3 - Singapore: The Exception That Proves Rules Matter  pp. 73-101

Singapore: The Exception That Proves Rules Matter

By Gordon Silverstein

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



“The foundations for our financial center were the rule of law, an independent judiciary, and a stable, competent, and honest government that pursued sound macroeconomic policies.”

–Lee Kuan Yew (2000: 73)

Unlike many authoritarian systems, the Republic of Singapore holds regular elections; Western media circulates widely; the Internet has deep penetration; and even Lee Kuan Yew – Singapore's paramount leader, who served as prime minister for more than 30 years – insists that adherence to the rule of law and a scrupulous, efficient, consistent judicial system are and have been essential to Singapore's spectacular growth and development. An island without adequate fresh water to serve its population, Singapore has risen to be a robust international commercial center that consistently outranks rivals ranging from Hong Kong and Japan to its own former colonial master, Great Britain, and, even in some years, the United States itself on measures of international competitiveness, economic vitality, and its efficient, effective, and reliable judicial system. And yet, unlike so many other authoritarian systems, Singapore has avoided the pitfalls of judicialization that arise in so many other states considered in this volume. Singapore seems to offer glimmering, shimmering proof that a government can construct a rule-of-law system sufficient to satisfy the demands of a global economy and maintain domestic support in regular elections for more than forty years without being forced to tolerate the tradeoff of uncontrolled, independent judicial power, or significant political opposition.

3

Reference Type: reference-list

Abrahamson, Eric , and Rosenkopf, Lori 1997. “Social Network Effects on the Extent of Innovation Diffusion: A Computer Simulation,” Organization Science 8: 289–309.
Ackerman, Bruce 1997. “The Rise of World Constitutionalism,” Virginia Law Review 83: 771–797.
Acuña, Carlos and Smulovitz, Catalina 1995. “Militares en la transición argentina: del gobierno a la subordinación constitucional,” in Carlos Acuña et al. (eds.) Juicio, Castigos y memorias. Buenos Aires: Nueva Vision.
Ahmad, Feroz 1977. The Turkish Experiment in Democracy 1950–1975. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Aliber, Robert 1975. “Exchange Risk, Political Risk, and Investor Demands for External Currency Deposits,” Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 7: 161–179.
al-Jarida al-Rasmiyya, no. 124, June 17, 1971.
al-Jarida al-Rasmiyya, no. 40, September 30, 1971.
al-Morr, Awad. June 11, 2000. Personal interview, Moustafa.
Amann, Diane M . 2004. “Guantanamo,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 42: 263.
Amnesty International 1986. “The Role of the Judiciary and the Legal Profession in the Protection of Human Rights in Chile.” September.
Ancarola, G. 2000. “La función política de la Corte Suprema en los gobiernos de facto,” in A. Santiago (h) and F. Alvarez (eds.) Función Política de la Corte Suprema: Obra en Homenaje a Julio Oyhanarte. Buenos Aires: Ábaco.
Andersen, Martin 1993. Dossier Secreto. Boulder: Westview Press.
Arab Republic of Egypt . 1977. Legal Guide to Investment in Egypt: General Authority for Investment and Free Zones. Cairo: General Egyptian Book Organization.
Arab Republic of Egypt . 1982. Status of the Open Door Economy Investment Guide. Cairo: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.
Arab Republic of Egypt . 1984. al-Mahkama al-Dusturiyya al-‘Ulia, Vols. 1–10.
Arab Republic of Egypt . 1998. Report on the Reform of Judicial Functions. Cairo: Ministry of Justice.
Arato, Andrew 2000. “Constitutional Lessons,” Constellations 7: 316–340.
Arato, Andrew 2002. “The Bush Tribunals and the Specter of Dictatorship,” Constellations 9: 457–476.
Arendt, Hannah . 1968. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harvest Books. Originally published in 1951.
Argentine National Commission on the Disappeared 1986. Nunca Más: The report of the Argentine National Commission on the Disappeared. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.
Arnold, Wayne 2002. “Bloomberg News Apologizes to Top Singapore Officials.” New York Times, August 27, section W p 1.
Arriagada, Genaro 1974. De la ‘Via Chilena’ a la ‘Via Insurrecional’. Santiago: Editorial del Pacífico.
Arrow, K. J. 1979. “Pareto Efficiency with Costly Transfers,” Economic Forum 10: 1–13.
Arslan, Zuhtu 2002. “Conflicting Paradigms: Political Rights in the Turkish Constitutional Court,” Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 11 (Spring) 9–25.
Aybay, Rona 1977. “Some Contemporary Constitutional Problems in Turkey,” Bulletin (British Society for Middle Eastern Studies) 4: 21–27.
Ayubi, Nazih 1979. Administrative Corruption in Egypt. Cairo: National Center for Social and Criminal Research.
Ayubi, Nazih 1980. Bureaucracy and Politics in Contemporary Egypt. London: Ithaca Press.
Ayubi, Nazih . 1995. Overstating the Arab State: Politics and Society in the Middle East. New York: I.B. Tauris.
Baglini, Norman 1976. Risk Management in International Corporations. New York: Risk Studies Foundation.
Baker, Raymond 1978. Egypt's Uncertain Revolution under Nassir and Sadat. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Baker, Raymond 1981. “Sadat's Open Door: Opposition from Within,” Social Problems 28: 378–384.
Bannikov, S. G. 1974. “Verkhovnyi sud SSSR i sovershenstvovanie sovetskogo zakonodatelstva,” in L.N. Smirnov (ed.) Verkhovnyi sud SSSR. Moscow.
Barkan, Steven E . 1985. Protestors on Trial: Criminal Justice in the Southern Civil Rights and Vietnam Antiwar Movements. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Barros, Robert . 2002. Constitutionalism and Dictatorship: Pinochet, the Junta, and the 1980 Constitution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barros, Robert 2003. “Dictatorship and the Rule of Law: Rules and Military Power in Pinochet's Chile,” in J. M. Maravall and A. Przeworski (eds.) Democracy and the Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bates, Robert . 1992. “The Impulse to Reform,” in Jennifer Widner (ed.) Economic Change and Political Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Baum, Lawrence 2006. Judges and Their Audiences: A Perspective on Judicial Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Beattie, Kirk 2000. Egypt during the Sadat Years. New York: Palgrave.
Belge, Ceren 2006. “Friends of the Court.” Law and Society Review 40.
Bell, Daniel 2000. The End of Ideology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Benson, Miles and Wood, David 2002. “Terrorism Suspect's Detention by Military Faces Tide of Criticism,” Miami Herald, June 16, p. 15A.
Bentley, John 1994. Egyptian Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment. Cairo: U.S. Agency for International Development.
Bermeo, Nancy 1986. The Revolution within the Revolution: Workers' Control in Rural Portugal. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bernhardt, Kathryn , Huang, Philip , and Allee, Mark 1994. Civil Law in Qing and Republican China, Law, Society, and Culture in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Bian, Yanjie 1997. “Bringing Strong Ties Back in: Indirect Ties, Network Bridges, and Job Searches in China,” American Sociological Review 62(3): 366–385.
Bian, Yanjie . 1999. “Getting a Job through a Web of Guanxi in China,” in B. Wellman (ed.) Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communities. Boulder: Westview Press.
Bian, Yanjie , Shu, Xiaoling , and Logan, John 2001. “Communist Party Membership and Regime Dynamics in China,” Social Forces 79(3): 805–841.
Bidart Campos, G. J . 1989. Tratado Elemental de Derecho Constitucional Argentino. Buenos Aires: EDIAR.
Biddulph, S. 2004. “The Production of Legal Norms: A Case Study of Administrative Detention in China,” UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal 20: 217–277.
Bila, Fikret 1998. “Baba'dan ‘kuzu’ benzetmesi,” Milliyet (Internet Edition), http://www.milliyet.com.tr/1998/03/22/index.html (accessed on February 18, 2007).
Bishop, W. 1990. “A Theory of Administrative Law,” Journal of Legal Studies 19: 489–530.
Bishop, W. 1998. “Comparative Administrative Law,” in Peter Newman (ed.) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Law and Economics, pp. 327–35. London: MacMillan.
Black, Henry Campbell , Nolan, Joseph R ., and Connolly, Michael J . 1979. Black's Law Dictionary: Definitions of the Terms and Phrases of American and English Jurisprudence. St. Paul: West Publishing Co.
Brabii, A. 2006. “Kto podnial ruku na prisiazhnykh?” Tikhookeanskaia zvezda, April 15.
Braga da Cruz, Manuel 1988. O Partido e o Estado no Salazarismo. Lisbon: Editorial Presenca.
Bravin, Jess 2003. “Capital Charges Thrown Out In Moussaoui Terrorism Trial,” Wall Street Journal, October 3, p. A6.
Brett, Sebastian 1992. Chile: A Time of Reckoning. Geneva: International Commission of Jurists.
Brooker, Paul 2000. Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government, and Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Brown, Nathan . 1997. The Rule of Law in the Arab World: Courts in Egypt and the Gulf. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
“Brown Quer Soltos Cinco de Guantanamo.” 2007. Folha de Sao Paulo, August 8, p. A14.
Brumberg, Daniel 2001. Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brysk, Alison 1994a. The Politics of Human Rights in Argentina: Protest, Change, and Democratization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Brysk, Alison 1994b. “The Politics of Measurement: The Contested Count of the Disappeared in Argentina,” Human Rights Quarterly 16: 676–692.
Brzezinski, Mark 1998. The Struggle for Constitutionalism in Poland. London: Macmillan.
Buchta, Wilfried 2000. Who Rules Iran? The Structure of Power in the Islamic Republic. Washington: Washington Institute for Near East Policy.
Bueno de Mesquita , Bruce, Smith, Alastair , Siverson , Randolph M. , and Morrow, James D. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce and Root, Hilton L . 2000. “When Bad Economics Is Good Politics,” in Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and Hilton Root (eds.) Governing for Prosperity. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Burkov, A. L. 2005. “Akty sudebnogo normakontrolia kak istochnik administrativnogo prava.” Aftoreferat kandidatskoi dissertatsii. Tiumenskii gosudarstvennyi univ.
Burkov, A. L. 2006. Primenenie Evropeiskoi Konventsii o Pravakh Cheloveka v sudakh Rossii. Ekaterinburg: Izd. Uralskogo universiteta. Available at: www.sutyajnik.ru/rus/library/sborniki/echr6/echr6.pdf
Butler, Judith 2002. “Guantánamo Limbo,” The Nation, April, 1, pp. 20–24.
Calveiro, Pilar 1995. Poder y Desaparición: Los Campos de Concentración en Argentina. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Colihue.
Camp, Roderic 1992. Generals in the Palacio. The Military in Modern Mexico. New York: Oxford University Press.
Camp, Roderic 1995. Political Recruitment across Two Centuries: Mexico 1884–1991. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique 1979. “On the Characterization of Authoritarian Regimes in Latin America,” in David Collier (ed.) The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Carothers, T. 2003. Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: The Problem of Knowledge. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Carpizo, Jorge 1978. El Presidencialismo Mexicano. Mexico City: Siglo XXI.
Carr, David 1979. Foreign Investment and Development in Egypt. New York: Praeger.
Carrió, A. 1996. La Corte Suprema y su Independencia. Buenos Aires: Abeledo–Perrot.
Casar, Maria Amparo 2002. “Executive-Legislative Relations: The Case of Mexico (1946–1997),” in Benito Nacif and Scott Morgenstern (eds.) Legislative Politics in Latin America, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Catholic Church 1989. Jurisprudencia: Delitos contra la seguridad del Estado. Santiago: Arzobispado de Santiago, Vicaría de la Solidaridad.
Cavallo, Ascanio , Salazar, Manuel and Sepulveda, Jorge 1989. La Historia Oculta del Regimen Militar. Santiago: Antarctica.
Cayuso, S. G. and. Gelli, M.A. 1988. “Ruptura de la legitimidad constitucional. La acordada de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación de 1930,” Cuadernos de Investigación. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas y Sociales “Ambrosio L. Gioja,” Universidad de Buenos Aires.
Cea, José Luis 1978. “Law and Socialism in Chile, 1970–1973.” Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Celoza, Albert F . 1997. Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Center for Human Rights Legal Aid . 1995. “al-Qada' al-'Askiry fi Misr: Qada' Bighayr Damanat…Qada' Bidoun Hasana Mathamoun Bila Haquq” [The Military Judiciary in Egypt: Courts without Safeguards, Judges without Immunity, and Defendants without Rights]. Cairo: CHRLA.
Center for Public Integrity 2004. Global Access – Methodology Memo. Washington DC: The Center for Public Integrity.
Chan, Cassandra 2003. “Breaking Singapore's Regrettable Tradition of Chilling Free Speech with Defamation Laws,” Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review 26: 315.
Chaskalon, Arthur 2003. “From Wickedness to Equality: The Moral Transformation of South African Law,” International Journal of Constitutional Law 1: 590–609.
Chavez, Rebecca Bill 2004. The Rule of Law in Nascent Democracies: Judicial Politics in Argentina. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Chehabi, Houchng E . 2001. “The Political Regime of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Comparative Perspective,” Government and Opposition 36 (Winter 2001): 48–70.
Cheibub, José Antonio 2004. Political Institutions. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Cheibub, Jose Antonio and Jennifer Gandhi , 2004. “Classifying Political Regimes: A Six-Fold Measure of Democracies and Dictatorships.” Paper prepared for annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago.
Chen, Xueyi , and Shi, Tianjian 2001. “Media Effects on Political Confidence and Trust in the People's Republic of China in the Post-Tiananmen Period,” East Asia: An International Quarterly 19(Fall): 84–118.
Chng Suan Tze v Minister of Home Affairs, (1988) Singapore Law Reports 132.
Choi, C. 2005. Law and Justice in Korea. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.
Christopher Bridges v. Public Prosecutor, 1 Singapore Law Report 406, (High Court, 1997)
Chua, Mui Hoong , 1997. “PM: Precincts with Greater Support Get Upgraded First,” Straits Times, January, 1, p 1.
Clarke, Donald C . 1995. “The Execution of Civil Judgments in China,” China Quarterly 141(March): 65–81.
Clarke, D. , Murell, P. and Whiting, S. 2006. “The Role of Law in China's Economic Development” (January 27, 2006). GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 187 Available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=878672
Cohen, Jerome A . 1997. “Reforming China's Civil Procedure: Judging the Courts,” American Journal of Comparative Law 45(4): 793–804.
Comisión Rettig (Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación) 1991. Informe de la Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación. Texto Oficial Completo. 2 vols. 2nd. ed. Santiago: La Nación and Las Ediciones del Ornitorrinco.
CONADEP (Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas) 1984. Nunca Mas. Informe de la Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas. Buenos Aires: EUDEBA.
Constable, Pamela , and Valenzuela, Arturo 1991. A Nation of Enemies. New York: W.W. Norton.
Constitutional Court of the Republic of Turkey. n.d. The Turkish Constitutional Court, http://www.anayasa.gov.tr/ (accessed on February 18, 2007)
Cooter, Robert and Ginsburg, Tom . 1996. “Comparative Judicial Discretion – An Empirical Test Of Economic Models,” International Review of Law and Economics 16: 295–313.
Correa Sutil, Jorge 1993. “The Judiciary and the Political System in Chile: The Dilemmas of Judicial Independence during the Transition to Democracy,” in I. Stotzky (ed.) Transition to Democracy in Latin America: The Role of the Judiciary. Boulder: Westview Press.
Cossío, José Ramón 2000. “Comentario al Artículo 105 Constitucional,” en Miguel Carbonell (coord.) Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Comentada y Condordada, México: Porrúa/UNAM.
Cossio, José Ramón . 2001. “La Suprema Corte y la teoría constitucional,” Política y Gobierno VIII (1).
Couso, Javier 2002. “The Politics of Judicial Review in Latin America: Chile in Comparative Perspective.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.
Cover, Robert 1975. Justice Accused: Antislavery and the Judicial Process. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Craig, Gordon 1955. The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640–1945. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cúneo Machiavello, Andrés 1980. “La Corte Suprema de Chile: Sus Percepciones acerca del Derecho, Su Rol en el Sistema Legal y la Relación de Este con el Sistema Política,” in Javier de Belaúnde Lopez de Romana (ed.) La Administración de Justicia en América Latína. Lima: Consejo Latinoamericano de Derecho y Desarrollo.
da Costa Filho, Milton Menezes 1994. A Justica Militar no Poder Judiciário. Brasília: Superior Tribunal Militar, DIDOC, Seção da Divulgação.
Dahl, Robert 1957. “Decision Making In A Democracy: The Supreme Court As A National Policy-Maker,” Journal of Public Law 6: 279–95.
Damaska, Mirjan R . 1986. The Faces of Justice and State Authority. New Haven: Yale University Press.
“Death Penalty Ruled Out for Two British Detainees.” 2003. New York Times, July, 23, p. A4.
de Matos, Marco Aurélio Vannucchi Leme 2002. Em Nome de Segurança Nacional: Os Processos da Justiça Militar contra a Ação Libertadora Nacional, ALN 1969–1979. PhD diss., University of São Paulo.
de Ramón, Armando 1999. Biografías de Chilenos, 1876–1973, Miembros de los Poderes Ejecutivo, Legislativo, y Judicial. Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile.
de Soto, Hernando . 2000. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York: Basic Books.
de Tocqueville, A. , Furet, F . and Mélonio, F . 1998. The Old Regime and the Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published 1856.
Del Carmen, Rolando 1973. “Constitutionalism and the Supreme Court in a Changing Philippine Polity,” Asian Survey 13 (11): 1050—1061
Delupis, Ingrid 1973. Finance and Protection of Investments in Developing Countries. Essex: Gower Press.
“Detention Cases before Supreme Court Will Test Limits of Presidential Power.” 2004. New York Times, April 18, p. 19.
Devereux, Robert 1965. “Turkey's Judicial Security Mechanism,” Die Welt des Islams 10: 33–40.
Dezalay, Yves and Garth, Bryant 2002. The Internationalization of Palace Wars: Lawyers, Economists, and the Contest to Transform Latin American States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Diamant, Neil Jeffrey , Lubman, Stanley B ., and O'Brien, Kevin J . 2005. Engaging the Law in China: State, Society, and Possibilities for Justice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Diamond, Larry 2002. “Thinking about Hybrid Regimes,” Journal of Democracy 13: 21–35.
Dickson, Bruce J. and Rublee, Maria Rost. 2000. “Membership Has Its Privileges: the Socioeconomic Characteristics of Party Members in Urban China,” Comparative Political Studies 33: 87–112.
di Federico, Giuseppe and Guarnieri, Carlo 1988. “The Courts in Italy,” in Jerold L. Waltman and Kenneth M. Holland (eds.) The Political Role of Law Courts in Modern Democracies. London: Macmillan.
Dobrovolskaia, T.N. 1964. Verkhovnyi sud SSSR. Moscow: Iuridicheskaia literatura.
Dodd, C. H. 1983. The Crisis of Turkish Democracy. Beverly, England: Eothen.
Dodds, Paisely 2004. “Arraignments on Tap for Cuba Detainees.” Times-Picayune, August 23, p. A-10.
Domingo, Pilar 2000. “Judicial Independence: The Politics of the Supreme Court in Mexico,” Journal of Latin American Studies 32.
Dow Jones v . Attorney General of Singapore, 1989. Singapore Law Reports 70; 2MLJ 385.
Drake, Paul 1996. Labor Movements and Dictatorships: The Southern Cone in Comparative Perspective. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dubber, Markus Dirk 1993. “Judicial Positivism and Hitler's Injustice,” Columbia Law Review 93 (7): 1807–1831.
Dyzenhaus, David 1991. Hard Cases in Wicked Legal Systems; South African Law in the Perspective of Legal Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dyzenhaus, David 1998. Judging the Judges, Judging Ourselves: Truth, Reconciliation and the Apartheid Legal Order. Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.
Eisenstadt, Todd 2004. Courting Democracy in Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Egyptian Organization for Human Rights . 1996. Recurrent Detention: Prisoners Without Trial. Cairo: Egyptian Organization for Human Rights.
El-Nazer, Gamal 1979. “The Legal Framework for Foreign Investment in Egypt,” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Lawyer 11: 613–622.
Epp, Charles R . 1998. The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, and Supreme Courts in Comparative Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Etzioni, Amitai and Marsh, Jason H . 2003. Rights vs. Public Safety after 9/11: America in the Age of Terrorism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Farhang, Michael . 1994. “Terrorism and Military Trials in Egypt: Presidential Decree No. 375 and the Consequences for Judicial Authority.” Harvard International Law Journal 35: 225–237.
Ferejohn, John . 2002. “Judicializing Politics, Politicizing Law,” Law and Contemporary Problems 65: 41–68.
Ferejohn, John and Weingast, Barry R . 1992. “A Positive Theory of Statutory Interpretation,” International Review of Law and Economics 12: 263–279.
Fernandes, Octávio J.S. 1983. “O Superior Tribunal Militar e a Legislação de Segurança Nacional,” Revista do Superior Tribunal Militar 7: 7–50.
Ferreira, Célia Lobão 1984/85. “Crimes Contra a Segurança do Estado,” Revista do Superior Tribunal Militar 8: 23–88.
Fisman, R. 2001. “Estimating the Value of Political Connections,” American Economic Review 91: 1095–1102.
Fontana, Andres Miguel 1987. “Political Decision Making by a Military Corporation: Argentina, 1976–1983.” Ph.D. diss. University of Texas, Austin.
Fraenkel, Ernst 1969. The Dual State: A Contribution to the Theory of Dictatorship, E.A. Shils (trans.). New York: Octagon Books. Originally published in 1941.
Frye, Timothy and Shleifer, Andrei . 1996. “The Invisible Hand and the Grabbing Hand,” NBER Working Papers 5856, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Fuller, Lon L . 1958. “Positivism and the Fidelity to Law – A Reply to Professor Hart,” Harvard Law Review 71 (February): 630–672.
Fuller, Lon L . 1964. The Morality of Law (revised ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press.
“Further Talks on Guantanamo Britons.” 2003. Financial Times, August 10, p. 2.
Galanter, Marc 1974. “Why the ‘Haves’ Come out Ahead: Speculations on the Limits of Social Change,” Law and Society Review 9: 95–160.
Gallagher, Mary E . 2005. “Use the Law as Your Weapon! The Rule of Law and Labor Conflict in the PRC,” in N. J. Diamant, S. B. Lubman and K. J. O'Brien (eds.) Engaging the Law in China: State, Society, and Possibilities for Justice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Galleguillos, Nibaldo H . 1998. “From Confrontation to Friendly Persuasion: An Analysis of Judicial Reform and Democratization in Post-Pinochet Chile,” Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 23: 161–192.
Gallo, Max 1974. Spain under Franco: A History. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company.
Ganji, Akbar 2000. ‘Alijenab-i Surkhposh va ‘alijenab-i khakestari: Asibshenasi gozara beh doulat-i demokratik-i tos'ehgara [English title: The Red Eminence and the Gray Eminences: Pathology of Transition to the Developmental Democratic State] Teheran: Tarh-e no.
Garcia Villegas, Rene . 1990. Soy Testigo (Dicatdura – Tortura – Injusticia). Santiago: Editorial Amerinda.
Garrido, Luis Javier 1982. El Partido de la Revolución Institucionalizada. Mexico City: Siglo XXI.
Gathii, James T . 2003. “Torture, Extraterritoriality, Terrorism, and International Law,” Albany Law Review 67: 335.
Geddes, Barbara 1994. Politicians' Dilemmas. Berkeley: California University Press.
Gee, Marcus 1997. “International Affairs: The Singapore Suits,” Globe and Mail, March 12, p. A-15.
Gelli, M. A. 2000. “EI papel político de la Corte Suprema en las crisis institucionales.” In A. Santiago and F. Alvarez (eds.) Función Política de la Corte Suprema: Obra en Homenaje a Julio Oyhanarte. Buenos Aires: Ábaco.
George, Alexander , 1979. “Case Studies and Theory Development: The Method of Structured, Focused Comparison,” in Paul Gordon Lauren (ed.) Diplomacy: New Approaches in History, Theory, and Policy. New York: Free Press 43–67.
Gerber, T. P. 2000. “Membership Benefits or Selection Effects? Why Former Communist Party Members do Better in Post-Soviet Russia. Social Science Research, 29: 25–50.
Gibson, James L . 1986. “The Social Science of Judicial Politics,” in Herbert Weisberg (ed.) Political Science: The Science of Politics. New York: Agathon Press, 141–166.
Giles, Michael W . and Lancaster, Thomas D . 1989. “Political Transition, Social Development, and Legal Mobilization in Spain,” American Political Science Review 83 (3): 817–833.
Ginsburg, Tom 2002. “Comparative Administrative Procedures: Evidence from Northeast Asia,” Constitutional Political Economy 13: 247–264.
Ginsburg, Tom 2003. Judicial Review in New Democracies: Constitutional Courts in Asian Cases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ginsburg, Tom 2007. “Law and the Liberal Transformation of the Northeast Asian Legal Complex in Korea and Taiwan,” in Terrence Halliday , Lucien Karpik and Malcolm M. Feeley (eds.). Fighting for Political Freedom: Comparative Studies of the Legal Complex and Political Change. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Ginsburg, Tom and Kagan, Robert 2005. Institutions and Public Law: Comparative Approaches. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Global Governance Indicators (2005) available at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/WBI/EXTWBIGOVANTCOR/0,contentMDK:20771165~menuPK:1866365~pagePK:64168445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:1740530,00.html
Goh, S. 1991. “Asia Has Much to Offer West – BG Yeo.” Straits Times, August 13.
Gold, Thomas , Guthrie, Douglas , and Wank, David L. , 2002. Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture and the Changing Nature of Guanxi. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Goldberg, Suzanne 2006. “Pentagon Breaks with Bush on Detentions,” The Guardian (UK), July 12.
Gomez, James 2005. “Free Speech and Opposition Parties in Singapore,” AsiaRights 5, available at http://www.jamesgomeznews.com/article.php/AID=221
Gonzales, Albert R . 2001. “Martial Justice, Full and Fair,” New York Times, November 30, p. A25.
González Compeán, Miguel and Peter Bauer . 2002. Jurisdicción y democracia. Los nuevos rumbos del Poder Judicial en México, México: Cal y Arena.
Graber, Mark 1993. “The Nonmajoritarian Difficulty: Legislative Deference to the Judiciary,” Studies in American Political Development 7.
Graber, Mark 2001. “Thick and Thin: Interdisciplinary Conversations on Populism, Law, Political Science and Constitutional Change,” Georgetown Law Journal 90: 233.
Grigoreva, Nina . 2006.“Vperedi Evropy vsei: Rossianie lidiruiut po kolichestvu obrashchenii v Strasborgskii sud.” Rossiiskaia gazeta, July 6.
Groisman, E. I. 1989. “Los gobiernos de facto en el derecho Argentino,” Revista del Centro de Estudios Constitucionales 4: 35–45.
Guarnieri, Carlo and Pederzoli, Patrizia 2002. The Power of Judges: A Comparative Study of Courts and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Guseva, Alya , and Akos Rona-Tas . 2001. “Uncertainty, Risk, and Trust: Russian and American Credit Card Markets Compared.” American Sociological Review 66:623–646.
Guthrie, Doug 1999. Dragon in a Three-Piece Suit: The Emergence of Capitalism in China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hägerstrand, Torsten 1967. Innovation Diffusion as a Spatial Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Haggard, Stephan and Kaufman, Robert R . 1995. The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hale, William 1977. “Turkish Democracy in Travail: The Case of the State Security Courts,” World Today 33 (May): 186–194.
Hall, Bronwyn H. , 2004. Innovation and Diffusion. National Bureau of Economic Research Available from http://papers.nber.org/papers/
Halliday, Terence , Malcolm Feeley , and Lucian Karpik (eds.). 2007. Fighting for Political Freedom: Comparative Studies of the Legal Complex for Political Liberalism. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Hand, Keith J . 2006. “Using Law for a Righteous Purpose: The Sun Zhigang Incident and Evolving Forms of Citizen Action in the People's Republic of China,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 45: 114–94.
Hart, H.L.A. 1958. “Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals,” Harvard Law Review 71 (February): 593–629.
Hart, H.L.A. 1961. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hazama, Yasushi 1996. “Constitutional Review and the Parliamentary Opposition in Turkey,” Developing Economies 34 (September): 316–338.
He, X. 2006. “Notion of and Justifications for Gender Discrimination in Employment.” LL.D. Thesis, Kyushu University.
Helmke, Gretchen 2002. “The Logic of Strategic Defection: Court-Executive Relations in Argentina under Dictatorship and Democracy,” American Political Science Review 96: 291–303.
Helmke, Gretchen 2005. Courts under Constraints: Judges, Generals and Presidents in Argentina. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hendley, Kathryn 1998. “Remaking an Institution: The Transition in Russia from State Arbitrazh to Arbitrazh Courts,” American Journal of Comparative Law 44: 93–116.
Heper, Metin 1985. The State Tradition in Turkey. Beverly: Eothen Press.
Herb, Michael 1999. All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution, and Democracy in the Middle Eastern Monarchies. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Hershbarger, Robert and Noerager, John 1976. “International Risk Management,” Risk Management (April 1976): 23–34.
Hetherington, M.J. 1998. “The Political Relevance of Political Trust,” American Political Science Review 92 (4): 791–808.
Hilbink, Elisabeth C . 1999. “Legalism against Democracy: The Political Role of the Judiciary in Chile, 1964–94.” PhD diss., Department of Political Science, University of California-San Diego.
Hilbink, Elisabeth C . 2001. “Judges Like Soldiers: Lessons for Judicial Reformers from the Literature on Military Reform in Latin America.” Paper presented at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.
Hilbink, Elisabeth C . 2007. Judges beyond Politics in Democracy and Dictatorship: Lessons from Chile. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hinnebusch, Raymond 1985. Egyptian Politics under Sadat: The Post-Populist Development of an Authoritarian-Modernizing State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hirschl, Ran 2004. Towards Juristocracy: The Origins and Consequences of New Constitutionalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Holden, P. 1997. “Collateral without Consequence: Some Causes and Effects of Financial Underdevelopment in Latin America,” The Financier 4: 12–21.
Huang, Philip C . 2001. Code, Custom, and Legal Practice in China : The Qing and the Republic Compared: Law, Society, and Culture in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Huntington, Samuel P . 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Hutchinson, Allan and Monahan, Patrick 1987. “Democracy and the Rule of Law,” in Allan C. Hutchinson and Patrick Monahan (eds.) The Rule of Law: Ideal or Ideology. Toronto: Carswell.
Iakovlev, Alexander 1993, January. Interview conducted by Todd Foglesong and Peter Solomon with Alexander Nikolaevich Iakovlev in Toronto.
Iakovlev, M. 2006. “Prisiazhnye opravdateli: Pochemy organy sledstviia ne polzuiutsia doveriem ‘narodnykh zasedatelei,’” Gazeta Versiia online, March 3.
Iarayczower, Matias , Spiller, Pablo T. and Tommasi, Mariano 2002. “Judicial Decision-making in Unstable Environment: Argentina 1935–1998.” American Journal of Political Science 46: 699–716.
Igounet (h.), Oscar and Oscar Igounet . 1985. Codigo de Justicia Militar: Anotado, Comentado con Jurisprudencia y Doctrina Nacional y Extranjera. Buenos Aires: Librería del Jurista.
Inglehart, Ronald 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
International Bar Association. Judicial Independence Undermined: A Report on Uganda, International Bar Association Human Rights Institute Report, September 2007 accessed at http://www.ibanet.org/iba/article.cfm/article=129
Janos, Andrew 1970. “The One-Party State and Social Mobilization: East Europe between the Wars,” in Samuel Huntington and C. Moore (eds.) Authoritarian Politics in Modern Societies: The Dynamics of Established One-Party Systems. New York: Basic Books.
Jennings, M. Kent 1998. “Political Trust and the Roots of Devolution,” in V.A. Braithwaite and M. Levi (eds.) Trust and Governance. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Jiang, Z. 1998. “The Administrative Use of Law in China: The Baori Golf Club Tax Case,” Columbia Journal of Asian Law 12: 191–249.
Kahn, Peter 2002. “The Russian Bailiffs System and the Enforcement of Civil Judgements,” Post-Soviet Affairs 18: 148–181.
Kairys, David 1982. The Politics of Law: A Progressive Critique. New York: Pantheon.
Katyal, Neal and Tribe, Laurence 2002. “Waging War, Deciding Guilt: Trying the Military Tribunals,” Yale Law Journal 111 1259–1310.)
Kaufmann, Daniel , Kraa, Aart and Mastruzzi, Massimo 2005. Governance Matters IV: Governance Indicators for 1996–2004. New York: World Bank.
Kelly, Margaret 1974. “Evaluating the Risks of Expropriation,” Risk Management (January 1): 23–43.
Khiabani, Gholam and Sreberny, Anabelle 2001. “The Iranian Press and the Continuing Struggle over Civil Society, 1998–2000,” International Communication Gazette 63: 203–223.
Kili, Suna 1971. Turkish Constitutional Developments and Assembly Debates on the Constitutions of 1924 and 1961. Istanbul: Robert College Research Center.
King, Gary , Murray, Christopher , Salomon, Joshua and Tandon, Ajay , 2003. “Enhancing the Validity and Cross-Cultural Comparability of Measurement in Survey Research,” American Political Science Review, 97: 567–584.
Kipnis, Andrew B . 1997. Producing Guanxi: Sentiment, Self, and Subculture in a North China Village. Durham: Duke University Press.
Kirchheimer, Otto 1961. Political Justice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Klaris, Edward J . 2002. “Justice Can't Be Done in Secret,” The Nation, June 10, pp. 16–20.
Kleandrov, Mikhail I . 2001. Arbitrazhnye sudy Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Moscow: Iurist.
Knight, Frank 1971. Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Knudson, Jerry W . 1997. “Veil of Silence: The Argentine Press and the Dirty War, 1976–1983,” Latin American Perspectives 24: 93–112.
Koçak, Mustafa and Örücü, Esin 2003. “Dissolution of Political Parties in the Name of Democracy: Cases from Turkey and the European Court of Human Rights,” European Public Law 9: 399–423.
Köch, Hannsjoachim 1989. In the Name of the Volk: Political Justice in Hitler's Germany. London: I.B. Taurus and Co.
Kogacioglu, Dicle 2003. “Dissolution of Political Parties by the Constitutional Court in Turkey: Judicial Delimitation of the Political Domain,” International Sociology 18 (March): 258–276.
Kogacioglu, Dicle 2004. “Progress, Unity, and Democracy: Dissolving Political Parties in Turkey,” Law and Society Review 38 (3): 433–462.
Kommersant 2006. “Vy prisizhnym doveriaete?” Kommersant vlast, April 10.
Konstitutsionnyi sud RF 2004. “Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti otdelnykh polozhenii punkta 2 chasti pervoi stati 27, chastei pervoi, vtoroi i chetvertoi stati 251, chastei vtoroi i tretei stati 253 Grazhdanskogo protsessualnogo kodeksa Rossiiskoi Federatsii v sviazi s zaprosom Pravitelstva RF,” Rossiiskaia gazeta, February 3.
Kornia, A. 2006. “Advokat sude ne muzh. Sluzhiteliam femidy ogranichat lichuiu zhizn,” Vedomosti, February 28.
Krastev, Ivan 2006. “Democracy's ‘Doubles,’” Journal of Democracy 17: 52–62.
Krug, Barbara 2004. China's Rational Entrepreneurs: The Development of the New Private Business Sector. New York: RoutledgeCurzon.
Ku, Hok Bun . 2003. Moral Politics in a South Chinese Village: Responsibility, Reciprocity, and Resistance. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Kydland, F.E. and Prescott, E.C. 1977. “Rules Rather than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans,” Journal of Political Economy 85: 473–491.
Laitin, David 2002. “Comparative Politics: The State of the Subdiscipline,” in Ira Katznelson and Helen Milner (eds.) Political Science: The State of the Discipline. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Landes, William and Posner, Richard 1975. “The Independent Judiciary in an Interest-Group Perspective,” Journal of Law and Economics 18: 875.
Landry, Pierre F. , and Mingming Shen 2005. “Reaching Migrants in Survey Research: The Use of the Global Positioning System to Reduce Coverage Bias in China,” Political Analysis 13 (1): 1–22.
Lee, Kuan Yew 1990. Speech at the Opening of the Singapore Law Academy by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew. August 31, 1990. Available at http://www.sal.org.sg/
Lee, Kuan Yew 1999. The Singapore Story: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew. New York: Prentice Hall.
Lee, Kuan Yew 2000. From Third World to First: The Singapore Story – 1965–2000. New York: HarperCollins.
Lee, Tahirih V . 1997. Contract, Guanxi, and Dispute Resolution in China, Chinese Law; 3. New York: Garland Publishing.
Leuhrmann, L. 2003. “Facing Citizen Complaints in China, 1951–96,” Asian Survey 43: 845–66.
Levi, Margaret 1998. “A State of Trust,” in V. A. Braithwaite and M. Levi (eds.) Trust and Governance. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Levi, Margaret 1999. “The Problem of Trust,” American Journal of Sociology 104 (4): 1245–1246.
Levi, Margaret , and Stoker, Laura 2000. “Political Trust and Trustworthiness,” Annual Review of Political Science (3): 475–507.
Levinson, Sanford . 2006. Our Undemocratic Constitution. New York: Oxford University Press.
Levitsky, Steven and Way, Lucien 2002. “The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism,” Journal of Democracy 13(2): 51–65.
Lewis, Anthony , 2001. “Wake Up America,” New York Times, Novemeber 30, 2001, p. A25.
Li, Lianjiang 2004. “Political Trust in Rural China,” Modern China 30 (2): 228–258.
Lim, Li-Hsien 1998. “Singapore's Legal Framework Tops Again,” Straits Times (Singapore), May 16, p. 43.
Linz, Juan 1970. “An Authoritarian Regime: Spain,” in Erik Allardt and Stein Rokkan (eds.) Mass Politics: Studies in Political Sociology. New York: Free Press.
Linz, Juan 1973. “The Future of an Authoritarian Situation or the Institutionalization of an Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Brazil,” in Alfred Stepan (ed.) Authoritarian Brazil: Origins, Policies, and Future. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Linz, Juan 1975. “Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes,” in Fred Greenstein and Nelson Polsby (eds.) Handbook of Political Science, Vol. 3: pp. 175–357. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
Linz, Juan 2000. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Linz, Juan and Stepan, Alfred 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Lobel, Jules 2004. “Winning Lost Causes,” Chronicle of Higher Education, February 6.
López Dawson, Carlos . 1995. Justicia Militar: Una Nueva Mirada. Santiago: Comisión Chilena de Derechos Humanos.
Loveman, Brian and Davies , Thomas M. Jr ., eds. 1989. The Politics of Anti-Politics: The Military in Latin America. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.
Lubman, Stanley B . 1996. China's Legal Reforms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lubman, Stanley B . 1999. Bird in a Cage: Chinese Legal Reform after Mao. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Lugosi, Charles 2003. “Rule of Law or Rule by Law: The Detention of Yaser Hamdi,” American Journal of Criminal Law 30: 225.
Lukianova, E.G. 2001. “Znachenie Konstitututsii SSSR 1977 g. v razvitii istochnikov Rossiiskogo gosudarstvennogo prava,” Gosudarstvo i pravo 4: 107–113.
Luo, Yadong 2000. Guanxi and Business (Asia-Pacific business series; vol. 1). Singapore: World Scientific.
Luque, María José 1984. “Consejos de Guerra: Justicia o Venganza?” ANALISIS (June 5): 26–29.
Luque, María José , and Collyer, Patricia 1986. “Proceso a la Corte Suprema,” ANALISIS (July 1): 23–27.
Lydgate, Chris 2003. Lee's Law: How Singapore Crushes Dissent. Melbourne: Scribe Publications.
MacCormick, Neil 1993. “Constitutionalism and Democracy,” in Richard Bellamy (ed.) Theories and Concepts of Politics. New York: Manchester University Press.
Magalhães, Pedro 1999. “The Politics of Judicial Reform in Eastern Europe,” Comparative Politics (October) 32: 43–62.
Magalhães, Pedro C. , Guarnieri, Carlo and Kaminis, Yorgos 2007. “Democratic Consolidation, Judicial Reform, and Judicialization of Politics in Southern Europe,” in Gunther, Diamandouros , Nikiforos , and Sotiropoulos (eds.) Democracy and the State in the New Southern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Magaloni, Beatriz 1996. “Dominancia de Partido y Dilemas Duvergerianos en las Elecciones Federales de 1994” (Party Dominance and Duvergerian Dilemmas in the 1994 Federal Elections) Política y Gobierno. 3(2): 14–32.
Magaloni, Beatriz 2003. “Authoritarianism, Democracy and the Supreme Court: Horizontal Exchange and the Rule of Law in Mexico,” in Scott Mainwaring and Christopher Welna (eds.) Democratic Accountability in Latin America New York: Oxford University Press.
Magaloni, Beatriz 2006. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and Its Demise In Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Magaloni, Beatriz and Sanchez, Arianna 2006. “An Authoritarian Enclave: The Supreme Court in Mexico's Emerging Democracy.” Paper presented at the 2006 American Political Science Association Meeting.
Magaloni, Beatriz and Zepeda, Guillermo 2004. “Democratization, Judicial and Law Enforcement Institutions, and the Rule of Law in Mexico,” in Kevin L. Middlebrook (ed.) Dilemmas of Political Change in Mexico. San Diego: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of California, San Diego.
Mahajan, Vijay , and Peterson, Robert A . 1985. Models for Innovation Diffusion. (Sage University Papers Series. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences; no. 07-048). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
Mahboubi, Neysun 2005 “How Administrative (Can) Constrain Chinese Officials.” Paper prepared for conference on New Scholarship in Chinese Law, Center for Chinese Legal Studies Columbia Law School, April 15, 2005.
Mahmud, Tayyab . 1993. “Praetorianism and Common Law in Post-Colonial Settings: Judicial Responses to Constitutional Breakdowns in Pakistan.” Utah Law Review 1993: 1225–1305.
Mahmud, Tayyab 1994. “Jurisprudence of Successful Treason: Coup d'Etat & Common Law,” Cornell International Law Journal 27(1): 49–140.
Massadeh, Abdel-Mahdi 1991. “Disciplinary Actions under the Egyptian Civil Service Legal System,” Journal of International and Comparative Law, 363–397.
Mathews, H.L. 2003. “Half of Spain Died.” Available at http://www.rigeib.com/heroes/unamuno/franco.html
Matus Acuña, Alejandra 1999. El Libro Negro de la Justicia Chilena. Santiago: Editorial Planeta.
Matveeva, Anastasia 2006. “Rossiianie peregruzili Strasburgskii sud,” RBC Daily, May 31.
Mauzy, D.K. and Milne, R.S. 2002. Singapore Politics under the People's Action Party. New York: Routledge.
McCally, Sarah P . 1956. “Party Government in Turkey,” Journal of Politics 18 (May): 297–323.
McCloskey, Robert G . 1994. The American Supreme Court, revised by Sanford Levinson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McCubbins, Mathew D ., Noll, Roger G ., and Weingast, Barry 1987. “Administrative Procedures as Instruments of Political Control,” Journal of Law, Economics and Organizations 3: 243–277.
McCubbins, Mathew D ., Noll, Roger G ., and Weingast, Barry 1989. “Structure and Process, Politics and Policy: Administrative Arrangements and the Political Control of Agencies,” Virginia Law Review 75: 431–482.
McCubbins, Mathew and Schwartz, Thomas . 1984. “Congressional Oversight Overlooked: Police Patrols vs. Fire Alarms,” American Journal of Political Science 28: 165–179.
McNollgast 1998. “Political Control of the Bureaucracy,” in Peter Newman (ed.) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and Law. London: Macmillan.
McNollgast 1999. “The Political Origins of the Administrative Procedures Act,” Journal of Law Economics and Organization 15: 180–217.
Melanson, R. A. 1991. Reconstructing Consensus: American Foreign Policy since the Vietnam War. New York: St. Martin's Press.
MERiT 2006. “O khode realizatsii federalnoi tselevoi programmy ‘Razvitie sudebnoi sistemy Rossii,’ na 2002–2006 gody,” January 19. Available at http://www.economy.gov.ru/wps
Merryman, John Henry 1985. The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Western Europe and Latin America (2nd ed.). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Michelson, Ethan 2002. “How Much Does Law Matter in Beijing?” Paper presented at Law and Society Association Annual Meeting, May 30-June 1, Vancouver, Canada.
Michelson, Ethan 2006. “The Practice of Law as an Obstacle to Justice: Chinese Lawyers at Work,” Law and Society Review 40(1): 1–38.
Migdal, Joel 1989. Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Migdal, Joel 1997. “Studying the State,” in Mark Lichbach and Alan Zuckerman (eds.) Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Migdal, Joel , Kohli, Atul , and Shue, Vivienne (eds.) 1994. State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mikhailovskaya, Inga 1999. “The Procuracy and its Problems,” East European Constitution Review 8: 98–104.
Miller, Richard Lawrence 1995. Nazi Justice: Law of the Holocaust. Wesport: Praeger.
Ministerio Secretaría General de Gobierno de Chile 1991. Informe de la Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación. Santiago, Chile.
Mintz, John 2002. “Rumsfeld Details Tribunal For War Captives,” Manchester Guardian Weekly, March 28– April 3, p. 32.
Mitiukov, Mikhail A . 2005. Sudebnyi konstitutsionnnyi nadzor 1924–1933 gg.: voprosy istorii, teorii i praktiki. Moscow: Formula Prava.
Mitiukov, Mikhail A . 2006. Predtecha konstitutsionnogo pravosudiia: vzgliady, proekty I institutsionalnye predposylki (30-nachalo 90-kh GG. XX v.). Moscow: Formula Prava.
Moe, Terry M . 1990. “Political Institutions: The Neglected Side of the Story,” Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 6 (December): 213–253.
Molinar, Juan . 1991. El Tiempo de la Legitimidad. Elecciones, Democracia y Autoritarismo en México. México: Cal y Arena.
Morgan, Bronwen . 2006. “Turning off the Tap: Urban Water Service Delivery and the Social Construction of Global Administrative Law,” European Journal of International Law 17: 246–271.
Moustafa, Tamir 2003. “Law versus the State: The Judicialization of Politics in Egypt,” Law and Social Inquiry 28 (4): 883–930.
Moustafa, Tamir 2005. “A Judicialization of Authoritarian Politics?” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington DC, September.
Moustafa, Tamir 2007. The Struggle for Constitutional Power: Law, Politics, and Economic Reform in Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Müller, Ingo 1991. Hitler's Justice: The Courts of the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Munck, G. 1998. Authoritarianism and Democratization: Soldiers and Workers in Argentina, 1976–1983. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Munizaga, Giselle 1988. El Discurso Público de Pinochet. Santiago: CESOC/CENECA.
Murphy, Walter 1962.Congress and the Court. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Nadorff, Norman J . 1982. “Habeas Corpus and the Protection of Political and Civil Rights in Brazil: 1964–1978,” Lawyer of the Americas 14: 297–336.
Nathan, S.R. 1995. “Singapore: The System Works.” Washington Post, September 20, p. A-19.
Nathan Associates, Robert R . “A Study of the Feasibility of a Private Investment Encouragement Fund for the Egyptian Private Sector.” Submitted to U.S. Agency for International Development. Sept 1979.
Navarrete, B. Jaime 1974. “El poder del poder judicial,” Revista Chilena de Derecho 1: 73–72.
Nef, Jorge 1974. “The Politics of Repression: The Social Pathology of the Chilean Military,” Latin American Perspectives 1: 58–77.
Nehrt, Charles 1970. The Political Environment for Foreign Investment. New York: Praeger.
Ngai, N. P. 1997. “China's Youth Work in Rural Areas: Some Reflections on a Town and Two Villages,” International Social Work 40 (1): 27–42.
Nicolet, Claude 2004. “Dictatorship in Rome,” in Peter Baehr and Melvin Richter (eds.) Dictatorship in History and Theory: Bonapartism, Caesarism, and Totalitarianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nieer, Aryeh 2002. “The Military Tribunals on Trial,” New York Review of Books, February 14, pp. 1–9.
Nikitinskii, L. 2006. “Biznesmen, kotoryi trizhdy ne vinovat,” Novaia gazeta, March 2.
Nino, Carlos 1996. Radical Evil on Trial. New Haven: Yale University Press.
North, Douglass C . 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass C . 1991. “Institutions,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 5: 97–112.
North, Douglass C . and Weingast, Barry R . 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England,” Journal of Economic History 49: 803–832.
O'Brien, Kevin J ., and Lianjiang Li . 2005. “Suing the Local State: Administrative Litigation in Rural China,” in N. J. Diamant , S. B. Lubman and K. J. O'Brien (eds.) Engaging the Law in China: State, Society, and Possibilities for Justice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
O'Brien, Kevin J. , and Lianjiang Li . 2006. Rightful Resistance in Rural China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Oda, Hiroshi 1984. “Judicial Review of the Administration in the Countries of Eastern Europe,” Public Law 29: 112–134.
O'Donnell, Guillermo 1973. Modernization and Bureaucratic Authoritarianism: Studies in South American Politics. Berkeley: University of California, Institute of International Studies.
O'Donnell, Guillermo and Schmitter, Philippe C . 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ohnesorge, John 2007. “Chinese Administrative Law in the Northeast Asian Mirror,” Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 16: 103–164.
Oi, Jean 1986. “Commercializing China's Rural Cadres,” Problems of Communism September–October: 1–15.
Olson, Mancur 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development,” American Political Science Review 87: 567–576.
Olson, Mancur 1996. “Distinguished Lecture on Economics in Government: Big Bills Left on the Sidewalk: Why Some Nations are Rich, and Others Poor,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 10: 3–24.
Ong Au Chuan v. Public Prosectior [1980–1981] Singapore Law Reports 48.
Orden de Abogados 1980. Antecedentes Histórico-Jurídicos: Años 1972–1973. Santiago: Editorial Jurídica de Chile.
Örücü, Esin 2000. “Conseil d'Etat: The French Layer of Turkish Administrative Law,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 49: 679–700.
Osiel, Mark J . 1995. “Dialogue with Dictators: Judicial Resistance in Argentina and Brazil,” Law and Social Inquiry 20: 481–560.
Ostrom, Elinor 2005. Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ott, Walter , and Buob, Franziska 1993. “Did Legal Positivism Render German Jurists Defenceless during the Third Reich?” Social & Legal Studies (SAGE, London) 2: 91–104.
Owen, Thomas C . 1991. The Corporation under Russian Law, 1800–1917. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Özbudun, Ergun 1999. Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Payne, Stanley 1967. Politics and the Military in Modern Spain. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Peerenboom, Randall P . 2002. China's Long March toward Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peerenboom, Randall P . 2004a. “Out of the Pan and into the Fire: Well-Intentioned but Misguided Recommendations to Eliminate All Forms of Administrative Detention in China,” Northwestern University Law Review 9: 991–1104.
Peerenboom, Randall P . 2004b. “Varieties of Rule of Law: An Introduction and Provisional Conclusion,” in Randall Peerenboom (ed.) Asian Discourses of Rule of Law. London: Routledge.
Pei, Minxin 1997. “Citizens v. Mandarins: Administrative Litigation in China,” China Quarterly 152: 832–862.
Pellet Lastra, A . 2001. Historía Política de la Corte (1930–1990). Buenos Aires: Ad-Hoc.
Pereira, Anthony 2005. Political (In)justice: Authoritarianism and the Rule of Law in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Peretti, Terri Jennings 1999. In Defense of a Political Court. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Perlmutter, Amos 1981. Modern Authoritarianism: A Comparative Institutional Analysis. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Pinkele, Carl F . 1992. “Plus ça change: The Interaction between the Legal System and Political Change in Francoist Spain,” International Political Science Review 13 (3, July): 285–300.
Pistor, Katarina 1996. “Supply and Demand for Contract Enforcement in Russia: Courts, Arbitration and Private Enforcement,” Review of Central and East European Law, 22: 1.
Popova, A.D. 2005. “Pravda i milost da tsarstvuiut v sudakh” (Iz istorii realizatsii sudebnoi reformy 1864 g.). Riazan: Idz. “Poverennyi.”
Posner, Eric A . 2000. “Agency Models in Law and Economics,” in Eric Posner (ed.) Chicago Lectures in Law and Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Potter, Pitman B . 2003. From Leninist Discipline to Socialist Legalism: Peng Zhen on Law and Political Authority in the PRC. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Pozo, Felipe 1983. “Momento Judicial: Presidente Habemus,” ANALISIS (May): 9–10.
Pravilova, Ekaterina 2000. Zakonnost i prava lichnosti: Administrativnaia iustitsiia v Rossii (vtoraia polovina XIX v—oktiabr 1917 g.). St Petersburg: Obrazovanie-Kultura.
Precht Pizarro, Jorge 1987. “Derecho Material de Control Judicial en la Jurisprudencia de la Corte Supreme de Chile: Derogación Tácita e Inaplicabilidad (1925–1987),” Revista de Derecho y Jurisprudencia 1: 87–107.
Ramseyer, J. Mark 1994. “The Puzzling (In)Dependence of Courts: A Comparative Approach,” Journal of Legal Studies 23: 721.
Ramseyer, J. Mark and Rasmusen, Erik B. 2003. Measuring Judicial Independence: The Political Economy of Judging in Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Raz, Joseph 1979. “The Rule of Law and its Virtue,” in The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rehnquist, William H . 1998. All the Laws but One: Civil Liberties in Wartime. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Rupublic of China, Constitution. 1946. Taipei: Government Printing Office.
Republic of Singapore, Parliament. Parliamentary Debates: Official Report (Singapore Government Printers) November 2, 1995: col 236
Republic of Singapore, Parliament. Parliamentary Debates: Official Report (Singapore Government Printers) January 14, 1998: column 93.
Rigby, Andrew . 2001. Justice and Reconciliation: After the Violence. Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers.
Robock, Stefan 1971. “Political Risk: Identification and Assessment,” Columbia Journal of World Business (July–Aug): 6–20.
Rodan, Garry 2005. “Singapore ‘Exceptionalism’? Authoritarian Rule and State Transformation” (Working Paper 131). Perth: Asia Research Centre, Murdoch University.
Rodan, Garry 2006. “Lion City Baits Mousy Opposition,” Far Eastern Economic Review, May, pp. 11–17.
Rona-Tas, Akos and Guseva, Alya , 2001. “The Privileges of Past Communist Party Membership in Russia and Endogenous Switching Regression.” Social Science Research. 30 (4): 641–52.
Root, Hilton L . 1985. “Challenging the Seigneurie: Community and Contention on the Eve of the French Revolution,” Journal of Modern History 57: 652–681.
Root, Hilton L . 1989. “Tying the King's Hand: Credible Commitments and Royal Fiscal Policy During the Old Regime,” Rationality and Society. 1: 240–258.
Root, Hilton L . 1994. The Fountain of Privilege: Political Foundations of Markets in Old Regime France and England. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Root, Hilton L . 1996. “Corruption in China: Has it Become Systemic?” Asian Survey 38: 741–757.
Root, Hilton L . 2006. Capital and Collusion: The Political Logic of Global Economic Development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rosberg, J. 1995. Roads to the Rule of Law: The Emergence of an Independent Judiciary in Contemporary Egypt. PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Rose-Ackerman, S. 1995. Controlling Environmental Policy: The Limits of Public Law in Germany and the United States. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Roshchin, A. 2006 March 31. “Narod vinovat!” Politkom.ru.
Ross, Michael L . 1999. “The Political Economy of the Resource Curse,” World Politics 51: 297–322.
Rossiter, C. L. 1948. Constitutional Dictatorship: Crisis Government in the Modern Democracies. London: Oxford University Press.
Rouleau, Eric 1999. “Iran: An Economy in Need of Reform,” Middle East Economic Survey XLII (5 July).
Rubin, Edward 2002. “Independence as a Governance Mechanism,” in Burbank and Friedman (eds.) Judicial Independence at a Crossroads. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Russian Axis 2003. “The Judicial System of the Russian Federation: A System-Crisis of Independence,” Report available at http://www.russianaxis.org/files/10/judicial.pdf
Russell, Peter . 2001. “Toward a General Theory of Judicial Independence,” in Peter Russell and David O'Brien , eds. Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from around the World. Charlottesville, Va., and London: University Press of Virginia, 2001. pp. 1–24.
Russell, Peter and O'Brien, David 2001. Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Assessments from Around the World. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.
Rustow, Dankwart . 1970. “Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model,” Comparative Politics 2: 337–363.
Safire, William 2001. “Kangaroo Courts Betray Our Values,” Times-Picayune, November 16, p. B-7.
Safire, William 2002. “Bloomberg News Humbled,” New York Times, August 29, p A-25.
Safire, William 1997. “The Misrule of Law,” New York Times, June 1, p. 17.
Sayed, Mar'ai 1980. Speech to the American Bar Association Convention, reprinted in International Law 14: 12–15 (1980).
SCC , 16 June 1984. al-Mahkama 3: 80.
Schattschneider, E.E. 1960. The Semi-Sovereign People. London: Wadsworth.
Scheuerman, William E. 2006. “Carl Schmitt and the Road to Abu Ghraib,” Constellations 13 (1): 108–124.
Schmitt, C. 1985 (c1923) La Dictadura, José Díaz García (trans.) Madrid: Alianza Editorial.
Schulz, William 2003. Tainted Legacy: 9/11 and the Ruin of Human Rights. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press/Nation Books.
Secor, Laura 2005. “Fugitives: Young Iranians Confront the Collapse of the Reform Movement,” The New Yorker, November 21.
Segal, Jeffrey and Spaeth, Harold . 1993. The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Seow, Francis 1994. To Catch a Tartar: A Dissident in Lee Kuan Yew's Prison. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Seow, Francis 1997a. The Media Enthralled: Singapore Revisited. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Seow, Francis 1997b. “The Politics of Judicial Institutions in Singapore.” Lecture delivered in Sydney, Australia. Available at http://www.gn.apc.org/sfd/
Seow, Francis 1998. “Newspapers: A Ban is Not a Ban Unless Restricted.” Paper presented at the conference, “The Limits of Control: Media and Technology in China, Hong Kong and Singapore,” at the Graduate School of Journalism, University of California, Berkeley, April 2–3.
Shambayati, Hootan 2004. “A Tale of Two Mayors: Courts and Politics in Turkey and Iran,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 36 (May): 253–275.
Shambayati, Hootan 2008. “The Guardian of the Regime: The Turkish Constitutional Court in Comparative Perspective,” in S. A. Arjomand (ed.) Constitutional Politics in the Middle East. Onati, Spain: International Institute for the Sociology of Law.
Shapiro, Martin 1964. Law and Politics on the Supreme Court. New York: Free Press.
Shapiro, Martin 1975. “Courts,” in Greenstein and Polsby (eds.), Handbook of Political Science: Macropolitical Theory: Volume 5, Governmental Institutions and Processes. Reading: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Shapiro, Martin 1980. “Appeal,” Law and Society Review 14: 641–642.
Shapiro, Martin 1981. Courts: A Comparative and Political Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shapiro, Martin 1988. Who Guards the Guardians? Judicial Control of Administration. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Shapiro, Martin 1989. “Political Jurisprudence, Public Law, and Post-Consequentialist Ethics: Comment on Professors Barber and Smith,” Studies in American Political Development 3: 88.
Shapiro, Martin 1992. “The Giving Reasons Requirement,” University of Chicago Legal Forum 179–220.
Shapiro, Martin , and Stone Sweet , Alec. 2002. On Law, Politics and Judicialization, New York: Oxford University Press.
Sharlet, Robert 1978. The New Soviet Constitution of 1977. Analysis and Text. Brunswick, NJ: King's Court Communications.
Sharlet, Robert 2003. “Constitutional Law and Politics in Russia: Surviving the First Decade,” Demokratizatsiya 11: 122–128.
Shi, Tianjian 2001. “Cultural Values and Political Trust – A Comparison of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan,” Comparative Politics 33 (4): 401sq.
Shirk, S. 1993. The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Shklar, Judith 1986. Legalism: Law, Morals, and Political Trials. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Shklar, Judith 1987. “Political Theory and the Rule of Law,” in Hutchinson and Monahan (eds.), The Rule of Law: Ideal or Ideology. Toronto: Carswell.
Sieder, Rachel , Schjolden, Line , and Angell, Alan 2005. The Judicialization of Politics in Latin America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Silva Cimma, Enrique . 1977. El Tribunal Constitucional de Chile (1971–1973). Caracas: Editorial Jurídica Venezolana.
Silverstein, Gordon 2003. “Globalization and the Rule of Law: A Machine That Runs of Itself?” International Journal of Constitutional Law 1: 405–426.
Sim, Susan 1995. “Shooting Star of S'pore a Legend in His Lifetime,” Straits Times, December 13.
Skidmore, Thomas 1988. The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964–1985. New York: Oxford University Press.
Smithey, Shannon Ishiyama and Ishiyama, John 2000. “Judicious Choices: Designing Courts in Post Communist Polities,” Communist and Post Communist Studies 33: 163–182.
Smithey, Shannon Ishiyama and Ishiyama, John 2002. “Judicial Activism in Post-Communist Politics,” Law & Society Review 36: 719–742.
Snow, P. G. 1975. “Judges and Generals: The Role of the Argentine Supreme Court during Periods of Military Government,” in Leibholz (ed.), Jahrbuch des Öffentlichen Rechts der Gegenwart. Tübingen: J.C.B Mohr. 24: 609–617.
So, Ying Lun , and Walker, Anthony 2006. Explaining Guanxi: The Chinese Business Network. New York: Routledge.
Solomon, Peter H . 1990. “The U.S.S.R. Supreme Court: History, Role, and Future Prospects,” American Journal of Comparative Law 38: 127–142.
Solomon, Peter H . 1996. Soviet Criminal Justice under Stalin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Solomon, Peter H . 1997. “Courts and Their Reform in Russian History,” in Peter H. Solomon, Jr. , (ed.) Reforming Justice in Russia, 1864–1996. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 3–20.
Solomon, Peter H . 2002. “Putin's Judicial Reform: Making Judges Accountable as well as Independent,” East European Constitutional Review, 11: 101–107.
Solomon, Peter H . 2004. “Judicial Power in Russia: Through the Prism of Administrative Justice,” Law & Society Review 38: 549–582.
Solomon, Peter H . 2005. “Threats of Judicial Counterreform in Putin's Russia,” Demokratizatsiia 13: 325–346.
Solomon, Peter H . 2006. “Informal Practices in Russian Justice: Probing the Limits of Post-Soviet Reform,” in Ferdinand Feldbrugge (ed.) Russia, Europe and the Rule of Law. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.
Solomon, Peter H., Jr. , and Foglesong, Todd N . 2000. Courts and Transition in Russia: The Challenge of Judicial Reform. Boulder: Westview.
Soto Kloss, Eduardo 1986. “Una Revolución Silenciosa,” Revista de Derecho y Jurisprudencia 83 (1): 157–162.
Sova 2006. “Obzor reshenii Evropeiskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka po rossiiskim zhalobam (Mart 2006).” Available at http://osada-sova-center.ru
Squella, Agustín , ed. 1994. Evolución de la Cultura Jurídica Chilena. Santiago: Corporación de Promoción Universitaria.
Stansfield Business International v. Minister for Manpower 3 Singapore Law Report 742 (High Court, 1999).
Starilov, Iuryi N . 2001. Administrativnaia iustitsiia: teoriia, istoriia, perspektivy. Moscow: Norma.
Starovoitov, Aleksei 2005. “Razvitie sistemy administrativnoi iustitsii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii,” Sravnitelnoe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie 2: 26–30.
Stepan, Alfred . 1971. The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sterkin, F. 2006. “Deklaratsiia sudei,” Strana.ru, Februrary 21.
Stölleis, Michael 1998. The Law under the Swastika: Studies on Legal History in Nazi Germany. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Stone Sweet, Alec 1992. The Birth of Judicial Politics in France. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stone Sweet, Alec 2000. Governing with Judges: Constitutional Politics in Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.
Strayer, J.R. 1970. On the Medieval Origins of the Modern State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Suh, Sangwon and Santha Oorjitham , 1997. “No Holds Barred: After a Hard Fought Win at the Polls, Goh Plans for the Next Century,” AsiaWeek, January 17.
Sullivan, Michael B . 1976. Egypt: Business Gateway to the Middle East? Geneva: Business International S.A.
Sutiazhnik 2005. Otchet o vlianii sudebnoi praktiki OO “Sutiazhnik” na rossiiskoe zakonodatelstva i pravoprimenitelnuiu praktiku. Ekaterinburg: “Sutiazhnik”.
Tan, Hsueh Yun . 1997. “S'pore Gets High Marks for Being Well-Governed,” Straits Times (Singapore). June 9, p. 25.
Tan, Ooi Boon . 1998. “Top Marks for Justice System,” Straits Times (Singapore), September 14. p. 24.
Tang, Wenfang , and Holzner, Burkart 2006. Social Change in Contemporary China: C.K. Yang and the Concept of Institutional Diffusion. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Tang, Wenfang , and Parish, William L . 2000. Chinese Urban Life under Reform: The Changing Social Contract, Cambridge Modern China Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tate, C. Neal and Haynie, Stacia L. 1995. “Courts and Crisis Regimes: A Theory Sketch with Asian Case Studies,” Political Research Quarterly 46 (June): 311–338.
Tate, C. Neal and Haynie, Stacia L. 1993. “Authoritarianism and the Function of Courts: A Time Series Analysis of the Philippine Supreme Court, 1961–1987,” Law and Society Review 27(4): 51–82.
Tate, C. Neal . 1995. “Why the Expansion of Judicial Power?” in C. Neal Tate and Torbjorn Vallinder (eds.) The Global Expansion of Judicial Power. New York: New York University Press.
Tate, C. Neal and Vallinder, Torbjorn (eds.) 1995. The Global Expansion Of Judicial Power. New York: New York University Press.
Tavolari, Raúl 1995. Habeas Corpus: Recurso de Amparo. Santiago: Editorial Jurídica.
Taylor Jr., Stuart 2004. “Lawless in the Dungeon.” Legal Times, January 12, p. 46.
Thelen Kathleen and Steinmo, Sven . 1992. Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Thio, Li-ann 2002a. “Lex Rex or Rex Lex? Competing Conceptions of the Rule of Law in Singapore,” UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal 20: 1–76.
Thio, Li-ann 2002b. “The Right to Political Participation in Singapore: Tailor-making a Westminster-Modeled Constitution to Fit the Imperatives of ‘Asian’ Democracy,” Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law 6: 181.
Thio, Li-ann 2004. “Rule of Law within a Non-Liberal ‘Communitarian” Democracy: The Singapore Experience, in Randall Peerenboom (ed.) Asian Discourses of Rule of Law: Theories and Implementation of Rule of Law in Twelve Asian Countries, France and the U.S. London: Routledge.
Thompson, E.P. 1975. Whigs and Hunters: The Origins of the Black Act. New York: Pantheon Books.
Toharia, Jose 1975. “Judicial Independence in an Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Contemporary Spain,” Law and Society Review, 9: 475–496.
Trochev, Alexei 2002. “Implementing Russian Constitutional Court Decisions,” East European Constitutional Review 11: 95–103.
Trochev, Alexei 2005a. “The Zigzags of Judicial Power: The Constitutional Court in Russian Politics, 1990–2003.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto.
Trochev, Alexei 2005b. “Judicial Selection in Russia: Toward Accountability and Centralization,” in Kate Malleson and Peter H. Russell (eds.) Appointing Judges in an Age of Judicial Power. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Truitt, Frederick 1974. Expropriation of Private Foreign Investment. Bloomington: Graduate School of Business, Indiana University.
Tsui, K. and Wang, Y. 2004. “Between Separate Stoves and a Single Menu: Fiscal Decentralization in China,” China Quarterly 177: 71–90.
Tushnet, Mark 1999. Taking the Constitution away from the Courts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ulbig, S. G. 2002. “Policies, Procedures, and People: Sources of Support for Government?” Social Science Quarterly 83 (3): 789–809.
‘Ubayd . 1991. Istiqlal al-Qada’, pp. 290–305.
Unger, Roberto 1986. The Critical Legal Studies Movement. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 2004. World Fact Book. Available at https://www.cia.gov/cia/
U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China . 2002. Taming the Dragon: Can Legal Reform Foster Respect for Human Rights in China? [Hearing before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 107th Congress, 2nd session, April 11, 2002. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
US Department of Commerce . 1981. “Investing in Egypt.” Overseas Business Reports, OBR 81-08.
Uslaner, Eric 2002. The Moral Foundations of Trust. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Valenzuela, Arturo 1995. “The Military in Power: The Consolidation of One-Man Rule,” in Paul Drake and Ivan Jaksic (eds.), The Struggle for Democracy in Chile (revised ed.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Van Agtmael, Antoine 1976. “How Business Has Dealt with Political Risk,” Financial Executive (January): 26–30.
Velasco, Eugenio 1986. Expulsión. Santiago: Copygraph.
Verdugo, Patricia 1990. Tiempos de Días Claros: Los Desaparecidos. Santiago: Ediciones ChileAmérica.
Verkhovnyi sud 2003. “O primenenii sudami obshchei iurisdiktsii obshcheprizvannykh printsipov i norm mezhunarodnogo prava i mezhdynarodnykh dogovorov RF” (October 10, 2003), BVS, 2003, No. 12, p. 3, available at http://www.supcourt.ru/vscourt_detale.php?id=1961 (last visited March 4, 2006).
Volkov, Vadim . 2002. Violent Entrepreneurs: The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Volpi, Frederic . 2004. “Pseudo-Democracy in the Muslim World.” Third World Quarterly 25(6): 1061–78.
Wagner, William 1976. “Tsarist Legal Policies at the End of the Nineteenth Century: A Study in Inconsistencies,” Slavonic and East European Review, 54: 371–394.
Wagner, William 1994. Marriage, Property and Law in Late Imperial Russia. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Walder, Andrew G . 1995. “Career Mobility and the Communist Political Order,” American Sociological Review 60 (3): 309–328.
Walder, Andrew G ., and Treiman, D . J. 2000. “Politics and Life Chances in a State Socialist Regime: Dual Career Paths into the Urban Chinese Elite, 1949 to 1996,” American Sociological Review 65 (3): 191–209.
Wallace, Charles P . 1995. “Singapore's Grip,” Columbia Journalism Review, November/December.
Wang, H. 2006. “Interview with Hongying Wang,” Foreign Exchange with Fareed Zakaria. Show 229 Transcript edn.
Wang, Xixin 1998. “Administrative Procedure Reforms in China's Rule of Law Context,” Columbia Journal of Asian Law 12: 251–277.
Waterbury, John. 1993. Exposed to Innumerable Delusions: Public Enterprise and State Power in Egypt, India, Mexico, and Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weber, Max 1946. “Bureaucracy,” in H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (eds.) From Max Weber. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 196–244.
Weber, Max 1978. Economy and Society. Translated by Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wedgwood, Ruth . 2002. “Al Qaeda, Terrorism and Military Commissions.” American Journal of International Law 96: 328–37.
Weingast, Barry R . 1995. “The Economic Role of Political Institutions: Market-Preserving Federalism and Economic Development,” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 11 (Spring): 1–31.
Weldon, Jeffrey 1997. “The Political Sources of Presidentialism in Mexico,” in Scott Mainwairing and Matthew Shugart (eds.) Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Whiting, Susan 2004. “The Cadre Evaluation System at the Grass Roots: The Paradox of Party Rule,” in Barry Naughton and Dali Yang (eds.) Holding China Together: Diversity and National Integration in the Post-Deng Era. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Whiting, Susan 2006. “Growth, Governance and Institutions: The Internal Institutions of the Party-State in China.” Paper produced for the World Bank Research Project on the Rise of China and India, available at www.ssrn.com
Widner, Jennifer 2001. Building the Rule of Law: Francis Nyalali and the Road to Judicial Independence in Africa. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Wilson, Andrew 2005. Virtual Politics: Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Wintrobe, Ronald 1998. The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wong, Y. H. and Leung, Thomas K. 2001. Guanxi: Relationship Marketing in a Chinese Context. New York: International Business Press.
Wood, Elisabeth Jean 2000. Forging Democracy from Below. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
World Bank. 2006. Interactive Data Set. Available at http://worldbank.org/data-query
World Economic Forum , 1997. Annual Report. New York: World Economic Forum.
Worthington, Ross 2001. “Between Hermes and Themis: An Empirical Study of the Contemporary Judiciary in Singapore,” Journal of Law & Society 28: 4, 490–519.
Wortman, Richard 1976. The Development of a Russian Legal Consciousness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wortman, Richard 2005. “Russian Monarchy and the Rule of Law: New Considerations of the Court Reform of 1864,” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 6: 145–170.
Xu, Xiaoqun 1997. “The Fate of Judicial Independence in Republican China, 1912–37,” China Quarterly 149 (March): 1–28.
Yang, Mayfair Mei-hui 1994. Gifts, Favors, and Banquets: The Art of Social Relationships in China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Zakaria, Fareed 1994. “A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew,” Foreign Affairs, March/April.
Zaki, Moheb 1999. Egyptian Business Elites: Their Visions and Investment Behavior. Cairo: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
Zaller, John 1991. “Information, Values, and Opinion,” American Political Science Review 85 (4): 1215–1237.
Zhao, Yi 2003. The Expansion of Judicial Power in China, Political Science. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Zhong, Yang . 2003. Local Government and Politics in China: Challenges from Below. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Zink, Dolph Warren 1973. The Political Risks for Multinational Enterprise in Developing Countries. New York: Praeger.