5 - Social network analysis for stakeholder selection and the links to social learning and adaptive co-management  pp. 95-118

Social network analysis for stakeholder selection and the links to social learning and adaptive co-management

By Christina Prell, Mark Reed and Klaus Hubacek

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter


There is now widespread recognition in the academic and wider community that those who are affected by, or who have the power to affect environmental decision-making processes, have a right to be consulted (e.g. the EU’s Aarhus Convention enshrines this right in law). There is also growing evidence that their involvement may enhance the quality of decisions made (Prell et al., 2008). However, these benefits depend upon appropriate representation of stakeholders, and this poses significant challenges. In many cases, the population of stakeholders is unknown, and thus, locating a representative sample is difficult. In addition, different stakeholders are likely to have different views about what are the relevant issues, and who are the most relevant parties to invite to the table. In this chapter, we put forward social network analysis as a complementary tool to help unravel who is a relevant stakeholder. In doing so, we argue that including a network analysis of stakeholders demonstrates another dimension to the idea of “diversity” in considering “wide representation” of stakeholders. In addition to trying to capture a diversity of perspectives from diverse stakeholder categories, we argue for considerations of diversity based on social networks, i.e. diverse positions within a wider network structure, and demonstrate how social network analysis can be used for uncovering such positions.

AONB Office2009Nidderdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Management Plan 2009–2014Pateley BridgeAONB Office1
Armitage, D.M. MarschkeR. Plummer2008Adaptive co-management and the paradox of learningGlobal Environmental Change1886
Averis, A. M.A. B. G. AverisH. J. B. Birks2004An Illustrated Guide to British Upland VegetationPeterboroughJoint Nature Conservation Committee
Bandura, A.1977Social Learning TheoryEnglewood Cliffs, NJPrentice Hall
Bodin, Ö.B. I. Crona2009The role of social networks in natural resource governance: what relational patterns make a difference?Global Environmental Change19366
Cole, M.Y. Engestrom1993A cultural historical approach to distributed cognitionG. SalomonDistributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational ConsiderationsNew York, NYCambridge University Press1
Coleman, J. S.1990Foundations of Social TheoryCambridge, MABelknap Press of Harvard University Press
Cook, K. S.R. M. EmersonM. R. GilmoreT. Yamagishi1983The distribution of power in exchange networks: theory and experimental resultsAmerican Journal of Sociology89275
CRC2010High ground, high potential: a future for England’s upland communities, Summary ReportRural CommunitiesCheltenhamCommission for Rural Communities1
Cundill, G.2010Monitoring social learning processes in adaptive co-management: three case studies from South AfricaEcology and Society1528
Davidson-Hunt, I.2006Adaptive learning networks: developing resource management knowledge through social learning forumsHuman Ecology34593
Dougill, A. J.E. D. G. FraserK. Hubacek2006Learning from doing participatory rural research: lessons from the Peak District National ParkJournal of Agricultural Economics57259
Dryzek, J.1997The Politics of EarthOxfordOxford University Press
Erickson, B.1988The relational basis of attitudesB. WellmanS. D. BerkowitzSocial Structures: A Network ApproachCambridgeCambridge University Press99
Fazey, I.J. A. FazeyD. M. A. Fazey2005Learning more effectively from experienceEcology and Society104http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss2/art4/
Fazey, J. A.F. Marton2002Understanding the space of experiential variationActive Learning in Higher Education3234
Folke, C.T. HahnP. OlssonJ. Norberg2005Adaptive governance of social–ecological systemsAnnual Review of Environment and Resources30441
Friedkin, N. E.1998A Structural Theory of Social InfluenceCambridgeCambridge University Press
Holden, J.2005Controls of soil pipe frequency in upland blanket peatJournal of Geophysical Research110
Holden, J.2005Piping and woody plants in peatlands; cause or effect?Water Resources Research41
Hubacek, K.M. Reed2009Lessons learned from participatory planning and management in the Peak District National Park, EnglandC. AllanG. StankeyAdaptive Environmental Management: A Practical GuideNew York, NYSpringer189
Hubacek, K.N. BeharryA. Bonn2009Ecosystem services in dynamic and contested landscapes: the case of UK uplandsM. WinterM. LobleyWhat is Land For? The Food, Fuel and Climate Change DebateLondonEarthscan167
Hunter, S. M.I. A. VizelbergG. S. Berenson1991Identifying mechanisms of adoption of tobacco and alcohol use among youth: the Bogalusa heart studySocial Networks1391
Katz, E.P. F. Lazarsfeld2006Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass CommunicationsNew Brunswick, NJTransaction Publishers
Kolb, D. A.1984Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and DevelopmentPrinceton, NJPrentice-Hall
Krackhardt, D.1998Simmelian ties: super, strong and stickyR. KramerM. NealePower and Influence in OrganizationsThousand Oaks, CASage21
Lave, J.E. Wenger1991Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral ParticipationCambridgeCambridge University Press
Lee, K. N.1993Compass and Gyroscope: Integrating Science and Politics for the EnvironmentWashington, DCIsland Press
Leeuwis, C.R. Pyburn2002Wheelbarrows Full of Frogs: Social Learning in Rural Resource ManagementAssen, the NetherlandsKoninklijke van Gorcum
Maiolo, J. R.J. C. JohnsonD. Griffith1992Application of social science theory to fisheries management: three examplesSociety and Natural Resources5391
Mercken, L.T. A. B. SnijdersC. SteglichH. D. Vriesa2009Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior: social network analyses in six European countriesSocial Science and Medicine691506
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment2005Ecosystems and Human Well-being: SynthesisWashington, DCIsland Press
Newig, J.D. GüntherC. Pahl-Wostl2009
Pahl-Wostl, C.M. CrapsE. DewulfD. TabaraT. Taillieu2007Social learning and water resources managementEcology and Society125
Pea, R.1993Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for educationG. SalomonDistributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational ConsiderationsCambridgeCambridge University Press47
Peak District National Park2004State of the Park Report (update)BakewellPeak District National Park Authority
Prell, C.2011Social Network Analysis: History, Theory, and MethodologyLondonSage
Prell, C.K. HubacekC. QuinnM. Reed2008‘Who’s in the network?’ When stakeholders influence data analysisSystemic Practice and Action Research21443
Prell, C.K. HubacekM. Reed2007If you have a hammer everything looks like a nail: ‘traditional’ versus participatory model buildingInterdisciplinary Science Review32263
Prell, C.K. HubacekM. Reed2009Stakeholder analysis and social network analysis in natural resource managementSociety and Natural Resources22501
Prell, C.K., HubacekM. ReedL. Racin
Reed, M.A. BonnW. Slee2010The future of the uplandsLand Use Policy26SS204
Reed, M.A. EvelyG. Cundill
Reed, M. S.K. HubacekC. Prell2005
Rist, S.M. ChidambaranathanC. EscobarU. WiesmannA. Zimmermann2007Moving from sustainable management to sustainable governance of natural resources: the role of social learning process in rural India, Bolivia and MaliJournal of Rural Studies2323
Schusler, T. M.D. J. Decker2003Social learning for collaborative natural resource managementSociety and Natural Resources15309
Schwenk, G.T. Reimer2008Simple heuristics in complex networks: models of social influenceJournal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation114
Valente, T. W.1995Network Models of the Diffusion of InnovationsCresskill, NJHampton Press
Valente, T. W.R. Davis1999Accelerating the diffusion of innovations using opinion leadersAnnals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science56655
Wellman, B.1988Structural analysis: from method and metaphor to theory and substanceB. WellmanS. D. BerkowitzSocial Structures: A Network ApproachCambridgeCambridge University Press19
Wenger, E.1998Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and IdentityNew York, NYCambridge University Press
Winter, S.H. ProzeskyK. Esler2007A case study of landholder attitudes and behaviour toward the conservation of Renosterveld, a critically endangered vegetation type in Cape Floral Kingdom, South AfricaEnvironmental Management4046
Worrall, F.M. ReedJ. WarburtonT. Burt2003Carbon budget for a British upland peat catchmentScience of the Total Environment312133
Yamaguchi, K.2000Power in mixed exchange networks: a rational choice modelSocial Networks2293