16 - Contribution of source–sink theory to protected area science  pp. 339-360

Contribution of source–sink theory to protected area science

By Andrew Hansen

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter

The concept of source–sink population dynamics may be especially relevant to protected areas. Places set aside as nature reserves often have steep gradients in climate, topography, and other abiotic factors that result in spatially explicit population dynamics occurring within them. Protected areas are also frequently placed in relatively extreme parts of the landscape with regard to climate, soils, elevation, and water. Consequently, spatially explicit population dynamics may occur between protected areas and the more moderate surrounding landscape. The goal of this chapter is to evaluate the contribution that source–sink theory has made to understanding population viability in and around protected areas. A review of the literature for the past 20 years indicates that the source–sink concept has been applied to protected areas primarily in three ways.

  • Protected areas may be sinks for some species, due to the more extreme biophysical conditions within them. These sink populations may be vulnerable to loss of source areas in unprotected surrounding lands. Land use intensification around reserves may drive the degradation of these sources and reduce viability of the species in the protected area.
  • The areas surrounding protected areas may become “attractive” sinks due to human activities and lead to loss of viability of the source population. Large carnivores appear to be especially vulnerable to this dynamic.
  • Protected areas may serve as population source areas that supplement hunted or fished populations in surrounding areas. Many marine protected areas have been designated as a means of allowing more sustainable fisheries in surrounding waters.

I summarize the conceptual basis of each of these scenarios, provide examples, and draw implications for conservation and management.

Arcese, P. and A. R. E. Sinclair (1997). The role of protected areas as ecological baselines. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 587–602.
Carroll, C. , R. F. Noss , P. C. Pacquet and N. H. Schumaker (2004). Extinction debt of protected areas in developing landscapes. Conservation Biology 18: 1110–1120.
Craighead, F. (1979). Track of the Grizzly. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, CA.
Crowder, L. B. , S. J. Lyman , W. F. Figueira and J. Priddy (2000). Source–sink population dynamics and the problem of siting marine reserves. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 799–820.
DeFries, R. , F. Rovero , P. Wright , J. Ahumada , S. Andelman , K. Brandon , J. Dempewolf , A. Hansen , J. Hewson and J. Liu (2010). From plot to landscape scale: linking tropical biodiversity measurements across spatial scales. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8: 153–160.
Delibes, M. , P. Ferreras and P. Gaona (2001b). Attractive sinks, or how individual behavioural decisions determine source–sink dynamics. Ecology Letters 4: 401–403.
Delibes, M. , P. Gaona and P. Ferreras (2001a). Effects of an attractive sink leading into maladaptive habitat selection. American Naturalist 3: 277–285.
Dias, P. C. (1996). Sources and sinks in population biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 326–330.
Doak, D. F. (1995). Source–sink models and the problem of habitat degradation: general models and applications to the Yellowstone grizzly. Conservation Biology 9: 1370–1379.
Gaona, P. , P. Ferreras and M. Delibes (1998). Dynamics and viability of a metapopulation of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Ecological Monographs 68: 349–370.
Grumbine, E. (1990). Protecting biological diversity through the greater ecosystem concept. Natural Areas Journal 10: 114–120.
Gude, P. H. , A. J. Hansen and D. A. Jones (2007). Biodiversity consequences of alternative future land use scenarios in Greater Yellowstone. Ecological Applications 17: 1004–1018.
Gundersen, G. , E. Johannesen , H. P. Andreassen and R. A. Ims (2001). Source–sink dynamics: how sinks affect demography of sources. Ecology Letters 4: 14–21.
Haight, R. G. , D. J. Mladenoff and A. P. Wudenven (1998). Modeling disjunct gray wolf populations in semi-wild landscapes. Conservation Biology 12: 879–888.
Hansen, A. J. , C. Davis , N.B. Piekielek , J. Gross , D. M. Theobald , S. Goetz , F. Melton, R. DeFries (2011). Delineating the ecosystems containing protected areas for monitoring and management, Bio Science. In press.
Hansen, A. J. , J. J. Rotella , M. L. Kraska and D. Brown (2000). Spatial patterns of primary productivity in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Landscape Ecology 15: 505–522.
Hansen, A. J. , J. J. Rotella and M. L. Kraska (1999). Dynamic habitat and population analysis: a filtering approach to resolve the biodiversity manager’s dilemma. Ecological Applications 9: 1459–1476.
Hansen, A. J. , R. Knight , J. Marzluff , S. Powell , K. Brown , P. Hernandez and K. Jones (2005). Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: patterns, mechanisms, research needs. Ecological Applications 15: 1893–1905.
Hansen, A. J. , R. Raske , B. Maxwell , J. J. Rotella , A. Wright , U. Langner , W. Cohen , R. Lawrence and J. Johnson (2002). Ecology and socioeconomics in the New West: a case study from Greater Yellowstone. BioScience 52: 151–168.
Hansen, A. J. and J. J. Rotella (2002). Biophysical factors, land use, and species viability in and around nature reserves. Conservation Biology 16: 1–12.
Hansen, A. J. and R. DeFries (2007). Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications 17: 974–988.
Jonzen, N. , J. R. Rhodes and H. P. Possingham (2005). Trend detection in source–sink systems: when should sink habitats be monitored? Ecological Applications 15: 326–334.
Joshi, N. V. and M. Gadgil (1991). On the role of refugia in promoting prudent use of biological resources. Theoretical Population Biology 40: 211–229.
Laundré, J. and T. W. Clark (2003). Managing puma hunting in the western United States: through a metapopulation approach. Animal Conservation 6: 159–170.
Lubchenco, J. , S. R. Palumbi , S. D. Gaines and S. Andelman (2003). Plugging a hole in the ocean: the emerging science of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S3–S7.
Margules, C. R. and R. L. Pressey (2000). Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405: 243–253.
McCullough, D. R. (1996). Spatially structured populations and harvest theory. Journal of Wildlife Management 60: 1–9.
McKinney, M. L. (2002). Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience 52: 883–890.
Naranjo, E. J. and R. E. Bodmer (2007). Source–sink systems and conservation of hunted ungulates in the Lacandon Forest, Mexico. Biological Conservation 138: 412–420.
Naves, J. , T. Wiegand , E. Revilla and M. Delibes (2003). Endangered species constrained by natural and human factors: the case of brown bears in northern Spain. Conservation Biology 17: 1276–1289.
Newmark, W. D. (1985). Legal boundaries of western North American National Parks: a problem of congruence. Biological Conservation 33: 197–208.
Newmark, W. D. (1987). A land-bridge island perspective on mammalian extinctions in western North American parks. Nature 325: 430–432.
Newmark, W. D. (1995). Extinction of mammal populations in western North American national parks. Conservation Biology 9: 512–526.
Newmark, W. D. (1996). Insularization of Tanzanian parks and the local extinction of large mammals. Conservation Biology 10: 1549–1556.
Nielsen, S. E. , G. B. Stenhouse and M. S. Boyce (2006). A habitat-based framework for grizzly bear conservation in Alberta. Biological Conservation 130: 217–229.
Novaro, A. J. , K. H. Redford and R. E. Bodmer (2000). Effect of hunting in source–sink systems in the Neotropics. Conservation Biology 14: 713–721.
Novaro, A. J. , M. C. Funes and R. S. Walker (2005). An empirical test of source–sink dynamics induced by hunting. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 910–920.
Parks, S. A. and A. H. Harcourt (2002). Reserve size, local human density, and mammalian extinctions in the US protected areas. Conservation Biology 16: 800–808.
Possingham, H. P. , K. A. Wilson , S. J. Aldeman and C. H. Vynne (2006). Protected areas: goals, limitations, and design. In Principles of Conservation Biology ( M. J. Groom , G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll , eds.). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA: 509–551.
Pressey, R. L. (1994). Ad hoc reservations: forward or backward steps in developing representative reserve systems? Conservation Biology 8: 662–668.
Pulliam, H. R. (1988). Sources, sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist 132: 652–661.
Rivard, D. H. , J. Poitevin , D. Plasse , M. Carleton and D. J. Currie (2000). Changing species richness and composition in Canadian National Parks. Conservation Biology 14: 1099–1109.
Rosenzweig, M. L. (2003). Win–Win Ecology: How the Earth’s Species can Survive in the Midst of Human Enterprise. Oxford University Press, New York.
Russ, G. R. , A. C. Alcala , A. P. Maypa , H. P. Calumpong and A. T White (2004). Marine reserve benefits local fisheries. Ecological Applications 14: 597–606.
Sale, P. F. , R. K. Cowen , B. S. Danilowicz , G. P. Jones , J. P. Kritzer , K. Lindeman , S. Planes , N. V. C. Polunin , G. R. Russ , Y. J. Sadovy and R. S. Steneck (2005). Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 74–80.
Schwartz, C. C. , M. A. Haroldson , G. C. White , R. B. Harris , S. Cherry , K. A. Keating , D. Moody and C. Servheen (2007). Temporal, spatial, and environmental influences on the demographics of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Wildlife Monographs 161: 1–68.
Schwartz, C. C. , M. A. Haroldson , K. A. Gunther and D. Moody (2006). Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in 2004. Ursus 17: 63–66.
Schwartz, C. C. , M. A. Haroldson and G. C. White (2010). Hazards affecting grizzly bear survival in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Journal of Wildlife Management 74: 654–667.
Scott, J. M. , F. W. Davis , R. G. McGhie , R. G. Wright , C. Groves and J. Estes (2001). Nature reserves: do they capture the full range of America’s biological diversity? Ecological Applications 11: 999–1007.
Sinclair, A. R. E. (1995). Serengeti past and present. In Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management and Conservation of an Ecosystem ( A. R. E. Sinclair and P. Arcese , eds.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL: 3–30.
Theobald, D. M. , T. Spies , J. Kline , B. Maxwell , N. T. Hobbs and V. H. Dale (2005). Ecological support for rural land use planning. Ecological Applications 5: 1906–1914.
Wittemyer, G. , P. Elsen , W. T. Bean , A. Coleman , O. Burton and J. S. Brashares (2008). Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science 321: 123–126.
Woodroffe, R. and J. R. Ginsberg (1998). Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280: 2126–2128.
Wright, G. M. and B. Thompson (1935). Fauna of the National Parks of the US USDA Department of Interior, Washington, DC.