, J.H. , and Pitts, W.D. 1987. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, MA.
Bettinger, P. , Boston, K. , Sirey, J.P. , and Grebner, D.L. 2009. Forest Management and Planning. Elsevier, New York.
Birdsey, R.A. and Weaver, P.L. 1982. The forest resources of Puerto Rico, USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin, SO-85 , Southern Forest Experiment Station. New Orleans, LA.
Birdsey, R. , Pregitzer, K. , and Lucier, A. 2006. Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600–2100. Journal Environmental Quality (published online) 35: 1461–1469.
Boley, J.D. , Drew, A.P. , and Andrus, R.E. 2009. Effects of active pasture, teak (Tectona grandis) and mixed native plantations on soil chemistry in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology & Management 257: 2254–2261.
Brandeis, T.J. , Helmer, E.H. , and Oswalt, S.N. 2007. The status of Puerto Rico's forests. USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin, SRS-119 , Southern Research Station. Asheville, NC.
Bruntland, G. (ed.). 1987. Our Common Future: The World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Burger, D. 2000. Making Rio work: The vision of sustainable development and its implementation through forest certification. In: Sustainable Forest Management. von Gadow, K. , Pukkalo, T. , and Tomé, M. (eds.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
Daniel, T.W. , Helms, J.A. , and Baker, F.S. 1979. Principles of Silviculture. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Davis, L.S. , Johnson, K.N. , Bettinger, P. , and Howard, T.E. 2001. Forest Management: To Sustain Ecological, Economic and Social Value. 4th edition. Waveland Press, Inc., Long Grove, IL.
Deevey, Jr., E.S. 1947. Life tables for natural populations of animals. Quarterly Review Biology 22: 283–314.
DeMilde, R . 1987. Inventory of the exploitable forests of Dominica. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
EarthTrends. 2003. EarthTrends Country Profiles. Forests, Grasslands, and Drylands – Dominica. http://earthtrends.wri.org
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) . 1989. Assistance for the preparation of a forest inventory, Dominica. Terminal statement prepared for the Government of Dominica. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) . 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 – main Report. FAO Forestry Paper 140. FAO, Rome.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) . 2005. Global forest resources assessment 2005, Progress towards sustainable forest management. FAO Forestry Paper 147. FAO, Rome.
Franco, P.A. , Weaver, P.L. , and Eggen-McIntosh, S. 1997. Forest resources of Puerto Rico, 1990. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Resource Bulletin, SRS-22. Southern Research Station. Asheville, NC.
Gentry, A.H. 1986. An overview of neotropical phytogeographic patterns with an emphasis on Amazonia. Proceedings 1st Symposium on Humid Tropics, Belem, Brazil, 12–17 Nov. 1984, Vol. 2: 21–35.
Germain, R.H. , Anderson, N. , and Bevilacqua, E. 2007. The effects of forestland parcelization and ownership transfers on non-industrial private forestland forest stocking in New York. Journal Forestry 105: 403–408.
Helms, J.A. (ed.). 1998. The Dictionary of Forestry. The Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, MD.
Holling, C.S. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Wiley, Chichester.
Hutchinson, I.D. 1987. The management of humid tropical forests to produce wood. In: Management of the forests of Tropical America: Prospects and Technologies. Proceedings Conference held in San Juan, Puerto Rico, September 22–27, 1986. Figueroa, J.C. , Wadsworth, F.H. , and Branham, S. (eds). Institute of Tropical Forestry, Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service in cooperation with University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras.
Kerkhof, P. 2000. Local Forest Management in the Sahel: Towards a New Social Contract. SOS Sahel International UK, London.
Kimmins, J.P. 1992. Balancing Act: Environmental Issues in Forestry. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, BC.
Kimmins, J.P. 1997. Forest Ecology: A Foundation for Sustainable Management. 2nd edition. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Lal, J.B. 1989. India's Forests: Myth and Reality. Natraj Publishers, New Delhi, India.
Little, Jr., E.L. and Wadsworth, F.H. 1964. Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agriculture Handbook No. 249. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.
Little, Jr. E.L. , Woodbury, R.O. , and Wadsworth, F.H. 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Vol II. Agriculture Handbook No. 449. USDA, Forest Service, Washington, DC.
Lugo, A.E. and Brown, S. 1981. Tropical lands: Popular misconceptions. Mazingira 5: 10–19.
Mergen, F. and Vincent, J.R. (eds). 1987. Natural management of tropical moist forests: Silvicultural and management prospects of sustained utilization. Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT.
Munsell, J.F. and Germain, R.H. 2007. Woody biomass energy: an opportunity for silviculture on nonindustrial private forestlands in New York. Journal Forestry 105: 398–402.
Munsell, J.F. , Germain, R.H. , and Bevilacqua, E. 2008. A tale of two forests: case study comparisons of sustained yield management on Mississippi and New York nonindustrial private forestland. Journal Forestry 106: 431–439.
Nilsson, S. 2008. The Indian forestry system at a crossroads: A outsider's view. International Forestry Review 10: 414–421.
Nyland, R.D. 2002. Silviculture Concepts and Applications. 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Paine, J. , Byron, N. , and Poffenberger, M. 1997. Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study: Status, trends and future scenarios for forest conservation including protected areas in the Asia-Pacific Region. FAO Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/04. www.fao.org/docrep/003/W5475E/W5475E06.htm [Accessed November 2010].
Pedraza, R.A. and Williams-Linera, G. 2003. Evaluation of native tree species for the rehabilitation of deforested areas in the Mexican cloud forest. New Forests 26: 83–99.
Peña-Claros, M. , Fredericksen, T.S. , Alarcón, A. , et al. 2008. Beyond reduced-impact logging: Silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees. Forest Ecology & Management 256: 1458–1467.
Perlin, J. 1989. A Forest Journey: The Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization. W.W. Norton & Co., New York.
Rai, S.N. and Saxena, A. 1997. The extent of forest fires, grazing and regeneration status in inventoried forest areas of India. Indian Forester 123: 698–702.
Reineke, L.H. 1933. Perfecting a stand-density index for even-aged stands. Journal Agricultural Research 46: 627–638.
Rondon, X.J. , Gorchov, D.L. , and Cornejo, F. 2009. Tree species richness and composition 15 years after strip clearcutting in the Peruvian Amazon. Plant Ecology 201: 23–27.
Smith, D.M. , Larson, B.C. , Kelty, M.J. , and Ashton, P.M.S. 1997. The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology. 9th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
Srivastava, R. 1999. Controlling forest fire incidences by generating awareness. A case study from Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Coimbatore, India. International Forest Fire News No. 20: 10–15.
Stocks, A. and Hartshorn, G. 1993. The Palcazu Project: Forest management and native Yanesha communities. Journal Sustainable Forestry 1: 111–135.
Wadsworth, F.H. 1997. Forest Production for Tropical America. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 710.
Wear, D.N. and Greis, J.G. (eds). 2002. Southern Forest Resource Assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-53. Asheville, NC: USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
Weaver, P.L. 1987. Enrichment plantings in tropical America. In: Management of the forests of Tropical America: Prospects and technologies. Proceedings Conference held in San Juan, Puerto Rico, September 22–27, 1986. Figueroa, J.C. , Wadsworth, F.H. , and Branham, S. (eds). Institute of Tropical Forestry, Southern Forest Experiment Station, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service in cooperation with University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Allen, J. C. and Barnes, D. F. 1985. The causes of deforestation in developing countries. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75: 163–184.
Amaranthus, M. P. , Trappe, J. M. , and Molina, R. J. 1989 Long-term forest productivity and the living soil. In: Maintaining Long-term Productivity of Pacific Northwest Forest Ecosystems. Perry, D. A. , Meurisse, R. , Thomas, B. , et al. (Eds). Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Angermeier, P. L. 2000. The natural imperative for biological conservation. Conservation Biology 14: 373–381.
Annand, E. M. and Thompson, III, F. R. 1997. Forest bird response to regeneration practices in central hardwood forests. Journal Wildlife Management 61: 159–171.
Attiwill, P. M. 1994. The disturbance of forest ecosystems: the ecological basis for conservative management. Forest Ecology & Management 63: 247–300.
Balvanera, P. , Pfisterer, A. B. , Buchmann, N. , et al. 2006. Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecology Letters 9: 1146–1156.
Batáry, P. and Báldi, A. 2004. Evidence of an edge effect on avian nest success. Conservation Biology 18: 389–400.
Bauhus, J. , Puettmann, K. , and C. Messier , C. 2009. Silviculture for old-growth attributes. Forest Ecology & Management 258: 525–537.
Burton, P. J. , Kneeshaw, D. D. , and Coates, K. D. 1999. Managing forest harvesting to maintain old growth in boreal and sub-boreal forests. Forestry Chronicle 75: 623–631.
Campbell, S. P. , Witham, J. W. , and Hunter Jr, M. L. 2007. Long-term effects of group-selection timber harvesting on abundance of forest birds. Conservation Biology 21: 1218–1229.
Carey, A. B. 1989. Wildlife associated with old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Natural Areas Journal 9: 151–162.
Commarmot, B. , Bachofen, H. , Bundziak, Y. , et al. 2005. Structures of virgin and managed beech forests in Uholka (Ukraine) and Sihlwald (Switzerland): a comparative study. Forest Snow and Landscape Research 79: 45–56.
Cordeiro, N. J. and Howe, H. F. 2003. Forest fragmentation severs mutualism between seed dispersers and an endemic African tree. Proceedings National Academy Science 100: 14052–14056.
Deppe, J. L. and Rotenberry, J. T. 2008. Scale-dependent habitat use by fall migratory birds: vegetation structure, floristics, and geography. Ecological Monographs 78: 461–487.
Dixon, R. K. , Solomon, A. M. , Brown, S. , et al. 1994. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science 263: 185–190.
Ehrlich, P. R. and Ehrlich, A. H. 1990. The Population Explosion. Simon and Schuster, New York.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) . 2006. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: progress towards sustainable forest management. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Forestry Paper No. 147.
Franklin, J. F. , Spies, T. A. , Van Pelt, R. V. , et al. 2002. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir as an example. Forest Ecology & Management 155: 399–423.
Freemark, K. E. and Merriam, H. G. 1986. Importance of area and habitat heterogeneity to bird assemblages in temperate forest fragments. Biological Conservation 36: 115–141.
Gaston, K. G. 2000. Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405: 220–227.
Glitzenstein, J. S. , Platt, W. J. , and Streng, D. R. 1995. Effects of fire regime and habitat on tree dynamics in north Florida longleaf pine savannas. Ecological Monographs 65: 441–476.
Gram, W. K. , Porneluzi, P. A. , Clawson, R. L. , et al. 2003. Effects of experimental forest management on density and nesting success of bird species in Missouri Ozark forests. Conservation Biology 17: 1324–1337.
Grieser Johns, A. 1996. Bird population persistence in Sabahan logging concessions. Biological Conservation 75: 3–10.
Grieser Johns, A. 1997. Timber Production and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Rain Forests. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Haeussler, S. , Bedford, L. , Leduc, A. , et al. 2002. Silvicultural disturbance severity and plant communities of the southern Canadian boreal forest. Silva Fennica 36: 307–327.
Hagan, J. M. , McKinley, P. S. , Meehan, A. L. , and Grove, S. L. 1997. Diversity and abundance of landbirds in a Northeastern industrial forest. Journal Wildlife Management 61: 718–735.
Hansen, A. and Rotella, J. 1999. Abiotic factors. In: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, Jr., M. L. (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hansen, A. J. , Spies, T. A. , Swanson, F. J. , and Ohmann, J. L. 1991. Conserving biodiversity in managed forests. BioScience 41: 382–392.
Hartley, M. J. 2002. Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forests. Forest Ecology & Management 155: 81–95.
Haywood, J. D. 2007. Influence of herbicides and felling, fertilization, and prescribed fire on longleaf pine establishment and growth through six growing seasons. New Forests 33: 257–279.
Heyborne, W. H. , Miller, J. C. , and Parsons, G. L. 2003. Ground dwelling beetles and forest vegetation change over a 17-year-period, in western Oregon USA. Forest Ecology & Management 179: 123–134.
Holmes, R. T. and Robinson, S. K. 1981. Tree species preferences of foraging insectivorous birds in a northern hardwoods forest. Oecologia 48: 31–35.
Hooper, D. U. , Chapin, F. S., III, Ewel, J. J. et al. 2005. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs 75: 3–35.
Hoving, C. L. , Harrison, D. J. , Krohn, W. B. , et al. 2004. Canada lynx Lynx candensis habitat and forest succession in northern Maine USA. Wildlife Biology 10: 285–294.
Hunter, M. L. 1990. Wildlife, Forests, and Forestry. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Hunter, M. L. and Gibbs., J. P. 2007. Fundamentals of Conservation Biology. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.
Hunter, M. L. and Calhoun, A. 1996. A triad approach to land-use allocation. In: Biodiversity in Managed Landscapes. Szaro, R. C. and Johnston, D. W. (eds). Oxford University Press, New York.
Kauppi, P. E. , Ausubel, J. H. , Fang, J. , et al. 2006. Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity. Proceedings National Academy Science 103: 17574–17579.
Koivula, M. 2002a. Alternative harvesting methods and boreal carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Forest Ecology & Management 167: 103–121.
Koivula, M. 2002b. Boreal carabid-beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages in thinned uneven-aged and clear-cut spruce stands. Annales Zoologici Fennici 39: 131–149.
Koivula, M. and Niemelä, J. 2002. Boreal carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in managed spruce forests – a summary of Finnish case studies. Silva Fennica 36: 423–436.
Kolb, T. E. , Wagner, M. R. , and Covington, W. W. 1994. Utilitarian and ecosystem perspectives: concepts of forest health. Journal Forestry 92: 10–15.
Kraus, N. E. 2003. Relationships between forest health and plant diversity in western New York state forest lands. MS Thesis. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
Kuuluvainen, T. , Penttinen, A. , Leinonen, K. , and Nygren, M. 1996. Statistical opportunities for comparing stand structural heterogeneity in managed and primeval forests: an example from boreal spruce forest in southern Finland. Silva Fennica 30: 315–328.
Lambert, F. R. 1992. The consequences of selective logging for Bornean lowland forest birds. In: Tropical Rain Forest: Disturbance and Recovery. Marshall, A. G. and Swaine, M. D. (eds). Royal Society, London.
Law, B. S. and Dickman, C. R. 1998. The use of habitat mosaics by terrestrial vertebrate fauna: implications for conservation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 323–333.
Levey, D. J. , Silva, W. R. , and Galetti, M. 2001. Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation. CABI Publishing. Wallingford.
Lindenmayer, D. B. and Franklin, J. F. 2002. Conserving Forest Biodiversity: a Comprehensive Multiscaled Approach. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Lorimer, C. G. 1989. Relative effects of small and large disturbances on temperate hardwood forest structure. Ecology 70: 565–567.
Lorimer, C. G. and White, A. S. 2003. Scale and frequency of natural disturbances in the northeastern U.S.: implications for early successional forest habitats and regional age distributions. Forest Ecology & Management 185: 41–64.
Lovett, J. C. and Wasser, S. K. 1993. Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
MacArthur, R. H. and MacArthur, J. W. 1961. On bird species diversity. Ecology 42: 594–598.
Manion, P. D. and Griffin, D. H. 2001. Large landscape scale analysis of tree death in the Adirondack Park, New York. Forest Science 41: 524–529.
Matlack, G. R. and Litvaitis, J. A. 1999. Forest edges. In: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, M. L. (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Mayr, E. 1963. Populations, Species, and Evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
McComb, W. and Lindenmayer, D. 1999. Dying, dead, and down trees. In: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, M. L. (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Meslow, E. C. , Maser, C. , and Verner, J. 1981. Old-growth forests as wildlife habitat. Trans. North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conf. 46: 329–335.
Mitchell, R. J. and Duncan, S. L. 2009. Range of variability in southern coastal plain forests: its historical, contemporary, and future role in sustaining biodiversity. Ecology and Society 14: 17.
Moore, S. E. and Allen, H. L. 1999. Plantation forestry. In: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, M. L. (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Myers, N. , Mittermeier, R. A. , Mittermeier, C. G. , et al. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–808.
Nabhan, G. P. and Buchmann, S. L. 1997. Services provided by pollinators. In: Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Daily, G. (ed.). Island Press, Washington, DC.
Naylor, R. L. and Ehrlich, P. R. 1997. Natural pest control services and agriculture. In: Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Daily, G. (ed.). Island Press, Washington, DC.
Niemelä J. , Langor, D. , and Spence, J. R. 1993a. Effects of clear-cut harvesting on boreal ground beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in western Canada. Conservation Biology 7: 551–561.
Niemelä J. , Spence, J. R. , Langor, D. , et al. 1993b. Logging and boreal ground-beetle assemblages on two continents: implications for conservation. In: Perspectives on Insect Conservation. Gaston, K. J. , New, T. R. and Samways M. J. (eds.). Intercept Ltd, Andover, Hampshire.
Niemelä, J. , Koivula , and Kotze, D. J. 2007. The effects of forestry on carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in boreal forests. Journal Insect Conservation 11: 5–18.
Norse, E. A. 1990. Ancient Forests of the Pacific Northwest. The Wilderness Society and Island Press, Washington, DC.
Noss, R. F. 1983. A regional landscape approach to maintain diversity. BioScience 33: 700–706.
Noss, R. F. and Cooperrider, A. Y. 1994. Saving Nature's Legacy: Protecting and Restoring Biodiversity. Island Press, Washington, DC.
O'Brien, H. E. , Parrent, J. L. , Jackson, J. A. , et al. 2005. Fungal community analysis by large-scale sequencing of environmental samples. Applied Environmental Microbiology 71: 5544–5550.
Olson, D. M. and Dinerstein, E. 1998. The global 200: a representative approach to conserving the earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biology 12: 502–515.
Outcalt K. W. and Sheffield, R. M. 1996. The longleaf pine forest: trends and current conditions. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, North Carolina. Res. Bull. SRS-9.
Paillet, Y. , Bergès, L. , Hjältèn, J. , et al. 2010. Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe. Conservation Biology 24: 101–112.
Palik, B. and Engstrom, R. T. 1999. Species composition. In: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, M. L. (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Paton, P. W. C. 1994. The effect of edge on avian nest success: how strong is the evidence? Conservation Biology 8: 17–26.
Patrick, D. A. , Harper, E. B. , Hunter Jr., M. L. , and Calhoun, A. J. K. 2008. Terrestrial habitat selection and strong density-dependent mortality in recently metamorphosed amphibians. Ecology 89: 2563–2574.
Perry, D. A. , Borchers, J. G. , Borchers, S. L. , and Amaranthus, M. P. 1990. Species migrations and ecosystem stability during climate change: the below ground connection. Conservation Biology 4: 266–274.
Perry, D. A. , Meurisse, R. , Thomas, B. , et al. (eds). 1989. Maintaining Long-term Productivity of Pacific Northwest Forest Ecosystems. Timber Press, Portland, OR, USA.
Pimentel, D. , Stachow, U. , Takacs, D. A. , et al. 1992. Conserving biological diversity in agricultural/forestry systems. BioScience 42: 354–362.
Pinard, M. A. and Putz, F. E. 1996. Retaining forest biomass by reducing logging damage. Biotropica 28: 278–295.
Putz, F. E. , Sist, P. , Fredericksen, T. , and Dykstra, D. 2008. Reduced-impact logging: challenges and opportunities. Forest Ecology & Management 256: 1427–1433.
Robinson, W. D. and Robinson, S. K. 1999. Effects of selective logging on forest bird populations in a fragmented landscape. Conservation Biology 13: 58–66.
Rudnicky, T. C. and Hunter Jr., M. L. 1993. Reversing the fragmentation perspective: effects of clearcut size on bird species richness in Maine. Ecological Applications 3: 357–366.
Ruggiero, L. F. , Aubry, K. B. , Carey, A. B. , and Huff, M. H. (tech coordinators). 1991. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged douglas-fir Forests. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.
Runkle, J. R. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forests of eastern North America. Ecology 63: 1533–1546.
Runkle, J. R. 1985. Disturbance regimes in temperate forests. In: The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics. Pickett, S. T. A. , and White, P. S. (eds). Academic Press, Orlando, FL.
Ryder, O. A. 1986. Species conservation and systematics: the dilemma of subspecies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1: 9–10.
Seymour, R. and Hunter Jr., M. L. 1999. Principles of ecological forestry. In: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, M. L (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Seymour, R. S. , White, A. S. , and deMaynadier, P. G. 2002. Natural disturbance regimes in northeastern North America–evaluating silvicultural systems using natural scales and frequencies. Forest Ecology & Management 155: 357–367.
Simberloff, D. 1999. The role of science in the preservation of forest biodiversity. Forest Ecology & Management 115: 101–111.
Spies, T. and Turner, M. 1999. Dynamic forest mosaics. In: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, M. L (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Steele, R. C. and Welch, R.C. (eds). 1973. Monk Woods. A Nature Reserve Record. The Nature Conservancy/Natural Environment Research Council, Huntingdon.
Sullivan, T. P. , Sullivan, D. S. , Lindgren, P. M. F. , and Ransome, D. B. 2009. Stand structure and the abundance and diversity of plants and small mammals in natural and intensively managed forests. Forest Ecology & Management 258S: S127–S141.
Tews, J. , Brose, U. , Grimm, V. , et al. 2004. Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. Journal Biogeography 31: 79–92.
Thompson, F. R., III, Dijak, W. D. , Kulowiec, T. G. , and Hamilton, D. A. 1992. Breeding bird populations in Missouri Ozark forests with and without clearcutting. Journal Wildlife Management 56: 23–30.
Thompson, I. and Angelstam, P. 1999. Special species. In: Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Hunter, M. L (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Vance, C. C and Nol, E. 2003 Temporal effects of selection logging on ground beetle communities in northern hardwood forests of eastern Canada. EcoScience 10: 49–56.
Wesolowski, T. 2005. Virtual conservation: how the European Union is turning a blind eye to its vanishing primeval forests. Conservation Biology 19: 1349–1358.
Whittaker, R. H. 1960. Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California. Ecological Monographs 30: 279–338.
Willig, M. R. , Kaufman, D. M. , and Steven, R. D. 2003. Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale, and synthesis. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 34: 273–309.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Alexander, S.A. and Palmer, C.J. 1997. Forest health monitoring in the United States: first four years. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 55: 267–277.
Ambrose, M.J. and Conkling, B.L. 2007. Forest Health Monitoring 2005 National Technical Report US Forest Service Southern Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-104. Asheville, NC.
Anon . 1995. Sustaining the world's forests: the Santiago agreement. Journal Forestry 93: 18–21.
Australian Government . 2008. Australia's Sustainable Forest Management Framework of Criteria and Indicators. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra, Australia. http://adl.brs.gov.au/forestsaustralia/_pubs/ciframework.pdf; http://adl.brs.gov.au/forestsaustralia/_pubs/criterion3.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
Bechtold, W.A. and Patterson, P.L. (eds). 2005. The enhanced forest inventory and analysis program – national sampling design and estimation procedures. US Forest Service Southern Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-80. Asheville, NC. http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/20371 [Accessed November 2010].
Berryman, A.A. 1986. Forest Insects, Principles and Practice of Population Management. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Burkman, B. 2003. Forest Inventory and Analysis Phase 2 and Phase 3: Ground Measurements. FIA Fact Sheet Series. http://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/4801/local-resources/pdfs/Phase2_3.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
Burkman, B. 2005. Forest Inventory and Analysis Sampling and Plot Design. FIA Fact Sheet Series. http://fia.fs.fed.us/library/fact-sheets/data-collections/Sampling%20and%20Plot%20Design.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
Canadian Forest Service . 2008. Canada's National Forest Inventory: Ground Sampling Guidelines (V5.0). 2008. https://nfi.nfis.org/documentation/ground_plot/Gp_guidelines_v5.0.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM) . 2003. Defining Sustainable Forest Management in Canada, Criteria and Indicators.
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM) . 2007. Canada: A world leader in third-party certification. Factsheet. Sustainable Forest Management Canada. http://www.sfmcanada.org/english/pdf/Cert_FactSheet_E_revB4.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
Carnegie, A. 2008. A decade of forest health surveillance in Australia: an overview. Australian Forestry. Sept. 2008.
Castaneda, F. 2000. Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: international processes, current status and the way ahead. Unasylva 203: 34–40.
Commonwealth of Australia . 1995. National Forest Policy Statement: A new focus for Australia's forests. http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/37612/nat_nfps.pdf [Accessed December 2010].
Conner, R.C. , Adams, T. , Butler, B.J. , et al. 2004. The state of South Carolina's forests, 2001. US Forest Service Southern Research Station, Res. Bull. SRS-096. Asheville, NC. http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/7507 [Accessed November 2010].
Cumming, A.B. , Nowak, D.J. , Twardus, D.B. , et al. 2007. Urban Forests of Wisconsin 2002: Pilot Monitoring Project 2002. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry Report, NA-FR-05–07.
Cumming, A.B. , Twardus, D.B. , and Nowak, D.J. 2008. Urban forest health monitoring: large scale assessments in the United States. Arboriculture Urban Forestry 34: 341–346.
Dale, V.H. and Beyeler S.C. 2001. Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators. Ecological Indicators 1: 3–10.
European Forest Monitoring Programme (EFMP) . http://www.aisf.it/biodv/PPT/EFMP-0503071.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
Ferretti, M. 1997. Forest health assessment and monitoring – issues for consideration. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 48: 45–72.
Ferretti, M. and Chiarucci, A. 2003. Design concepts adopted in long-term forest monitoring programs in Europe – problems for the future. Science Total Environment 310: 171–178.
Gillis, M.D. , Omule, A.Y. , and Brierley, T. 2005. Monitoring Canada's forests: The National Forest Inventory. Forestry Chronicle 81: 214–221.
Hofstetter, R. 2007. Forest Health Monitoring. Presentation at the International Seminar on Forest Administration and Management. October 2007. http://www.for.nau.edu/files/InternationalForestry/Isfam/2007/presentations/HofstetterForestHealthMonitoring.ppt [Accessed November 2010].
Innes, J.L. 1988. Forest health surveys: problems in assessing observer objectivity. Canadian Journal Forest Research 18: 560–565.
Innes, J.L. and Karnosky, D.F. 2001. Impacts of environmental stress on forest health: the need for more accurate indicators. In: Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management. Raison, R.J. , Brown, A.G. , and Flinn, D.W. (eds). CAB International, Wallingford.
Institute for World Forestry (IWF). 2008. The condition of forests in Europe: 2008 Executive Report. http://www.icp-forests.org/pdf/ER2008.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) . 2005. Revised ITTO Criteria and Indicators for the Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests Including Reporting Format. ITTO Policy Development Series No 15. Hakushudo Printing Inc.
Lorenz, M. , Fischer, R. , Becher, G. , et al. 2008. Forest Condition in Europe: 2008 technical report of ICP Forests. Institute for World Forestry, Hamburg, Annexes. http://www.icp-forests.org/pdf/TR2008.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
Montreal Process Working Group . 2009. What is the Montreal Process? http://www.rinya.maff.go.jp/mpci/criteria_e.html [Accessed November 2010].
Moser, W.K. 2008. Invasive plant data collection by NRS Forest Inventory and Analysis. Presentation at Midwest Invasive Plant Network Symposium, December 10–11, 2008. http://www.mipn.org/Data%20Collection%20and%20Management%20Workshop%20Jan%202008/Monitoring/Moser_FIA.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
Gillis, MD , Power, K. , and Gray, S. 2001. Canada's Forest Inventory 2001. Overview – Inventory of Canada's forests. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Center, Victoria.
Nowak, D.J. , Noble, M.H. , Sisinni, S.M. , and Dwyer, J.F. 2001. Assessing the U.S. urban forest resource. Journal Forestry 99: 37–42.
Nowak, D.J. , Twardus, D. , Hoehn, R. , et al. 2007. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 2: Statewide Estimates Using the UFORE Model. Northeastern Area Report. NA-FR-01–07.
Oswalt, S.N. 2005. Forest resources of South Carolina's national forests, 2001. US Forest Service Southern Research Station, Res. Bull. SRS-098. Asheville, NC. http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/5425 [Accessed Novmber 2010].
Oswalt, C.M. and Turner, J.A. 2009. Status of hardwood forest resources in the Appalachian region including estimates of growth and removals. US Forest Service Southern Research Station, Res. Bull. SRS-142. Asheville, NC, USA. http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/32058 [Accessed Novmber 2010].
Percy, K.E. 2002. Is air pollution an important factor in international forest health? In: Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains. Szaro, R.C. , Bytnerowicz, A. , and Oszlany, J. (eds). IOS Press, Amsterdam.
Percy, K.E. and Ferretti, M. 2004. Air pollution and forest health: toward new monitoring concepts. Environmental Pollution 130: 113–126.
Peterman, R.M. 1978. The ecological role of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests. In: Theory and Practice of Mountain Pine Beetle Management in Lodgepole Pine Forests. Forest. Berryman, A. , Amman, D. , Stark, R. , and Kibbee, D. (eds). Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow.
Raffa, K.F. , Aukema, B. , Bentz, B.J. , et al. 2009. A literal use of “forest health” safeguards against misuse and misapplication. Journal Forestry 107: 276–277.
Seidling, W. 2004. Crown condition within integrated evaluations of Level II monitoring data at the German level. Europan Journal Forest Research 123: 63–74.
Smith, B.W. , Miles, P.D. , Vissage, J.S. , and Pugh, S.A. 2004. Forest Resources of the United States, 2002. US Forest Service North Central Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. NC 241. St. Paul, MN.
Smith, B.W. , Miles, P.D. , Perry, C.H. , and Pugh, S.A. [Coords.]. 2009. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Washington Office, Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-78. Washington, DC. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/17334 [Accessed November 2010].
Soekotjo, S. and Sastrosoemarto, B. Sarbini . 1997. Forest health monitoring to monitor sustainability of Indonesian tropical rain forests. XI World Forestry Congress. Antalya, Turkey. Vol. 2, Topic 7.
Stone, C. , Kile, G. , Old, K. , and Coops, N.C. 2001. Forest Health Monitoring in Australia, National and Regional Commitments and Operational Realities. Ecosystem Health 7: 48–58.
Stone, C. and Coops, N.C. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal Entomology 43: 283–292.
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) . 2009. Environmental Monitoring & -Assessment Program. http://www.epa.gov/emap/
US Forest Service 2003. Forest Health Monitoring, A National Strategic Plan. http://fhm.fs.fed.us/annc/strategic_plan03.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
US Forest Service 2009. FHM Riparian Project. http://www.fs.fed.us/institute/fhm_riparian
US Forest Service . FHM 2009a. Forest Health Monitoring Purpose and Outcomes. Fact Sheet Series. http://fhm.fs.fed.us/fact/pdf_files/fhm_purpose_2009.pdf [Accessed December 2010].
US Forest Service . FHM 2009b. Forest Health Monitoring Detection Monitoring. Fact Sheet Series. http://fhm.fs.fed.us/fact/pdf_files/fhm_dm_2009.pdf [Accessed December 2010].
US Forest Service FHP . 2007. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States 2006. U.S. Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Washington, DC. http://www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/publications/ConditionsReport_06_final.pdf [Accessed November 2010].
US Forest Service FIA . 2009. Forest Inventory and Analysis Program FIA Library. FIA Field Methods for Phase 3 Measurements. Version 4.0. http://fia.fs.fed.us/library/field-guides-methods-proc/ [Accessed November 2010].
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (UNEC-ICP) . 2006. Manual on methods and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests: Part I. http://www.icp-forests.org/pdf/Chapt1_compl2006.pdf [November 2010].
Vanguelova, E. , Barsoum, N. , Broadmeadow, M. , et al. 2007. Ten years of intensive environmental monitoring in British forests. Forestry Commission.
Wang, B. , Jin, F. , Yang, F. , and Cui, X. 2003. The Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network (CFERN) and its development. XII World Forestry Congress. Quebec City, Canada. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/ARTICLE/WFC/XII/0048-B4.HTM [Accessed November 2010].
Wardlaw, T. , Carnegie, A. , and Lawson, S. 2007. The scorecard of a decade of forest health surveillance in Australia. 23rd Biennial Institute of Foresters of Australia Conference, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales.
Xiao, F. , Ouyang, H. , Zhang, Q. , Fu, B. , and Zhang, Z. 2004. Forest ecosystem health assessment and analysis in China. Journal Geographical Science 14: 18–24.
Reference Title: References
Reference Type: reference-list
Caswell, H. 1989. Matrix Population Models: Construction, Analysis and Interpretation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Condit, R. , Hubbell, SP. , and Foster, RB. 1995. Mortality rates of 205 neotropical tree and shrub species and the impact of a severe drought. Ecological Monographs 65: 419–439.
Dale, VH. , Joyce, LA. , McNulty, S. et al. 2001. Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience 51: 723–734.
Dayton, PK. 1972. Toward an understanding of community resilience and the potential effects of enrichments to the benthos at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. In: Proceedings of the Colloquium on Conservation Problems in Antarctica. Parker, BC. (ed.). Allen Press, Lawrence, KS.
De Liocourt, F. 1898. De l'amenagement des sapinieres. Bull. Triemestriel Societe Forestiere de Franche-Comte et Belfort, Besancon: 396–409.
Edmonds, RL. , Agee, JK. , and Gara, RI. 2000. The concept of forest health, In: Forest Health and Protection. McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA.
Ellison, AM. , Bank, MS. , Clinton, BD. et al. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 3: 479–486.
Flannigan, MD. , Krawchuk, MA. , de Groot, WJ. et al. 2009. Implications of changing climate for global wildland fire. International Journal Wildland Fire 18: 483–507.
Harcombe, PA. 1987. Tree life tables: Simple birth, growth and death data encapsulate life histories and ecological roles. BioScience 37: 557–568.
Hennon, P.E. , D'Amore, DV. , Wittwer, DT. , and Caouette, JP. 2008. pp. 233–245. In: Integrated Restoration of Forested Ecosystems to Achieve Multiresource Benefits: Proc. 2007 National Silviculture Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTP73. Deal, RL. (tech. ed.). Portland OR: USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Innes, JL. and Karnosky, DF. 2001. Impacts of environmental stress on forest health: the need for more accurate indicators. In: Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management. Raison, RJ. , Brown, AG. , and Flinn, DW. (eds). CAB International, Wallingford.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007 . Climate change 2007: synthesis report. IPCC fourth assessment report. Geneva, Switzerland.
Keane, RE. , Ryan, KC. , Veblen, TT. et al. 2002. The cascading effects of fire exclusion in Rocky Mountain ecosystems. In: Rocky Mountain Futures: An Ecological Perspective. Barton, JS. (ed.). Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Kolb, TE. , Wagner, MR. , and Covington, WW. 1994. Concepts of forest health. Journal Forestry 92: 10–15.
Malthus, TR. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. J. Johnson. London.
Manion, PD. and Griffin, DH. 2001. Large landscape scale analysis of tree death in the Adirondack Park, New York. Forest Science 47: 542–549.
More, TA. 1996. Forestry's fuzzy concepts: An examination of ecosystem management. Journal Forestry 94: 19–23.
Percy, KE. 2002. Is air pollution an important factor in international forest health? In: Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains. Szaro, RC. , Bytnerowicz, A. , and Oszlany, J. (eds). IOS Press, Amsterdam.
Raffa, K. , Aukema, B. , Bentz, BJ. et al. 2009. A literal use of “forest health” safeguards against misuse and misapplication. Journal Forestry 107: 276–277.
Simpson, DR. 2010. If invasive species are “pollutants”, should polluters pay? In: Bioinvasions and Globalization: Ecology, Economics, Management and Policy. Perrings, C. , Mooney, H. , and Williamson, M. (eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
USDA Forest Service. 1993a. Healthy forests for America's future: A strategic plan. USDA Forest Service MP-1513.
USDA Forest Service. 1993b. National Center of Forest Health Management strategic plan. USDA Forest Service. Morgantown, WV.
USDA Forest Service. 2003. Strategic Plan for Forest Health Protection: 2003–2007. USDA Forest Service MP-1590.
Van Mantgem, PJ. , Stephenson, N. , Byrne, JC. et al. 2009. Widespread increase in tree mortality rates in the Western United States. Science 23: 521–524.