18 - A critical appraisal of the meaning and diagnosability of cryptic evolutionary diversity, and its implications for conservation in the face of climate change  pp. 380-438

A critical appraisal of the meaning and diagnosability of cryptic evolutionary diversity, and its implications for conservation in the face of climate change

By J. Bernardo

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Abstract

Accurate species delimitation is a foundational assumption of biological research. It is especially relevant to conservation, because species names are the currency for conservation policy. Cryptic species are species that are deeply genetically divergent from other such lineages, but that have escaped detection and description because they lack obvious morphological discontinuities. They are not necessarily closely related. Genetic data have revealed surprising amounts of cryptic diversity, which has provoked numerous criticisms concerning their taxonomic recognition and relevance to conservation. I critically examine these and other concerns in the context of a hypothetico-deductive framework (HDF) for species delimitation and conclude that they are unfounded. I explore links between taxonomy and systematics with respect to cryptic species recognition, claims about the relative usefulness of morphological versus genetic data for species delimitation, and the kinds of inferential errors that attach to the process of inferring species boundaries. The balance of the chapter shows that the description of cryptic diversity is an important enterprise and considers its implications for conservation biology, especially in the context of global warming.

Introduction

Biodiversity conservation is a multidisciplinary enterprise that seeks to preserve species diversity in the form of ecologically and evolutionarily viable populations.

18

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Alroy, J. (2008). Dynamics of origination and extinction in the marine fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 11536–11542.
Alroy, J., Aberhan, M., Bottjer, D. J. et al. (2008). Phanerozoic trends in the global diversity of marine invertebrates. Science, 321, 97–100.
Araújo, M. B. and Guisan, A. (2006). Five (or so) challenges for species distribution modelling. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1677–1688.
Araújo, M. B., Cabeza, M., Thuiller, W., Hannah, L. and Williams, P. H. (2004). Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods. Global Change Biology, 10, 1618–1626.
Archer, D. (2007). Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change. Biogeosciences, 4, 521–544.
Arrhenius, S. (1908). Worlds in the Making: the Evolution of the Universe. New York, NY: Harper.
Barnard, P. and Thuiller, W. (2008). Global change and biodiversity: future challenges. Biology Letters, 4, 553–555.
Barnosky, A. D. (2001). Distinguishing the effects of the red queen and court jester on Miocene mammal evolution in the northern rocky mountains. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21, 172–185.
Beaumont, L. J., Hughes, L. and Poulsen, M. (2005). Predicting species' distributions: use of climatic parameters in BIOCLIM and its impact on predictions of species' current and future distributions. Ecological Modelling, 186, 250–269.
Beerling, D. J. (2005). Leaf evolution: gases, genes and geochemistry. Annals of Botany, 96, 345–352.
Beerling, D. J. (2009). The Emerald Planet: How Plants Changed Earth's History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beerling, D. J. and Berner, R. A. (2005). Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 1302–1305.
Beerling, D. J. and Woodward, F. I. (2001). Vegetation and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle: Modelling the First 400 Million Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Beerling, D. J., Osborne, C. P. and Chaloner, W. G. (2001). Evolution of leaf-form in land plants linked to atmospheric CO2 decline in the Late Palaeozoic era. Nature, 410, 352–354.
Benton, M. J. (2003). When Life Nearly Died: the Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time. London: Thames and Hudson.
Benton, M. J. (2009). The Red Queen and the Court Jester: species diversity and the role of biotic and abiotic factors through time. Science, 323, 728–732.
Benton, M. J. and Twitchett, R. J. (2003). How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 358–365.
Berner, R. A. (1997). The rise of plants and their effect on weathering and atmospheric CO2. Science, 276, 544–546.
Berner, R. A. (2004). The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle: CO2 and O2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Berteaux, D., Reale, D., McAdam, A. G. and Boutin, S. (2004). Keeping pace with fast climate change: can Arctic life count on evolution? Integrative and Comparative Biology, 44, 140–151.
Besnard, G., Muasya, A. M., Russier, F. et al. (2009). Phylogenomics of C4 photosynthesis in sedges (Cyperaceae): multiple appearances and genetic convergence. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26, 1909–1919.
Both, C., Bouwhuis, S., Lessells, C. M. and Visser, M. E. (2006). Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature, 441, 81–83.
Bouchenak-Khelladi, Y., Salamin, N., Savolainen, V. et al. (2008). Large multi-gene phylogenetic trees of the grasses (Poaceae): progress towards complete tribal and generic level sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47, 488–505.
Bouchenak-Khelladi, Y., Verboom, G. A., Hodkinson, T. R. et al. (2009). The origins and diversification of C4 grasses and savanna-adapted ungulates. Global Change Biology, 15, 2397–2417.
Bouchenak-Khelladi, Verboom, G. A., Savolainen, V. and Hodkinson, T. R. (2010). Biogeography of the grasses (Poaceae): a phylogenetic approach to reveal evolutionary history in geographical space and geological time. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 162, 543–557.
Bradshaw, A. D. (1965). Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Advances in Genetics, 13, 115–155.
Bradshaw, W. E. and Holzapfel, C. M. (2006). Evolutionary response to rapid climate change. Science, 312, 1477–1478.
Breckle, S. W. (2002). Walter's Vegetation of the Earth: the Ecological Systems of the GeoBiosphere, 4th edn. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Broecker, W. S. (1994). Massive iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature, 372, 421–424.
Broennimann, O. and Guisan, A. (2008). Predicting current and future biological invasions: both native and invaded ranges matter. Biological Letters, 4, 585–589.
Broennimann, O., Treier, U. A., Müller-Schärer, H. et al. (2007). Evidence of climatic niche shift during biological invasion. Ecology Letters, 10, 701–709.
Caldeira, K. and Kasting, J. F. (1992). Susceptibility of the early Earth to irreversible glaciation caused by carbon dioxide clouds. Nature, 359, 226–228.
Campbell, N. A., Reece, J. B., Urry, L. A. et al. (2008). Biology, 8th edn. London: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Carnaval, A. C. and Moritz, C. (2008). Historical climate modelling predicts patterns of current biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Journal of Biogeography, 25, 1187–1201.
Christin, P. A., Besnard, G., Samaritani, E. et al. (2008). Oligocene CO2 decline promoted C4 photosynthesis in grasses. Current Biology, 18, 37–43.
Cleland, E. E., Chuine, I., Menzel, A., Mooney, H. A. and Schwartz, M. D. (2007). Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 357–365.
Copley, J. (2001). The story of O. Nature, 410, 862–864.
Cornette, J. L., Lieberman, B. S. and Goldstein, R. H. (2002). Documenting a significant relationship between macroevolutionary origination rates and Phanerozoic pCO2 levels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 7832–7835.
Cotton, P. A. (2003). Avian migration phenology and global climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100, 12219–12222.
Cox, M., Cox, C. B. and Moore, P. D. (2010). Biogeography: an Ecological and Evolutionary Approach, 8th edn. Oxford: Wiley.
Cox, P. M., Betts, R. A., Jones, C. D., Spall, S. A. and Totterdell, I. J. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408, 184–187.
Cramer, B. S., Toggweiler, J. R., Wright, J. D., Katz, M. E. and Miller, K. G. (2009). Ocean overturning since the Late Cretaceous: inferences from a new benthic foraminiferal isotope compilation. Paleoceanography, 24, PA4216, 1–14.
Cramer, W., Bondeau, A., Woodward, F. I. et al. (2001). Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology, 7, 357–373.
Crawford, R. M. M. (2008). Plants at the Margin: Ecological Limits and Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Darwin, C. (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray.
Darwin, C. R. and Wallace, A. R. (1858). On the tendency of species to form varieties; and on the perpetuation of varieties and species by natural means of selection. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology, 3, 46–50.
Davis, M. B. (2005). Comparison of climate space and phylogeny of Marmota (Mammalia: Rodentia) indicates a connection between evolutionary history and climate preference. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 272, 519–526.
Davis, M. B. and Shaw, R. G. (2001). Range shifts and adaptive responses to quaternary climate change. Science, 292, 673–679.
DeConto, R. M., Pollard, D., Wilson, P. et al. (2008). Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation. Nature, 455, 652–656.
Derory, J., Scotti-Saintagne, C. Bertocchi, E. et al. (2010). Contrasting relations between diversity of candidate genes and variation of bud burst in natural and segregating populations of European oaks. Heredity, 104, 438–448.
Dixon, H. and Joly, J. (1895). On the ascent of sap. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 186, 563–576.
Donnadieu, Y., Goddéris, Y., Ramstein, G., Nédélec, A. and Meert, J. (2004). A snowball Earth climate triggered by continental break-up through changes in runoff. Nature, 428, 303–306.
Donoghue, M. J. (2005). Key innovations, convergence, and success: macroevolutionary lessons from plant phylogeny. Paleobiology, 31, 77–93
Donoghue, M. J. (2008). A phylogenetic perspective on the distribution of plant diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 11549–11555.
Edwards, E. J. and Still, C. J. (2008). Climate, phylogeny and the ecological distribution of C4 grasses. Ecology Letters, 11, 266–276.
Edwards, E. J., Still, C. J. and Donoghue, M. J. (2007). The relevance of phylogeny to studies of global climate change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 243–249.
Edwards, M. and Richardson, A. J. (2004). Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch. Nature, 430, 881–884.
Eldrett, J. S., Harding, I. C., Wilson, P. A., Butler, E. and Roberts, A. P. (2007). Continental ice in Greenland during the Eocene and Oligocene. Nature, 446, 176–179.
Elith, J. and Leathwick, J. R. (2009). Species distribution models: ecological explanation and prediction across space and time. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 40, 677–697.
Elith, J., Graham, C. H., Anderson, R. P. et al. (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species' distributions from occurrence data. Ecography, 29, 129–151.
Engelbrecht, B. M. J., Comita, L. S., Condit, R. et al. (2007). Drought sensitivity shapes species distribution patterns in tropical forests. Nature, 447, 80.
EPICA (2004). Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature, 429, 623–628.
Eriksson, G., Andersson, S., Eiche, V., Ifver, J. and Persson, A. (1980). Severity index and transfer effects on survival and volume production of Pinus sylvestris in Northern Sweden. Studia Forestalia Suecica, 156, 1–31.
Eveno, E., Collada, C., Guevara, M. A. et al. (2008). Contrasting patterns of selection at Pinus pinaster Ait. Drought stress candidate genes as revealed by genetic differentiation analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25, 417–437.
Excoffier, L., Foll, M. and Petit, R. J. (2009). Genetic consequences of range expansions. Annual Review in Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 40, 481–501.
Fitter, A. H. and Fitter, R. S. R. (2002). Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants. Science, 296, 1689–1691.
Graham, C. H., Ferrier, S., Huettman, F., Moritz, C. and Peterson, A. T. (2004a). New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 497–503.
Graham, C. H., Ron, S. R., Santos, J. C., Schneider, C. J. and Moritz, C. (2004b). Integrating phylogenetics and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms in dendrobatid frogs. Evolution, 58, 1781–1793.
Green, R. E., Collingham, Y. C., Wills, S. G. et al. (2008). Performance of climate envelope models in retrodicting recent changes in bird population size from observed climatic change. Biological Letters, 4, 599–602.
Grinnell, J. (1917). The niche-relationships of the California Thrasher. Auk, 34, 427–433.
Guisan, A. and Thuiller, W. (2005). Predicting species' distributions: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters, 8, 993–1009.
Hadly, E. A., Ramakrishnan, U., Chan, Y. L. et al. (2004). Genetic response to climate change: insights from ancient DNA and phylochronology. PLOS Biology, 2, 1–10.
Haeger, J. F. (1999). Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus 1758) en la Península Ibérica: migraciones o Dinámica de metapoblaciones? Shilap, 27, 423–430.
Hall, D., Luquez, V., Garcia, V. M. et al. (2007). Adaptive population differentiation in phenology across a latitudinal gradient in European aspen (Populus tremula, L.): a comparison of neutral markers, candidate genes and phenotypic traits. Evolution, 61, 2849–2860.
Hannah, L. (2008). Protected areas and climate change. In Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology 2008, ed. R. S. Ostfeld and W. H. Schlesinger. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 201–212.
Hannah, L., Midgley, G., Andelman, S. et al. (2007). Protected area needs in a changing climate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, 131–138.
Hannah, L., Dave, R., Lowry, P. P. et al. (2008). Climate change adaptation for conservation in Madagascar. Biology Letters, 4, 590–594.
Hardy, C. R. (2006). Reconstructing ancestral ecologies: challenges and possible solutions. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 7–19.
Hedges, S. B. and Kumar, S. (2009). Discovering the timetree of life. In The Timetree of Life, ed. S. B. Hedges and S. Kumar. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 3–18.
Heikkinen, R. K., Luoto, M., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2006). Methods and uncertainties in bioclimatic envelope modeling under climate change. Progress in Physical Geography, 30, 751–777.
Heinrich, H. (1988). Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130,000 years. Quaternary Research, 29, 142–152.
Hersteinsson, P. and MacDonald, D. W. (1992). Interspecific competition and the geographical distribution of red and arctic foxes Vulpes vulpes and Alopex lagopus. Oikos, 64, 505–515.
Hewitt, G. (2000). The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature, 405, 907–913.
Hijmans, R. J. and Graham, C. H. (2006). The ability of climate envelope models to predict the effect of climate change on species' distributions. Global Change Biology, 12, 2272–2281.
Hodkinson, T. R. and Parnell, J. A. N. (2007). Introduction to the systematics of species rich groups. In Towards the Tree of Life: Systematics of Species Rich Groups, ed. T. R. Hodkinson and J. A. N. Parnell. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3–20.
Hodkinson, T. R., Savolainen, V., Jacobs, S. W. et al. (2007). Supersizing: progress in documenting and understanding grass richness. In Towards the Tree of Life: Systematics of Species Rich Groups, ed. T. R. Hodkinson and J. A. N. Parnell. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 279–298.
Hoffman, P. F., Kaufman, A. J., Halverson, G. P. and Schrag, D. P. (1998). A Neoproterozoic snowball earth. Science, 281, 1342–1346.
Hole, D. G., Willis, S. G., Pain, D. J. et al. (2009). Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network. Ecology Letters, 12, 420–431.
Hole, D. G., Huntley, B., Arinaitwe, J. et al. (in press). Towards a management framework for key biodiversity networks in the face of climatic change. Conservation Biology.
Huber, B. T., MacLeod, K. G. and Wing, S. L., eds. (2000). Warm Climates in Earth History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huber, M. and Caballero, R. (2003). Eocene El Niño: evidence for robust tropical dynamics in the ‘hothouse’. Science, 299, 877–881.
Huber, M. and Sloan, L. C. (2001). Heat transport, deep waters and thermal gradients: coupled climate simulation of an Eocene greenhouse climate. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 3841–3884.
Huntley, B. (2007a). Climatic Change and the Conservation of European Biodiversity: Towards the Development of Adaptation Strategies. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Convention of the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats.
Huntley, B. (2007b). Evolutionary response to climate change? Heredity, 98, 247–248.
Huntley, B., Barnard, P., Altwegg, R. et al. (2010). Beyond bioclimatic envelopes: dynamic species' range and abundance modelling in the context of climatic change. Ecography, 33, 11–16.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1957). Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 22, 415–427.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1978). An Introduction to Population Ecology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ingvarsson, P. K., Garcia, M. V., Hall, D., Luquez, V. and Jansson, S. (2006). Clinal variation in phyB2, a candidate gene for day-length-induced growth cessation and bud set, across a latitudinal gradient in European aspen (Populus tremula). Genetics, 172, 1845–1853.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007a). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. R. K. Pachauri and A. Reisinger, Geneva: IPCC.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007b). Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Gland and Cambridge: IUCN.
Jablonski, D., Roy, K. and Valentine, J. W. (2006). Out of the tropics: evolutionary dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Science, 314, 102–106.
Jakob, S. S., Martinez-Meyer, E. and Blattner, F. R. (2009). Phylogeographic analyses and paleodistribution modeling indicate pleistocene in situ survival of Hordeum species (Poaceae) in southern Patagonia without genetic or spatial restriction. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26, 907–923.
Juckes, M. N., Allen, M. R., Briffa, K. R. et al. (2007). Millennial temperature reconstruction intercomparison and evaluation. Climate of the Past, 3, 591–609.
Jump, A. S. and Peñuelas, J. (2005). Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters, 8, 1010–1020.
Jump, A. S., Hunt, J. M., Martinez-Izquierdo, J. A. and Peñ uelas, J. (2006). Natural selection and climate change: temperature-linked spatial and temporal trends in gene frequency in Fagus sylvatica. Molecular Ecology, 15, 3469–3480.
Jump, A. S., Peñuelas, J., Rico, L. et al. (2008). Simulated climate change provokes rapid genetic change in the Mediterranean shrub Fumana thymifolia. Global Change Biology, 14, 637–643.
Jump, A. S., Matyas, C. and Peñuelas, J. (2009). The altitude-for-latitude disparity in the range retractions of woody species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24, 694–701.
Keith, D. A., Akçakaya, H. R., Thuiller W. et al. (2008). Predicting extinction risks under climate change: coupling stochastic population models with dynamic bioclimatic habitat models. Biology Letters, 4, 560–563.
Kelleher, C. T., Hodkinson, T. R., Kelly, D. L. and Douglas, G. C. (2004). Characterisation of chloroplast DNA haplotypes to reveal the provenance and genetic structure of oaks in Ireland. Forest Ecology and Management, 189, 123–131.
Kenrick, P. and Crane, P. R. (1997). The origin and early evolution of plants on land. Nature, 389, 33–39.
Kirchner, J. W. and Weil, A. (1990). Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record. Nature, 404, 177–180.
Knoll, A. H. and Lipps, J. H. (1993). Evolutionary history of prokaryotes and protists. In Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists, ed. J. H. Lipps. Boston, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 19–93.
Korner, C. (2006). Plant CO2 responses: an issue of definition, time and resource supply. New Phytologist, 172, 393–411.
Kozak, K. H., Graham, C. H. and Wiens, J. J. (2008). Integrating GIS-based environmental data into evolutionary biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 141–148.
Krutovsky, K. V. and Neale, D. B. (2005). Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in cold-hardiness- and wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir. Genetics, 171, 2029–2041.
Kump, L. R. and Pollard, D. (2008). Amplification of Cretaceous warmth by biological cloud feedbacks. Science, 320, 195.
Lenton, T. M. (2004). The coupled evolution of life and atmospheric oxygen. In Evolution on Planet Earth, ed. L. J. Rothschild and A. Lister. Boston, MA: Academic Press.
Lenton, T. M., Held, H., Kriegler, E. et al. (2008). Tipping elements in the earth's climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 1786–1793.
Lovejoy, T. E. and Hannah, L., eds. (2005). Climate Change and Biodiversity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lowe, A., Harris, S. and Ashton, P. (2004). Ecological Genetics: Design, Analysis, and Application. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lowe, J. J. and Walker, M. J. C. (1997). Reconstructing Quaternary Environments. Harlow: Longman.
MacArthur, R. H. and Wilson, E. O. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Masson-Delmotte, V., Jouzel, J., Landais, A. et al. (2005). GRIP deuterium excess reveals rapid and orbital-scale changes in Greenland moisture origin. Science, 309, 118–121.
Mayhew, P. J., Jenkins, G. B. and Benton, T. G. (2008). A long-term association between global temperature and biodiversity, origination and extinction in the fossil record. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 275, 47–53.
McElwain, J. C. (2002). Is the greenhouse theory a fallacy? A paleontological paradox. Palaios, 17, 417–418.
McElwain, J. C. and Chaloner, W. G. (1995). Stomatal density and index of fossil plants track atmospheric carbon dioxide in the Paleozoic. Annals of Botany, 76, 389–395.
McElwain, J. C. and Punyasena, S. (2007). Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 548–557.
McElwain, J. C., Beerling, D. J. and Woodward, F. I. (1999). Fossil plants and global warming at the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Science, 285, 1386–1390.
McManus, J. F. (2004). A great grand-daddy of ice cores. Nature, 429, 611–612.
McMenamin, S. K., Hadly, E. A. and Wright, C. K. (2008). Climatic change and wetland desiccation cause amphibian decline in Yellowstone National Park. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 16988–16993.
Meehl, G. A., Stocker, T. F., Collins, W. D. et al. (2007). Global climate projections. In Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 747–845.
Menzel, A., Sparks, T. H., Estrella, N. et al. (2006). European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Global Change Biology, 12, 1969–1976.
Meyer, K. M. and Kump, L. R. (2008). Oceanic euxinia in Earth history: causes and consequences. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 36, 251–288.
Møller, A. P., Rubolini, D. and Lehikoinen, E. (2008). Populations of migratory bird species that did not show a phenological response to climate change are declining. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 16195–16200.
Moritz, C., Patton, J. L., Conroy, C. J. et al. (2008). Impact of a century of climate change on small-mammal communities in Yosemite National Park, USA. Science, 322, 261–264.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A. B. and Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853–858.
Neale, D. B. and Ingvarsson, P. K. (2008). Population, quantitative and comparative genomics of adaptation in forest trees. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 11, 149–155.
Neale, D. B. and Savolainen, O. (2004). Association genetics of complex traits in conifers. Trends in Plant Science, 9, 325–330.
North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) (2004). High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature, 431, 147–151.
Ogg, J. G., Ogg, G. and Gradstein, F. (2008). Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Osborne, C. P. and Freckleton, R. P. (2009). Ecological selection pressures for C4 photosynthesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276, 1753–1760.
Pagani, M., Arthur, M. A. and Freeman, K. H. (1999). Miocene evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Paleoceanography, 14, 273–292.
Pagani, M., Zachos, J. C., Freeman, K. H., Tipple, B. and Bohaty, S. (2005). Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science, 309, 600–603.
Pakenham, T. (2003). Remarkable Trees of the World. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Palmer, J. D., Soltis, D. E. and Chase, M. W. (2004). The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view. American Journal of Botany, 91, 1437–1445.
Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 637–669.
Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature, 421, 37–42.
Parmesan, C., Ryrholm, N., Stefanescu, C. et al. (1999). Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature, 399, 579–583.
Pauli, H., Gottfried, M., Reiter, K., Klettner, C. and Grabherr, G. (2006). Signals of range expansions and contractions of vascular plants in the high Alps: observations (1994–2004) at the GLORIA master site Schrankogel, Tyrol, Austria. Global Change Biology, 13, 147–156.
Pearman, P. B., Guisan, A., Broennimann, O. and Randin, C. F. (2007). Niche dynamics in space and time. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 149–158.
Pearman, P. B., Randin, C. F., Broennimann, O. et al. (2008). Prediction of plant species' distributions across six millennia. Ecology Letters, 11, 357–369.
Pearson, P. N. and Palmer, M. R. (2000). Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature, 406, 695–699.
Pearson, R. G. (2006). Climate change and the migration capacity of species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 111–113.
Pearson, R. G. and Dawson, T. P. (2003). Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12, 361–371.
Pearson, R. G., Thuiller, W., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2006). Model-based uncertainty in species range prediction. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1704–1711.
Peters, S. E. (2008). Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record. Nature, 454, 626–629.
Peters, S. E. and Foote, M. (2002). Determinants of extinction in the fossil record. Nature, 416, 420–424.
Peterson, A. T. (2006). Uses and requirements of ecological niche models and related distributional models. Biodiversity Informatics, 3, 59–72.
Peterson, A. T., Soberón, J. and Sánchez-Cordero, V. (1999). Conservation of ecological niches in evolutionary time. Science, 285, 1265–1267.
Petit, J. R., Basile, I., Leruyuet, A. et al. (1999). Four climate cycles in Vostok ice core. Nature, 387, 359–360.
Petit, R. J., Csaikl, U. M., Bordács, S. et al. (2002). Chloroplast DNA variation in European white oaks: phylogeography and patterns of diversity based on data from over 2600 populations. Forest Ecology and Management, 156, 5–26.
Phillips, N. (1956). The general circulation of the atmosphere: a numerical experiment. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 82, 123–164.
Phillips, S. J., Anderson, R. P. and Schapire, R. E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Pierrehumbert, R. T. (2004). High levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide necessary for the termination of global glaciation. Nature, 429, 646–649.
Poorter, H. and Navas, M. L. (2003). Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups. New Phytologist, 157, 175–198.
Pounds, J. A., Fogden, M. P. L. and Campbell, J. H. (1999). Biological responses to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature, 398, 611–615.
Pounds, J. A., Bustamente, M. R., Coloma, L. A. et al. (2006). Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature, 439, 161–167.
Purvis, A. (1996). Using interspecies phylogenies to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. In New Uses for New Phylogenies, ed. P. H. Harvey, A. J. Leigh Brown, J. Maynard Smith and S. Nee. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 153–168.
Ramakrishnan, U. and Hadly, E. A. (2009). Using phylochronology to reveal cryptic population histories: review and synthesis of 29 ancient DNA studies. Molecular Ecology, 18, 1310–1330.
Raup, D. M. and Sepkoski, J. J. (1982). Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record. Science, 215, 1501–1503.
Rieseberg, L. H. and Carney, S. E. (1998). Plant hybridization. New Phytologist, 140, 599–624.
Rieseberg, L. H., Raymond, O., Rosenthal, D. M. et al. (2003). Major ecological transitions in wild sunflowers facilitated by hybridization. Science, 301, 1211–1216.
Roalson, E. H. (2008). C4 photosynthesis: differentiating causation and coincidence. Current Biology, 18, 167–168.
Rödder, D. and Lötters, S. (2009). Niche shift or niche conservatism? Climatic properties of the native and invasive range of the Mediterranean Housegecko Hemidactylus turcicus. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 18, 674–687.
Rohde, R. A. and Muller, R. A. (2005). Cycles in fossil diversity. Nature, 434, 208–210.
Root, T. L., Price, J. T., Hall, K. R., Schneider, S. H. and Rosenzweig, C. (2003). Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature, 421, 57–60.
Rosenzweig, C., Casassa, G., Karoly, D. J. et al. (2007). Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. In Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. van der Linden and C. Hanson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 79–131.
Rosenzweig, M. L. (1995). Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roy, D. B. and Sparks, T. H. (2000). Phenology of British butterflies and climate change. Global Change Biology, 6, 407–416.
Royer, D. L. (2001). Stomatal density and stomatal index as indicators of paleoatmospheric CO2 concentration. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 114, 1–28.
Royer, D. L., Berner, R. A., Montañez, I. P., Tibor, N. J. and Beerling, D. J. (2004). CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate. Geological Society of America Today, 14, 4–10.
Ruddiman, W. F. (2003). The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago. Climatic Change, 61, 261–293.
Ruegg, K., Slabbekoorn, H., Clegg, S. and Smith, T. B. (2006). Divergence in mating signals correlates with ecological variation in the migratory songbird, Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Molecular Ecology, 15, 3147–3156.
Sage, R. F. (2004). The evolution of C-4 photosynthesis. New Phytologist, 161, 341–370.
Schmidt, K. P. (1954). Faunal realms, regions, and provinces. Quarterly Review of Biology, 29, 322–331.
Sepkoski, J. J. (2002). A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletin of American Paleontology, 363, 1–560.
Sexton, J. P., McIntyre, P. J., Angert, A. L. and Rice, K. J. (2009). Evolution and ecology of species range limits. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 40, 415–436.
Shaviv, N. J. and Veizer, J. (2003). Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? Geological Society of America Today, 13, 4–10.
Sheehan, P. M. (2001). The Late Ordovician mass extinction. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29, 331–364.
Soberón, J. and Peterson, A. T. (2004). Biodiversity informatics: managing and applying primary biodiversity data.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 689–698.
Soltis, P. S. and Soltis, D. E. (2009). The role of hybridization in plant speciation. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 60, 561–588.
Steffensen, J. P., Andersen, K. K., Bigler, M. et al. (2008). High-resolution Greenland ice core data show abrupt climate change happens in few years. Science, 321, 680–684.
Stokstad, E. (2001). Myriad ways to reconstruct past climate. Science, 292, 658–659.
Sutherland, W. J. (2006). Predicting the ecological consequences of environmental change: a review of the methods. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 599–616.
Svensmark, H. and Calder, N. (2007). The Chilling Stars: a New Theory of Climate Change. Cambridge: Icon Books.
Swenson, N. G. (2006). GIS-based niche models reveal unifying climatic mechanisms that maintain the location of avian hybrid zones in a North American suture zone. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19, 717–725.
Thomas, C. D. and Lennon, J. J. (1999). Birds extend their ranges northwards. Nature, 399, 213.
Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E. et al. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427, 145–148.
Thomas, C. D., Franco, A. M. A. and Hill, J. K. (2006). Range retractions and extinction in the face of climate warming. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 415–416.
Thuiller, W. (2004). Patterns and uncertainties of species' range shifts under climate change. Global Change Biology, 10, 2020–2027.
Thuiller, W., Albert, C., Araú jo, M. B. et al. (2008). Predicting global change impacts on plant species' distributions: future challenges. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 9, 137–152.
Trenberth, K. E., Jones, P. D., Ambenje, P. et al. (2007). Observations: surface and atmospheric climate change. In Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 235–336.
Tyndall, J. (1865). Heat Considered as a Mode of Motion, 2nd edn. London: Longman Green.
van de Schootbrugge, B., Quan, T. M., Lindström, S. et al. (2009). Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. Nature Geoscience, 2, 589–594.
van Herk, C. M., Aptroot, A. and van Dobben, H. F. (2002). Long-term monitoring in the Netherlands suggests that lichens respond to global warming. Lichenologist, 34, 141–154.
van Valen, L. (1973). A new evolutionary law. Evolutionary Theory, 1, 1–30.
Veizer, J., Godderis, Y. and François, L. M. (2000). Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon. Nature, 408, 698–701.
Vila, M., Weber, E. and Antonio, C. M. D. (2000). Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization. Biological Invasions, 2, 207–217.
Wake, D. B., Hadley, E. A., and Ackerly, D. D. (2009). Biogeography, changing climates, and niche evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 106, 19631–19636.
Wallace, A. R. (1869). The Malay Archipelago; The Land of the Orang-utan and the Bird of Paradise; A Narrative of Travel With Studies of Man and Nature. London: Macmillan.
Wallace, A. R. (1876). The Geographical Distribution of Animals; With A Study of the Relations of Living and Extinct Faunas as Elucidating the Past Changes of the Earth's Surface. London: Macmillan.
Wallace, A. R. (1880). Island Life: Or, The Phenomena and Causes of Insular Faunas and Floras, Including a Revision and Attempted Solution of the Problem of Geological Climates. London: Macmillan.
Walther, G. R., Post, E., Convey, P. et al. (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature, 416, 389–395.
Wiens, J. J. and Graham, C. H. (2005). Niche conservatism: integrating evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 36, 519–539.
Wignall, P. B. (2005). The link between large igneous province eruptions and mass extinctions. Elements, 1, 293–297.
Williams, J. W. and Jackson, S. T. (2007). Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, 475–482.
Williams, J. W., Jackson, S. T. and Kutzbach, J. E. (2007). Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104, 5738–5742.
Willig, M. R., Kaufmann, D. M. and Stevens, R. D. (2003). Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale and synthesis. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 273–309.
Willis, K. J. and McElwain, J. C. (2002). The Evolution of Plants. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wilson, E. O. (1992). The Diversity of Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilson, J. W, Gutiérrez, D., Martinez, D., Agudo, R. and Monserrat, V. J. (2005). Changes to the elevational limits and extent of species ranges associated with climate change. Ecological Letters, 8, 1138–1146.
Wnuk, C. (1996). The development of floristic provinciality during the Middle and Late Paleozoic. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 90, 6–40.
Woodward, F. I. (1987). Stomatal numbers are sensitive to increase in CO2 from pre-industrial levels. Nature, 327, 617–618.
Woodward, F. I. and Kelly, C. K. (2008). Responses of global plant biodiversity capacity to changes in carbon dioxide concentration and climate. Ecology Letters, 11, 1229–1237.
Wunsch, C. (2004). Quantitative estimate of the Milankovitch-forced contribution to observed Quaternary climate change. Quarterly Science Reviews, 23, 1001–1012.
Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006a). A phyloclimatic study of Cyclamen. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 6, 72.
Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006b). Phyloclimatic modelling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modelling. Systematic Biology, 55, 785–802.
Zachos, J. C., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. and Billups, K. (2001). Trends, rythms and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292, 686–693.
Zachos, J. C., Dickens, G. R. and Zeebe, R. E. (2008). An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature, 451, 279–283.
Zeebe, R. E., Zachos, J. C. and Dickens, G. R. (2009). Carbon dioxide forcing alone insufficient to explain Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum warming. Nature Geoscience, 2, 576–580.
Ziegler, A.M., Eshel, G., McAllister, R. et al. (2003). Tracing the tropics across land and sea: Permian to present. Lethaia, 36, 227–254.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Abbot, D. S. and Tziperman, E. (2008). Sea ice, high-latitude convection, and equable climates. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L03702.
Alvarez, L. W., Alvarez, W., Asaro, F. and Michel, H. V. (1980). Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction. Science, 208, 1095–1108.
Bartoli, G., Sarnthein, M., Weinelt, M. et al. (2005). Final closure of Panama and the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 237, 33–44.
Beerling, D. J. and Berner, R. A. (2005). Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 1302–1305.
Benton, M. J. and Twitchett, R. J. (2003). How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 358–365.
Beran, J. (1994). Statistics for Long-Memory Processes. Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC.
Berner, R. A. (2004). The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle: CO2 and O2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Berner, R. A., Lasaga, A. and Garrels, R. (1983). The carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years. American Journal of Science, 283, 641–683.
Billups, K. and Schrag, D. P. (2003). Application of benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios to questions of Cenozoic climate change. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 209, 181–195.
Buffett, B. and Archer, D. (2004). Global inventory of methane clathrate: sensitivity to changes in the deep ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 227, 185–199.
Caballero, R. and Langen, P. L. (2005). The dynamic range of poleward energy transport in an atmospheric general circulation model. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L02705.
Caldeira, K. and Kasting, J. F. (1992). Susceptibility of the early Earth to irreversible glaciation caused by carbon dioxide clouds. Nature, 359, 226–228.
Charney, J. G., Fjørtoft, R. and von Neumann, J. (1950). Numerical integration of the barotropic vorticity equation. Tellus, 2, 237–254.
Coxall, H. K., Wilson, P. A., Pälike, H., Lear, C. H. and Backman, J. (2005). Rapid stepwise onset of Antarctic glaciation and deeper calcite compensation in the Pacific Ocean. Nature, 433, 53–57.
DeConto, R. M. and Pollard, D. (2003). Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature, 421, 245–249.
DeConto, R. M., Pollard, D., Wilson, P. et al. (2008). Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation. Nature, 455, 652–656.
Dickens, G. R. (2003). Rethinking the global carbon cycle with a large, dynamic and microbially mediated gas hydrate capacitor. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 213, 169–183.
Donnadieu, Y., Goddéris, Y., Ramstein, G., Nédélec, A. and Meert, J. (2004). A snowball Earth climate triggered by continental break-up through changes in runoff. Nature, 428, 303–306.
Eldrett, J. S., Harding, I. C., Wilson, P. A., Butler, E. and Roberts, A. P. (2007). Continental ice in Greenland during the Eocene and Oligocene. Nature, 446, 176–179.
Emanuel, K. (2001). Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 14771–14781.
Emanuel, K. (2002). A simple model for multiple climate regimes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (D9), 4077.
Frakes, L. A., Francis, J. E. and Syktus, J. I. (1992). Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greenwood, D. R. and Wing, S. L. (1995). Eocene continental climates and latitudinal temperature gradients. Geology, 23, 1044–1048.
Higgins, J. A. and Schrag, D. P. (2006). Beyond methane: towards a theory for the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245, 523–537.
Hoffman, P. F., Kaufman, A. J., Halverson, G. P. and Schrag, D. P. (1998). A Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Science, 281, 1342–1346.
Huber, M. and Caballero, R. (2003). Eocene El Niño: evidence for robust tropical dynamics in the ‘hothouse’. Science, 299, 877–881.
Huber, M. and Sloan, L. C. (2001). Heat transport, deep waters and thermal gradients: coupled climate simulation of an Eocene greenhouse climate. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 3841–3884.
Huber, M., Brinkhuis, H., Stickley, C. E. et al. (2004). Eocene circulation of the Southern Ocean: was Antarctica kept warm by subtropical waters? Paleoceanography, 19, PA4026.
Huybers, P. and Curry, W. (2006). Links between annual, Milankovitch and continuum temperature variability. Nature, 441, 329–332.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keigwin, L. (1982). Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and East Pacific: role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time. Science, 217, 350–353.
Kennett, J. P. (1977). Cenozoic evolution of Antarctic glaciation, the circum-Antarctic Ocean, and their impact on global paleoceanography. Journal of Geophysical Research, 82, 3843–3860.
Kent, D. V. and Muttoni, G. (2008). Equatorial convergence of India and early Cenozoic climate trends. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 16065–16070.
Kiehl, J. T. and Shields, C. A. (2005). Climate simulation of the latest Permian: implications for mass extinction. Geology, 33, 757–760.
Kirschvink, J. L. (1992). Late Proterozoic low-latitude global glaciation: the snowball earth. In The Proterozoic Biosphere: a Multidisciplinary Study, ed. J. W. Schopf and C. Klein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 51–52.
Korty, R. L., Emanuel, K. A. and Scott, J. R. (2008). Tropical cyclone-induced upper-ocean mixing and climate: application to equable climates. Journal of Climate, 21, 638–654.
Kump, L. R. and Pollard, D. (2008). Amplification of Cretaceous warmth by biological cloud feedbacks. Science, 320, 195.
Kutzbach, J. E. (1976). The nature of climate and climatic variations. Quaternary Research, 6, 471–480.
Lewis, J. M. (1998). Clarifying the dynamics of the general circulation: Phillips's 1956 experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79, 39–60.
Lindzen, R. S., Chou, M. D. and Hou, A. Y. (2001). Does the earth have an adaptive infrared iris? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82, 417–432.
Liu, Z., Pagani, M., Zinniker, D. et al. (2009). Global cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Science, 323, 1187–1190.
Lourens, L. J., Sluijs, A., Kroon, D. et al. (2005). Astronomical pacing of late Palaeocene to early Eocene global warming events. Nature, 435, 1083–1087.
Lunt, D. J., Foster, G. L., Haywood, A. M. and Stone, E. J. (2008). Late Pliocene Greenland glaciation controlled by a decline in atmospheric CO2 levels. Nature, 454, 1102–1105.
Lynch, P. (2006). The Emergence of Numerical Weather Prediction: Richardson's Dream. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mayhew, P. J., Jenkins, G. B. and Benton, T. G. (2008). A long-term association between global temperature and biodiversity, origination and extinction in the fossil record. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 275, 47–53.
McElwain, J. C., Beerling, D. J. and Woodward, F. I. (1999). Fossil plants and global warming at the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Science, 285, 1386–1390.
McGrath, R. and Lynch, P., eds. (2008). Ireland in a Warmer World: Scientific Predictions of the Irish Climate in the Twenty-First Century. Dublin: Met Éireann.
Mitchell, J. M. (1976). An overview of climatic variability and its causal mechanisms. Quaternary Research, 6, 481–493.
Molnar, P. and Cane, M. A. (2002). El Niño's tropical climate and teleconnections as a blueprint for pre-Ice Age climates. Paleoceanography, 17, 1021.
O'Gorman, P. A. and Schneider, T. (2008). The hydrological cycle over a wide range of climates simulated with an idealized GCM. Journal of Climate, 21, 3815–3832.
Pagani, M., Zachos, J. C., Freeman, K. H., Tipple, B. and Bohaty, S. (2005). Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science, 309, 600–603.
Pearson, P. N., van Dongen, B. E., Nicholas, C. J. et al. (2007). Stable warm tropical climate through the Eocene Epoch. Geology, 35, 211–214.
Philander, S. G. and Fedorov, A. V. (2003). Role of tropics in changing the response to Milankovich forcing some three million years ago. Paleoceanography, 18, 1045.
Phillips, N. (1956). The general circulation of the atmosphere: a numerical experiment. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 82, 123–164.
Pierrehumbert, R. T. (2004). High levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide necessary for the termination of global glaciation. Nature, 429, 646–649.
Pierrehumbert, R. T. (2005). Climate dynamics of a hard snowball earth. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D1111.
Royer, D. L. (2006). CO2-forced climate thresholds during the Phanerozoic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 5665–5675.
Royer, D. L., Berner, R. A., Montañez, I. P., Tabor, N. J. and Beerling, D. J. (2004). CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate. Geological Society of America Today, 14, 5.
Ruddiman, W. F. and Kutzbach, J. E. (1989). Forcing of late Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere climate by plateau uplift in southern Asia and the American West. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 18, 409–418, 427.
Sagan, C. and Mullen, G. (1972). Earth and Mars: evolution of atmospheres and surface temperatures. Science, 177, 52–56.
Sepkoski, J. J. (1982). Mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic oceans: a review. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 191, 283–289.
Shackleton, N., Backman, J., Zimmerman, H. et al. (1984). Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region. Nature, 307, 620–623.
Shaviv, N. J. and Veizer, J. (2003). Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? Geological Society of America Today, 13, 4–10.
Shellito, C. J., Sloan, L. C. and Huber, M. (2003). Climate sensititvity to atmospheric CO2 levels in the Early-Middle Paleogene. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 193, 113–123.
Sijp, W. P. and England, M. H. (2004). Effect of the Drake Passage throughflow on global climate. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34, 1254–1266.
Sloan, L. C. and Pollard, D. (1998). Polar stratospheric clouds: a high latitude warming mechanism in an ancient greenhouse world. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 3517–3520.
Sluijs, A., Schouten, S., Pagani, M. et al. (2006). Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 441, 610–613.
Soden, B. J. and Held, I. M. (2006). An assessment of climate feedbacks in coupled ocean–atmosphere models. Journal of Climate, 19, 3354–3360.
Svensen, H., Planke, S., Malthe-Sørenssen, A. et al. (2004). Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming. Nature, 429, 542–545.
Tripati, A. K., Eagle, R. A., Morton, A. et al. (2008). Evidence for glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere back to 44 Ma from ice-rafted debris in the Greenland Sea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 265, 112–122.
van de Schootbrugge, B., Quan, T. M., Lindström, S. et al. (2009). Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. Nature Geoscience, 2, 589–594.
Walker, J. C. G., Hays, P. B. and Kasting, J. F. (1981). A negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of the earth's surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 9776–9782.
Wara, M. W., Ravelo, A. C. and Delaney, M. L. (2005). Permanent El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene warm period. Science, 309, 758–761.
Washington, W. M. and Parkinson, C. L. (2005). An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling, 2nd edn. Sausalito, CA: University Science Books.
Wilby, R. L. and Wigley, T. M. L. (1997). Downscaling general circulation model output: a review of methods and limitations. Progress in Physical Geography, 21, 530–548.
Wilson, J. T. (1966). Did the Atlantic close and then re-open? Nature, 211, 676–681.
Wunsch, C. (2003). The spectral description of climate change including the 100 ky energy. Climate Dynamics, 20, 353–363.
Wunsch, C. (2004). Quantitative estimate of the Milankovitch-forced contribution to observed Quaternary climate change. Quarterly Science Reviews, 23, 1001–1012.
Zachos, J. C., Stott, L. D. and Lohmann, K. C. (1994). Evolution of early Cenozoic marine temperatures. Paleoceanography, 9, 353–387.
Zachos, J. C., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. and Billups, K. (2001). Trends, rythms and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292, 686–693.
Zachos, J. C., Röhl, U., Schellenberg, S. A. et al. (2005). Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum. Science, 308, 1611–1615.
Zeebe, R. E., Zachos, J. C. and Dickens, G. R. (2009). Carbon dioxide forcing alone insufficient to explain Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum warming. Nature Geoscience, 2, 576–580.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Abzhanov, A., Protas, M., Grant, P. R., Grant, B. R. and Tabin, C. J. (2004). Bmp4 and morphological variation of beaks in Darwin's finches. Science, 305, 1462–1465.
Alley, R. B., Meese, D. A., Shuma, C. A. et al. (1993). Abrupt accumulation increase of the Younger Dryas termination in the GISP2 ice core. Nature, 262, 527–529.
Als, T. D., Vila, R., Kandul, P. et al. (2004). The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies. Nature, 432, 386–390.
Avise, J. C. (2000). Phylogeography: the History and Formation of Species. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barnard, P. and Thuiller, W. (2008). Global change and biodiversity: future challenges. Biology Letters, 4, 553–555.
Bateman, R. M. (2001). Evolution and classification of European orchids: insights from molecular and morphological characters. Journal Europäischer Orchideen, 33, 33–119.
Bateman, R. M. (2008). When diagnosis is easier than cure. Research Fortnight, 10, 16.
Bateman, R. M. (2009a). Field-based molecular identification within the next decade? Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society, 6, 31–34.
Bateman, R. M. (2009b). What's in a name? Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society, 6, 53–63 and 88–99.
Bateman, R. M., James, K. E., Rudall, P. J. and Cozzolino, S. (in press). Contrast in morphological versus molecular divergence between two closely related Eurasian species of Platanthera (Orchidaceae) suggests recent evolution with a strong allometric component. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.
BBC (2006). Research lab closures to go ahead. BBC News, 13 March 2006. news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/4801814.stm.
Blackmore, S., Watson, E., Bateman, R. M. et al. (1998). The Web of Life: A Strategy for Systematic Biology in the United Kingdom. London: UK Systematics Forum/Office of Science and Technology.
Blasej, R. G., Kumareson, P. and Mathies, R. A. (2006). Microfabricated bioprocessor for integrated nanoliter-scale Sanger DNA sequencing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 7240–7245.
Brown, A. and Webber, J. (2008). Red Band Needle Blight of Conifers in Britain. Research Note 0002, Forestry Commission.
Condit, R., Ashton, P., Balslev, H. et al. (2005). Tropical tree alpha-diversity: results from a worldwide network of large plots. Biologiske Skrifter Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 55, 565–582.
Corbyn, Z. (2009). Elite v-cs fear ‘end of road’ for concentration of research. Times Higher Education (1 January), 4–5.
Cracraft, J., Donoghue, M., Dragoo, J., Hillis, D. and Yates, T., eds. (2002). Assembling the Tree of Life. National Science Foundation.
Crane, P. R., ed. (2003). Measuring Biodiversity for Conservation, Policy document 11/03. London: The Royal Society.
Devey, D. S., Bateman, R. M., Fay, M. F. and Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Friends or relatives? Phylogenetics and species delimitation in the controversial European orchid genus Ophrys. Annals of Botany, 101, 385–402.
Duraiappah, A. K. and Naeem, S., eds. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Biodiversity Synthesis. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Enghoff, H. and Seberg, O. (2006). A taxonomy of taxonomy and taxonomists. The Systematist, 27, 13–15.
Flann, C. (2006). Why taxonomy is fundamental to conserving the plants of this world: a review of E. Leadlay and S. Jury. Taxonomy and plant conservation. The Systematist, 27, 19–21.
Flowers, R. W. (2007). Taxonomy's unexamined impediment. The Systematist, 28, 3–7.
Frost, M. T., ed. (2007). The Marine Environmental Change Network – Strategy Meeting Report. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
Frost, M. T., Jefferson, R. and Hawkins, S. J., eds. (2006). The Evaluation of Time Series: Their Scientific Value and Contribution to Policy Needs. Plymouth: Marine Biology Association.
Futuyma, D. J., ed. (1998). Evolution, Science, and Society: Evolutionary Biology and the National Research Agenda. American Society of Naturalists [etc.]. www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/fulldoc.pdf.
Garwood, N. C. (1999). A new forest dynamics plot in Belize. Inside the Center of Forest Dynamics, Summer, 2.
Godfray, H. C. J. and Knapp, S., eds. (2004). Taxonomy for the Twenty-First Century. London: The Royal Society.
Grant, P. R. and Grant, B. R. (2002). Unpredictable evolution in a 30-year study of Darwin's finches. Science, 296, 707–711.
Grant, P. R. and Grant, B. R. (2008). How and Why Species Multiply: The Radiation of Darwin's Finches. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Grant, P. R., Grant, B. R., Markert, J. A., Keller, L. F. and Petren, K. (2004). Convergent evolution of Darwin's finches caused by introgressive hybridization and selection. Evolution, 58, 1588–1599.
Gutierrez, T. (in press). Field identification of vectors and pathogens of military significance. In Descriptive Taxonomy Serving Biodiversity, ed. M. F. Watson and C. Lyal. Systematics Association Special Volume 79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
House of Commons (2007). Are Biofuels Sustainable? House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee 1st Report of Session 2007–08, HC76–11. London: Stationery Office.
House of Lords (2002). What on Earth? The Threat to the Science Underpinning Conservation, House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology Paper 118. London: Stationery Office.
House of Lords (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy: Follow-up (S. Sutherland, chair). 5th report of Session 2007–08, House of Lords Science and Technology Committee, HL162. London: Stationery Office.
Humphries, C. J. (2003). Biennial meeting: a presidential review. The Systematist, 22, 10–14.
Huxley, J. (1940). The New Systematics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kobashi, T., Severinghaus, J. P. and Barnota, J. M. (2008). 4 ± 1.5 °C abrupt warming 11,270 years ago identified from trapped air in Greenland ice. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 268, 397–407.
Loebl, I. and Leschen, R. A. B. (2005). Demography of coleopterists and their thoughts on DNA barcoding and the Phylocode, with commentary. Coleopterists Bulletin, 59, 284–292.
MacLeod, N., ed. (2007). Automated Taxon Identification in Systematics: Theory, Approaches and Applications. Systematics Association Special Volume 74. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis.
May, R. M. (1999). The dimensions of life on earth. In Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World, ed. P. H. Raven and T. Williams. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences, pp. 30–45.
Mayden, R. L. (1997). A hierarchy of species concepts: the denouement in the saga of the species problem. In Species: the Units of Biodiversity, ed. M. F. Claridge, H. A. Dawah and M. R. Wilson. London: Chapman and Hall, pp. 381–421.
Meier, R. (2008). DNA sequences in taxonomy: opportunities and challenges. In The New Taxonomy, ed. Q. D. Wheeler. Systematics Association Special Volume 76. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 95–127.
Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) (2007). Next Generation Science for Planet Earth. Swindon: NERC.
Page, L. M., Bart, H. L., Beaman, R. et al. (2005). LINNE: Legacy Infrastructure Network for Natural Environments. Champaign, IL: Illinois Natural History Survey.
Plotkin, J. B., Potts, M. D., Yu, D. W. et al. (2000). Predicting species diversity in tropical forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 97, 10850–10854.
Polaszek, A., Pyle, R. and Yanega, D. (2008). Animal names for all: ICZN, ZooBank and the New Taxonomy. In The New Taxonomy, ed. Q. D. Wheeler. Systematics Association Special Volume 76. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 129–141.
Preston, C. D., Pearman, D. A. and Dines, T. D. (2002). New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Quicke, D. L. (2004). The world of DNA barcoding and morphology. The Systematist, 23, 8–12.
Rieseberg, L. H., Wood, T. E. and Baack, E. J. (2006). The nature of plant species. Nature, 440, 524–527.
Roach, J. (2005). Handheld DNA scanners to ID instantly? National Geographic News, 26 January.
Savolainen, V., Cowan, R. S., Vogler, A. P., Roderick, G. K. and Lane, R., eds. (2005). DNA Barcoding of Life. London: Royal Society.
Schram, F. R. (2004). The truly new systematics: megascience in the information age. Hydrobiologia, 519, 1–7.
Scoble, M. J. (2008). Networks and their role in e-taxonomy. In The New Taxonomy, ed. Q. D. Wheeler. Systematics Association Special Volume 76. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 19–31.
Seberg, O. (2004). The future of systematics: assembling the tree of life. The Systematist, 23, 2–8.
Silvertown, J., Poulton, P., Johnston, E. et al. (2006). The Park Grass experiment 1856–2006. Journal of Ecology, 94, 801–814.
Stern, N. H. (2006). Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change. London: HM Government.
Systematics Agenda 2000 (1994). Systematics Agenda 2000: Charting the Biosphere. New York, NY: Society of Systematic Biologists, American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Willi Hennig Society and Association of Systematics Collections.
Wheeler, Q. D. (2003). Transforming taxonomy. The Systematist, 22, 3–5.
Wheeler, Q. D., ed. (2008a). The New Taxonomy. Systematics Association Special Volume 76. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Wheeler, Q. D. (2008b). Taxonomic shock and awe. In The New Taxonomy, ed. Q. D. Wheeler. Systematics Association Special Volume 76. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 211–226.
Worm, B., Barbier, E. B., Beaumont, N. et al. (2008). Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science, 314, 787–790.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Alroy, J. (2008). Dynamics of origination and extinction in the marine fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105 (Suppl. 1), 11536–11542.
Alroy, J., Koch, P. L. and Zachos, J. C. (2000). Global climate change and north American mammalian evolution. Paleobiology, 26 (Suppl.), 259–288.
Alroy, J., Aberhan, M., Bottjer, D. J. et al. (2008). Phanerozoic trends in the global diversity of marine invertebrates. Science, 321, 97–100.
Araújo, M. B. and Guisan, A. (2006). Five (or so) challenges for species distribution modelling. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1677–1688.
Archer, D. (2007). Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change. Biogeosciences, 4, 521–544.
Arens, N. C. and West, I. D. (2008). Press-pulse: a general theory of mass extinction? Paleobiology, 34, 456–471.
Bakun, A. and Weeks, S. J. (2004). Greenhouse gas buildup, sardines, submarine eruptions and the possibility of abrupt degradation of intense marine upwelling ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 7, 1015–1023.
Benton, M. J., ed. (1993). The Fossil Record 2. London: Chapman and Hall.
Benton, M. J. (1995). Diversification and extinction in the history of life. Science, 268, 52–58.
Benton, M. J. (1997). Models for the diversification of life. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12, 490–495.
Benton, M. J. (2005). When Life Nearly Died. London: Thames and Hudson.
Benton, M. J. (2009). The Red Queen and the Court Jester: species diversity and the role of biotic and abiotic factors through time. Science, 323, 728–732.
Berner, R. A. and Kothavala, Z. (2001). GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 301, 182–204.
Böhm, M. and Mayhew, P. J. (2005). Historical biogeography and the evolution of the latitudinal gradient of species richness in the Papionini (Primata: Cercpithicidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 85, 235–246.
Buffet, B. and Archer, D. (2004). Global inventory of methane clathrate: sensitivity to changes in the deep ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 227, 185–199.
Cardillo, M. (1999). Latitude and rates of diversification in birds and butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 266, 1221–1225.
Cornette, J. L., Lieberman, B. S. and Goldstein, R. H. (2002). Documenting a significant relationship between macroevolutionary origination rates and Phanerozoic pCO2 levels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 7832–7835.
Cramer, W., Bondeau, A., Woodward, F. I. et al. (2001). Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology, 7, 357–373.
Davies, T. J., Savolainen, V., Chase, M. W., Moat, J., and Barraclough, T. G. (2004). Environmental energy and evolutionary rates in flowering plants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271, 2195–2200.
Denness, B. (1989). Evolution and environmental determinism. Modern Geology, 13, 283–286.
Deutsch, C. A, Tewksbury, J. J, Huey, R. B. et al. (2008). Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 6668–6672.
Ding, G., Kang, J., Lui, Q. et al. (2006). Insights into the coupling of duplication events and macroevolution from an age profile of animal transmembrane gene families.PLoS Computational Biology, 2, 918–924.
Foote, M. (2000a). Origination and extinction components of taxonomic diversity: general problems. Paleobiology, 26 (Suppl.), 74–102.
Foote, M. (2000b). Origination and extinction components of taxonomic diversity: Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic dynamics. Paleobiology, 26, 578–605.
Frakes, L. A., Francis, J. E. and Syktus, J. I. (1992). Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gaston, K. J. and Blackburn, T. M. (2001). Pattern and Process in Macroecology. Oxford: Blackwell.
Gibbs, S. J., Bown, P. R., Sessa, J. A., Bralower, T. J. and Wilson, P. A. (2006). Nannoplankton extinction and origination across the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum. Science, 314, 1770–1773.
Huber, B. T., MacLeod, K. G. and Wing, S. L., eds. (2000). Warm Climates in Earth History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ibanez, I., Clark, J. S., Dietze, M. C. et al. (2006). Predicting biodiversity change: outside the climate envelope, beyond the species-area curve. Ecology, 87, 1896–1906.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jablonski, D. and Lutz, R. A. (1983). Larval ecology of marine invertebrates: paleobiological implications. Biological Reviews, 58, 21–89.
Jablonski, D., Roy, K. and Valentine, J. W. (2006). Out of the tropics: evolutionary dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Science, 314, 102–106.
Jaramillo, C., Rueda, M. J. and Mora, G. (2006). Cenozoic plant diversity in the neotropics. Science, 311, 1893–1896.
Keller, G. (2001). The end-Cretaceous mass-extinction in the marine realm: year 2000 assessment. Planetary and Space Science, 49, 817–830.
Kerr, R. A. (2008). Life's innovations let it diversify, at least up to a point. Science, 321, 24–25.
Kirchner, J. W. and Weil, A. (1990). Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record. Nature, 404, 177–180.
Lenton, T. M., Held, H., Kriegler, E. et al. (2008). Tipping elements in the earth's climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 1786–1793.
Lovejoy, T. E. and Hannah, L., eds. (2005). Climate Change and Biodiversity. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lu, P. J., Yogo, M. and Marshall, C. R. (2006). Phanerozoic marine biodiversity dynamics in light of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 2736–2739.
MacArthur, R. H. and Wilson, E. O. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mayhew, P. J., Jenkins, G. B. and Benton, T. G. (2008). A long-term association between global temperature and biodiversity, origination and extinction in the fossil record.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 275, 47–53.
Melott, A. L. (2008). Long-term cycles in the history of life: periodic biodiversity in the Paleobiology database. PLoS ONE, 3, e4044.
Meyer, K. M. and Kump, L. R. (2008). Oceanic euxinia in Earth history: causes and consequences. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 36, 251–288.
Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature, 421, 37–42.
Pearson, R. G. (2006). Climate change and the migration capacity of species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 111–113.
Peters, S. E. (2005). Geologic constraints on the macroevolutionary history of marine animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 1236–1331.
Peters, S. E. (2008). Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record. Nature, 454, 626–629.
Peters, S. E. and Foote, M. (2001). Biodiversity in the Phanerozoic: a reinterpretation. Paleobiology, 27, 583–601.
Peters, S. E. and Foote, M. (2002). Determinants of extinction in the fossil record. Nature, 416, 420–424.
Pounds, J. A., Bustamante, M. R., Coloma, L. A. et al. (2006). Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature, 439, 161–167.
Purdy, E. G. (2008). Comparison of taxonomic diversity, strontium isotope and sea-level patterns. International Journal of Earth Science, 97, 651–664.
Rohde, R. A. and Muller, R. A. (2005). Cycles in fossil diversity. Nature, 434, 208–210.
Rothman, D. H. (2001). Global biodiversity and the ancient carbon cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98, 4305–4310.
Royer, D. L., Berner, R. A., Montañez, I. P., Tibor, N. J. and Beerling, D. J. (2004). CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate. Geological Society of America Today, 14, 4–10.
Sepkoski, J. J. (1998). Rates of speciation in the fossil record. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 353, 315–326.
Sepkoski, J. J. (2002). A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletin of American Paleontology, 363, 1–560.
Shaviv, N. J. and Veizer, J. (2003). Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? Geological Society of America Today, 13, 4–10.
Sheehan, P. M. (2001). The Late Ordovician mass extinction. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29, 331–364.
Smith, A. B. and McGowan, A. J. (2005). Cyclicity in the fossil record mirrors rock outcrop area. Biology Letters, 1, 443–445.
Smith, A. B. and McGowan, A. J. (2007). The shape of the Phanerozoic marine diversity curve: how much can be predicted from the sedimentary rock record of Western Europe? Palaentology, 50, 765–774.
Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E. et al. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427, 145–148.
Thomas, C. D., Franco, A. M. A. and Hill, J. K. (2006). Range retractions and extinction in the face of climate warming. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 415–416.
Thuiller, W. (2004). Patterns and uncertainties of species' range shifts under climate change. Global Change Biology, 10, 2020–2027.
Valentine, J. W. and Moores, E. M. (1970). Plate-tectonic regulation of faunal diversity and sea level: a model. Nature, 228, 657–659.
Vaquer-Sunyer, R. and Duarte, C. M. (2008). Thresholds of hypoxia for marine biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 15452–15457.
Veizer, J., Godderis, Y. and François, L. M. (2000). Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon. Nature, 408, 698–701.
Ward, P. D. (2006). Impact from the deep. Scientific American, October 2006, 64–71.
Wignall, P. B. (2001). Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions. Earth-Science Reviews, 53, 1–33.
Wignall, P. B. (2005). The link between large igneous province eruptions and mass extinctions. Elements, 1, 293–297.
Williams, J. W., Jackson, S. T. and Kutzbach, J. E. (2007). Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104, 5738–5742.
Willig, M. R., Kaufmann, D. M. and Stevens, R. D. (2003). Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale and synthesis. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 273–309.
Woodward, F. I. and Kelly, C. K. (2008). Responses of global plant biodiversity capacity to changes in carbon dioxide concentration and climate. Ecology Letters, 11, 1229–1237.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Algeo, T. J. and Scheckler, S. E. (1998). Terrestrial–marine teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 353, 113–128.
Barrett, P. M. and Willis, K. J. (2001). Did dinosaurs invent flowers? Dinosaur–angiosperm coevolution revisited. Biological Reviews, 76, 411–447.
Bazzaz, F. A., Jasienski, M., Thomas, S. C. and Wayne, P. (1995). Microevolutionary responses in experimental populations of plants to CO2-enriched environments: parallel results from 2 model systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 92, 8161–8165.
Beerling, D. J., Osborne, C. P. and Chaloner, W. G. (2001). Evolution of leaf-form in land plants linked to atmospheric CO2 decline in the Late Palaeozoic era. Nature, 410, 352–354.
Berner, R. A. (1991). A model for atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 291, 339–375.
Berner, R. A. (1997). The rise of plants and their effect on weathering and atmospheric CO2. Science, 276, 544–546.
Berner, R. A. (2006). GEOCARBSULF: a combined model for Phanerozoic atmospheric O2 and CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 5653–5664.
Berner, R. A. and Canfield, D. E. (1989). A new model for atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 289, 333–361.
Berner, R. A. and Kothavala, Z. (2001). GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 301, 182–204.
Boyce, C. K., Brodribb, T. J., Feild, T. S. and Zwieniecki, M. A. (2009). Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276, 1771–1776.
Cerling, T. E. (1991). Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: evidence from Cenozoic and Mesozoic paleosols. American Journal of Science, 291, 377–400.
Christin, P. A., Besnard, G., Samaritani, E. et al. (2008). Oligocene CO2 decline promoted C-4 photosynthesis in grasses. Current Biology, 18, 37–43.
Cornette, J. L., Lieberman, B. S. and Goldstein, R. H. (2002). Documenting a significant relationship between macroevolutionary origination rates and Phanerozoic pCO2 levels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 7832–7835.
Cowling, S. A. (2001). Plant carbon balance, evolutionary innovation and extinction in land plants. Global Change Biology, 7, 231–239.
Crepet, W. L. and Niklas, K. J. (2009). Darwin's second abominable mystery: why are there so many angiosperms? American Journal of Botany, 96, 366–381.
Curtis, P. S. and Wang, X. (1998). A meta analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form and physiology. Oecologia, 113, 299–313.
DeLucia, E. H., Hamilton, J. G., Naidu, S. L. et al. (1999). Net primary production of a forest ecosystem with experimental CO2 enrichment. Science, 284, 1177–1179.
DiMichele, W. A. and Phillips, T. L. (1996). Climate change, plant extinctions, and vegetation recovery during the middle–late Pennsylvanian transition: the case of tropical peat-forming environments in North America. In Biotic Recovery from Mass Extinction, ed. M. L. Hart. London: Geological Society of London, pp. 201–221.
Dimichele, W. A., Montanez, I. P., Poulsen, C. J. and Tabor, N. J. (2009). Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. Geobiology, 7, 200–226.
Ehleringer, J. R., Sage, R. F., Flanagan, L. B. and Pearcy, R. W. (1991). Climate change and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 95–99.
Fletcher, B. J., Beerling, D. J., Brentnall, S. J. and Royer, D. L. (2005). Fossil bryophyte as recorders of ancient CO2 levels: experimental evidence and a Cretaceous case study. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19.
Fletcher, B. J., Brentnall, S. J., Quick, W. P. and Beerling, D. J. (2006). BRYOCARB: a process-based model of thallose liverwort carbon isotope fractionation in response to CO2, O2, light and temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 5676–5691.
Franks, P. J. and Beerling, D. J. (2009). CO2-forced evolution of plant gas exchange capacity and water-use efficiency over the Phanerozoic. Geobiology, 7, 227–236.
Gould, S. J. (1985). The paradox of the first tier: an agenda for paleobiology. Paleobiology, 11, 2–12.
Huh, Y. and Edmond, J. M. (1999). The fluvial geochemistry of the rivers of Eastern Siberia: III. Tributaries of the Lena and Anabar draining the basement terrain of the Siberian Craton and the Trans-Baikal Highlands. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 967–987.
Hussain, M., Kubiske, M. E. and Connor, K. F. (2001). Germination of CO2-enriched Pinus taeda L. seeds and subsequent seedling growth responses to CO2 enrichment. Journal of Functional Ecology, 15, 344–350.
Jablonski, D. (2001). Micro and macroevolution: scale and hierarchy in evolutionary biology and paleobiology. Palaeobiology, 26, 15–53.
Jaramillo, C., Rueda, M. J. and Mora, G. (2006). Cenozoic plant diversity in the Neotropics. Science, 311, 1893–1896.
Knoll, A. H. (1985). Patterns of evolution in the Archean and Proterozoic eons. Palaeobiology, 11, 53–64.
Korner, C. (2006). Plant CO2 responses: an issue of definition, time and resource supply. New Phytologist, 172, 393–411.
Lau, J. A., Peiffer, J., Reich, P. B. and Tiffin, P. (2008). Transgenerational effects of global environmental change: long-term CO2 and nitrogen treatments influence offspring growth response to elevated CO2. Oecologia, 158, 141–150.
Lidgard, S. and Crane, P. R. (1988). Quantitative analyses of the early angiosperm radiation. Nature, 331, 344–346.
Lidgard, S. and Crane, P. R. (1990). Angiosperm diversification and Cretaceous florisitic trends: a comparison of palynofloras and leaf macrofloras. Paleobiology, 16, 77–93.
Looy, C. V., Twitchett, R. J., Dilcher, D. L., van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A. and Visscher, H. (2001). Life in the end-Permian dead zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98, 7879–7883.
Lupia, R., Lidgard, S. and Crane, P. R. (1999). Comparing palynological abundance and diversity: implications for biotic replacement during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation. Paleobiology, 25, 305–340.
McElwain, J. C. and Chaloner, W. G. (1995). Stomatal density and index of fossil plants track atmospheric carbon-dioxide in the Paleozoic. Annals of Botany, 76, 389–395.
McElwain, J. C. and Punyasena, S. (2007). Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 548–557.
McElwain, J. C., Beerling, D. J. and Woodward, F. I. (1999). Fossil plants and global warming at the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Science, 285, 1386–1390.
McElwain, J. C., Willis, K. J. and Lupia, R. (2005). Cretaceous CO2 decline and the radiation and diversification of angiosperms. In A History of Atmospheric CO2 and its Effects on Plants, Animals and Ecosystems, ed. J. R. Ehleringer, T. E. Cerling and M. D. Dearind. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 133–166.
McElwain, J. C., Wagner, P. J. and Hesselbo, S. P. (2009). Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of Late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland. Science, 324, 1554–1556.
Moulton, K. L. and Berner, R. A. (1998). Quantification of the effect of plants on weathering: studies in Iceland. Geology, 26, 895–898.
Moulton, K. L., West, J. and Berner, R. A. (2000). Solute flux and mineral mass balance approaches to the quantification of plant effects on silicate weathering. American Journal of Science, 300, 539–570.
Niklas, K. J. (1997). The Evolutionary Biology of Plants. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Niklas, K. J. and Enquist, B. J. (2001). Invariant scaling relationships for interspecific plant biomass production rates and body size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98, 2922–2927.
Niklas, K. J., Tiffney, B. H. and Knoll, A. H. (1983). Patterns in vascular land plant diversification. Nature, 303, 614–616.
Niklas, K. J., Tiffney, B. H. and Knoll, A. H. (1985). Patterns in vascular land plant diversification: an analysis at the species level. In Phanerozoic Diversity Patterns: Profiles in Macroevolution, ed. J. W. Valentine. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, University Press, pp. 97–128.
Pagani, M., Arthur, M. A. and Freeman, K. H. (1999). Miocene evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Paleoceanography, 14, 273–292.
Pearson, P. N. and Palmer, M. R. (2000). Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature, 406, 695–699.
Phillips, O. L. and Gentry, A. H. (1994). Increasing turnover through time in tropical forests. Science, 263, 954–958.
Poorter, H. and Navas, M. L. (2003). Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups. New Phytologist, 157, 175–198.
Rachmilevitch, S., Cousins, A. B. and Bloom, A. J. (2004). Nitrate assimilation in plant shoots depends on photorespiration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101, 11506–11510.
Robinson, J. M. (1994). Speculations on carbon-dioxide starvation, Late Tertiary evolution of stomatal regulation and floristic modernization. Plant Cell and Environment, 17, 345–354.
Royer, D. L. (2001). Stomatal density and stomatal index as indicators of paleoatmospheric CO2 concentration. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 114, 1–28.
Royer, D. L., Berner, R. A. and Beerling, D. J. (2001). Phanerozoic atmospheric CO2 change: evaluating geochemical and paleobiological approaches. Earth-Science Reviews, 54, 349–392.
Royer, D. L., Berner, R. A., Montanez, I. P., Tabor, N. J. and Beerling, D. J. (2004). CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate. GSA Today, 14, 4–10.
Rutherford, S. L. and Lindquist, S. (1998). Hsp90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution. Nature, 396, 336–342.
Sage, R. F. (2004). The evolution of C-4 photosynthesis. New Phytologist, 161, 341–370.
Tajika, E. (1999). Carbon cycle and climate change during the Cretaceous inferred from a biogeochemical carbon cycle model. The Island Arc, 8, 293–303.
Taylor, L. L., Leake, J. R., Quirk, J. et al. (2009). Biological weathering and the long-term carbon cycle: integrating mycorrhizal evolution and function into the current paradigm. Geobiology, 7, 171–191.
Traverse, A. (1988). Plant evolution dances to a different beat: plant and evolutionary mechanisms compared. Historical Biology, 1, 277–356.
Vajda, V., Raine, J. I. and Hollis, C. J. (2001). Indication of global deforestation at the Creataceous–Tertiary boundary by New Zealand fern spike. Science, 294, 1700–1702.
Ward, J. K. and Kelly, J. K. (2004). Scaling up evolutionary responses to elevated CO2: lessons from Arabidopsis. Ecology Letters, 7, 427–440.
Ward, J. K., Antonovics, J., Thomas, R. B. and Strain, B. R. (2000). Is atmospheric CO2 a selective agent on model C3 annuals? Oecologia, 123, 330–341.
Willis, K. J. and Bennett, K. D. (1995 ). Mass extinction, punctuated equilibrium and the fossil plant record. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 10, 308–309.
Willis, K. J. and McElwain, J. C. (2002). The Evolution of Plants. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Willis, K. J., Bennett, K. D. and Birks, H. J. B. (2009). Variability in thermal and UV-B energy fluxes through time and their influence on plant diversity and speciation. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1630–1644.
Wing, S. L. (2004). Mass extinctions in plant evolution. In Extinctions in the History of Life, ed. P. D. Taylor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–97.
Wing, S. L., Harrington, G. J., Smith, F. A. et al. (2005). Transient floral change and rapid global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Science, 310, 993–996.
Woodward, F. I. (1987). Stomatal numbers are sensitive to increase in CO2 from pre-industrial levels. Nature, 327, 617–618.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 141, 399–436.
Baas, P. (1976). Some functional and adaptive aspects of vessel member morphology. In Wood Structure in Biological and Technological Research, ed. P. Baas, A. J. Bolton and D. M. Catling. Leiden Botanical Series No. 3, Leiden: Leiden University Press, pp. 157–181.
Baas, P. (1982). Systematic, phylogenetic, and ecological wood anatomy – history and perspectives. In New Perspectives in Wood Anatomy, ed. P. Baas. The Hague: Nijhoff and Junk, pp. 23–58.
Baas, P. (1986). Ecological patterns in xylem anatomy. In On the Economy of Plant Form and Function, ed. J. Givnish. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 327–352.
Baas, P. and Carlquist, S. (1985). A comparison of the ecological wood anatomy of the floras of southern California and Israel. International Association of Wood Anatomists Bulletin New Series, 6, 349–353.
Baas, P. and Schweingruber, F. H. (1987). Ecological trends in the wood anatomy of trees, shrubs and climbers from Europe. International Association of Wood Anatomists Bulletin New Series, 8, 245–274.
Baas, P. and Wheeler, E. A. (1996). Parallelism and reversibility of xylem evolution – a review. International Association of Wood Anatomists Journal, 17, 351–364.
Baas, P., Wheeler, E. A. and Chase, M. W. (2000). Dicotyledonous wood anatomy and the APG system of angiosperm classification. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 134, 3–17.
Baas P., Jansen, S. and Wheeler, E. A. (2003). Ecological adaptations and deep phylogenetic splits: evidence from the secondary xylem. In Deep Morphology: Toward a Renaissance of Morphology in Plant Systematics, ed. T. F. Stuessy, V. Mayer and E. Hörandl. Regnum Vegetabile, 141, 221–239.
Baas, P., Ewers, F. W., Davies, S. D. and Wheeler, E. A. (2004). The evolution of xylem physiology. In Evolution of Plant Physiology from Whole Plants to Ecosystems, ed. A. R. Hemsley and I. Poole. Linnean Society Symposium Series No. 21. London: Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 273–296.
Bailey, I. W. (1954). Contributions to plant anatomy. Chronica Botanica, 15, xxvi and 262.
Bailey, I. W. and Tupper, W. W. (1918). Size variation in tracheary cells I: a comparison between the secondary xylems of vascular cryptogams, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Science, 54, 149–204.
Boura, A. and De Franceschi, D. (2007). Is porous wood structure exclusive of deciduous trees? Comptes Rendus Palevol, 6, 385–391.
Briffa, K. R. (2000). Annual climate variability in the Holocene: interpreting the message of ancient trees. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 87–105.
Carlquist, S. (1975). Ecological Strategies of Xylem Evolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Carlquist, S. (2001). Comparative Wood Anatomy: Systematic, Ecological, and Evolutionary Aspects of Dicotyledon Wood. Berlin, NY: Springer Verlag.
Carlquist, S. and Hoekman, D. A. (1985). Ecological wood anatomy of the woody southern California flora. International Association of Wood Anatomists Journal, 6, 319–347.
Chave, J., Coomes, D., Jansen, S. et al. (2009). Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters, 12, 351–366.
Choat, B., Cobb, A. R. and Jansen, S. (2008). Structure and function of bordered pits: new discoveries and impacts on whole-plant hydraulic function. New Phytologist, 177, 608–626.
Chudnoff, M. (1976). Density of tropical timbers as influenced by climatic life zones. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 55, 203–217.
Davis, M. B. and Shaw, R. G. (2001). Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change. Science, 292, 673–679.
Gorschuch, D. M., Oberbauer, S. F. and Fisher, J. B. (2001). Comparative vessel anatomy of arctic deciduous and evergeen dicots. American Journal of Botany, 88, 1643–1649.
Graham, A. (1999). Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gricar, J. (2007). Xylo- and phloemogenesis in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karts.). Studia Forestalia Slovenica, 132, 1–106.
Hacke, U. G., Sperry, J. S., Pockman, W. T., Davies, S. D. and McCulloh, K. A. (2001). Trends in wood density and structure are linked to prevention of xylem implosion by negative pressure. Oecologia, 126, 457–461.
Hacke, U. G., Sperry, J. S., Wheeler, J. K. and Castro, L. (2006). Scaling of angiosperm xylem structure with safety and efficiency. Tree Physiology, 26, 689–701.
Jansen, S., Baas, P. and Smets, E. (2003). Vestured pits: do they promote safer water transport? International Journal of Plant Science, 164, 405–413.
Jansen, S., Baas, P. Gasson, P., Lens, F. and Smets, E. (2004). Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: evidence from vestured pits.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101, 8833–8837.
Lenoir, J., Gégout, J. C., Marquet, P. A., de Ruffray, P. and Brisse, H. (2008). A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th century. Science, 320, 1768–1771.
Lens, F., Schöneberger, J., Baas, P., Jansen, S. and Smets, E. (2007). The role of wood anatomy in phylogeny reconstruction of Ericales. Cladistics, 23, 229–254.
Liu, J. and Noshiro, S. (2003). Lack of latitudinal trends in wood anatomy of Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae), a species with a worldwide distribution. American Journal of Botany, 90, 532–539.
Loconte, H. and Stevenson, D. W. (1991). Cladistics of the Magnoliidae. Cladistics, 7, 267–296.
Noshiro, S. and Baas, P. (2000). Latitudinal trends in wood anatomy within species and genera: a case study in Cornus s.l. (Cornaceae). American Journal of Botany, 87,1495–1506.
Overdieck, D., Ziche, D. and Böttcher-Jungclaus, K. (2007). Temperature responses of growth and wood anatomy in European beech saplings grown in different carbon dioxide concentrations. Tree Physiology, 27, 261–268.
Poole, I. and van den Bergen, P. F. (2006). Physiognomic and chemical characters in wood as paleoclimatic proxies. Plant Ecology, 182, 175–195.
Roderick, M. L. and Berry, S. L. (2001). Linking wood density with tree growth and environment: a theoretical analysis based on the motion of water. New Phytologist, 149, 473–485.
Sakala, J. (2007). The potential of fossil angiosperm wood to reconstruct the palaeoclimate in the Tertiary of central Europe (Czech Republic, Germany). Acta Palaeobotanica, 47, 127–133.
Sperry, J.S. (2003). Evolution of water transport and xylem structure. International Journal of Plant Science, 164, S115-S127.
Sperry, J. S., Hacke, J. G., Field, T. S., Sano, Y. and Sikkema, E. H. (2007). Hydraulic consequences of vessel evolution in angiosperms. International Journal of Plant Science, 168, 1127–1139.
Swenson, N. G. and Enquist, B. J. (2007). Ecological and evolutionary determinants of a key plant functional trait: wood density and its community-wide variation across latitude and elevation. American Journal of Botany, 94, 451–459.
Tamis, W., van' t Zelfde, M., van der Meijden, R. and Udo de Haes, H. A. (2005). Changes in vascular plant biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th century explained by their climatic and other environmental characteristics. Climate Change, 72, 37–56.
Thomas, D. S., Montagu, K. D. and Conroy, J. P. (2007). Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Tree Physiology, 27, 251–260.
Tyree, M. T. and Zimmermann, M. H. (2002). Xylem Structure and the Ascent of Sap, 2nd edn. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
van der Graaff, N. A. and Baas, P. (1974). Wood anatomical variation in relation to latitude and altitude. Blumea, 22, 101–121.
Wheeler, E. A. and Baas, P. (1991). A survey of the fossil record from dicotyledonous wood and its significance for evolutionary and ecological wood anatomy. International Association of Wood Anatomists Bulletin New Series, 12, 275–332.
Wheeler, E. A. and Baas, P. (1993). The potentials and limitations of dicotyledonous wood anatomy for climatic reconstructions. Paleobiology, 14, 486–497.
Wheeler, E. A. and Dillhoff, T. (2009). The Middle Miocene wood flora from Vantage, Washington, USA. International Association of Wood Anatomists Journal, Suppl. 7.
Wheeler, E. A. and Manchester, S. R. (2002). Woods of the Eocene Nuts Beds flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon, USA. International Association of Wood Anatomists Journal, Suppl. 3.
Wheeler, E. A., Baas, P. and Rodgers, S. A. (2007). Variations in dicot wood anatomy: a global analysis based on the InsideWood database. International Association of Wood Anatomists Journal, 28, 229–258.
Wiemann, M. C., Wheeler, E. A., Manchester, S. R. and Portier, K. M. (1998). Dicotyledonous wood anatomical characters as predictors of climate. Palaeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 139, 83–100.
Wiemann, M. C., Manchester, S. R. and Wheeler, E. A. (1999). Paleotemperature estimation from dicotyledonous wood anatomical characters. Palaios, 14, 459–474.
Wiemann, M. C., Dilcher, D. L. and Manchester, S. R. (2001). Estimation of mean annual temperature from leaf and wood physiognomy. Forest Science, 47, 141–149.
Wolfe, J. A. (1978). A paleobotanical interpretation of Tertiary climates in the northern hemisphere. American Scientist, 66, 694–703.
Wolfe, J. A. (1987). Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic history of deciduousness and the terminal Cretaceous event. Paleobiology, 13, 215–226.
Zimmermann, M. H. (1978). Structural requirements for optimal water conduction in tree stems. In Tropical Trees as Living Systems, ed. P. B. Tomlinson and M. H. Zimmermann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 517–532.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Barraclough, T. G. and Nee, S. (2001). Phylogenetics and speciation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 391–399.
Beerling, D. J. and Osborne, C. P. (2006). The origin of the savanna biome. Global Change Biology, 12, 2023–2031.
Bobe, R. (2006). The evolution of arid ecosystems in eastern Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 66, 564–584.
Bond, W. J., Midgley, G. F. and Woodward, F. I. (2003). What controls South African vegetation: climate or fire? South African Journal of Botany, 69, 79–91.
Bond, W. J., Woodward, F. I. and Midgley, G. F. (2005). The global distribution of ecosystems in a world without fire. New Phytologist, 165, 525–538.
Bouchenak-Khelladi, Y., Salamin, N., Savolainen, V. et al. (2008). Large multi-gene phylogenetic trees of the grasses (Poaceae): progress towards complete tribal and generic level sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47, 488–505.
Bouchenak-Khelladi, Y., Verboom, G. A., Hodkinson, T. R. et al. (2009). The origins and diversification of C4 grasses and savanna-adapted ungulates. Global Change Biology, 15, 2397–2417.
Bouchenak-Khelladi, Y., Verboom, G. A., Savolainen, V. and Hodkinson, T. R. (2010). Biogeography of the grasses (Poaceae): a phylogenetic approach to reveal evolutionary history in geographical space and geological time. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 162, 543–557.
Bremer, K. (2002). Gondwanan evolution of the grass alliance of families (Poales). Evolution, 56, 1374–1387.
Campbell, N. A., Reece, J. B., Urry, L. A. et al. (2008). Biology, 8th edn. London: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Cerling, T. E. (2009). Paleorecords of C4 plants and ecosystems. In C4 Plant Biology, ed. R. F. Sage and R. K. Monson. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 445–469.
Cerling, T. E., Harris, J. M., MacFadden, B. J. et al. (1997). Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature, 389, 153–158.
Cerling, T. E., Ehleringer, J. R. and Harris, J. M. (1998). Carbon dioxide starvation, the development of C4 ecosystems, and mammalian evolution. Phylosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 353, 159–171.
Chan, K. M. A. and Moore, B. R. (2005). SYMMETREE: whole-tree analysis of differential diversification rates. Bioinformatics, 21, 1709–1710.
Chapman, G. P. (1996). From extinct to present-day grasses. In The Biology of Grasses, ed. G. P. Chapman. Oxford: CAB International, pp. 112–123.
Christin, P. A., Besnard, G., Samaritani, E. et al. (2008). Oligocene CO2 decline promoted C4 photosynthesis in grasses. Current Biology, 18, 1–7.
Coughenour, M. B. (1985). Graminoid responses to grazing by large herbivores: adaptations, exaptations, and interacting processes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 72, 852–863.
Donoghue, M. J. (2008). A phylogenetic perspective on the distribution of plant diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 11549–11555.
Edwards, E. J. and Still, C. J. (2008). Climate, phylogeny and the ecological distribution of C4 grasses. Ecology Letters, 11, 266–276.
Edwards, E. J., Still, C. J. and Donoghue, M. J. (2007). The relevance of phylogeny to studies of global climate change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 243–249.
Ehleringer, J. R. and Monson, R. K. (1993). Evolutionary and ecological aspects of phtotosynthetic pathway variation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 24, 411–439.
Graham, C. H., Ron, S. H., Santos, J. C., Schneider, C. J. and Moritz, C. (2004). Integrating phylogenetics and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms in dendrobatid frogs. Evolution, 58, 1781–1793.
Grass Phylogeny Working Group (GPWG) (2001). Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 88, 373–457.
Hardy, C. R. (2006). Reconstructing ancestral ecologies: challenges and possible solutions. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 7–19.
Hardy, C. R. and Linder, H. P. (2005). Intraspecific variability and timing in ancestral ecology reconstructions: a test case from the Cape flora. Systematic Biology, 54, 299–316.
Hattersley, P. W. and Watson, L. (1992). Diversification of photosynthesis. In Grass Evolution and Domestication, ed. G. P. Chapman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hodkinson, T. R., Savolainen, V., Jacobs, S. W. et al. (2007). Supersizing: progress in documenting and understanding grass richness. In Towards the Tree of Life: Systematics of Species Rich Groups, ed. T. R. Hodkinson and J. A. N. Parnell. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis CRC Press, pp. 279–298.
Hugall, A., Moritz, C., Moussalli, A. and Stanisic, J. (2002). Reconciling paleodistribution models and comparative phylogeography in the wet tropics rainforest land snail Gnarosophia bellendenkerensis (Brazier 1875). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 6112–6117.
Huntley, B. J. and Walker, B. H. (1982). Ecology of Tropical Savannas. Berlin: Springer.
Jacobs, B. F. (2004). Paleobotanical studies from tropical Africa: relevance to the evolution of forest, woodland, and savanna biomes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 1573–1583.
Jacobs, B. F., Kingston, J. D. and Jacobs, L. L. (1999). The origin of grass-dominated ecosystems. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 86, 590–643.
Janis, C. M. (1993). Tertiary mammal evolution in the context of changing climates, vegetation, and tectonic events. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24, 467–500.
Janis, C. M., Damuth, J. and Theodor, J. M. (2002). The origins and evolution of North American grassland biome: the story from the hoofed mammals. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 117, 183–198.
Jernvall, J. and Fortelius, N. (2002). Common mammals drive the evolutionary increase of hypsodonty in the Neogene. Nature, 417, 538–540.
Jernvall, J., Hunter, J. P. and Fortelius, M. (1996). Molar tooth diversity, disparity, and ecology in Cenozoic ungulate radiations. Science, 274, 1489–1492.
Keeley, J. E. and Rundel, P. W. (2005). Fire and the Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands. Ecology Letters, 8, 683–690.
Kellogg, E. A. (2001). Evolutionary history of the grasses. Plant Physiology, 125, 1198–1205.
Latorre, C., Quade, J. and McIntosh, W. C. (1997). The expansion of C4 grasses and global change in the late Miocene: stable isotope evidence from the Americas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 146, 83–96.
Long, S. P. and Jones, M. B. (1991). Introduction, aims, goals and general methods. In Primary Productivity of Grass Ecosystems of the Tropics and Subtropics, ed. S. P. Long, M. B. Jones and M. J. Roberts. London: Chapman and Hall, pp. 1–24.
MacFadden, B. J. and Cerling, T. E. (1994). Fossil horses, carbon isotopes and global change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 481–486.
Massey, F. P. and Hartley, S. E. (2006). Experimental demonstration of the anti-herbivore effects of silica in grasses: impacts on foliage digestibility and vole growth rates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 273, 2299–2304.
Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E. and Cladera, G. A. (2006). Paleoenvironmental evolution of southern South America during the Cenozoic. Journal of Arid Environments, 66, 385–388.
Osborne, C. P. (2008). Atmosphere, ecology and evolution: what drove the Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands. Journal of Ecology, 96, 35–45.
Osborne, C. P. and Freckleton, R. P. (2009). Ecological selection pressures for C4 photosynthesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276, 1753–1760.
Pagani, M., Zachos, J., Freeman, K. H., Bohaty, S. and Tipple, B. (2005). Marked change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Oligocene. Science, 309, 600–603.
Piperno, D. R. (2006). Phytoliths: a Comprehensive Guide for Archeaologists and Paleo-ecologists. Lanham, MD: Rowman Altamira.
Prasad, V., Strömberg, C. A. E., Alimohammadian, H. and Sahni, A. (2005). Dinosaur coprolites and the early evolution of grasses and grazers. Science, 310, 1177–1180.
Raven, P. H., Evert, R. F. and Eichhorn, S. E. (2005). Biology of Plants, 7th edn. New York, NY: Freeman and Worth.
Roalson, E. H. (2008). C4 photosynthesis: differentiating causation and coincidence. Current Biology, 18, 167–168.
Rundel, P. W. (1980). The ecological distribution of C4 and C3 grasses in the Hawaiian islands. Oecologia, 45, 354–359.
Sage, R. F. (2001). Environmental and evolutionary preconditions for the origin and diversification of the C4 photosynthetic syndrome. Plant Biology, 3, 202–213.
Sage, R. F. (2004). The evolution of C4 photosynthesis. New Phytologist, 161, 341–370.
Sage, R. F. and Monson, R. K. (1999). C4 Plant Biology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Salisbury, F. B. and Ross, C. W. (1992). Plant Physiology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Sánchez-Ken, J. G., Clark, L. G., Kellogg, E. A. and Kay, E. E. (2007). Reinstatement and emendation of subfamily Micrairoideae (Poaceae). Systematic Botany, 32, 71–80.
Shaw, R. B. (2000). Tropical grasslands and savannas. In Grasses, Systematics and Evolution, ed. S. Jacobs and J. Everett. Melbourne: CSIRO, pp. 351–355.
Slack, C. R. and Hatch, M. D. (1967). Comparative studies on the activity of carboxylases and other enzymes in relation to the new pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in tropical grasses. Biochemical Journal, 103, 660–665.
Slingsby, J. A. and Verboom, G. A. (2006). Phylogenetic relatedness limits coexistence at fine spatial scales: evidence from the schoenoid sedges (Cyperaceae: Schoeneae) of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. American Naturalist, 168, 14–27.
Strömberg, C. A. E. (2005). Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 11980–11984.
Strömberg, C. A. E., Werdelin, L., Friis, E. M. and Sarac, G. (2007). The spread of grass-dominated habitats in Turkey and surrounding areas during the Cenozoic: phytolith evidence. Paleogeology, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 250, 18–49.
Sungkaew, S., Stapleton, C. M. A., Salamin, N. and Hodkinson, T. R. (2008). Non-monophyly of the woody bamboos (Bambuseae; Poaceae): a multi-gene region phylogenetic analysis of Bambuseae s.s. Journal of Plant Research, 122, 95–108.
Taub, D. R. and Lerdau, M. T. (2000). Relationship between leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic rate for three NAD-ME and three NADP-ME C4 grasses. American Journal of Botany, 87, 412–417.
Tipple, B. J. and Pagani, M. (2007). The early origins of terrestrial C4 photosynthesis. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 35, 435–461.
Vicentini, A., Barber, J. C., Aliscioni, S. S., Giussani, L. M. and Kellogg, E. A. (2008). The age of grasses and clusters of C4 photosynthesis. Global Change Biology, 14, 1–15.
Walter, H. (1979). Vegetation of the Earth and Ecological Systems of the Geobiosphere. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 66–71.
Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006). Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling. Systematic Biology, 55, 785–802.
Zazzo, A., Bocherens, H., Brunet, M. et al. (2000). Herbivore paleo-diet and paleo-environmental changes in Chad during the Pliocene using stable isotope ratios of tooth enamel carbonate. Paleobiology, 26, 294–309.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Ahola, M. P., Laaksonen, T., Eeva, T. and Lehikoinen, E. (2007). Climate change can alter competitive relationships between resident and migratory birds. Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 1045–1052.
Aitken, S. N., Yeaman, S., Holliday, J. A., Wang, T. and Curtis-McLane, S. (2008). Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 95–111.
Arora, R., Rowland, L. J. and Tanino, K. (2003). Induction and release of bud dormancy in woody perennials, a science comes of age. Hortscience, 38, 911–921.
Bale, J. S., Masters, G. J., Hodkinson, I. D. et al. (2002). Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores. Global Change Biology, 8, 1–16.
Barrett, R. T. (2002). The phenology of spring bird migration to north Norway. Bird Study, 49, 270–277.
Bearhop, S., Fiedler, W., Furness, R. W. et al. (2005). Assortative mating as a mechanism for rapid evolution of a migratory divide. Science, 310, 502–504.
Böhlenius, H., Huang, T., Charbonnel-Campaa, L. et al. (2006). The conserved CO/FT regulatory module controls timing of flowering and seasonal growth cessation in trees. Science, 312, 1040–1043.
Both, C. (2007). Comment on ‘rapid advance of spring arrival dates in long-distance migratory birds’. Science, 315, 1959–1961.
Both, C. and Te Marvelde, L. (2007). Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration through Europe. Climate Research, 35, 93–105.
Both, C. and Visser, M. (2001). Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird. Nature, 411, 296–298.
Both, C., Bijlsma, R. G. and Visser, M. (2005). Climatic effects on timing of spring migration and breeding in a long-distance migrant, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. Journal of Avian Biology, 36, 368–373.
Both, C., Bouwhuis, S., Lessells, C. M. and Visser, M. E. (2006). Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature, 441, 81–83.
Bradshaw, A. D. (1965). Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Advances in Genetics, 13, 115–155.
Bradshaw, H. D. and Stettler, R. F. (1995). Molecular genetics of growth and development in Populus. IV. Mapping QTLs with large effects on growth, form, and phenology traits in a forest tree. Genetics, 139, 963–973.
Bradshaw, W. E. and Holzapfel, C. M. (2001). Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98, 14509–14511.
Bradshaw, W. E. and Holzapfel, C. M. (2006). Evolutionary response to rapid climate change. Science, 312, 1477–1478.
Brommer, J. E., Merilä, J., Sheldon, B. C. and Gustafsson, L. (2005). Natural selection and genetic variation for reproductive reaction norms in a wild bird population. Evolution, 59, 1362–1371.
Charmantier, A., McCleery, R. H., Cole, L. R. et al. (2008). Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to climate change in a wild bird population. Science, 322, 800–803.
Chmielewski, F. M. and Rö tzer, T. (2001). Responses of tree phenology to climatic changes across Europe. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 108, 101–112.
Cleland, E. E., Chuine, I., Menzel, A., Mooney, H. A. and Schwartz, M. D. (2007). Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 357–365.
Coleman, G. D. and Chen, K. Y. (2008). Regulation of FLC-like genes and bud dormancy in poplar. Plant and Animal Genome Conference XVI, San Diego, CA. www.intl-pag.org/16/abstracts/PAG16_W10_80.html.
Collier, R. H., Finch, S., Phelps, K. and Thompson, A. R. (1991). Possible impact of global warming on cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) activity in the UK. Annals of Applied Biology, 118, 261–271.
Cotton, P. A. (2003). Avian migration phenology and global climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100, 12219–12222.
Crabbe, J. (1994). Dormancy. Encyclopedia of Agricultural Sciences. Volume I. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Davis, M. B. and Shaw, R. G. (2001). Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change. Science, 292, 673–679.
Donnelly, A., Salamin, N. and Jones, M. B. (2006). Changes in tree phenology: an indicator of spring warming in Ireland? Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 106, 47–55.
Donnelly, A., Cooney, T., Jennings, E., Buscardo, E. and Jones, M. B. (2009). Response of birds to climatic variability; evidence from the western fringe of Europe. International Journal of Biometeorology, 53, 211–220.
Edwards, M. and Richardson, A. J. (2004). Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch. Nature, 430, 881–884.
Forkner, R. E., Marquis, R. J., Lill, J. T. and Le Corff, J. (2008). Timing is everything? Phenological synchrony and population variability in leaf-chewing herbivores of Quercus. Ecological Entomology, 33, 276–285.
García-Gil, M. R., Mikkonen, M. and Savolainen, O. (2003). Nucleotide diversity at two phytochrome loci along a latitudinal cline in Pinus sylvestris. Molecular Ecology, 12, 1195–1206.
Gilchrist, G. W. (1995). Specialists and generalists in changing environments. I. Fitness landscapes of thermal sensitivity. American Naturalist, 146, 252–270.
Gordo, O. and Sanz, J. J. (2006). Temporal trends in phenology of the honey bee Apis mellifera (L.) and the small white Pieris rapae (L.) in the Iberian Peninsula (1952–2004). Ecological Entomology, 31, 261–268.
Hall, D., Luquez, V., Garcia, V. M. et al. (2007). Adaptive population differentiation in phenology across a latitudinal gradient in European aspen (Populus tremula, L.): a comparison of neutral markers, candidate genes and phenotypic traits. Evolution, 61, 2849–2860.
Harrington, R., Woiwod, I. and Sparks, T. (1999). Climate change and trophic interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 146–150.
Hartl, D. L. and Jones, E. W. (2009). Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes, 7th edn. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Hegland, S. J., Nielsen, A., Lázaro, A., Bjerknes, A. and Totland, Ø. (2008). How does climate warming affect plant–pollinator interactions? Ecology Letters, 12, 184–195.
Herre, E. A., Knowlton, N., Mueller, U. G. and Rehner, S. A. (1999). The evolution of mutualisms: exploring the paths between conflict and cooperation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 49–53.
Horvath, D. P., Anderson, J. V., Chao, W. S. and Foley, M. F. (2003). Knowing when to grow: signals regulating bud dormancy. Trends in Plant Science, 8, 534–540.
Huntley, B. (2007). Evolutionary response to climate change? Heredity, 98, 247–248.
Hüppop, O. and Hüppop, K. (2003). North Atlantic Oscillation and timing of spring migration in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 270, 233–240.
Hsu, C. Y., Liu, Y., Luthe, D. S. and Yuceer, C. (2006). Poplar FT2 shortens the juvenile phase and promotes seasonal flowering. Plant and Cell Physiology, 49, 291–300.
Ingvarsson, P. K., García, M. V., Hall, D., Luquez, V. and Jansson, S. (2006). Clinal variation in phyB2, a candidate gene for day-length-induced growth cessation and bud set, across a latitudinal gradient in European aspen (Populus tremula). Genetics, 172, 1845–1853.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. van der Linden and C. Hanson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jansson, S. and Douglas, C. J. (2007). Populus: a model system for plant biology. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 58, 435–458.
Jonzén, N., Lindén, A., Ergon, T. et al. (2006). Rapid advance of spring arrival dates in long-distance migratory birds. Science, 312, 1959–1961.
Jump, A. S. and Peñuelas, J. (2005). Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters, 8, 1010–1020.
Jump, A. S., Hunt, J. M., Martinez-Izquierdo, J. A. and Peñuelas, J. (2006). Natural selection and climate change: temperature-linked spatial and temporal trends in gene frequency in Fagus sylvatica. Molecular Ecology, 15, 3469–3480.
Jump, A. S., Peñuelas, J., Rico, L. et al. (2008). Simulated climate change provokes rapid genetic change in the Mediterranean shrub Fumana thymifolia. Global Change Biology, 14, 637–643.
Kellermann, V. M., van Heerwaarden, B., Hoffmann, A. A. and Sgrò, C. M. (2006). Very low additive genetic variance and evolutionary potential in multiple populations of two rainforest Drosophila species. Evolution, 60, 1104–1108.
Kruuk, L. E. B. (2004). Estimating genetic parameters in natural populations using the ‘animal model’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 873–890.
Lang, G. A., Early, J. D., Martin, G. C. and Darnell, R. L. (1987). Endodormancy, paradormancy, and ecodormancy – physiological terminology and classification for dormancy research. Hortscience, 22, 371–377.
Law, R. D. and Suttle, J. C. (2003). Transient decreases in methylation at 5'-cCGG-3'sequences in potato (Solanum tuberosum) meristem DNA during progression of tubers through dormancy precede the resumption of sprout growth. Plant Molecular Biology, 51, 437–447.
Lechowics, M. J. (1984). Why do temperate deciduous trees leaf out at different times? Adaptation and ecology of forest communities. American Naturalist, 124, 821–842.
Lehikoinen, E., Sparks, T. H. and Zalakevicius, M. (2004). Arrival and departure dates. In Birds and Climate Change. Advances in Ecological Research, Vol. 35, ed. A. P. Møller, W. Fiedler and P. Berthold. London, UK: Academic Press, pp. 1–31.
Levitan, M. and Etges, W. J. (2005). Climate change and recent genetic flux in populations of Drosophila robusta. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 5, 4.
Lyon, B. E., Chaine, A. S. and Winkler, D. W. (2008). A matter of timing. Science, 321, 1051–1052.
Memmott, J., Craze, P. G., Waser, N. M. and Price, M. V. (2007). Global warming and the disruption of plant–pollinator interactions. Ecology Letters, 10, 710–717.
Menzel, A. and Fabian, P. (1999). Growing season extended in Europe. Nature, 397, 659.
Menzel, A., Sparks, T. H., Estrella, N. et al. (2006). European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Global Change Biology, 12, 1–8.
Møller, A. P., Rubolini, D. and Lehikoinen, E. (2008). Populations of migratory bird species that did not show a phenological response to climate change are declining. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 16195–16200.
Neale, D. B. and Savolainen, O. (2004). Association genetics of complex traits in conifers. Trends in Plant Science, 9, 325–330.
Nussey, D. H., Postma, E., Gienapp, P. and Visser, M. E. (2005). Selection on heritable phenotypic plasticity in a wild bird population. Science, 310, 304–306.
Ogaya, R. and Peñuelas, J. (2007). Tree growth, mortality, and above-ground biomass accumulation in a holm oak forest under a five-year experimental field drought. Plant Ecology, 189, 291–299.
Olsen, J. E., Junttila, O., Nilsen, J. et al. (1997). Ectopic expression of oat phytochrome A in hybrid aspen changes critical daylength for growth and prevents cold acclimatization. The Plant Journal, 12, 1339–1350.
Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 637–669.
Pearson, R. G. and Dawson, T. P. (2003). Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12, 361–371.
Pellmyr, O. and Leebens-Mack, J. (1999). Forty million years of mutualism: evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca–yucca moth association. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 96, 9178–9183.
Peñuelas, J. and Filella, I. (2001). Responses to a warming world. Science, 294, 793–795.
Pulido, F. (2007). Phenotypic changes in spring arrival: evolution, phenotypic plasticity, effects of weather and condition. Climate Research, 35, 5–23.
Pulido, F., Berthold, P., Mohr, G. and Querner, U. (2001). Heritability of the timing of autumn migration in a natural bird population. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 268, 953–959.
Rathcke, B. and Lacey, E. P. (1985). Phenological patterns of terrestrial plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16, 179–214.
Reed, T. E., Wanless, S., Harris, M. P. et al. (2006). Responding to environmental change: plastic responses vary little in a synchronous breeder. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 273, 2713–2719.
Reed, T. E., Kruuk, L. E., Wanless, S. et al. (2008). Reproductive senescence in a long-lived seabird: rates of decline in late-life performance are associated with varying costs of early reproduction. American Naturalist, 171, 89–101.
Rodriguez-Falcon, M., Bou, J. and Prat, S. (2006). Seasonal control of tuberization in potato: conserved elements with the flowering response. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 57, 151–180.
Rodriguez-Trelles, F. and Rodriguez, M. A. (1998). Rapid micro-evolution and loss of chromosomal diversity in Drosophila in response to climate warming. Evolutionary Ecology, 12, 829–838.
Rohde, A. and Bhalerao, R. P. (2007). Plant dormancy in the perennial context. Trends in Plant Science, 12, 217–223.
Roy, D. B. and Sparks, T. H. (2000). Phenology of British butterflies and climate change. Global Change Biology, 6, 407–416.
Ruttink, T., Arend, M., Morreel, K. et al. (2007). A molecular timetable for apical bud formation and dormancy induction in poplar. The Plant Cell, 19, 2370–2390.
Saino, N. and Ambrosini, R. (2008). Climatic connectivity between Africa and Europe may serve as a basis for phenotypic adjustment of migration schedules of trans-Saharan migratory birds. Global Change Biology, 14, 250–263.
Savolainen, O. and Pyhäjärvi, T. (2007). Genomic diversity in forest trees. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 10, 162–167.
Savolainen, O., Pyhäjärvi, T. and Knürr, T. (2007). Gene flow and local adaptation in trees. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 38, 595–619.
Sparks, T. H. and Tryjanowski, P. (2007). Patterns of spring arrival dates differ in two hirundines. Climate Research, 35, 159–164.
Sparks, T. H., Bairlein, F., Bojarinova, J. G. et al. (2005). Examining the total arrival distribution of migratory birds. Global Change Biology, 11, 22–30.
Stefanescu, C., Peñuelas, J. and Filella, I. (2003). Effects of climatic change on the phenology of butterflies in the northwest Mediterranean Basin. Global Change Biology, 9, 1494–1506.
Stenseth, N. C. and Mysterud, A. (2002). Climate, changing phenology, and other life history traits: non-linearity and match-mismatch to the environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 13379–13381.
Stenseth, N. C., Mysterud, A., Ottersen, G. et al. (2002). Ecological effects of climate fluctuations. Science, 23, 1292–1296.
Sung, S. and Amasino, R. M. (2005). Remembering winter: toward a molecular understanding of vernalization. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 56, 491–508.
Tauber, M. J. and Tauber, C. A. (1976). Insect seasonality: diapause maintenance, termination, and postdiapause development. Annual Review of Entomology, 21, 81–107.
Umina, P. A., Weeks, A. R., Kearney, M. R., McKechnie, S. W. and Hoffmann, A. A. (2008). A rapid shift in classical clinal pattern in Drosophila reflecting climate change. Science, 308, 691–693.
Vähätalo, A. V., Rainio, K., Lehikoinen, A. and Lehikoinen, E. (2004). Spring arrival of birds depends on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Avian Biology, 35, 210–216.
van Asch, M. and Visser, M. E. (2007). Phenology of forest caterpillars and their host trees: the importance of synchrony. Annual Review of Entomology, 52, 37–55.
van Asch, M., van Tienderen, P. H., Holleman, L. J. M. and Visser, M. E. (2007). Predicting adaptation of phenology in response to climate change, an insect herbivore example. Global Change Biology, 13, 1596–1604.
Visser, M. E., van Noordwijk, A. J., Tinbergen, J. M. and Lessells, C. M. (1998). Warmer springs lead to mistimed reproduction in great tits (Parus major). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 265, 1867–1870.
Walther, G. R., Post, E., Convey, P. et al. (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature, 416, 389–395.
Wingfield, J. C., Hahn, T. P., Levin, R. and Honey, P. (1992). Environmental predictability and control of gonadal cycles in birds. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 261, 214–231.
Yakovlev, I. A., Fossdal, C. G., Johnsen, O., Junttila, O. and Skrøppa, T. (2006). Analysis of gene expression during bud burst initiation in Norway spruce via ESTs from subtracted cDNA libraries. Tree Genetics and Genomes, 2, 1614–2950.
Yanovsky, M. J. and Kay, S. A. (2002). Molecular basis of seasonal time measurement in Arabidopsis. Nature, 419, 308–312.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Abe, K., Nishimura, N. and Hirano, M. (1999). Simultaneous production of beta-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C by the aerial microalga Trentepohlia aurea. Journal of Applied Phycology, 11, 331–336.
Agardh, C. A. (1824). Systema algarum. Lund: Berling.
Aptroot, A. and van Herk, C. M. (2007). Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts. Environmental Pollution, 146, 293–298.
Beardall, J. and Giordano, M. (2002). Ecological implications of microalgal and cyanobacterial CO2 concentrating mechanisms, and their regulation. Functional Plant Biology, 29, 335–347.
Beardall, J. and Raven, J. A. (2004). The potential effects of global climate change on microalgal photosynthesis, growth and ecology. Phycologia, 43, 26–40.
Bell, G. and Collins, S. (2008). Adaptation, extinction and global change. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 3–16.
Bertsch, A. (1966). CO2 Gaswechsel der Grünalge Apatococcus lobatus. Planta, 70, 46–72.
Broady, P. A. (1996). Diversity, distribution and dispersal of Antarctic terrestrial algae. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5, 1307–1335.
Brodie, J. and Zuccarello, G. C. (2007). Systematics of the species rich algae: red algal classification, phylogeny and speciation. In Reconstructing the Tree of Life: Taxonomy and Systematics of Species Rich Taxa, ed. T. R. Hodkinson and J. A. N. Parnell. Systematics Association Special Volume 72. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 317–330.
Buchheim, M. A., Buchheim, J. A., Carlson, T. and Kugrens, P. (2002). Phylogeny of Lobocharacium (Chlorophyceae) and allies: a study of 18S and 26S rDNA data. Journal of Phycology, 38, 376–383.
Callaghan, T. V., Björn, L. O., Chernov, Y. et al. (2004). Biodiversity, distributions and adaptations of Arctic species in the context of environmental change. Ambio, 33, 404–417.
Cardon, Z. G., Gray, D. W. and Lewis, L. A. (2008). The green algal underground: evolutionary secrets of desert cells. Bioscience, 58, 114–122.
Chapman, R. L. and Waters, D. A. (2001). Lichenization of the Trentepohliales: complex algae and odd relationships. In Symbiosis, ed. J. Seckbach. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 361–371.
Chen, P. C. and Lai, C. L. (1996). Physiological adaptation during cell dehydration and rewetting of a newly-isolated Chlorella species. Physiologia Plantarum, 96, 453–457.
Cockell, C. S. and Knowland, J. (1999). Ultraviolet radiation screening compounds. Biological Reviews, 74, 311–345.
Collins, S. and Bell, G. (2004). Phenotypic consequences of 1,000 generations of selection at elevated CO2 in a green alga. Nature, 431, 566–569.
Collins, S. and Bell, G. (2006). Evolution of natural algal populations at elevated CO2. Ecology Letters, 9, 129–135.
Collins, S., Sültemeyer, D. and Bell, G. (2006a). Changes in C uptake in populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii selected at high CO2. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 1812–1819.
Collins, S., Sültemeyer, D. and Bell, G. (2006b). Rewinding the tape: selection of algae adapted to high CO2 at current and Pleistocene levels of CO2. Evolution, 60, 1392–1401.
Del Campo, J. A., Moreno, J., Rodriguez, H. et al. (2000). Carotenoid content of chlorophycean microalgae: factors determining lutein accumulation in Muriellopsis sp. Chlorophyta. Journal of Biotechnology, 76, 51–59.
Delwiche, C. F. (2007). Algae in the warp and weave of life: bound by plastids. In Unravelling the Algae: the Past, Present and Future of Algal Systematics, ed. J. Brodie and J. Lewis. Systematics Association Special Volume 75. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 7–20.
Eliáš, M., Neustupa, J. and Škaloud, P. (2008). Elliptochloris bilobata var. corticola var. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel subaerial coccal green alga. Biologia, 63, 791–798.
Ettl, H. and Gärtner, G. (1995). Syllabus der Boden-, Luft- und Flechtenalgen. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.
Falkowski, P. G. and Oliver, M. J. (2007). Mix and match: how climate selects phytoplankton. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 5, 813–819.
Falkowski, P. G., Katz, M. E., Knowll, A. H. et al. (2004). The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton. Science, 305, 354–360.
Fenchel, T. and Finlay, B. J. (2003). Is microbial diversity fundamentally different from biodiversity of larger animals and plants? European Journal of Protistology, 39, 486–490.
Finkel, Z. V., Katz, M. E., Wright, J. D., Schofield, O. M. E. and Falkowski, P. G. (2005). Climatically driven macroevolutionary patterns in the size of marine diatoms over the Cenozoic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 8927–8932.
Finkel, Z. V., Sebbo, J., Feist-Burkhardt, S. et al. (2007). A universal driver of macroevolutionary change in the size of marine phytoplankton over the Cenozoic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104, 20416–20420.
Finlay, B. J. (2002). Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species. Science, 296, 1061–1063.
Flechtner, V. R. (2007). North American microbiotic soil crust communities: diversity despite challenge. In Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments, ed. J. Seckbach. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 539–551.
Foissner, W. (2006). Biogeography and dispersal of micro-organisms: a review emphasizing protests. Acta Protozoologica, 45, 111–136.
Foissner, W. (2008). Protist diversity and distribution: some basic considerations. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 235–242.
Friedl, T. (1995). Inferring taxonomic positions and testing genus level assignments in coccoid green lichen algae: a phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from Dictyochloropsis reticulata and from members of the genus Myrmecia (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.). Journal of Phycology, 31, 632–639.
Friedl, T. and O' Kelly, C. J. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships of green algae assigned to the genus Planophila (Chlorophyta): evidence from 18S rDNA sequence data and ultrastructure. European Journal of Phycology, 37, 373–384.
Friedl, T. and Zeltner, C. (1994). Assessing the relationships of some coccoid green lichen algae and the Microthamniales (Chlorophyta) with 18S gene sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology, 30, 500–506.
Good, B. H. and Chapman, R. L. (1978). The ultrastructure of Phycopeltis (Chroolepidaceae: Chlorophyta). 1. Sporopollenin in the cell walls. American Journal of Botany, 65, 27–33.
Gray, D. W., Lewis, L. A. and Cardon, Z. G. (2007). Photosynthetic recovery following desiccation of desert green algae (Chlorophyta) and their aquatic relatives. Plant, Cell and Environment, 30, 1240–1255.
Häubner, N., Schumann, R. and Karsten, U. (2006). Aeroterrestrial algae growing in biofilms on facades: response to temperature and water stress. Microbial Ecology, 51, 285–293.
Hodkinson, T. R. and Parnell, J. A. N. (2007). Introduction to the systematics of species rich groups. In Reconstructing the Tree of Life: Taxonomy and Systematics of Species Rich Taxa, ed. T. R. Hodkinson and J. A. N. Parnell. Systematics Association Special Volume 72. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3–20.
Hoyer, K., Karsten, U., Sawall, T. and Wiencke, C. (2001). Photoprotective substances in Antarctic macroalgae and their variation with respect to depth, distribution, different tissues and developmental stages. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 211, 117–129.
Hughes, K. A. (2006). Solar UV-B radiation, associated with ozone depletion, inhibits the Antarctic terrestrial microalga Stichococcus bacillaris. Polar Biology, 29, 327–336.
Huss, V. A. R., Frank, C., Hartmann, E. C. et al. (1999). Biochemical taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of the genus Chlorella sensu lato (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology, 35, 587–598.
John, D. M. (1988). Algal growths on buildings: a general review and methods of treatment. Biodeterioration Abstracts, 2, 81–102.
John, D. M. (2002). Orders Chaetophorales, Klebsormidiales, Microsporales, Ulotrichales. In The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles, ed. D. M. John, B. A. Whitton and A. J. Brook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 433–468.
Karsten, U., Friedl, T., Schumann, R., Hoyer, K. and Lembcke, S. (2005). Mycosporine-like amino acids and phylogenies in green algae: Prasiola and its relatives from the Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology, 41, 557–566.
Karsten, U., Lembcke, S. and Schumann, R. (2007a). The effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic performance, growth, and sunscreen compounds in aeroterrestrial biofilm algae isolated from building facades. Planta, 225, 991–1000.
Karsten, U., Schumann, R. and Mostaert, A. S. (2007b). Aeroterrestrial algae growing on man-made surfaces: what are the secrets of their ecological success? In Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments, ed. J. Seckbach. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 583–597.
Krienitz, L., Hegewald, E. H., Hepperle, D. et al. (2004). Phylogenetic relationship of Chlorella and Parachlorella gen. nov. (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Phycologia, 43, 529–542.
Kützing, F. T. (1843). Phycologia generalis. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus.
Lewis, L. A. (2007). Chlorophyta on land: independent lineages of green eukaryotes from arid lands. In Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments, ed. J. Seckbach. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 571–582.
Lewis, L. A. and Flechtner, V. R. (2002). Green algae (Chlorophyta) of desert microbiotic crusts: diversity of North American taxa. Taxon, 51, 443–451.
Lewis, L. A. and Lewis, P. O. (2005). Unearthing the molecular phylodiversity of desert soil green algae (Chlorophyta). Systematic Biology, 54, 936–947.
Lewis, L. A. and McCourt, R. M. (2004). Green algae and the origin of land plants. American Journal of Botany, 91, 1535–1556.
Lewis, L. A., Wilcox, L. W., Fuerst, P. A. and Floyd, G. L. (1992). Concordance of molecular and ultrastructural data in the study of zoosporic green algae. Journal of Phycology, 28, 375–380.
Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum, Vol II. Stockholm.
Linnaeus, C. (1759). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, Vol II. Stockholm.
López-Bautista, J. M., Waters, D. A. and Chapman, R. L. (2002). The Trentepohliales revisited. Constancea, 83. ucjeps.berkeley.edu/constancea/83/lopez_etal/trentepohliales.html.
López-Bautista, J. M., Rindi, F. and Casamatta, D. (2007). The systematics of subaerial algae. In Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments, ed. J. Seckbach. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 601–617.
Lud, D., Buma, A. G. J., van de Poll, W., Moerdijk, T. C. W. and Huiskes, H. L. (2001). DNA damage and photosynthetic performance in the Antarctic terrestrial alga Prasiola crispa ssp. antarctica (Chlorophyta) under manipulated UV-radiation. Journal of Phycology, 37, 459–467.
Luo, W., Pflugmacher, S., Pröschold, T., Walz, N. and Krienitz, L. (2006). Genotype versus phenotype variability in Chlorella and Micractinium (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Protist, 157, 315–333.
Masojidek, J., Kopecky, J., Koblizek, M. and Torzillo, G. (2004). The xanthophyll cycle in green algae (Chlorophyta): its role in the photosynthetic apparatus. Plant Biology, 6, 342–349.
Mattox, K. R. and Stewart, K. D. (1984). Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. In The Systematics of the Green Algae, ed. D. E. G. Irvine and D. M. John. London: Academic Press, pp. 29–72.
Mikhailyuk, T. I., Sluiman, H. J., Massalski, A. et al. (2008). New streptophyte green algae from terrestrial habitats and an assessment of the genus Interfilum (Klebsormidiophyceae, Streptophyta). Journal of Phycology, 44, 1586–1603.
Miller, K. G., Kominz, M. A., Browning, J. V. et al. (2005). The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science, 310, 1293–1298.
Miyachi, S., Iwasaki, I. and Shiraiwa, Y. (2003). Historical perspective on microalgal and cyanobacterial acclimation to low- and extremely high-CO2 conditions. Photosynthesis Research, 77, 139–153.
Nägeli, C. (1849). Gattungen einzelliger Algen, physiologisch und systematisch bearbeitet. Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeine Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften, 10, 1–139.
Neustupa, J. (2005). Investigations on the genus Phycopeltis (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from South-East Asia, including the description of two new species. Cryptogamie Algologie, 26, 229–242.
Neustupa, J. and Šejnohová, L. (2003). Marvania aerophytica sp. nov., a new subaerial tropical green alga. Biologia, 58, 503–507.
Neustupa, J. and Škaloud, P. (2008). Diversity of subaerial algae and cyanobacteria on tree bark in tropical mountain habitats. Biologia, 63, 806–812.
Nienow, J. A. (1996). Ecology of subaerial algae. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft, 112, 537–552.
Novis, P. M. (2006). Taxonomy of Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Charophyceae) in New Zealand streams and the significance of low-pH habitats. Phycologia, 45, 293–301.
Ong, B. L., Lim, M. and Wee, Y. C. (1992). Effects of desiccation and illumination on photosynthesis and pigmentation of an edaphic population of Trentepohlia odorata (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology, 28, 768–772.
Oren, A. (2007). Diversity of organic osmotic compounds and osmotic adaptation in cyanobacteria and algae. In Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments, ed. J. Seckbach. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 641–655.
Printz, H. (1939). Vorarbeiten zu einer Monographie der Trentepohliaceen. Nytt Magasin for Naturvbidenskapene, 80, 137–210.
Pröschold, T. and Leliaert, F. (2007). Systematics of the green algae: conflict of classic and modern approaches. In Unravelling the Algae: the Past, Present and Future of Algal Systematics, ed. J. Brodie and J. Lewis. Systematics Association Special Volume 75. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 123–153.
Reisser, W. (2007). The hidden life of algae underground. In Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments, ed. J. Seckbach. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 47–58.
Reisser, W. and Houben, P. (2001). Different strategies of aeroterrestrial algae in reacting to increased levels of UV-B and ozone. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft, 123, 291–296.
Rindi, F. (2007). Diversity, distribution and ecology of green algae and cyanobacteria in urban habitats. In Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments, ed. J. Seckbach. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 571–582.
Rindi, F. and Guiry, M. D. (2002). Diversity, life history and ecology of Trentepohlia and Printzina (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) in urban habitats in western Ireland. Journal of Phycology, 38, 39–54.
Rindi, F. and Guiry, M. D. (2004). Composition and spatial variability of terrestrial algal assemblages occurring at the bases of urban walls in Europe. Phycologia, 43, 225–235.
Rindi, F. and López-Bautista, J. M. (2007). New and interesting records of Trentepohlia (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta) from French Guiana, including the description of two new species. Phycologia, 46, 698–708.
Rindi, F. and López-Bautista, J. M. (2008). Diversity and ecology of Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in French Guiana. Cryptogamie Algologie, 29, 13–43.
Rindi, F., Guiry, M. D., Barbiero, R. P. and Cinelli, F. (1999). The marine and terrestrial Prasiolales (Chlorophyta) of Galway City, Ireland: a morphological and ecological study. Journal of Phycology, 35, 469–482.
Rindi, F., López-Bautista, J. M., Sherwood, A. R. and Guiry, M. D. (2006). Morphology and phylogenetic position of Spongiochrysis hawaiiensis gen. et sp. nov., the first known terrestrial member of the order Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 56, 913–922.
Rindi, F., McIvor, L., Sherwood, A. R. et al. (2007). Molecular phylogeny of the green algal order Prasiolales (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology, 43, 811–822.
Rindi, F., Guiry, M. D. and López-Bautista, J. M. (2008a). Distribution, morphology and phylogeny of Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Charophyceae) in urban environments in Europe. Journal of Phycology, 44, 1529–1540.
Rindi, F., Lam, D. W. and López-Bautista, J. M. (2008b). Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from Panama. Nova Hedwigia, 87, 421–444.
Rindi, F., Lam, D. W. and López-Bautista, J. M. (2009). Phylogenetic relationships and species circumscription in Trentepohlia and Printzina (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 52, 329–339.
Robinson, S., Wasley, J. and Tobin, A. K. (2003). Living on the edge: plants and global change in continental and maritime Antarctica. Global Change Biology, 9, 1681–1717.
Schippers, P., Lurling, M. and Scheffer, M. (2004). Increase of atmospheric CO2 promotes phytoplankton productivity. Ecology Letters, 6, 446–451.
Schubert, H., Kroom, B. M. A. and Matthijs, H. C. P. (1994). In-vivo manipulation of the xanthophyll cycle and the role of zeaxanthin in the protection against photodamage in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 269, 7267–7272.
Servais, T., Lehnert, O., Li, J., et al. (2008). The Ordovician biodiversification: revolution in the oceanic trophic chain. Lethaia, 41, 99–109.
Sharma, N. K., Rai, A. K., Singh, S., and Brown, R. M. (2007). Airborne algae: their present status and relevance. Journal of Phycology, 43, 615–627.
Sluiman, H. J., Guihal, C. and Mudimu, O. (2008). Assessing phylogenetic affinities and species delimitations in Klebsormidiales (Streptophyta): nuclear-encoded rDNA phylogeny and ITS secondary structure models in Klebsormidium, Hormidiella and Entransia. Journal of Phycology, 44, 183–195.
Smith, G. M. (1950). The Freshwater Algae of the United States. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Thompson, R. H. and Wujek, D. E. (1992). Printzina gen. nov. (Trentepohliaceae), including a description of a new species. Journal of Phycology, 28, 232–237.
Thompson, R. H. and Wujek, D. E. (1997). Trentepohliales: Cephaleuros, Phycopeltis and Stomatochroon. Morphology, Taxonomy and Ecology. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers.
Tozzi, S., Schofield, O. and Falkowski, P. (2004). Historical climate change and ocean turbulence as selective agents for two key phytoplankton functional groups. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 274, 123–132.
Trainor, F. R. and Gladych, R. (1995). Survival of algae in desiccated soil: a 35-year study. Phycologia, 34, 191–192.
Verbruggen, H., Ashworth, M., LoDuca, S. T. et al. (2009). A multi-locus time calibrated phylogeny of the siphonous green algae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 50, 642–653.
Watanabe, S., Mitsui, K., Nakayama, T. and Inouye, I. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of sarcinoid green algae: Chlorosarcinopsis, Desmotetra, Sarcinochlamys, gen. nov., Neochlorosarcina and Chlorosphaeropsis (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology, 42, 679–695.
Wee, Y. C. and Lee, K. B. (1980). Proliferation of algae on surfaces of buildings in Singapore. International Biodeteration Bulletin, 16, 113–117.
Wong, C. Y., Chu, W. L., Marchant, H. and Phang, S. M. (2007). Comparing the responses of Antarctic, tropical and temperate microalgae to ultraviolet radiation stress. Journal of Applied Phycology, 19, 689–699.
Wright, R. F., Alewell, C., Cullen, J. M. et al. (2001). Trends in nitrogen deposition and leaching in acid-sensitive streams. Hydrological and Earth Systems Science, 5, 299–310.
Xiong, F., Komenda, J., Kopecky, J. and Nedbal, L. (1997). Strategies of ultraviolet-B protection in microscopic algae. Physiologia Plantarum, 100, 378–388.
Xiong, F., Kopecky, J. and Nedbal, L. (1999). The occurrence of UV-B adsorbing mycosporine-like amino acids in freshwater and terrestrial microalgae (Chlorophyta). Aquatic Botany, 63, 37–49.
Yoon, H. S., Hackett, J. D., Ciniglia, C., Pinto, G. and Bhattacharya, D. (2004). A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21, 809–818.
Zhang, J. M., Huss, V. A. R., Sun, X. P., Chang, K. J. and Pang, D. B. (2008). Morphology and phylogenetic position of a trebouxiophycean green alga (Chlorophyta) growing on the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, with the description of a new genus and species. European Journal of Phycology, 43, 185–193.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bisby, F., Roskov, Y., Orrell, T. et al. (2009). Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2009 Annual Checklist. Reading: Species 2000. www.Catalogueoflife.Org/annual-checklist/2009.
Busby, J. R. (1991). BIOCLIM: a bioclimatic analysis and prediction system. In Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis, ed. C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin. Melbourne: CSIRO, pp. 64–68.
Carstens, B. C. and Richards, C. L. (2007). Integrating coalescent and ecological niche modeling in comparative phylogeography. Evolution, 61, 1439–1454.
Clark, T., Martin, S. and Liefeld, T. (2004). Globally distributed object identification for biological knowledgebases. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 5, 59–70.
Collen, B., Ram, M., Zamin, T. and McRae, L. (2008). The tropical biodiversity data gap: addressing disparity in global monitoring. Tropical Conservation Science, 1, 75–88.
Eaton, M. D., Soberon, J. and Peterson, T. (2008). Phylogenetic perspective on ecological niche evolution in American blackbirds (family Icteridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 94, 869–878.
Elith, J., Graham, C. H., Anderson, R. P. et al. (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species' distributions from occurrence data. Ecography, 29, 129–151.
Evans, M. E. K., Smith, S. A., Flynn, R. S. and Donoghue, M. J. (2009). Climate, niche evolution, and diversification of the ‘Bird-cage’ Evening primroses (Oenothera, sections Anogra and Kleinia). American Naturalist, 173, 225–240.
Graham, C. H., Ferrier, S., Huettman, F., Moritz, C. and Peterson, A. T. (2004). New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 497–503.
Guralnick, R. and Hill, A. (2009). Biodiversity informatics: automated approaches for documenting global biodiversity patterns and processes. Bioinformatics, 25, 421–428.
Hartmann, F. A., Wilson, R., Gradstein, S. R., Schneider, H. and Heinrichs, J. (2006). Testing hypotheses on species delimitations and disjunctions in the liverwort Bryopteris (Jungermanniopsida: Lejeuneaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 167, 1205–1214
Hernandez, P. A., Graham, C. H., Master, L. L. and Albert, D. L. (2006). The effect of sample size and species characteristics on performance of different species distribution modeling methods. Ecography, 29, 773–785.
Heywood, V. H. (2009). The impacts of climate change on plant species in Europe, with contributions by A. Culham. Strasbourg: Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats Standing Committee.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1957). Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium. Quantitative Biology, 22, 415–427.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. R. K. Pachauri and A. Reisinger. Geneva: IPCC.
Jakob, S. S., Martinez-Meyer, E. and Blattner, F. R. (2009). Phylogeographic analyses and paleodistribution modeling indicate Pleistocene in situ survival of Hordeum species (Poaceae) in southern Patagonia without genetic or spatial restriction. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26, 907–923.
Leliaert, F., Verbruggen, H., Wysor, B. and De Clerck, O. (2009). DNA taxonomy in morphologically plastic taxa: algorithmic species delimitation in the Boodlea complex (Chlorophyta: Cladophorales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 53, 122–133.
Lo Presti, R. M. and Oberprieler, C. (2009). Evolutionary history, biogeography and eco-climatological differentiation of the genus Anthemis L. (Compositae, Anthemideae) in the circum-Mediterranean area. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1313–1332.
Page, R. D. M. (2005). A taxonomic search engine: federating taxonomic databases using web services. BMC Bioinformatics, 6, 48.
Pahwa, J. S., Jones, A. C., White, R. J. et al. (2006). Supporting the construction of workflows for biodiversity problem-solving accessing secure, distributed resources. Scientific Programming, 14, 195–208.
Patterson, D. J., Remsen, D., Marino, W. A. and Norton, C. (2006). Taxonomic indexing: extending the role of taxonomy. Systematic Biology, 55, 367–373.
Peterson, A. T. (2006). Uses and requirements of ecological niche models and related distributional models. Biodiversity Informatics, 3, 59–72.
Phillips, S. J., Anderson, R. P. and Schapire, R. E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Sellwood, B. W. and Valdes, P. J. (2006). Mesozoic climates: general circulation models and the rock record. Sedimentary Geology, 190, 269–287.
Slingo, J., Bates, K., Nikiforakis, N. et al. (2009). Developing the next-generation climate system models: challenges and achievements. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 367, 815–831.
Soberón, J. (2007). Grinnellian and Eltonian niches and geographic distributions of species. Ecological Letters, 10, 1115–1123.
Stockwell, D. R. B. and Peters, D. P. (1999). The GARP modelling system: problems and solutions to automated spatial prediction. International Journal of Geographic Information Systems, 13, 143–158.
Verbruggen, H., Tyberghein, L., Pauly, K. et al. (2009). Macroecology meets macroevolution: evolutionary niche dynamics in the seaweed Halimeda. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 18, 393–405.
Washington, W. M., Buja, L. and Craig, A. (2009). The computational future for climate and earth system models: on the path to petaflop and beyond. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 367, 833–846.
Williams, M., Haywood, A. M., Gregory, J. and Schmidt, D. N. (2007). Deep-time Perspectives on Climate Change: Marrying the Signal From Computer Models and Biological Proxies. London: Geological Society of London on behalf of the Micropalaeontological Society.
Wisz, M. S., Hijmans, R. J., Li, J. et al. (2008). Effects of sample size on the performance of species distribution models. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 763–773.
Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006a). Phyloclimatic modelling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modelling. Systematic Biology, 55, 785–802.
Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006b). A phyloclimatic study of Cyclamen. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 6, 72.
Yesson, C., Brewer, P. W., Sutton, T. et al. (2007). How global is the Global Biodiversity Information Facility? PLoS ONE, 2, e1124.
Yesson, C., Toomey, N. H. and Culham, A. (2009). Cyclamen: time, sea and speciation biogeography using a temporally calibrated phylogeny. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1234–1252.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Araújo, M. B. and Guisan, A. (2006). Five (or so) challenges for species distribution modelling. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1677–1688.
Araújo, M.B. and Pearson, R. G. (2007). Equilibrium of species' distributions with climate. Ecography, 28, 693–695.
Araújo, M. B., Cabeza, M., Thullier, W., Hannah, L. and Williams, P. H. (2004). Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods. Global Change Biology, 10, 1618–1626.
Beaumont, L. J., Hughes, L. and Poulsen, M. (2005). Predicting species distributions: use of climatic parameters in BIOCLIM and its impact on predictions of species' current and future distributions. Ecological Modelling, 186, 250–269.
Beaumont, L. J., Hughes, L. and Pitman, A. J. (2008). Why is the choice of future climate scenarios for species distribution modelling important? Ecology Letters, 11, 1135–1146.
Broennimann, O., Treier, U. A., Müller-Schärer, H. et al. (2007). Evidence of climatic niche shift during biological invasion. Ecology Letters, 10, 701–709.
Busby, J. R. (1991). BIOCLIM: a bioclimatic analysis and prediction system. In Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis, ed. C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin. Melbourne: CSIRO, pp. 64–68.
Carnaval, A. C. and Moritz, C. (2008). Historical climate modelling predicts patterns of current biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Journal of Biogeography, 25, 1187–1201.
Carpenter, G., Gillison, A. N. and Winter, J. (1993). DOMAIN: a flexible modeling procedure for mapping potential distributions of plants and animals. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 667–680.
Dormann, C. F., McPherson, J., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2007). Methods to account for spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of species distributional data: a review. Ecography, 30, 609–628.
Elith, J., Graham, C. H., Anderson, R. P. et al. (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species' distributions from occurrence data. Ecography, 29, 129–151.
Elton, C. (1927). Animal Ecology. London: Sedgwick and Jackson.
Fielding, A. H. and Bell, J. F. (1997). A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models. Environmental Conservation, 24, 38–49.
Fisher, J., Lindenmayer, D. B., Nix, H. A., Stein, J. L. and Stein, J. A. (2001). Climate and animal distribution: a climatic analysis of the Australian marsupial Trichosurus caninus. Journal of Biogeography, 28, 293–304.
Fitzpatrick, M. C., Weltzin, J. F., Sanders, N. J. and Dunn, R. R. (2007). The biogeography of prediction error: why does the introduced range of the fire ant over-predict its native range? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 24–33.
Flato, G. M., Boer, G. J., Lee, W. G. et al. (2000). The Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis global coupled model and its climate. Climate Dynamics, 16, 451–467.
Frost, D. R. (2010). Amphibian species of the world: an online reference. Version 5.4. New York, NY: American Museum of Natural History. http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia.
Gordon, C., Cooper, C., Senior, C. A. et al. (2000). The simulation of SST, sea ice extents and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments. Climate Dynamics, 16, 147–168.
Graham, C. H., Ron, S. R., Santos, J. C., Schneider, C. J. and Moritz, C. (2004). Integrating phylogenetics and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms in dendrobatid frogs. Evolution, 58, 1781–1793.
Graham, C. H., Elith, J., Hijmans, R. J. et al. (2008). The influence of spatial errors in species' occurrence data used in distribution models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 239–247.
Grinnell, J. (1917). The niche-relationships of the California Thrasher. Auk, 34, 427–433.
Gu, W. and Swihart, R. K. (2004). Absent or undetected? Effects of non-detection of species occurrence on wildlife-habitat models. Biological Conservation, 116, 195–203.
Guisan, A. and Thuiller, W. (2005). Predicting species distributions: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters, 8, 993–1009.
Guisan, A. and Zimmermann, N. (2000). Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling, 135, 147–186.
Hanley, J. and McNeil, B. (1982). The meaning of the use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology, 143, 29–36.
Heikkinen, R. K., Luoto, M., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2006). Methods and uncertainties in bioclimatic envelope modeling under climate change. Progress in Physical Geography, 30, 751–777.
Hijmans, R. J. and Graham, C. H. (2006). The ability of climate envelope models to predict the effect of climate change on species' distributions. Global Change Biology, 12, 2272–2281.
Hijmans, R. J., Guarino, L. and Rojas, E. (2002). DIVA-GIS: A Geographical Information System for the Analysis of Biodiversity Data. Manual. Lima: International Potato Center.
Hijmans, R. J., Guarino, L., Jarvis, A. et al. (2005a). DIVA-GIS, version 5.2. Manual. www.diva-gis.org.
Hijmans, R. J., Cameron, S. E., Parra, J. L., Jones, P. G. and Jarvis, A. (2005b). Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965–1978.
Hirzel, A. H. and Le Lay, G. (2008). Habitat suitability modelling and niche theory. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 1372–1381.
Hortal, J., Jiménez-Valverde, A., Gómez, J. F., Lobo, J. M. and Baselga, A. (2008). Historical bias in biodiversity inventories affects the observed environmental niche of the species. OIKOS, 117, 847–858.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1957). Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 22, 415–427.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1978). An Introduction to Population Ecology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hutchinson, M. F. (1995). Interpolating mean rainfall using thin plate smoothing splines. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 9, 385–403.
Hutchinson, M. F. (2004). Anusplin version 4.3. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environment Studies, Australian National University.
James, F. C., Johnston, R. F., Warner, N. O., Niemi, G. and Boecklen, W. (1984). The Grinnellian niche of the Wood Thrush. American Naturalist, 124, 17–47.
Jiménez-Valverde, A. and Lobo, J. M. (2006). The ghost of unbalanced species distribution data in geographical model predictions. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 512–524.
Jiménez-Valverde, A., Lobo, J. M. and Hortal, J. (2008). Not as good as they seem: the importance of concepts in species distribution modeling. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 885–890.
Kiehl, J. T. and Gent, P. R. (2004). The Community Climate System Model, version 2. Journal of Climate, 17, 1666–1669.
Köhler, J., Scheelke, K., Schick, S., Veith, M. and Lötters, S. (2005). Contribution to the taxonomy of hyperoliid frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Hyperoliidae): advertisement calls of twelve species from East and Central Africa. African Zoology, 40, 127–142.
Kozak, K. H., Graham, C. H. and Wiens, J. J. (2008). Integrating GIS-based environmental data into evolutionary biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 141–148.
Kremen, C., Cameron, A., Moilanen, A. et al. (2008). Aligning conservation priorities across taxa in Madagascar with high-resolution planning tools. Science, 320, 222–226.
Lobo, J. M., Jiménez-Valverde, A. and Real, R. (2008). AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 145–151.
Lötters, S., Rotich, D., Scheelke, K. et al. (2004). Bio-sketches and partitioning of syntopic reed frogs, genus Hyperolius (Amphibia: Hyperoliidae), in two humid tropical African forest regions. Journal of Natural History, 38, 1969–1997.
Lötters, S., Rödder, D., Bielby, J. et al. (2008). Meeting the challenge of conserving Madagascar's megadiverse amphibians: addition of a risk assessment for the chytrid fungus. PLoS Biology, 6.
Martinez-Meyer, E., Peterson, A. T. and Navarro-Siguenza, A. G. (2004). Evolution of seasonal ecological niches in the Passerina buntings (Aves: Cardinalidae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271, 1151–1157.
Monserud, R. A. and Leemans, R. (1992). Comparing global vegetation maps with kappa statistics. Ecological Modelling, 62, 275–293.
New, M., Hulme, M. and Jones, P. D. (1999). Representing twentieth century space-time climate variability. Part 1: development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. Journal of Climate, 12, 829–856.
New, M., Hulme, M. and Jones, P. D. (2000). Representing twentieth century space-time climate variability. Part 2: development of 1901–96 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. Journal of Climate, 13, 2217–2238.
Nix, H. (1986). A biogeographic analysis of Australian elapid snakes. In Atlas of Elapid Snakes of Australia, ed. R. Longmore. Canberra: Bureau of Flora and Fauna, pp. 4–15.
Pearce, J. and Ferrier, S. (2000). An evaluation of alternative algorithms for fitting species' distribution models using logistic regression. Ecological Modelling, 128, 128–147.
Pearman, P. B., Guisan, A., Broennimann, O. and Randin, C. F. (2007). Niche dynamics in space and time. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 149–158.
Pearman, P. B., Randin, C. F., Broennimann, O. et al. (2008). Prediction of plant species' distributions across six millennia. Ecology Letters, 11, 357–369.
Pearson, R.G. (2007). Species' Distribution Modeling for Conservation Educators and Practitioners: Synthesis. http://ncep.amnh.org. New York, NY: American Museum of Natural History.
Pearson, R. G., Raxworthy, C. J., Nakamura, M. and Peterson, A. T. (2007). Predicting species' distributions from small numbers of occurrence records: a test case using cryptic geckos in Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography, 34, 102–117.
Peterson, A. T. (2003). Predicting the geography of species' invasions via ecological niche modeling. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 78, 419–433.
Peterson, A. T. and Vargas, N. (1993). Ecological diversity in scrub jays, Aphelocoma coerulescens. In The Biological Diversity of Mexico: Origins and Distribution, ed. T. P. Ramamoorthy, R. Bye and J. Fa. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 309–317.
Peterson, A. T. and Vieglais, D. A. (2001). Predicting species' invasions using ecological niche modeling: new approaches from bioinformatics attack a pressing problem. BioScience, 51, 363–371.
Peterson, A. T., Soberón, J. and Sánchez-Cordero, V. (1999). Conservation of ecological niches in evolutionary time. Science, 285, 1265–1267.
Phillips, S. J., Dudík, M. and Shapire, R. E. (2004). A maximum entropy approach to species' distribution modeling. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Machine Learning. New York, NY: ACM Press, pp. 655–662.
Phillips, S. J., Anderson, R. P. and Schapire, R. E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species' geographic distributions. Ecological Modeling, 190, 231–259.
Puliam, H. R. (2000). On the relationship between niche and distribution. Ecology Letters, 3, 349–361.
Raxworthy, C. J., Ingram, C. M., Rabibisoa, N. and Pearson, R. G. (2007). Applications of ecological niche modeling for species' delimitation: a review and empirical evaluation using day geckos (Phelsuma) from Madagascar. Systematic Biology, 56, 907–923.
Rödder, D. (2009). ‘Sleepless in Hawaii’: does anthropogenic climate change enhance ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the alien invasive Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas, 1966 (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae)? North-Western Journal of Zoology, 5, 16–25.
Rödder, D. and Böhme, W. (2009). Who is who? Comparison of the advertisement calls of two East African sister species of Hyperolius (Anura: Hyperoliidae). Salamandra, 45, 180–185.
Rödder, D. and Dambach, J. (2010). Review: modelling future trends of relict species. In Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology, ed. J. C. Habel and T. Assmann, New York, NY: Springer, pp. 373–382.
Rödder, D. and Lötters, S. (2009). Niche shift or niche conservatism? Climatic properties of the native and invasive range of the Mediterranean Housegecko Hemidactylus turcicus. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 18, 674–687.
Rödder, D. and Weinsheimer, F. (2009). Will future anthropogenic climate change increase the potential distribution of the alien invasive Cuban treefrog (Anura: Hylidae)? Journal of Natural History, 43, 1207–1217.
Rödder, D., Solé, M. and Böhme, W. (2008). Predicting the potential distribution of two alien invasive housegeckos (Gekkonidae: Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus mabouia). North-Western Journal of Zoology, 4, 236–246.
Rödder, D., Schmidtlein, S., Veith, M. and Lötters, S. (2009). Alien invasive Slider turtle in unpredicted habitat: a matter of niche shift or predictors studied? PLoS ONE, 4, e7843.
Rödder, D., Schlüter, A. and Lötters, S. (2010). Is the ‘Lost World’ lost? High endemism of amphibians and reptiles on South American tepuis in a changing climate. In Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology, ed. J. C. Habel and T. Assmann. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 401–416.
Sax, D. F., Stachowicz, J. J., Brown, J. H. et al. (2008). Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 465–471.
Schiøtz, A. (1999). Treefrogs of Africa. Frankfurt: Chimaira.
Soberón, J. (2007). Grinnellian and Eltonian niches and geographic distributions of species. Ecology Letters, 10, 1115–1123.
Soberón, J. and Peterson, A. T. (2004). Biodiversity informatics: managing and applying primary biodiversity data. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 689–698.
Soberón, J. and Peterson, A. T. (2005). Interpretation of models of fundamental ecological niches and species' distributional areas. Biodiversity Informatics, 2, 1–10.
Stockwell, D. B. R. and Noble, I. R. (1992). Introduction of sets of rules from animal distribution data: a robust and informative method of data analysis. Math and Computers in Simulation, 33, 385–390.
Stockwell, D. and Peters, D. (1999). The GARP modeling system problems and solutions to automated spatial prediction. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13, 143–158.
Swets, K. (1988). Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science, 240, 1285–1293.
Thuiller, W. (2003). BIOMOD: optimising predictions of species distributions and projecting potential future shifts under global change. Global Change Biology, 9, 1352–1362.
Thuiller, W., Albert, C., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2008). Predicting global change impacts on plant species' distributions: future challenges. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 9, 137–152.
Tilman, D., May, R. M., Lehman, C. L. and Nowak, M. A. (1994). Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature, 371, 65–66.
Veith, M., Kosuch, J., Rödel, M. O. et al. (2009). Multiple evolution of sexual dichromatism in Afrotropical reed frogs. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 51, 388–393.
Waltari, E. and Guralnick, R. P. (2009). Ecological niche modelling of montane mammals in the Great Basin, North America: examining past and present connectivity of species across basins and ranges. Journal of Biography, 36, 148–161.
Waltari, E., Hijmans, R. J., Peterson, A. T. et al. (2007). Locating Pleistocene refugia: comparing phylogeographic and ecological niche model predictions. PLoS ONE, 7, 1–11.
Warren, D. L., Glor, R. E. and Turelli, M. (2008). Environmental niche equivalency versus conservatism: quantitative approaches to niche evolution. Evolution, 62, 2868–2883.
Wiens, J. J. and Graham, C. H. (2005). Niche conservatism: integrating evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 36, 519–539.
Wisz, M. S., Hijmans, R. J., Peterson, A. T. et al. (2008). Effects of sample size on the performance of species' distribution models. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 763–773.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Ackerly, D. D. (2003). Community assembly, niche conservatism, and adaptive evolution in changing environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164, S165–S184.
Anderberg, A. A. (1994). Phylogeny and subgeneric classification of Cyclamen L. (Primulaceae). Kew Bulletin, 49, 455–467.
Anderberg, A. A., Trift, I. and Källersjö, M. (2000). Phylogeny of Cyclamen L. (Primulaceae): evidence from morphology and sequence data from the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 220, 147–160.
Bennett, S. T. and Grimshaw, J. M. (1991). Cytological studies in Cyclamen subg. Cyclamen (Primulaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 176, 135–143.
Bonaccorso, E., Koch, I. and Peterson, A. T. (2006). Pleistocene fragmentation of Amazon species' ranges. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 157–164.
Busby, J. R. (1991). BIOCLIM: a bioclimatic analysis and prediction system. In Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis, ed. C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin. Melbourne: CSIRO, pp. 64–68.
Clennett, J. C. B. (2002). An analysis and revision of Cyclamen L. with emphasis on subgenus Gyrophoebe O. Schwarz. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 138, 473–481.
Compton, J. A., Clennett, J. C. B. and Culham, A. (2004). Nomenclature in the dock. Overclassification leads to instability: a case study in the horticulturally important genus Cyclamen (Myrsinaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 146, 339–349.
Culham, A., Denney, M., Jope, M. and Moore, P. (2009). A new species of Cyclamen from Crete. Cyclamen, 33, 12–15.
Davis, M. B. and Shaw, R. G. (2001). Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change. Science, 292, 673–679.
Debussche, M., Garnier, E. and Thompson, J. D. (2004). Exploring the causes of variation in phenology and morphology in Mediterranean geophytes: a genus-wide study of Cyclamen. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 145, 469–484.
Douady, C. J., Catzeflis, F., Raman, J., Springer, M. S. and Stanhope, M. J. (2003). The Sahara as a vicariant agent, and the role of the Miocene climatic events, in the diversification of the mammalian order Macroscelidae (elephant shrews). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100, 8325–8330.
Elith, J., Graham, C. H., Anderson, R. P. et al. (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species' distributions from occurrence data. Ecography, 29, 129–151.
Estabrook, G. F. (2001). Vicariance or dispersal: the use of natural historical data to test competing hypotheses of disjunction on the Tyrrhenian coast. Journal of Biography, 28, 95–103.
Gielly, L., Debussche, M. and Thompson, J. D. (2001). Geographic isolation and evolution of Mediterranean endemic Cyclamen: insights from chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron sequence variation. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 230, 75–88.
Graham, C. H., Ron, S. R., Santos, J. C., Schneider, C. J. and Moritz, C. (2004). Integrating phylogenetics and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms in dendrobatid frogs. Evolution, 58, 1781–1793.
Grey-Wilson, C. (2003). Cyclamen: a Guide for Gardeners, Horticulturalists and Botanists. London: Batsford.
Guisan, A. and Thuiller, W. (2005). Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters, 8, 993–1009.
Guisan, A. and Zimmermann, N. E. (2000). Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling, 135, 147–186.
Hoffmann, M. H. (2005). Evolution of the realized climatic niche in the genus Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae). Evolution, 59, 1425–1436.
Hugall, A., Moritz, C., Moussalli, A. and Stanisic, J. (2002). Reconciling paleodistribution models and comparative phylogeography in the wet tropics rainforest land snail Gnarosophia bellendenkerensis(Brazier 1875). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 6112–6117.
Inouye, D. W. (2000). The ecological and evolutionary significance of frost in the context of climate change. Ecology Letters, 3, 457–463.
Krijgsman, W. (2002). The Mediterranean: mare nostrum of earth sciences. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 205, 1–12.
Martínez-Meyer, E., Peterson, A. T. and Hargrove, W. W. (2004a). Ecological niches as stable distributional constraints on mammal species, with implications for Pleistocene extinctions and climate change projections for biodiversity. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13, 305–314.
Martínez-Meyer, E., Peterson, A. T. and Navarro-Siguenza, A. G. (2004b). Evolution of seasonal ecological niches in the passerina buntings (Aves: Cardinalidae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271, 1151–1157.
McLachlan, J. S., Clark, J. S. and Manos, P. S. (2005). Molecular indicators of tree migration capacity under rapid climate change. Ecology, 86, 2088–2098.
Morrone, J. J. and Crisci, J. V. (1995). Historical biogeography: introduction to methods. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26, 373–401.
Ness, J. H., Bronstein, J. L., Andersen, A. N. and Holland, J. N. (2004). Ant body size predicts dispersal distance of ant-adapted seeds: implications of small-ant invasions. Ecology, 85, 1244–1250.
Nix, H. A. (1986). A biogeographic analysis of Australian elapid snakes. In Atlas of Elapid Snakes of Australia, ed. R. Longmore. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, pp. 4–15.
Oberprieler, C. (2005). Temporal and spatial diversification of circum-Mediterranean Compositae-Anthemideae. Taxon, 54, 951–966.
Page, R. D. M. (1988). Quantitative cladistic biogeography constructing and comparing area cladograms. Systematic Zoology, 37, 254–270.
Peterson, A. T. (2003). Predicting the geography of species' invasions via ecological niche modeling. Quarterly Review of Biology, 78, 419–433.
Peterson, A. T., Soberón, J. and Sánchez-Cordero, V. (1999). Conservation of ecological niches in evolutionary time. Science, 285, 1265–1267.
Peterson, A. T., Tian, H., Martínez-Meyer, E. et al. (2005). Modeling distributional shifts of individual species and biomes. In Climate Change and Biodiversity, ed. T. E. Lovejoy and L. J. Hannah. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, pp. 211–229.
Phillips, S. J., Anderson, R. P. and Schapire, R. E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Piñeiro, R., Aguilar, J. F., Munt, D. D. and Feliner, G. N. (2007). Ecology matters: Atlantic–Mediterranean disjunction in the sand-dune shrub Armeria pungens (Plumbaginaceae). Molecular Ecology, 16, 2155–2171.
Ree, R. H., Moore, B. R., Webb, C. O. and Donoghue, M. J. (2005). A likelihood framework for inferring the evolution of geographic range on phylogenetic trees. Evolution, 59, 2299–2311.
Ricklefs, R. E. and Latham, R. E. (1992). Intercontinental correlation of geographical ranges suggests stasis in ecological traits of relict genera of temperate perennial herbs. American Naturalist, 139, 1305–1321.
Ronquist, F. (1997). Dispersal–vicariance analysis: a new approach to the quantification of historical biogeography. Systematic Biology, 46, 195–203.
Sanmartin, I. (2003). Dispersal vs. vicariance in the Mediterranean: historical biogeography of the Palearctic Pachydeminae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Journal of Biogeography, 30, 1883–1897.
Stace, C. (1997). New Flora of the British Isles, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wiens, J. J. and Donoghue, M. J. (2004). Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 639–644.
Yesson, C. (2008). Investigating plant diversity in Mediterranean climates. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Reading.
Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006a). Phyloclimatic modelling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modelling. Systematic Biology, 55, 785–802.
Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006b). A phyloclimatic study of Cyclamen. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 6, 72.
Yesson, C., Toomey, N. H. and Culham, A. (2009). Cyclamen: time, sea and speciation biogeography using a temporally calibrated phylogeny. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1234–1252.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Ackerly, D. D. (2003). Community assembly, niche conservatism, and adaptive evolution in changing environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164, S165-S184.
Araújo, M. B., Whittaker, R. J., Ladle, R. J. and Erhard, M. (2005). Reducing uncertainty in projections of extinction risk from climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14, 529–538.
Arnold, M. L., Buckner, C. M. and Robinson, J. J. (1991). Pollen-mediated introgression and hybrid speciation in Louisiana irises. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 88, 1398–1402.
Arroyo-García, R., Martínez-Zapater, J. M., Fernández Prieto, J. A. and Álvarez-Arbesu, R. (2001). AFLP evaluation of genetic similarity among laurel populations (Laurus L.). Euphytica, 122, 155–164.
Avise, J. (2000). Phylogeography: the History and Formation of Species. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Axelrod, D. I. (1975). Evolution and biogeography of Madrean-Tethyan sclerophyll vegetation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 62, 280–334.
Barbero, M., Benabid, A., Peyre, C. and Quézel, P. (1981). Sur la presence au Maroc de Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 37, 467–472.
Bond, W. J. and Midgley, J. J. (2001). Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 45–51.
Brubaker, L. B. (1986). Responses of tree populations to climatic change. Vegetatio, 67, 119–130.
Chanderbali, A. S., van der Werff, H. and Renner, S. S. (2001). Phylogeny and historical biogeography of Lauraceae: evidence from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 88, 104–134.
Cheddadi, R., Vendramin, G. G., Litt, T. et al. (2006). Imprints of glacial refugia in the modern genetic diversity of Pinus sylvestris. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15, 271–282.
Christensen, J. H., Hewitson, B., Busuioc, A. et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 847–940.
Cleland, C. (2001). Historical science, experimental science, and the scientific method. Geology, 29, 987–990.
Coiffard, C., Gómez, B. and Thevenard, F. (2007). Early Cretaceous angiosperm invasion of western Europe and major environmental changes. Annals of Botany, 100, 545–553.
Collinson, M. and Hooker, J. (2003). Paleogene vegetation of Eurasia: framework for mammalian faunas. Deinsea, 10, 41–83.
Comes, H. P. and Kadereit, J. W. (1998). The effect of Quaternary climatic changes on plant distribution and evolution. Trends in Plant Science, 3, 432–438.
Cruzan, M. B. and Templeton, A. R. (2000). Paleoecology and coalescence: phylogeographic analysis of hypotheses from the fossil record. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 491–496.
Cubas, P., Pardo, C. and Tahiri, H. (2005). Genetic variation and relationships among Ulex (Fabaceae) species in southern Spain and northern Morocco assessed by chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers. American Journal of Botany, 92, 2031–2043.
De Castro, O., Cozzolino, S., Jury, S. L. and Caputo, P. (2002). Molecular relationships in Genista L. sect. Spartocarpus Spach (Fabaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 231, 91–108.
de Mazancourt, C., Johnson, E. and Barraclough, T. G. (2008). Biodiversity inhibits species' evolutionary responses to changing environments. Ecology Letters, 11, 380–388.
Denk, T., Grimsson, F. and Kvaček, Z. (2005). The Miocene floras of Iceland and their significance for late Cainozoic North Atlantic biogeography. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 149, 369–417.
Donoghue, M. J. and Moore, B. R. (2003). Toward an integrative historical biogeography. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43, 261–270.
Ehrendorfer, F., Krendl, F., Habeler, E. and Sauer, W. (1968). Chromosome numbers and evolution in primitive angiosperms. Taxon, 17, 337–353.
Erdei, B., Hably, L., Kazmer, M., Utescher, T. and Bruch, A. A. (2007). Neogene flora and vegetation development of the Pannonian domain in relation to palaeoclimate and palaeogeography. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 253, 115–140.
Felsenstein, J. (2004). Inferring Phylogenies. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Ferguson, D. K. (1974). On the taxonomy of recent and fossil species of Laurus (Lauraceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 68, 51–72.
Franco, J. A. (1960). Lauráceas macaronésicas. Anais do Instituto Superior de Agronomia de Lisboa, 23, 89–104.
Franks, S. J., Sim, S. and Weis, A. E. (2007). Rapid evolution of flowering time by an annual plant in response to a climate fluctuation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104, 1278–1282.
Gandullo, J. M., Bañares, A., Blanco, A. et al. (1992). Estudio Ecológico de la Laurisilva Canaria. Madrid: ICONA.
Giacobbe, A. (1939). Richerche geografiche et ecologiche sul Laurus nobilis L. Archivio Botanico, 15, 33–82.
Giacomini, V. and Zaniboni, A. (1946). Osservazioni sulla variabilitá del ‘Laurus nobilis L.’ nel bacino del Lago di Garda. Archivio Botanico, 22, 1–16.
Givnish, T. J. and Renner, S. S. (2004). Tropical intercontinental disjunctions: Gondwana breakup, immigration from the boreotropics, and transoceanic dispersal. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 165, S1-S6.
González-Rodríguez, A. M., Jiménez, M. S. and Morales, D. (2005). Seasonal and intraspecific variation of frost tolerance in leaves of three Canarian laurel forest tree species. Annals of Forest Science, 62, 423–428.
Guisan, A. and Thuiller, W. (2005). Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters, 8, 993–1009.
Guisan, A. and Zimmermann, N. E. (2000). Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling, 135, 147–186.
Guzmán, B. and Vargas, P. (2005). Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Cistus L. (Cistaceae) based on ITS, trnL-trnF, and matK sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 37, 644–660.
Haywood, A. M., Sellwood, B. W. and Valdes, P. J. (2000). Regional warming: Pliocene (3 Ma) paleoclimate of Europe and the Mediterranean. Geology, 28, 1063–1066.
Herrera, C. M. (1992). Historical effects and sorting processes as explanations for contemporary ecological patterns: character syndromes in Mediterranean woody plants. American Naturalist, 140, 421–446.
Hewitt, G. M. (2004). Genetic consequences of climatic oscillations in the Quaternary. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 183–195.
Hugall, A., Moritz, C., Moussalli, A. and Stanisic, J. (2002). Reconciling paleodistribution models and comparative phylogeography in the Wet Tropics rainforest land snail Gnarosophia bellendenkerensis (Brazier 1875). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 6112–6117.
Huntley, B. and Webb, T. (1989). Migration: species response to climatic variations caused by changes in the earth's orbit. Journal of Biogeography, 16, 5–19.
Jackson, S. T. and Overpeck, J. T. (2000). Responses of plant populations and communities to environmental changes of the late Quaternary. Paleobiology, 26, 194–220.
Jansson, R. and Dynesius, M. (2002). The fate of clades in a world of recurrent climatic change: Milankovitch oscillations and evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 741–777.
Jump, A. S. and Peñuelas, J. (2005). Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters, 8, 1010–1020.
Kidd, D. M. and Liu, X. (2008). GEOPHYLOBUILDER 1.0: an ArcGis extension for creating ‘geophylogenies’. Molecular Ecology Resources, 8, 88–91.
Konis, E. (1949). The resistance of maquis plants to supramaximal temperatures. Ecology, 30, 425–429.
Kovar-Eder, J., Kvacek, Z., Martinetto, E. and Roiron, P. (2006). Late Miocene to early Pliocene vegetation of southern Europe (7–4 Ma) as reflected in the megafossil plant record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 238, 321–339.
Larcher, W. (2000). Temperature stress and survival ability of Mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. Plant Biosystems, 134, 279–295.
Larcher, W. (2005). Climatic constraints drive the evolution of low temperature resistance in woody plants. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 61, 189–202.
Latham, R. and Ricklefs, R. (1993). Continental comparisons of temperate-zone tree species diversity. In Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical Perspectives, ed. R. E. Ricklefs and D. Schluter, Chicago, IL: University Press, pp. 294–314.
Liu, C., Berry, P. M., Dawson, T. P. and Pearson, R. G. (2005). Selecting thresholds of occurrence in the prediction of species distributions. Ecography, 28, 385–393.
López de Heredia, U., Carrión, J. S., Jiménez, P., Collada, C. and Gil, L. (2007). Molecular and palaeoecological evidence for multiple glacial refugia for evergreen oaks on the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Biogeography, 34, 1505–1517.
Magri, D., Vendramin, G. G., Comps, B. et al. (2006). A new scenario for the Quaternary history of European beech populations: palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequences. New Phytologist, 171, 199–221.
Mai, D. H. (1989). Development and regional differentiation of the European vegetation during the Tertiary. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 162, 79–91.
Mai, D. H. (1995). Tertiäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas: Methoden und Ergebnisse. Jena: Fischer.
Marques, A. R. and Sales, F. (1999). Laurus L., um elemento arcaico na flora da Macaronésia. V Jornadas de Taxonomia Botânica, Lisboa.
Martínez-Meyer, E. and Peterson, A. T. (2006). Conservatism of ecological niche characteristics in North American plant species over the Pleistocene-to-recent transition. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1779–1789.
Milne, R. I. and Abbott, R. J. (2002). The origin and evolution of Tertiary relict floras. Advances in Botanical Research, 38, 281–314.
Mosbrugger, V., Utescher, T. and Dilcher, D. L. (2005). Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 14964–14969.
Mueller, U. G. and Wolfenbarger, L. L. (1999). AFLP genotyping and fingerprinting. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 389–394.
Oosterbroek, P. and Arntzen, J. W. (1992). Area-cladograms of circum-Mediterranean taxa in relation to Mediterranean palaeogeography. Journal of Biogeography, 19, 3–20.
Pardo, C., Cubas, P. and Tahiri, H. (2004). Molecular phylogeny and systematics of Genista (Leguminosae) and related genera based on nucleotide sequences of nrDNA (ITS region) and cpDNA (trnL-trnF intergenic spacer). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 244, 93–119.
Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 637–669.
Parsons, J. J. (1981). Human influences on the pine and laurel forests of the Canary Islands. Geographical Review, 71, 253–271.
Pearman, P. B., Randin, C. F., Broennimann, O. et al. (2008a). Prediction of plant species distributions across six millennia. Ecology Letters, 11, 357–369.
Pearman, P. B., Guisan, A., Broennimann, O. and Randin, C. F. (2008b). Niche dynamics in space and time. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 149–158.
Pearson, R. G. and Dawson, T. P. (2003). Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12, 361–371.
Petit, R. J. and Hampe, A. (2006). Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 187–214.
Petit, R. J., Brewer, S., Bordacs, S. et al. (2002). Identification of refugia and post-glacial colonisation routes of European white oaks based on chloroplast DNA and fossil pollen evidence. Forest Ecology and Management, 156, 49–74.
Petit, R. J., Hampe, A. and Cheddadi, R. (2005). Climate changes and tree phylogeography in the Mediterranean. Taxon, 54, 877–885.
Phillips, S. J., Anderson, R. P. and Schapire, R. E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Posadas, P., Crisci, J. V. and Katinas, L. (2006). Historical biogeography: a review of its basic concepts and critical issues. Journal of Arid Environments, 66, 389–403.
Pulquerio, M. J. F. and Nichols, R. A. (2007). Dates from the molecular clock: how wrong can we be? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 180–184.
Quézel, P. (1985). Definition of the Mediterranean region and the origin of its flora. In Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area, ed. C. Gómez-Campo. Dordrecht: Dr. W. Junk Publishers, pp. 9–24.
Rivas-Martínez, S., Díaz, T. E., Fernández-González, F. et al. (2002). Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal: addenda to the syntaxonomical checklist of 2001. Itinera Geobotanica, 15, 5–922.
Rodríguez-Sánchez, F. and Arroyo, J. (2008). Reconstructing the demise of Tethyan plants: climate-driven range dynamics of Laurus since the Pliocene. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 685–695.
Rodríguez-Sánchez, F., Guzmán, B., Valido, A., Vargas, P. and Arroyo, J. (2009). Late Neogene history of the laurel tree (Laurus L., Lauraceae) based on phylogeographical analyses of Mediterranean and Macaronesian populations. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1270–1281.
Rohwer, J. G., Kubitzki, K. and Bittrich, V. (1993). Lauraceae. In The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, ed. K. Kubitzki. Berlin: Springer, pp. 366–390.
Santos, A. (1990). Evergreen Forests in the Macaronesian Region. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Smith, S. A. and Donoghue, M. J. (2008). Rates of molecular evolution are linked to life history in flowering plants. Science, 322, 86–89.
Sperling, F. N., Washington, R. and Whittaker, R. J. (2004). Future climate change of the subtropical North Atlantic: implications for the cloud forests of Tenerife. Climatic Change, 65, 103–123.
Stewart, W. and Rothwell, G. (1993). Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Svenning, J. C. (2003). Deterministic Plio-Pleistocene extinctions in the European cool-temperate tree flora. Ecology Letters, 6, 646–653.
Takos, I. A. (2001). Seed dormancy in bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.). New Forests, 21, 105–114.
Thompson, J. D. (2005). Plant Evolution in the Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Thuiller, W. (2004). Patterns and uncertainties of species' range shifts under climate change. Global Change Biology, 10, 2020–2027.
Utescher, T. and Mosbrugger, V. (2007). Eocene vegetation patterns reconstructed from plant diversity: a global perspective. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 247, 243–271.
Utescher, T., Erdei, B., Francois, L. and Mosbrugger, V. (2007). Tree diversity in the Miocene forests of western Eurasia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 253, 226–250.
van der Veken, S., Hermy, M., Vellend, M., Knapen, A. and Verheyen, K. (2008). Garden plants get a head start on climate change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 212–216.
Vargas, P. (2007). Are Macaronesian islands refugia of relict plant lineages? A molecular survey. In Phylogeography in Southern European Refugia: Evolutionary Perspectives on the Origins and Conservation of European Biodiversity, ed. S. J. Weiss and N. Ferrand. Berlin: Springer, pp. 297–314.
Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M. et al. (1995). AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Research, 23, 4407–4414.
Walther, G. R. (2003). Plants in a warmer world. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 6, 169–185.
Warren, D. L., Glor, R. E. and Turelli, M. (2008). Environmental niche equivalency versus conservatism: quantitative approaches to niche evolution. Evolution, 62, 2868–2883.
Wiens, J. J. and Graham, C. H. (2005). Niche conservatism: integrating evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 36, 519–539.
Willis, K. J. and Niklas, K. J. (2004). The role of Quaternary environmental change in plant macroevolution: the exception or the rule? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 159–172.
Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. and Billups, K. (2001). Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292, 686–693.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Beaumont, L. J., Pitman, A. J., Poulsen, M. and Hughes, L. (2007). Where will species go? Incorporating new advances in climate modelling into projections of species' distributions. Global Change Biology, 13, 1368–1385.
Bobe, R. (2006). The evolution of arid ecosystems in eastern Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 66, 564–584.
Bowie, R. C. K., Fjeldså, J., Hackett, S. J., Bates, J. M. and Crowe, T. M. (2006). Coalescent models reveal the relative roles of ancestral polymorphism, vicariance, and dispersal in shaping phylogeographical structure of an African montane forest robin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 38, 171–188.
Busby, J. R. (1991). BIOCLIM: a bioclimatic analysis and prediction system. In Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis, ed. C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin. Melbourne: CSIRO, pp. 64–68.
Chatrou, L. W., Couvreur, T. L. P. and Richardson, J. E. (2009). Spatio-temporal dynamism of hotspots enhances plant diversity. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1628–1629.
Couvreur, T. L. P. (2009). Monograph of the syncarpous African genera Isolona and Monodora (Annonaceae). Systematic Botany Monographs, 87, 1–150.
Couvreur, T. L. P., Gereau, R. J., Wieringa, J. J. and Richardson, J. E. (2006). Description of four new species of Monodora and Isolona (Annonaceae) from Tanzania and an overview of Tanzanian Annonaceae diversity. Adansonia (Paris), 28, 243–266.
Couvreur, T. L. P., Chatrou, L. W., Sosef, M. S. M. and Richardson, J. E. (2008). Molecular phylogenetics reveal multiple Tertiary vicariance origins of the African rain forest trees. BMC Biology, 6, 54.
Crisp, M. D. and Cook, L. G. (2007). A congruent molecular signature of vicariance across multiple plant lineages. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43, 1106–1117.
Elith, J., Graham, C. H., Anderson, R. P. et al. (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species' distributions from occurrence data. Ecography, 29, 129–151.
Filer, D. L. (2008). BRAHMS Version 6. Oxford: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford.
Graham, C. H., Moritz, C. and Williams, S. E. (2006). Habitat history improves prediction of biodiversity in rainforest fauna. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 632–636.
Hannah, L., Midgley, G., Hughes, G. and Bomhard, B. (2005). The view from the Cape: extinction risk, protected areas, and climate change. BioScience, 55, 231–242.
Heikkinen, R. K., Luoto, M., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2006). Methods and uncertainties in bioclimatic envelope modelling under climate change. Progress in Physical Geography, 30, 751–777.
Hijmans, R. J., Guarino, L., Jarvis, A. et al. (2005). DIVA-GIS, version 5. www.diva-gis.org.
Hulme, M., Doherty, R., Ngara, T. and New, M. (2005). Global warming and African climate change: a reassessment. In Climate Change and Africa, ed. P. S. Low. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 29–40.
Kearney, M. (2006). Habitat, environment and niche: what are we modelling? Oikos, 115, 186–191.
Lewis, S. L. (2006). Tropical forests and the changing earth system. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 361, 439–450.
Linder, H. P., Hardy, C. R. and Rutschmann, F. (2005). Taxon sampling effects in molecular clock dating: an example from the African Restionaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 35, 569–582.
Lovett, J. C., Midgley, G. F. and Barnard, P. (2005a). Climate change and ecology in Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 43, 167–169.
Lovett, J. C., Marchant, R., Taplin, J. and Küper, W. (2005b). The oldest rainforests in Africa: stability or resilience for survival and diversity? In Phylogeny and Conservation, ed. A. Purvis, J. L. Gittleman and T. Brooks. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 198–229.
Maddison, W. P. and Maddison, D. R. (2006). Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis, version 1.11. http://mesquiteproject.org.
Morley, R. J. (2000). Origin and Evolution of Tropical Rain Forests. Chichester: Wiley.
Mumbi, C. T., Marchant, R., Hooghiemstra, H. and Wooller, M. J. (2008). Late Quaternary vegetation reconstruction from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Quaternary Research, 69, 326–341.
Near, T. J. and Sanderson, M. J. (2004). Assessing the quality of molecular divergence time estimates by fossil calibrations and fossil-based model selection. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 1477–1483.
Nogués-Bravo, D. (2009). Predicting the past distribution of species' climatic niches. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 18, 521–531.
Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 637–669.
Pennington, R. T., Lavin, M., Prado, D. E. et al. (2004). Historical climate change and speciation: neotropical seasonally dry forest plants show patterns of both Tertiary and Quaternary diversification. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 515–537.
Phillips, S. J., Anderson, R. P. and Schapire, R. E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species' geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Pirie, M. D., Chatrou, L. W., Erkens, R. H. J. et al. (2005). Phylogeny reconstruction and molecular dating in four Neotropical genera of Annonaceae: the effect of taxon sampling in age estimation. In Plant Species-Level Systematics: New Perspectives on Pattern and Process, ed. F. T. Bakker, L. W. Chatrou, B. Gravendeel and P. B. Pelser. Ruggell, Liechenstein: A. R. G. Gantner Verlag, pp. 149–174.
Punyasena, S. W., Eshel, G. and McElwain, J. C. (2008). The influence of climate on the spatial patterning of Neotropical plant families. Journal of Biogeography, 35, 117–130.
Richardson, J. E., Chatrou, L. W., Mols, J. B. et al. (2004). Historical biogeography of two cosmopolitan families of flowering plants: Annonaceae and Rhamnaceae. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 1495–1508.
Sanderson, M. J. and Doyle, J. A. (2001). Sources of error and confidence intervals in estimating the age of angiosperms from rbcL and 18S rDNA data. American Journal of Botany, 88, 1499–1516.
Tilman, D. and Lehman, C. (2001). Human-caused environmental change: impacts on plant diversity and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98, 5433–5440.
Wiens, J. J. (2004). Speciation and ecology revisited: phylogenetic niche conservatism and the origin of species. Evolution, 58, 193–197.
Wiens, J. J. and Donoghue, M. J. (2004). Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 639–644.
Wisz, M. S., Hijmans, R. J., Li, J. et al. (2008). Effects of sample size on the performance of species distribution models. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 763–773.
Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006). Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling. Systematic Biology, 55, 785–802.
Yesson, C., Toomey, N. H. and Culham, A. (2009). Cyclamen: time, sea and speciation biogeography using a temporally calibrated phylogeny. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1234–1252.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Alcamo, J., Floerke, M. and Maerker, M. (2007). Future long-term changes in global water resources driven by socio-economic and climatic changes. Hydrological Sciences, 52, 247–275.
Allendorf, F. W., Leary, R. F., Spruell, P. and Wenburg, J. K. (2001). The problems with hybrids: setting conservation guidelines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 613–622.
Anderson, E. and Hubricht, L. (1938). Hybridization in Tradescantia. III. The evidence for introgressive hybridization. American Journal of Botany, 25, 396–402.
Anderson, E. and Stebbins, J. (1954). Hybridization as an evolutionary stimulus. Evolution, 8, 378–388.
Arnold, M. L. (1997). Natural Hybridization and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Arnold, M. L. (2004). Natural hybridization and the evolution of domesticated, pest and disease organisms. Molecular Ecology, 13, 997–1007.
Avise, J. C. (2004). Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Evolution, 2nd edn. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Broeck, A. V., Cox, K., Quataert, P., van Bockstaele, E. and van Slycken, J. (2003). Flowering phenology of Populus nigra L., P. nigra cv. italica and P. × canadensis Moench. and the potential for natural hybridisation in Belgium. Silvae Genetica, 52, 280–283.
Buggs, R. J. A. (2007). Empirical study of hybrid zone movement. Heredity, 99, 301–312.
Carroll, C. P. and Borrill, M. (1965). Tetraploid hybrids from crosses between diploid and tetraploid Dactylis and their significance. Genetica, 36, 65–82.
Chapman, M. A. and Burke, J. M. (2006). Letting the gene out of the bottle: the population genetics of genetically modified crops. New Phytologist, 170, 429–443.
Conceição, A. de S., de Queiroz, L. and Borba, E. (2008). Natural hybrids in Chamaecrista sect. Absus subsect. Baseophyllum (Leguminosae–Caesalpinioideae): genetic and morphological evidence. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 271, 19–27.
Cottignies, A. (1986). The hydrolysis of starch as related to the interruption of dormancy in the ash bud. Journal of Plant Physiology, 123, 373–380.
Coyer, J. A., Hoarau, G., Stam, W. T. and Olsen, J. L. (2007). Hybridization and introgression in a mixed population of the intertidal seaweeds Fucus evanescens and F. serratus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20, 2322–2333.
Coyne, J. A. and Orr, H. A. (2004). Speciation. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Currat, M., Ruedi, M., Petit, R. J. and Excoffier, L. (2008). The hidden side of invasions: massive introgression by local genes. Evolution, 62, 1908–1920.
Curtu, A. L., Gailing, O. and Finkeldey, R. (2007). Evidence for hybridization and introgression within a species-rich oak (Quercus spp.) community. BioMed Central Evolutionary Biology, 7, 218–233.
Dobzhansky, T. (1937). Genetics and the Origin of Species. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Donnelly, A, Salamin, N. and Jones, M. B. (2006). Changes in tree phenology: an indicator of spring warming in Ireland? Biology and Environment, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 106B, 49–56.
Duffy, P. B., Govindasamy, B., Lorio, J. P. et al. (2003). High-resolution simulations of global climate, part 1: present climate. Climate Dynamics, 21, 371–390.
Ebina, T. and Otho, K. (2006). Morphological characters and PCR-RFLP markers in the interspecific hybrids between Bactrocera carambolae and B. papayae of the B. dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae). Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, 42, 23–34.
Ellstrand, N. C. and Schierenbeck, K. A. (2000). Hybridization as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in plants? Euphytica, 148, 35–46.
Ellstrand, N. C., Prentice, H. C. and Hancock, J. F. (1999). Gene flow and introgression from domesticated plants into their wild relatives. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 30, 539–563.
Fernández-Manjarrés, J. F., Gerard, P. R., Dufour, J., Raquin, C. and Frascaria-Lacoste, N. (2006). Differential patterns of morphological and molecular hybridization between Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Oleaceae) in eastern and western France. Molecular Ecology, 15, 3245–3257.
Fielding, A. H. and Bell, J. F. (1997). A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models. Environmental Conservation, 24, 38–49.
Fitter, A. H. and Fitter, R. S. R. (2002). Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants. Science, 296, 1689–1691.
Foden, W., Midgley, G. F., Hughes, G. O. et al. (2007). A changing climate is eroding the geographical range of the Namib Desert tree Aloe through population declines and dispersal lags. Diversity Distribution, 13, 645–653.
Gerard, P. R., Fernández-Manjarrés, J. F. and Frascaria-Lacoste, N. (2006a). Temporal cline in a hybrid zone population between Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. Molecular Ecology, 15, 3655–3667.
Gerard, P. R., Klein, E. K., Austerlitz, F., Fernández-Manjarrés, J. F. and Frascaria-Lacoste, N. (2006b). Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 6, 96.
Gerard, P. R., Fernández-Manjarrés, J. F., Bertolino, P. et al. (2006c). New insights in the recognition of the European ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl as useful tools for forest management. Annals of Forest Science, 63, 733–738.
Giorgi, F., Bi, X. and Pal, J. (2004). Mean interannual and trends in a regional climate change experiment over Europe. II: climate change scenarios (2071–2100). Climate Dynamics, 23, 839–858.
Harrison, R. G. (1993). Hybrid Zones and the Evolutionary Process. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Heuertz, M., Hausman, J. F., Tsvetkov, I., Frascaria-Lacoste, N. and Vekemans, X. (2001). Assessment of genetic structure within and among Bulgarian populations of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Molecular Ecology, 10, 1615–1623.
Heuertz, M., Hausman, J. F., Hardy, O. J. et al. (2004). Nuclear microsatellites reveal contrasting patterns of genetic structure between western and southeastern European populations of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Evolution, 58, 976–988.
Heuertz, M., Carnevale, S., Fineschi, S. et al. (2006). Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of European ashes, Fraxinus sp. (Oleaceae): roles of hybridization and life history traits. Molecular Ecology, 15, 2131–2140.
Hewitt, G. (2000). The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature, 405, 907–913.
Hijmans, R. J., Cameron, S. E., Parra, J. L., Jones, P. G. and Jarvis, A. (2005). Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965–1978.
Hodkinson, T. R., Chase, M. W., Takahashi, C. et al. (2002). The use of DNA sequencing (ITS and trnL-F), AFLP, and fluorescent in situ hybridization to study allopolyploid Miscanthus (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany, 89, 279–286.
Horgan, T., Keane, M., Mccarthy, R., Lally, M. and Thompson, D. (2004). A Guide to Forest Tree Species Selection and Silviculture in Ireland. Dublin: COFORD.
Howard, D. J. (1999). Conspecific sperm and pollen precedence and speciation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 30, 109–132.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. van der Linden and C. Hanson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jato, V., Rodriguez-Rajo, F. J., Dacosta, N. and Aira, M. J. (2004). Heat and chill requirements of Fraxinus flowering in Galicia (NW Spain). Grana, 43, 217–223.
Jeandroz, S., Frascaria-Lacoste, N. and Bousquet, J. (1996). Molecular recognition of the closely related Fraxinus excelsior and F. oxyphylla (Oleaceae) by RAPD markers. Forest Genetics, 3, 237–242.
Jones, P. D. and Moberg, A. (2003). Hemispheric and large scale surface air temperature variations: an extensive revision and an update to 2001. Journal of Climate, 16, 206–223.
Jouve, L., Jacques, D., Douglas, G. C., Hoffmann, L. and Hausman, J. F. (2007). Biochemical characterization of early and late bud flushing in common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Plant Science, 172, 962–969.
Kelleher, C. T., Hodkinson, T. R., Douglas, G. C. and Kelly, D. L. (2005). Species distinction in Irish populations of Quercus petraea and Q. robur: morphological versus molecular analyses. Annals of Botany, 96, 1237–1246.
Khasa, D., Pollefeys, P., Navarro-Quezada, A., Perinet, P. and Bousquet, J. (2005). Species-specific microsatellite markers to monitor gene flow between exotic poplars and their natural relatives in eastern North America. Molecular Ecology Notes, 5, 920–923.
Kuchta, S. R. and Tan, A. M. (2005). Isolation by distance and post-glacial range expansion in the rough-skinned newt, Taricha granulosa. Molecular Ecology, 14, 225–244.
Kullman, L. (2008). Early postglacial appearance of tree species in northern Scandinavia: review and perspective. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 2467–2472.
Lavergne, S., Molina, J. and Debussche, M. (2006). Fingerprints of environmental change on the rare Mediterranean flora: a 115-year study. Global Change Biology, 12, 1466–1478.
Leitch, I. J. and Bennett, M. D. (1997). Polyploidy in angiosperms. Trends in Plant Science, 2, 470–476.
Lenton, T. M. (2004). The coupled evolution of life and atmospheric oxygen. In Evolution on Planet Earth, ed. L. J. Rothschild and A. Lister. London: Academic Press, pp. 35–53.
Levin, D. A. (1978). The origin of isolating mechanisms in flowering plants. Evolutionary Biology, 11, 185–317.
Levin, D. A. (2002). The Role of Chromosomal Change in Plant Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Levin, D. A., Francisco-Ortega, J. and Jansen, R. K. (1996). Hybridization and the extinction of rare plant species. Conservation Biology, 10, 10–16.
Lewis, D. and Crowe, L. K. (1958). Unilateral interspecific incompatibility in flowering plants. Heredity, 12, 233–256.
Liepelt, S., Cheddadi, R., de Beaulieu, J. L. et al. (2009). Postglacial range expansion and its genetic imprints in Abies alba Mill.: a synthesis from palaeobotanic and genetic data. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 153, 139–149.
Lowe, A., Harris, S. and Ashton, P. (2004). Ecological Genetics: Design, Analysis, and Application. Oxford: Blackwell.
Mahoney, M. J. (2004). Molecular systematics and phylogeography of the Plethodon elongatus species group: combining phylogenetic and population genetic methods to investigate species history. Molecular Ecology, 13, 149–166.
Marigo, G., Peltier, J. P., Girel, J. and Pautou, G. (2000). Success in the demographic expansion of Fraxinus excelsior L. Trees, 15, 1–13.
Mebert, K. (2008). Good species despite massive hybridization: genetic research on the contact zone between the watersnakes Nerodia sipedon and N. fasciata in the Carolinas, USA. Molecular Ecology, 17, 1918–1929.
Menzel, A. and Fabian, P. (1999). Growing season extended in Europe. Nature, 397, 659.
Menzel, A., Sparks, T. H., Estrella, N. et al. (2006). European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Global Change Biology, 12, 1969–1976.
Morand-Prieur, M. E., Brachet, S., Rossignol, P., Dufour, J. and Frascaria-Lacoste, N. (2002). A generalized heterozygote deficiency assessed with microsatellites in French common ash populations. Molecular Ecology, 11, 377–385.
Oddo, E., Saiano, F., Alonzo, G. and Bellini, E. (2002). An investigation of the seasonal pattern of mannitol content in deciduous and evergreen species of the Oleaceae growing in northern Sicily. Annals of Botany, 90, 239–243.
Otto, S. P. and Whitton, J. (2000). Polyploid incidence and evolution. Annual Review of Genetics, 34, 401–437.
Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 637–669.
Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature, 421, 37–42.
Parmesan, C., Gaines, S., Gonzalez, L. et al. (2005). Empirical perspectives on species borders: from traditional biogeography to global change. Oikos, 108, 58–75.
Pascarella, J. B. (2007). Mechanisms of prezygotic reproductive isolation between two sympatric species, Gelsemium rankinii and G. sempervirens (Gelsemiaceae), in the southeastern United States. American Journal of Botany, 94, 468–476.
Patonnier, M. P., Peltier, J. P. and Marigo, G. (1999). Drought-induced increase in xylem malate and mannitol concentrations and closure of Fraxinus excelsior L. stomata. Journal of Experimental Botany, 50, 1223–1229.
Pauli, H., Gottfried, M., Reiter, K., Klettner, C. and Grabherr, G. (2006). Signals of range expansions and contractions of vascular plants in the high Alps: observations (1994–2004) at the GLORIA master site Schrankogel, Tyrol, Austria. Global Change Biology, 13, 147–156.
Perron, M. and Bousquet, J. (1997). Natural hybridization between black spruce and red spruce. Molecular Ecology, 6, 725–734.
Phillips, S. J., Anderson, R. P. and Schapire, R. E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Picard, J. F. (1983). A propos du frêne oxyphylle, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. Forêt-Entreprise, 83, 2–4.
Räisänen, J., Hansson, U., Ullerstig, A. et al. (2004). European climate in the late 21st century: regional simulations with two driving global models and two forcing scenarios. Climate Dynamics, 22, 13–31.
Rameau, J. C., Mansion, D. and Dumé, G. (1989). Flore forestière Française, guide écologique illustré. Paris: Institut pour le Développement Forestier.
Ramsey, J. and Schemske, D. W. (2002). Neopolyploidy in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 589–639.
Raquin, C., Jung-Muller, B., Dufour, J. and Frascaria-Lacoste, N. (2002). Rapid seedling obtaining from European ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. Annals of Forest Sciences, 59, 219–224.
Rathcke, B. and Lacey, E. P. (1985). Phenological patterns of terrestrial plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16, 179–214.
Raybould, A. F. and Gray, A. J. (1994). Will hybrids of genetically modified crops invade natural communities? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 85–89.
Rhymer, J. M. and Simberloff, D. (1996). Extinction by hybridization and introgression. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 27, 83–109.
Rieseberg, L. H. (1997). Hybrid origins of plant species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, 359–389.
Rieseberg, L. H. (2006). Hybrid speciation in wild sunflowers. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden, 93, 34–48.
Rieseberg, L. H. and Burke, J. M. (2001). The biological reality of species: gene flow, selection, and collective evolution. Taxon, 50, 47–67.
Rieseberg, L. H. and Carney, S. E. (1998). Plant hybridization. New Phytologist, 140, 599–624.
Rieseberg, L. H. and Willis, J. H. (2007). Plant speciation. Science, 317, 910–914.
Rieseberg, L. H., Archer, M. A. and Wayne, R. K. (1999). Transgressive segregation, adaptation and speciation. Heredity, 83, 363–372.
Rieseberg, L. H., Raymond, O., Rosenthal, D. M. et al. (2003). Major ecological transitions in wild sunflowers facilitated by hybridization. Science, 301, 1211–1216.
Root, T. L., Price, J. T., Hall, K. R., Schneider, S. H. and Rosenzweig, C. (2003). Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature, 421, 57–60.
Root, T. L., Macmynowski, D. P., Mastrandrea, M. D. and Schneider, S. H. (2005). Human-modified temperatures induce species changes: joint attribution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 7465–7469.
Ross, C. L. and Harrison, R. G. (2006). Viability selection on overwintering eggs in a field cricket mosaic hybrid zone. Oikos, 115, 53–68.
Savolainen, O., Pyhajarvi, T. and Knurr, T. (2007). Gene flow and local adaptation in trees. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 38, 595–619.
Schierenbeck, K. A., Symonds, V. V., Gallagher, K. G. and Bell, J. (2005). Genetic variation and phylogeographic analyses of two species of Carpobrotus and their hybrids in California. Molecular Ecology, 14, 539–547.
Schluter, D. (2001). Ecology and the origin of species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 372–379.
Schönswetter, P., Stehlik, I., Holderegger, R. and Tribsch, A. (2005). Molecular evidence for glacial refugia of mountain plants in the European Alps. Molecular Ecology, 14, 3547–3555.
Seehausen, O. (2004). Hybridization and adaptive radiation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 198–207.
Soltis, P. S. and Soltis, D. E. (2009). The role of hybridization in plant speciation. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 60, 561–588.
Sota, T. and Volger, A. P. (2001). Incongruence of mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees in the Carabid beetles Ohomopterus. Systematic Biology, 50, 39–59.
Stace, C. A. (1975). Hybridization and the Flora of the British Isles. London: Academic Press.
Taylor, E. B., Boughman, J. W., Groenenboom, M. et al. (2006). Speciation in reverse: morphological and genetic evidence of the collapse of a three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) species pair. Molecular Ecology, 15, 343–355.
Tsukada, M. (1982). Late-Quaternary shift of fagus distribution. Journal of Plant Research, 95, 203–217.
Valbuena-Carabanã, M., Gonzàlez-Martinez, S. C., Sork, V. L. et al. (2005). Gene flow and hybridisation in a mixed oak forest (Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus petraea (Matts.) Liebl.) in central Spain. Heredity, 95, 457–465.
van Vliet, A. J. H., de Groot, R. S., Overeem, A., Jacobs, A. F. G. and Spieksma, F. T. M. (2002). The influence of temperature and climate change on the timing of pollen release in the Netherlands. International Journal of Climatology, 22, 1757–1767.
Vila, M., Weber, E. and Antonio, C. M. D. (2000). Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization. Biological Invasions, 2, 207–217.
Visser, M. E. and Holleman, L. J. M. (2001). Warmer springs disrupt the synchrony of oak and winter moth phenology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 268, 289–294.
Vitasse, Y., Delzon, S., Dufrêne, E. et al. (2009). Leaf phenology sensitivity to temperature in European trees: do within-species populations exhibit similar responses? Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 735–744.
Wachowiak, W. and Prus-Glowacki, W. (2008). Hybridisation processes in sympatric populations of pines Pinus sylvestris L., P. mugo Turra and P. uliginosa Neumann. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 271, 29–40.
Wagner, W. H. J. (1970). Biosystematics and evolutionary noise. Taxon, 19, 146–151.
Wallander, E. and Albert, V. A. (2000). Phylogeny and classification of Oleaceae based on rps16 and trnL-F sequence data1. American Journal of Botany, 87, 1827–1841.
Weis, A. E. and Kossler, T. M. (2004). Genetic variation in flowering time induces phenological assortative mating: quantitative genetic methods applied to Brassica rapa. American Journal of Botany, 91, 825–836.
White, M. A., Brunsell, N. and Schwartz, M. D. (2003). Vegetation phenology in global change studies. In Phenology: an Integrative Environmental Science, ed. M. D. Schwartz. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 453–466.
Winge, Ö. (1917). The chromosomes: their number and general importance. Comptes Rendues des Travaux du Laboratoire Carlesberg, 13, 131–275.
Young, A., Boyle, T. and Brown, T. (1996). The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11, 413–418.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Allen, J. R. M., Long, A. J., Ottley, C. J., Pearson, D. G. and Huntley, B. (2007). Holocene climate variability in northernmost Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 1432–1453.
Allouche, O., Tsoar, A. and Kadmon, R. (2006). Assessing the accuracy of species distribution models: prevalence, kappa and the true skill statistic (TSS). Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 1223–1232.
Araújo, M. B., Cabeza, M., Thuiller, W., Hannah, L. and Williams, P. H. (2004). Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods. Global Change Biology, 10, 1618–1626.
Barnard, P. and Thuiller, W. (2008). Global change and biodiversity: future challenges. Biology Letters, 4, 553–555.
Beale, C. M., Lennon, J. J. and Gimona, A. (2008). Opening the climate envelope reveals no macroscale associations with climate in European birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 14908–14912.
Beerling, D. J., Huntley, B. and Bailey, J. P. (1995). Climate and the distribution of Fallopia japonica: use of an introduced species to test the predictive capacity of response surfaces. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6, 269–282.
BirdLife International (2000). Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona and Cambridge: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Brooks, T., Balmford, A., Burgess, N. et al. (2001). Toward a blueprint for conservation in Africa. BioScience, 51, 613–624.
Burgess, N. D., Fjeldså, J. and Rahbek, C. (1998). Mapping the distributions of Afrotropical vertebrate groups. Species, 30, 16–17.
Cleveland, W. S. and Devlin, S. J. (1988). Locally weighted regression: an approach to regression analysis by local fitting. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 596–610.
Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurements, 20, 37–46.
Cubasch, U., Meehl, G. A., Boer, G. J. et al. (2001). Projections of future climate change. In Climate Change 2001: the Scientific Basis, ed. J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 525–582.
Davis, A. J., Jenkinson, L. S., Lawton, J. H., Shorrocks, B. and Wood, S. (1998). Making mistakes when predicting shifts in species range in response to global warming. Nature, 391, 783–786.
Doswald, N., Willis, S. G., Collingham, Y. C. et al. (2009). Potential impacts of climatic change on the breeding and non-breeding ranges and migration distance of European Sylvia warblers. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1194–1208.
Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) (1998). ArcInfo, version 7.2.1. Redlands, CA: ESRI.
European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Community Members (2004). Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature, 429, 623–628.
Fielding, A. H. and Bell, J. F. (1997). A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models. Environmental Conservation, 24, 38–49.
Fishpool, L. D. C. and Evans, M. I. (2001). Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands: Priority Sites for Conservation. Barcelona: BirdLife International and Lynx Edicions.
Fronval, T. and Jansen, E. (1997). Eemian and early Weichselian (140–60 ka) paleoceanography and paleoclimate in the Nordic seas with comparisons to Holocene conditions. Paleoceanography, 12, 443–462.
Gaston, K. J. (2003). The Structure and Dynamics of Geographic Ranges. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gordon, C., Cooper, C., Senior, C. A. et al. (2000). The simulation of SST, sea ice extents and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments. Climate Dynamics, 16, 147–168.
Green, R. E., Collingham, Y. C., Willis, S. G. et al. (2008). Performance of climate envelope models in retrodicting recent changes in bird population size from observed climatic change. Biology Letters, 4, 599–602.
Greenland Ice-core Project (GRIP) Members (1993). Climate instability during the last interglacial period recorded in the GRIP ice core. Nature, 364, 203–207.
Gregory, R. D., Willis, S. G., Jiguet, F. et al. (2009). An indicator of the impact of climatic change on European bird populations. PLoS ONE, 4, e4678.
Hannah, L. (2008). Protected areas and climate change. In Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology 2008, ed. R. S. Ostfeld and W. H. Schlesinger. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 201–212.
Hannah, L., Midgley, G., Andelman, S. et al. (2007). Protected area needs in a changing climate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, 131–138.
Hijmans, R. J. and Graham, C. H. (2006). The ability of climate envelope models to predict the effect of climate change on species distributions. Global Change Biology, 12, 2272–2281.
Hijmans, R. J., Cameron, S. E., Parra, J. L., Jones, P. G. and Jarvis, A. (2005). Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965–1978.
Hole, D. G., Willis, S. G., Pain, D. J. et al. (2009). Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network. Ecology Letters, 12, 420–431.
Hole, D. G., Huntley, B., Arinaitwe, J. et al. (in press). Towards a management framework for key biodiversity networks in the face of climatic change. Conservation Biology.
Hopkins, J. J., Allison, H. M., Walmsley, C. A., Gaywood, M. and Thurgate, G. (2007). Conserving Biodiversity in a Changing Climate: Guidance on Building Capacity to Adapt. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
Huntley, B. (2007). Climatic Change and the Conservation of European Biodiversity: Towards the Development of Adaptation Strategies. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Convention of the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats.
Huntley, B. and Webb, T. (1989). Migration: species' response to climatic variations caused by changes in the earth's orbit. Journal of Biogeography, 16, 5–19.
Huntley, B., Bartlein, P. J. and Prentice, I. C. (1989). Climatic control of the distribution and abundance of beech (Fagus L.) in Europe and North America. Journal of Biogeography, 16, 551–560.
Huntley, B., Berry, P. M., Cramer, W. P. and McDonald, A. P. (1995). Modelling present and potential future ranges of some European higher plants using climate response surfaces. Journal of Biogeography, 22, 967–1001.
Huntley, B., Collingham, Y. C., Green, R. E. et al. (2006). Potential impacts of climatic change upon geographical distributions of birds. Ibis, 148, 8–28.
Huntley, B., Green, R. E., Collingham, Y. C. and Willis, S. G. (2007). A Climatic Atlas of European Breeding Birds. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Huntley, B., Collingham, Y. C., Willis, S. G. and Green, R. E. (2008). Potential impacts of climatic change on European breeding birds. PLoS ONE, 3, e1439.
Huntley, B., Barnard, P., Altwegg, R. et al. (2010). Beyond bioclimatic envelopes: dynamic species' range and abundance modelling in the context of climatic change. Ecography, 33, 621–626.
Hutchinson, M. F. (1989). A New Objective Method for Spatial Interpolation of Meteorological Variables from Irregular Networks Applied to the Estimation of Monthly Mean Solar Radiation, Temperature, Precipitation and Windrun. Technical Memo 89/5. Canberra: CSIRO Division of Water Resources.
Jansen, E., Overpeck, J., Keith, R. B. et al. (2007). Paleoclimate. In Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 433–497.
Juckes, M. N., Allen, M. R., Briffa, K. R. et al. (2007). Millennial temperature reconstruction intercomparison and evaluation. Climate of the Past, 3, 591–609.
Knutson, T. R., Delworth, T. L., Dixon, K. W. and Stouffer, R. J. (1999). Model assessment of regional surface temperature trends (1949–1997). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 104, 30981–30996.
Leemans, R. and Cramer, W. (1991). The IIASA Database for Mean Monthly Values of Temperature, Precipitation and Cloudiness of a Global Terrestrial Grid. Laxenburg: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
Luoto, M., Virkkala, R. and Heikkinen, R. K. (2007). The role of land cover in bioclimatic models depends on spatial resolution. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 34–42.
McDermott, F., Mattey, D. P. and Hawkesworth, C. (2001). Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem δ18O record from SW Ireland. Science, 294, 1328–1331.
Meehl, G. A., Stocker, T. F., Collins, W. D. et al. (2007). Global climate projections. In Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 747–845.
Nakicenovic, N. and Swart, R. (2000). Emissions Scenarios. Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pearson, R. G. and Dawson, T. P. (2003). Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12, 361–371.
Pearson, R. G., Thuiller, W., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2006). Model-based uncertainty in species range prediction. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1704–1711.
Prentice, I. C., Cramer, W., Harrison, S. P. et al. (1992). A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. Journal of Biogeography, 19, 117–134.
Roeckner, E., Oberhuber, J. M., Bacher, A., Christoph, M. and Kirchner, I. (1996). ENSO variability and atmospheric response in a global coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM. Climate Dynamics, 12, 737–754.
Ruddiman, W. F. (2003). The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago. Climatic Change, 61, 261–293.
Sutherland, W. J. (2006). Predicting the ecological consequences of environmental change: a review of the methods. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 599–616.
Swets, J. A. (1988). Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science, 240, 1285–1293.
Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E. et al. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427, 145–148.
Thuiller, W. (2004). Patterns and uncertainties of species' range shifts under climate change. Global Change Biology, 10, 2020–2027.
Trenberth, K. E., Jones, P. D., Ambenje, P. et al. (2007). Observations: surface and atmospheric climate change. In Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 235–336.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Al-Turki, R. A. (2004). A prelude to the study of the flora of Jabal Fayfa in Saudi Arabia. Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering, 31, 77–145.
Chase, M. W., Cowan, R. S., Hollingsworth, P. M. et al. (2007). A proposal for a standard protocol to barcode all land plants. Taxon, 56, 295–299.
Dawson, T. P. (2007). Potential impacts of climate change in the Arabian Peninsula. In Proceedings, International Conference on Desertification, 12–16 May 2007. Kuwait: Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR).
Frodin, D. G. (2001). Guide to the Standard Floras of the World, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Anusarnsunthorn, V. (2000). A Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. Bangkok: Kobfai Publication Project.
Guisan, A., Graham, C.H., Elith, J. and Huettmann, F. (2007). Sensitivity of predictive species distribution models to change in grain size. Diversity and Distribution, 13, 332–340.
Hall, M., Al-Khulaidi, A. W., Miller, A. G., Scholte, P. and Al-Qadasi, A. H. (2008). Arabia's last forests under threat: plant biodiversity and conservation in the valley forest of Jabal Bura'a (Yemen). Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 65, 113–135.
Hawthorne, W. and Gyakari, N. (2006). Photoguide for the Forest Trees of Ghana: a Tree-Spotter's Field Guide for Identifying the Largest Trees. Oxford: Oxford Forestry Institute.
Heywood, V. H., ed. (1995). Global Biodiversity Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, D., Fasham, M., Tucker, G., Shewry, M. and Shaw, P., eds. (2005). Handbook of Biodiversity Methods. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
House of Lords (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy: Follow-up (S. Sutherland, chair). 5th report of Session 2007–08, House of Lords Science and Technology Committee, HL162. London: Stationery Office.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. R. K. Pachauri and A. Reisinger. Geneva: IPCC.
Jongbloed, M. (2003). The Comprehensive Guide to the Wildflowers of the UAE. Abu Dhabi: Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency.
Knees, S. G., Laser, S., Miller, A. G. and Patzelt, A. (2007). A new species of Barleria (Acanthaceae) from Oman. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 64, 107–112.
Krishen, P. (2006). Trees of Delhi: a Field Guide. Delhi: Dorling Kindersley.
Larsen, F. W., Bladt, J. and Rahbek, C. (2009). Indicator taxa revisited: useful for conservation planning? Diversity and Distributions, 15, 70–79.
Lawrence, A. and Hawthorne, W. (2006). Plant Identification: Creating User-Friendly Field Guides for Biodiversity Management. London: Earthscan.
Llewellyn, O. (2008). Protected Sites of NW Saudi Arabia. NCWCD Report.
Mace, G. M. (2004). The role of taxonomy in species conservation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 711–719.
Miller, A. G. and Cope, T. A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Miller, A. G. and Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Socotra. Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development (NCWCD) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (2007). The Joint Study Project on the Conservation of Juniper Woodland in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Final Report. Saudi Arabia: NCWCD.
Pickering, H. and Patzelt, A. (2008). Field Guide to the Wild Plants of Oman. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens.
Samper, C. (2004). Taxonomy and environmental policy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 721–728.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity (SCBD) (2002). Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. Montreal: SCBD.
Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E. et al. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427, 145–148.
Wheeler, Q. D. (2004). Taxonomic triage and the poverty of phylogeny. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 571–583.
Wheeler, Q. D, Rave, P. H. and Wilson, E. O. (2004). Taxonomy: impediment or expedient? Nature, 303, 285.
Wood, J. R. I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Adams, D. C., Berns, C. M., Kozak, K.H. and Wiens, J. J. (2009). Are rates of species diversification correlated with rates of morphological evolution? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276, 2729–2738.
Agapow, P. M. (2005). Species: demarcation and diversity. In Phylogeny and Conservation, ed. A. Purvis, J. L. Gittleman and T. M. Brooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Agapow, P. M. and Sluys, R. (2005). The reality of taxonomic change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20, 278–280.
Agapow, P. M., Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P., Crandall, K. A. et al. (2004). The impact of species concept on biodiversity studies. Quarterly Review of Biology, 79, 161–179.
Agnarsson, I. and Kuntner, M. (2007). Taxonomy in a changing world: seeking solutions for a science in crisis. Systematic Biology, 56, 531–539.
Alizon, S., Kucera, M. and Jansen, V. A. A. (2008). Competition between cryptic species explains variations in rates of lineage evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 12382–12386.
Allen, B., Kon, M. and Bar-Yam, Y. (2009). A new phylogenetic diversity measure generalizing the Shannon index and its application to phyllostomid bats. American Naturalist, 174, 236–243.
Anderson, J. and Tilley, S. G. (2003). Systematics of the Desmognathus ochrophaeus complex in the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee. Herpetological Monographs, 17, 75–110.
Andreone, F., Carpenter, A. I., Cox, N. et al. (2008). The challenge of conserving amphibian megadiversity in Madagascar. PLoS Biology, 6, e118.
Austin, M. (2007). Species distribution models and ecological theory: a critical assessment and some possible new approaches. Ecological Modeling, 200, 1–19.
Avise, J. C. (1989). A role for molecular genetics in the recognition and conservation of endangered species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 279–281.
Avise, J. C. (1996). Introduction: the scope of conservation genetics. In Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature, ed. J. C. Avise and J. L. Hamrick. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall, pp. 1–9.
Avise, J. C. (2000). Phylogeography. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Avise, J. C. (2007). Twenty-five key evolutionary insights from the phylogeographic revolution in population genetics. In Phylogeography of Southern European Refugia, ed. S. Weiss and N. Ferrand. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 7–21.
Avise, J. C. (2008). Three ambitious (and rather unorthodox) assignments for the field of biodiversity genetics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 11564–11570.
Avise, J. C. and Aquadro, C. F. (1982). A comparative summary of genetic distances in the vertebrates: patterns and correlations. Evolutionary Biology, 15, 151–185.
Avise, J. C. and Johns, G. C. (1999). Proposal for a standardized temporal scheme of biological classification for extant species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 96, 7358–7363.
Avise, J. C. and Mitchell, D. (2007). Time to standardize taxonomies. Systematic Biology, 56, 130–133.
Avise, J. C. and Walker, D. (1999). Species realities and numbers in sexual vertebrates: perspectives from an asexually transmitted genome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 96, 9929–95.
Avise, J. C. and Walker, D. (2000). Abandon all species concepts? A response. Conservation Genetics, 1, 77–80.
Baker, R. J. (1984). A sympatric cryptic species of mammal: a new species of Rhogeessa (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Systematic Zoology, 33, 178–183.
Baker, R. J. and Bradley, R. D. (2006). Speciation in mammals and the genetic species concept. Journal of Mammalogy, 87, 643–662.
Balmford, A., Green, R. E. and Jenkins, M. (2003). Measuring the changing state of nature. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 326–330.
Bateman, R. M. and DiMichele, W. A. (2003). Genesis of phenotypic and genotypic diversity in land plants: the present as the key to the past. Systematics and Biodiversity, 1, 13–28.
Baum, D. A. and Shaw, K. L. (1995). Genealogical perspectives on the species problem. In Monographs in Systematic Botany: Experimental and Molecular Approaches to Plant Biosystematics, ed. P. Hoch and A. Stephenson. St Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, pp. 289–303.
Beale, C. M., Lennon, J. J. and Gimona, A. (2008). Opening the climate envelope reveals no macroscale associations with climate in European birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 14908–14912.
Beheregaray, L. and Caccone, A. (2007). Cryptic biodiversity in a changing world. Journal of Biology, 6, 9.
Bell, M. A. and Foster, S. A. (1994). The Evolutionary Biology of the Threespine Stickleback. London: Oxford University Press.
Bernardo, J. (1994). Experimental analysis of allocation in two divergent, natural salamander populations. American Naturalist, 143, 14–38.
Bernardo, J. and Agosta, S. (2003). Clinal variation in the larval life history of mountain dusky salamanders: ecological limits on foraging time and prey abundance restrict opportunities for larval growth. Journal of Zoology, 259, 411–421.
Bernardo, J. and Reagan-Wallin, N. L. (2002). Plethodontid salamanders do not conform to ‘general rules’ for ectotherm life histories: insights from allocation models about why simple models do not make accurate predictions. Oikos, 97, 398–414.
Bernardo, J. and Spotila, J. (2006). Physiological constraints on organismal response to global warming; mechanistic insights from clinally varying populations and implications for assessing endangerment. Biology Letters, 2, 135–139.
Bernardo, J., Ossola, R. J., Spotila, J. and Crandall, K. A. (2007). Interspecies physiological variation as a tool for cross-species assessments of global warming-induced endangerment: validation of an intrinsic determinant of macroecological and phylogeographic structure. Biology Letters, 3, 695–698.
Bickford, D., Lohman, D. J., Sodhi, N. S. et al. (2006). Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22,148–155.
Biju, S. D. and Bossuyt, F. (2003). New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles. Nature, 425, 711–714.
Blackburn, T. M. and Gaston, K. J., eds. (2003). Macroecology: Concepts and Consequences. British Ecological Society Annual Symposium Series. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Blaxter, M. L. (2004). The promise of DNA taxonomy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 669–679.
Boissin, E., Féral, J. P. and Chenuil, A. (2008). Defining reproductively isolated units in a cryptic and syntopic species complex using mitochondrial and nuclear markers: the brooding brittle star, Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea). Molecular Ecology, 17, 1732–1744.
Botkin, D. B., Saxe, H., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2007). Forecasting the effects of global warming on biodiversity. Bioscience, 57, 227–236.
Bradley, R. D. and Baker, R. J. (2001). A test of the genetic species concept: cytochrome-b sequences and mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 82, 960–973.
Brown, D. M., Brenneman, R. A., Georgiadis, N. J. et al. (2007). Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe. BMC Biology, 5, 57.
Brown, J. H. (1995). Macroecology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Bruce, R. C. (2005). Did Desmognathus salamanders reinvent the larval stage? Herpetological Review, 36, 107–112.
Burbrink, F. T. (2001). Systematics of the North American rat snake complex (Elaphe obsoleta). Herpetological Monographs, 15, 1–53.
Burbrink, F. T. (2002). Phylogeographic analysis of the cornsnake (Elaphe guttata) complex as inferred from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 25, 465–476.
Burbrink, F. T., Lawson, R. and Slowinski, J. B. (2000). Molecular phylogeography of the North American rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta): a critique of the subspecies concept. Evolution, 54, 2107–2114.
Burns, J. M., Janzen, D. H., Hajibabaei, M., Hallwachs, W. and Hebert, P. D. N. (2008). DNA and cryptic species of skipper butterflies in the genus Perichares in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 6350–6355.
Camp, C. D., Marshall, J. L., Landau, K. R., Austin, R. M. and Tilley, S. G. (2000). Sympatric occurrence of two species of the two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata) complex. Copeia, 2000, 572–578.
Camp, C. D., Peterman, W. E., Milanovich, J. R. et al. (2009). A new genus and species of lungless salamander (family Plethodontidae) from the Appalachian highlands of the south-eastern United States. Journal of Zoology, 279, 86–94.
Casu, M. and Curini-Galletti, M. (2006). Genetic evidence for the existence of cryptic species in the mesopsammic flatworm Pseudomonocelis ophiocephala (Rhabditophora: Proseriata). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 87, 553–576.
Ceballos, G. and Ehrlich, P. R. (2009). Discoveries of new mammal species and their implications for conservation and ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 106, 3841–3846.
Chaitra, M. S., Vasudevan, K. and Shanker, K. (2004). The biodiversity bandwagon: the splitters have it. Current Science, 86, 897–899.
Chek, A. A., Austin, J. D. and Lougheed, S. C. (2003). Why is there a tropical-temperate disparity in the genetic diversity and taxonomy of species? Evolutionary Ecology Research, 5, 69–77.
Chen, G. and Hare, M. P. (2008). Cryptic ecological diversification of a planktonic estuarine copepod, Acartia tonsa. Molecular Ecology, 17, 1451–1468.
Chown, S. L. and Gaston, K. J. (1999). Exploring links between physiology and ecology at macro-scales: the role of respiratory metabolism in insects. Biological Reviews, 74, 87–120.
Chown, S. L. and Gaston, K. J. (2008). Macrophysiology for a changing world. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 275, 1469–1478.
Chown, S. L., Gaston, K.J. and Robinson, D. (2004). Macrophysiology: large-scale patterns in physiological traits and their ecological implications. Functional Ecology, 18, 159–167.
Clausen, J., Keck, D. D. and Heisey, W. M. (1940). Experimental Studies on the Nature of Species. I. Effects of Varied Environments on Western North American Plants. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publications, 520. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute.
Clausen, J., Keck, D. D. and Heisey, W. M. (1948). Experimental Studies on the Nature of Species. III. Environmental Responses of Climatic Races of Achillea. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publications, 581. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute.
Clausen, J., Keck, D. D. and Heisey, W. M. (1958). Experimental Studies on the Nature of Species. IV. Genetic Structure of Ecological Races. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publications, 615. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute.
Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Collins, J. P. and Halliday, T. (2005). Forecasting changes in amphibian biodiversity: aiming at a moving target. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 360, 309–314.
Cooper, N., Bielby, J., Thomas, G. H. et al. (2008). Macroecology and extinction risk correlates of frogs. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 211–221.
Cracraft, J., Feinstein, J., Vaughn, J. and Helm-Bychowski, K. (1998). Sorting out tigers (Panthera tigris): mitochondrial sequences, nuclear inserts, systematics, and conservation genetics. Animal Conservation, 1, 139–150.
Craig, M. T., Graham, R. T., Torres, R. A. et al. (2008). How many species of goliath grouper are there? Cryptic genetic divergence in a threatened marine fish and the resurrection of a geopolitical species. Endangered Species Research, 7, 167–174.
Crandall, K. A., Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P., Mace, G. M. and Wayne, R. K. (2000). Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 290–295.
Crandall, K. A., Robison, H. W. and Buhay, J. E. (2009). Avoidance of extinction through nonexistence: the use of museum specimens and molecular genetics to determine the taxonomic status of an endangered freshwater crayfish. Conservation Genetics, 10, 177–189.
Craul, M., Zimmermann, E., Rasoloharijaona, S., Randrianambinina, B. and Radespiel, U. (2007). Unexpected species diversity of Malagasy primates (Lepilemur spp.) in the same biogeographical zone: a morphological and molecular approach with the description of two new species. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7, 83.
Cree, A. and Butler, D. (1993). Tuatara recovery plan (Sphenodon spp.). Threatened Species Recovery Plan 9. Wellington: New Zealand Department of Conservation.
Crozier, R. H. (1997). Preserving the information content of species: genetic diversity, phylogeny and conservation worth. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, 243–268.
Crozier, R. H., Dunnett, D. J. and Agapow, P. M. (2005). Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature. Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online, 1, 11–36.
Cruse, M., Telerant, R., Gallagher, T., Lee, T. and Taylor, J. W. (2002). Cryptic species in Stachybotrys chartarum. Mycologia, 94, 814–822.
Darlington, C. D. (1940). Taxonomic systems and genetic systems. In The New Systematics, ed. J. Huxley. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 137–160.
Darwin, C. R. (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray.
Daugherty, C. H., Cree, A., Hay, J. M. and Thompson, M. B. (1990). Neglected taxonomy and continuing extinction of the tuatara (Sphenodon). Nature, 347, 177–179.
Daugherty, C. H., Patterson, G. B. and Hitchmough, R. A. (1994). Taxonomic and conservation review of the New Zealand herpetofauna. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 21, 317–323.
de Queiroz, K. (1998). The general lineage concept of species, species criteria and the process of speciation. In Endless Forms: Species and Speciation, ed. D. Howard and S. Berlocher. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 57–75.
de Queiroz, K. (1999). The general lineage concept of species and the defining properties of the species category. In Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays, ed. R. A. Wilson. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MA: MIT Press, pp. 49–89.
de Queiroz, K. (2005a). A unified species concept and its consequences for the future of taxonomy. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 56, 196–215.
de Queiroz, K. (2005b). Different species problems and their resolution. BioEssays, 27, 1263–1269.
de Queiroz, K. (2006). The PhyloCode and the distinction between taxonomy and nomenclature. Systematic Biology, 55, 160–162.
de Queiroz, K. (2007a). Toward an integrated system of clade names. Systematic Biology, 56, 956–974.
de Queiroz, K. (2007b). Species concepts and species delimitation. Systematic Biology, 56, 879–886.
de Quieroz, K. and Donoghue, M. J. (1988). Phylogenetic systematics and the species problem. Cladistics, 4, 317–338.
de Quieroz, K. and Donoghue, M. J. (1990). Phylogenetic systematics and species revisited. Cladistics, 6, 83–90.
de Queiroz, K. and Gauthier, J. (1992). Phylogenetic taxonomy. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23, 449–480.
Derycke, S., Remerie, T., Backeljau, T. et al. (2008). Phylogeography of the Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina species complex: evidence for long-distance dispersal, and for range expansions and restricted gene flow in the northeast Atlantic. Molecular Ecology, 17, 3306–3322.
DeSalle, R., Egan, M. G. and Siddall, M. (2005). The unholy trinity: taxonomy, species delimitation and DNA barcoding. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 360, 1905–1916.
Deutsch, C. A., Tewksbury, J. J., Huey, R. B. et al. (2008). Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 6668–6672.
Dobzhansky, T. (1937a). Genetic nature of species differences. American Naturalist, 71, 404–420.
Dobzhansky, T. (1937b). Genetics and the Origin of Species. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Dobzhansky, T. (1950). Mendelian populations and their evolution. American Naturalist, 84, 401.
Donoghue, M. J. (1985). A critique of the biological species concept and recommendations for a phylogenetic alternative. The Bryologist, 88, 172–181.
Dubois, A. (2003). The relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology in the century of extinctions. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 326, S9-S21.
Dunham, A. E., Smith, G. R. and Taylor, J. N. (1979). Evidence for character displacement in western American catostomid fishes. Evolution, 33, 877–896.
Dunn, C. P. (2003). Keeping taxonomy based in morphology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 270–271.
Dytham, C. (2009). Evolved dispersal strategies at range margins. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276, 1407–1413.
Echelle, A. A., van den Bussche, R. A., Malloy, T. P., Haynie, M. L. and Minckley, C. O. (2000). Mitochondrial DNA variation in pupfishes assigned to the species Cyprinodon macularius (Atherinomorpha: Cyprinodontidae): taxonomic implications and conservation genetics. Copeia, 2000, 353–364.
Egge, J. J.D. and Simons, A. M. (2006). The challenge of truly cryptic diversity: diagnosis and description of a new madtom catfish (Ictaluridae: Noturus). Zoologica Scripta, 35, 581–595.
Estes, S. and Arnold, S. J. (2007). Resolving the paradox of stasis: models with stabilizing selection explain evolutionary divergence on all timescales. American Naturalist, 169, 227–244.
Felsenstein, J. (2004). Inferring Phylogenies. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Felsenstein, J. (2009). Phylogeny programs. http://evolution.genetics.washington.edu/phylip/software.html.
Ferguson, J. W. H. (2002). On the use of genetic divergence for identifying species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 75, 509–516.
Forsman, Z. H., Barshis, D. J., Hunter, C. L. and Toonen, R. J. (2009). Shape-shifting corals: molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 45.
Fouquet, A., Gilles, A., Vences, M. et al. (2007). Underestimation of species richness in Neotropical frogs revealed by mtDNA analyses. PLoS ONE, 2, e1109.
Franz, N. M. (2005). On the lack of good scientific reasons for the growing phylogeny/classification gap. Cladistics, 21, 495–500.
Freckleton, R. P., Pagel, M. and Harvey, P. H. (2003). Comparative methods for adaptive radiations. In Macroecology Concepts and Consequences, ed. T. M. Blackburn and K. J. Gaston. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 391–407.
Funk, D. J. and Omland, K. E. (2003). Species-level paraphyly and polyphyly: frequency, causes, and consequences, with insights from animal mitochondrial DNA. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 34, 397–423.
Gaston, K. J. and Blackburn, T. M. (2000). Pattern and Process in Macroecology. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Gaston, K. J., Chown, S. L., Calosi, P. et al. (2009). Macrophysiology: a conceptual reunification. American Naturalist, 174, 595–612.
Gentile, G., Fabiani, A., Marquez, C. et al. (2009). An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Galápagos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 106, 507–511.
Glaw, F. and Köhler J. (1998). Amphibian species diversity exceeds that of mammals. Herpetological Review, 29, 11–12.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. (2003). Introduction to amphibians. In The Natural History of Madagascar, ed. S. M. Goodman and J. P. Benstead. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 883–898.
Gómez, A., Wright, P. J., Lunt, D. H. et al. (2007). Mating trials validate the use of DNA barcoding to reveal cryptic speciation of a marine bryozoan taxon. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 274, 199–207.
Good, D. A. (1994). Species limits in the genus Gerrhonotus (Squamata: Anguidae). Herpetological Monographs, 8, 180–202.
Gower, D. J., Bhatta, G., Giri, V. et al. (2004). Biodiversity in the Western Ghats: the discovery of new species of caecilian amphibians. Current Science, 87, 739–740.
Groeneveld, L. F., Weisrock, D. W., Rasoloarison, R. M., Yoder, A. D. and Kappeler, P. M. (2009). Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 30.
Grube, M. and Kroken, S. (2000). Molecular approaches and the concept of species and species complexes in lichenized fungi. Mycological Research, 104, 1284–1294.
Guilhaumon, F., Gimenez, O., Gaston, K. J. and Mouillot, D. (2008). Taxonomic and regional uncertainty in species-area relationships and the identification of richness hotspots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 15458–15463.
Gum, B., Gross, R. and Geist, J. (2009). Conservation genetics and management implications for European grayling, Thymallus thymallus: synthesis of phylogeography and population genetics. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 16, 37–51.
Hajibabaei, M., Janzen, D. H., Burns, J. M., Hallwachs, W. and Hebert, P. D. N. (2006). DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 968–971.
Hanken, J. (1999). Why are there so many new amphibian species when amphibians are declining? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 7–8.
Harris, D. J. and Froufe, E. (2005). Taxonomic inflation: species concept or historical geopolitical bias. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20, 6–7.
Harrison, R. G. (2002). Species concepts. In Encyclopedia of Evolution, ed. M. Pagel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1078–1083.
Harvey, P. H. and Rambaut, A. (2000). Comparative analyses for adaptive radiations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 355, 1599–1606.
Heath, T. A., Zwickl, D. J., Kim, J. and Hillis, D. M. (2008a). Taxon sampling affects inferences of macroevolutionary processes from phylogenetic trees. Systematic Biology, 57, 160–166.
Heath, T. A., Hedtke, S. M. and Hillis, D. M. (2008b). Taxon sampling and the accuracy of phylogenetic analyses. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 46, 239–257.
Hebert, P. D. N. and Gregory, T. R. (2005). The promise of DNA barcoding for taxonomy. Systematic Biology, 54, 852–859.
Hebert, P. D. N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S. L. and de Waard, J. R. (2003). Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 270, 313–321.
Hebert, P. D. N., Penton, E. H., Burns, J. M., Janzen, D. H. and Hallwachs, W. (2004). Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101, 14812–14817.
Heckman, K. L., Rasoazanabary, E., Machlin, E., Godfrey, L. R. and Yoder, A. D. (2006). Incongruence between genetic and morphological diversity in Microcebus griseorufus. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 6, 98.
Hedin, M. (1997). Speciational history in a diverse clade of habitat-specialized spiders (Araneae: Nesticidae: Nesticus): inferences from geographic-based sampling. Evolution, 51, 1927–1943.
Hedin, M. and Wood, D. L. (2002). Genealogical exclusivity in geographically proximate populations of Hypochilus thorelli Marx (Araneae, Hypochilidae) on the Cumberland Plateau of North America. Molecular Ecology, 11, 1975–1988.
Hedtke, S. M., Townsend, T. and Hillis, D. M. (2006). Resolution of phylogenetic conflict in large data sets by increased taxon sampling. Systematic Biology, 55, 522–529.
Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., Trueb, L. et al. (2009). A new frog family (Anura: Terrarana) from South America and an expanded direct-developing clade revealed by molecular phylogeny. Zootaxa, 2211, 1–35.
Hemmerter, S., Šlapeta, J., van den Hurk, A. et al. (2007). A curious coincidence: mosquito biodiversity and the limits of the Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7, 100.
Hendry, A. P., Vamosi, S. M., Latham, S. J., Heilbuth, J. C. and Day, T. (2000). Questioning species realities. Conservation Genetics, 1, 67–76.
Highton, R. (1990). Taxonomic treatment of genetically differentiated populations. Herpetologica, 46, 114–121.
Highton, R. (2000). Detecting cryptic species using allozyme data. In The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders, ed. R. C. Bruce, R. G. Jaeger and L. D. Houck. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 215–241.
Highton, R. and Peabody, R. (2000). Geographic protein variation and speciation in salamanders of the Plethodon jordani and Plethodon glutinosus complexes in the southern Appalachian Mountains with the description of four new species. In The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders, ed. R. C. Bruce, R. G. Jaeger and L. D. Houck. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 31–93.
Hoffmann, A. A. and Blows, M. W. (1993). Evolutionary genetics and climate change: will animals adapt to global warming? In Biotic Interactions and Global Change, ed. P. M. Kareiva, J. G. Kingsolver and R. B. Huey. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, pp. 165–178.
Huey, R. B. Deutsch, C., Tewksbury, J. J. et al. (2009). Climate warming puts the heat on tropical forest lizards. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276, 1939–1948.
Huxley, J. S., ed. (1940). The New Systematics. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
Hyde, J. R., Kimbrell, C. A., Budrick, J. E., Lynn, E. A. and Vetter, R. D. (2008). Cryptic speciation in the vermilion rockfish (Sebastes miniatus) and the role of bathymetry in the speciation process. Molecular Ecology, 17, 1122–1136.
Irwin, D. E. (2002). Phylogeographic breaks without geographic barriers to gene flow. Evolution, 56, 2383–2394.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2001). The IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, version 3.1. www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/categories-and-criteria.
Isaac, N. J. B., Mallet, J. and Mace, G. M. (2004). Taxonomic inflation: its influence on macroecology and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 464–469.
Johns, G. C. and Avise, J. C. (1998). A comparative summary of genetic distances in the vertebrates from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 15, 1481–1490.
Kankare, M. and Shaw, M. R. (2004). Molecular phylogeny of Cotesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) parasitoids associated with Melitaeini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Melitaeini). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32, 207–220.
Kastin, A. J. (2006). Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Kearney, M. and Porter, W. P. (2009). Mechanistic niche modeling: combining physiological and spatial data to predict species' ranges. Ecology Letters, 12, 334–350.
Kelt, D. A. and Brown, J. H. (2000). Species as units in ecology and biogeography: are the blind leading the blind? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 9, 213–217.
Kim, K. C., Brown, B. W. and Cook, E. F. (1966). A quantitative taxonomic study of the Hoplopleura hesperomydis complex (Anoplura, Hoplopleuridae), with notes on a posteriori taxonomic characters. Systematic Zoology, 15, 24–45.
King, R. A., Tibble, A. L. and Symondson, W. O. C. (2008). Opening a can of worms: unprecedented sympatric cryptic diversity within British lumbricid earthworms. Molecular Ecology, 17, 4684–4698.
King, T. L., Switzer, J. F., Morrison, C. L. et al. (2006). Comprehensive genetic analyses reveal evolutionarily distinction of a mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) proposed for delisting from the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Molecular Ecology, 15, 4331–4359.
Knowlton, N. (1993). Sibling species in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 24, 189–216.
Knowlton N. (2000). Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea. Hydrobiologia, 420, 73–90.
Köhler, J., Vietes, D. R., Bonett, R. M. et al. (2005). New amphibians and global conservation: a boost in species discoveries in a highly endangered vertebrate group. BioScience, 55, 693–696.
Kong, L. and Li, Q. (2009). Genetic evidence for the existence of a cryptic species in an endangered clam Coelomactra antiquata. Marine Biology, 156, 1507–1515.
Lamoreaux, J. F., Morrison, J. C., Ricketts, T. H. et al. (2006). Global tests of biodiversity concordance and the importance of endemism. Nature, 440, 212–214.
LeDuc, R. G., Robertson, K. M. and Pitman, R. L. (2008). Mitochondrial sequence divergence among Antarctic killer whale ecotypes is consistent with multiple species. Biology Letters, 4, 426–429.
Lee, M. S. Y. (2004). The molecularisation of taxonomy. Invertebrate Systematics, 18, 1–6.
Lee, T., Burch, J. B., Coote, T. et al. (2009). Moorean tree snail survival revisited: a multi-island genealogical perspective. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 204.
Lefébure, T., Douady, C. J., Gouy, M. and Gibert, J. (2006). Relationship between morphological taxonomy and molecular divergence within Crustacea: proposal of a molecular threshold to help species delimitation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40, 435–447.
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Stockholm.
Lipscomb, D., Platnick, N. and Wheeler, Q. (2003). The intellectual content of taxonomy: a comment on DNA taxonomy. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 65–66.
Loehle, C. (1987). Hypothesis testing in ecology: psychological aspects and the importance of theory maturation. Quarterly Review of Biology, 62, 397–409.
Losos, J. B., Schoener, T. W., Warheit, K. I. and Creer, D. A. (2001). Experimental studies of adaptive differentiation in Bahamian Anolis lizards. Genetica, 112–113, 399–415.
Lubischew, A. A. (1962). On the use of discriminant functions in taxonomy. Biometrics, 18, 455–477.
MacArthur, R. and Levins, R. (1967). The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. American Naturalist, 101, 377–385.
Mace, G. M. (2004). The role of taxonomy in species conservation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359, 711–719.
Mace, G. M. and Purvis, A. (2008). Evolutionary biology and practical conservation: bridging a widening gap. Molecular Ecology, 17, 9–19.
Malhotra, A. and Thorpe, R. S. (1997). Size and shape variation in a Lesser Antillean anole, Anolis oculatus (Sauria: Iguanidae) in relation to habitat. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 60, 53–72.
Mallet, J. and Willmott, K. (2003). Taxonomy: renaissance or Tower of Babel? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 57–59.
Mayer, F. and von Helversen, O. (2001). Sympatric distribution of two cryptic bat species across Europe. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74, 365–374.
Mayr, E. (1940). Speciation phenomena in birds. American Naturalist, 74, 249–278.
Mayr, E. (1942). Systematics and the Origin of Species. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
McCune, A. R. (1997). How fast is speciation: molecular, geological and phylogenetic evidence from adaptive radiations of fishes. In Molecular Evolution and Adaptive Radiation, ed. T. Givnish and K. Sytsma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 585–610.
McDiarmid, R. W. and Donnelly, M. A. (2005). The herpetofauna of the Guayana Highlands: amphibians and reptiles of the Lost World. In Ecology and Evolution in the Tropics: a Herpetological Perspective, ed. M. A. Donnelly, B. I. Crother, C. Guyer, M. H. Wake and M. E. White. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 461–560.
McPeek, M. A. and Brown, J. M. (2007). Clade age and not diversification rate explains species richness among animal taxa. American Naturalist, 169, E97–E106.
Mead, L. S., Clayton, D. R., Nauman, R. S., Olsen, D. H. and Pfrender, M. E. (2005). Newly discovered populations of salamanders from Siskiyou County, California, represent a species distinct from Plethodon stormi. Herpetologica, 61, 158–177.
Means, D. B. and Savage, J. M. (2007). Three new malodorous rainfrogs of the genus Pristimantis (Anura:= Brachycephalidae) from the Wokomung Massif, in west-central Guyana, South America. Zootaxa, 1658, 39–55.
Meegaskumbura, M., Bossuyt, F., Pethiyagoda, R. et al. (2002). Sri Lanka: an amphibian hotspot. Science, 298, 379.
Meiri, S. and Mace, G. M. (2007). New taxonomy and the origin of species. PLOS Biology, 5, e194,1385–1386.
Mendelson, J. R., Lips, K. R., Gagliardo, R. W. et al. (2006). Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions. Science, 313, 48.
Menegon, M., Doggart, N. and Owen, N. (2008). The Nguru mountains of Tanzania, an outstanding hotspot of herpetofaunal diversity. Acta Herpetologica, 3, 107–127.
Merriam, C. H. (1918). Review of the grizzly and big brown bears of North America (genus Ursus) with the description of a new genus, Vetularctos. North American Fauna, 41, 1–136.
Meyer, A. (1987). Phenotypic plasticity and heterochrony in Cichlasoma managuense (Pisces, Cichlidae) and their implications for speciation in cichlid fishes. Evolution, 41, 1357–1369.
Miles, D. B., Noecker, R., Roosenburg, W. M. and White, M. M. (2002). Genetic relationships among populations of Sceloporus undulatus fail to support subspecific designations. Herpetologica, 58, 277–292.
Milinkovitch, M. C., Monteyne, D., Russello, M. et al. (2007). Molecular genetic analyses identify a trans-island hybrid in a repatriation program of an endangered taxon. BMC Ecology, 7, 2.
Miller, K. J. and Benzie, J. A. H. (1997). No clear genetic distinction between morphological species within the coral genus Platygyra. Bulletin of Marine Science, 61, 907–917.
Min, M. S., Yang, S. Y., Bonett, R. M. et al. (2005). Discovery of the first Asian plethodontid salamander. Nature, 435, 87–90.
Molbo, D., Machado, C. A., Sevenster, J. G., Keller, L. and Herre, E. A. (2003). Cryptic species of fig pollinating wasps: implications for the evolution of the fig-wasp mutualism, sex allocation, and the precision of adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100, 5867–5872.
Morando, M., Avila, L. J. and Sites, J. W. (2003). Sampling strategies for delimiting species: genes, individuals, and populations in the Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex (Squamata; Liolaemidae) in Andean–Patagonian South America. Systematic Biology, 52, 159–185.
Moritz, C. (2002). Strategies to protect biological diversity and the processes that sustain it. Systematic Biology, 51, 238–254.
Moritz, C. and Cicero, C. (2004). DNA barcoding: promise and pitfalls. PLoS Biology, 2, e279.
Myers, P., Lundrigan, B. L., Gillespie, B. W. and Zelditch, M. L. (1996). Phenotypic plasticity in skull and dental morphology in the prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii). Journal of Morphology, 229, 229–237.
Nelson, N. J., Keall, S. N., Brown, D. and Daugherty, C. H. (2002). Establishing a new wild population of Tuatara (Sphenodon guntheri). Conservation Biology, 16, 887–894.
Ohlemüller, R., Anderson, B. J., Araújo, M. B. et al. (2008). Coincidence of climatic and species rarity: high risk to small-range species from climate change. Biology Letters, 4, 568–572.
Omland, K. E. (1997). Correlated rates of molecular and morphological evolution. Evolution, 51, 1381–1393.
Omland, K. E., Lanyon, S. M. and Fritz, S. J. (1999). A molecular phylogeny of the New World Orioles (Icterus): the importance of dense taxon sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 12, 224–239.
Orme, C. D. L., Davies, R. G., Burgess, M. et al. (2005). Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat. Nature, 436, 1016–1019.
Padial, J. M. and De la Riva, I. (2006). Taxonomic inflation and the stability of species lists: the perils of ostrich's behavior. Systematic Biology, 55, 859–867.
Page, T., Choy, S. C. and Hughes, J. (2005). The taxonomic feedback loop: symbiosis of morphology and molecules. Biology Letters, 1, 139–142.
Parham, J. F., Türkozan, O., Stuart, B. L. et al. (2006). Genetic evidence for premature taxonomic inflation in Middle Eastern tortoises. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 57, 955–964.
Parra-Olea, G., García-París, M., Papenfuss, T. J. and Wake, D. B. (2005). Systematics of the Pseudoeurycea bellii species complex. Herpetologica, 61, 145–158.
Perez, K. E. and Minton, R. L. (2008). Practical applications for systematics and taxonomy in North American freshwater gastropod conservation. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 27, 471–483.
Pérez-Losada, M. and Crandall, K. A. (2003). Can taxonomic richness be used as a surrogate for phylogenetic distinctness indices for ranking areas for conservation? Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 26, 77–84.
Peterson, A. T. and Navarro-Siguënza, A. G. (1999). Alternate species concepts as bases for determining priority conservation areas. Conservation Biology, 13, 427–431.
Pfenniger, M. and Schwenk, K. (2007). Cryptic animal species are homogeneously distributed among taxa and biogeographical regions. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7, 6.
Platt, J. R. (1964). Strong inference. Science, 146, 347–353.
Pörtner, H. O. and Farrell, A. P. (2008). Physiology and climate change. Science, 322, 690–692.
Poulakakis, N., Glaberman, S., Russello, M. et al. (2008). Historical DNA analysis reveals living descendants of an extinct species of Galápagos tortoise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 15464–15469.
Price, T. (1997). Correlated evolution and independent contrasts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 352, 519–529.
Price, T. and Kirkpatrick, M. (2009). Evolutionarily stable range limits set by interspecific competition. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276, 1429–1434.
Pringle, A., Baker, D. M., Platt, J. L. et al. (2005). Cryptic speciation in the cosmopolitan and clonal human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Evolution, 59, 1886–1899.
Quesada, H., Posada, D., Caballero, A., Morán, P. and Rolán-Alvarez, E. (2007). Phylogenetic evidence for multiple sympatric ecological diversification in a marine snail. Evolution, 61, 1600–1612.
Ramey, R. R., Liu, H. P., Epps, C. W., Carpenter, L. and Wehausen, J. D. (2005). Genetic relatedness of the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) to nearby subspecies of Z. hudsonius as inferred from variation in cranial morphology, mitochondrial DNA, and microsatellite DNA: implications for taxonomy and conservation. Animal Conservation, 8, 329–346.
Ramey, R. R., Wehausen, J. D., Liu, H. P., Epps, C. W. and Carpenter, L. (2006). Response to Vignieri et al. (2006): Should hypothesis testing or selective post hoc interpretation of results guide the allocation of conservation effort? Animal Conservation, 9, 244–247.
Ramey, R. R., Wehausen, J. D., Liu, H. P., Epps, C. W. and Carpenter, L. M. (2007). How King et al. (2006) define an ‘evolutionarily distinct’ subspecies: a response. Molecular Ecology, 16, 3518–3521.
Riddle, B. R. and Hafner, D. J. (1999). Species as units of analysis in ecology and biogeography: time to take the blinders off. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 8, 433–441.
Riddle, B. R., Hafner, D. J., Alexander, L.F. and Jaeger, J. R. (2000). Cryptic vicariance in the historical assembly of a Baja California Peninsular Desert biota. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 97, 14438–14443.
Robalo, J. I., Sousa-Santos, C., Cabral, H., Castilho, R. and Almada, V. C. (2009). Genetic evidence fails to discriminate between Macroramphosus gracilis Lowe 1839 and Macroramphosus scolopax Linnaeus 1758 in Portuguese waters. Marine Biology, 156, 1733–1737.
Roca, A. L., Georgiadis, N., Pecon-Slattery, J. and O'Brien, S. J. (2001). Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa. Science, 293, 1473–1477.
Roy, V., Demanche, C., Livet, A. and Harry, M. (2006). Genetic differentiation in the soil-feeding termite Cubitermes sp. affinis subarquatus: occurrence of cryptic species revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial markers. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 6, 102.
Russello, M. A., Glaberman, S., Gibbs, J. P. et al. (2005). A cryptic taxon of Galápagos tortoises in conservation peril. Biology Letters, 1, 287–290.
Schlick-Steiner, B. C., Seifert, B., Stauffer, C. et al. (2007). Without morphology cryptic species stay in taxonomic crypsis following discovery. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 391–392.
Schluter, D. (2000a). The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schluter, D. (2000b). Ecological character displacement in adaptive radiation. American Naturalist, 156, S4–S16.
Sechrest, W., Brooks, T. M., da Fonseca, G. A. B. et al. (2002). Hotspots and the conservation of evolutionary history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 2067–2071.
Sever, D. M., Dundee, H. A. and Sullivan, C. D. (1976). A new Eurycea (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) from southwestern North Carolina. Herpetologica, 32, 26–29.
Shaffer, H. B., Pauly, G. B., Oliver, J. C. and Trenham, P. C. (2004a). The molecular phylogenetics of endangerment: cryptic variation and historical phylogeography of the California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense. Molecular Ecology, 13, 3033–3049.
Shaffer, H. B., Fellers, G. M., Voss, S. R., Oliver, J. C. and Pauly, G. B. (2004b). Species boundaries, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the red-legged frog (Rana aurora/draytonii) complex. Molecular Ecology, 13, 2667–2677.
Siddall, M. E., Trontelj, P., Utevsky, S. Y., Nkamany, M. and Macdonald, K. S. (2007). Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 274, 1481–1487.
Simpson, G. G. (1943). Criteria for genera, species and subspecies in zoology and paleontology. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 44, 145–178.
Simpson, G. G. (1945). The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 85, 1–350.
Sinclair, E. A., Pérez-Losada, M. and Crandall, K. A. (2005). Molecular phylogenetics for conservation biology. In Phylogeny and Conservation, ed. A. Purvis, J. L. Gittleman and T. Brooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 19–56.
Sites, J. W. and Crandall, K. A. (1997). Testing species boundaries in biodiversity studies. Conservation Biology, 11, 1289–1297.
Sites, J. W. and Marshall, J. C. (2003). Species delimitation: a Renaissance issue in systematic biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 462–470.
Sites, J. W. and Marshall, J. C. (2004). Operational criteria for delimiting species. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35, 199–229.
Smith, M. A., Woodley, N. E., Janzen, D. H., Hallwachs, W. and Hebert, P. D. N. (2006). DNA barcodes reveal cryptic host-specificity within the presumed polyphagous members of a genus of parasitoid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 3657–3662.
Smith, M. A., Rodriguez, J. J., Whitfield, J. B. et al. (2008). Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 12359–12364.
Song, H., Buhay, J. E., Whiting, M. F. and Crandall, K. A. (2008). Many species in one: DNA barcoding overestimates the number of species when nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes are coamplified. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 13486–13491.
Spicer, J. I. and Gaston, K. J. (1999). Physiological Diversity and Its Ecological Implications. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Starrett, J. and Hedin, M. (2007). Multilocus genealogies reveal multiple cryptic species and biogeographic complexity in the California turret spider Antrodiaetus riversi (Mygalomorphae, Antrodieatidae). Molecular Ecology, 16, 583–604.
Stillman, J. H. (2002). Physiological tolerance limits in intertidal crabs. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42, 790–796.
Stillman, J. H. (2003). Acclimation capacity underlies climate change susceptibility. Science, 301, 65.
Stillman, J. H. (2004). A comparative analysis of plasticity of thermal limits in porcelain crabs across latitudinal and intertidal zone clines. International Congress Series, 1275C, 267–275.
Strathmann, R. R., Fenaux, L. and Strathmann, M. F. (1992). Heterochronic developmental plasticity in larval sea urchins and its implications for evolution of nonfeeding larvae. Evolution, 46, 972–986.
Stuart, B. L., Inger, R. F. and Voris, H. K. (2006). High level of crypt