4 - El Palto Phase (13800–9800 BP)  pp. 77-94

El Palto Phase (13800–9800 BP)

By Greg Maggard and Tom D. Dillehay

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



The archaeological record of the late Pleistocene period of the New World, between 14,000 and 11,000 years ago, represents the continued spread of human groups into many previously unoccupied or unavailable areas of the North and South American continents (Bryan 1991; Dillehay 1999, 2000a,b; Lavallée 2000; Meltzer 2009; Rothhammer and Dillehay 2009). As this colonization of new environmental zones occurred there was a concurrent rise in the diversity of mobility, subsistence, and technological strategies pursued by early populations (Borrero 1996; Kaulicke and Dillehay 1999a,b; Maggard 2010; Politis 1991). Nowhere is this pattern more evident than in western South America where several coterminous or overlapping complexes, including the Fishtail, Paiján, and several other bifacial and unifacial complexes, have been documented. As for Peru and the study area, it was probably first populated by way of a coastal route along the Pacific shoreline or from the crest of the nearby Andean highlands sometime before 13000 bp.

An abundance of new literature exists on the first peopling of the Americas, which will not be reviewed here. However, for the purpose of situating our database within this broader literature, we make a few brief introductory comments. We recognize that the distinct adaptive modes associated with Fishtail, Paiján, and other lithic industries may be related to different strategies of colonization. For instance, Beaton (1991) and others have posited a model of colonization strategies that emphasizes two distinct forms of social organization (cf. Dillehay 1997b; Dixon 1999; Maggard 2010).

4

Reference Type: reference-list

Abbott, M.B. , and A.P. Wolfe 2003 Intensive Pre-Incan Metallurgy Recorded by Lake Sediments from the Bolivian Andes. Science 301:1893–1894.
Acosta Solís, M. 1968 Divisiones fitogeográficas y formaciones geobotánicas del Ecuador. Publicaciones Científicas de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Quito.
Acosta Solís, M. 1970 Geografía y ecología de las tierras áridas del Ecuador. Instituto Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito.
Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation 1989 Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Aldenderfer, M.S. 1988 Middle Archaic Period Domestic Architecture from Southern Perú. Science 241:1828–1830.
Aldenderfer, M.S. 1991 Continuity and Change in Ceremonial Structures at Late Preceramic Asana, Southern Perú. Latin American Antiquity 2:227–258.
Aldenderfer, M.S. 1998 Montane Foragers: Asana and the South-Central Andean Archaic. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, IA.
Aldenderfer, M.S. 2004 Preludes to Power in the Highland Late Preceramic Period. In Foundations of Power in the Prehispanic Andes, edited by K. Vaughn , D. Ogburn , and C. Conlee , pp. 13–35. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, No 14.
Aldenderfer, M.S. 2006 Costly Signaling, the Sexual Division of Labor, and Plant and Animal Domestication in the Andean Highlands. In Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture, edited by D. Kennett and B. Winterhalder , pp. 167–196. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Alva Alva, W. 1988 Investigaciónes en el Complejo Formativo con Arquitectura Monumental de Purulén, Costa Norte del Perú. Beitrage zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Archaologie 8:283–300, Mainz.
Anderson, R.F. , S. Ali , L.I. Bradmiller , S.H.H. Nielsen , M.O. Fleisher , B.E. Anderson , and L.H. Burckle 2009 Wind-Driven Upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the Deglacial Rise in Atmospheric CO2. Science 323:1443–1448.
Andrefsky, W.A. 1994a Raw Material Availability and the Organization of Technology. American Antiquity 59:21–34.
Andrefsky, W.A. 1994b The Geological Occurrence of Lithic Material and Stone Tool Production Strategies. Geoarchaeology 9:345–362.
Andrefsky, W.A. 1998 Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Andres, T.C. , R. Ugás , and F. Bustamente 2006 Loche, a Unique Pre-Columbian Squash Locally Grown in North Coastal Perú. In Proceedings of the Cucurbitaceae 2006, edited by G.J. Holmes , pp. 333–340. Universal Press, Raleigh, NC.
Andres, T.C. , R. Ugás , and F. Bustamente 1990 Identificación de Recursos Maritímos. Manuscript in possession of the authors.
Antuñez de Mayolo, S. 1981 La Nutrición en el Antiguo Perú. Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, Lima.
Arnold, J.E. 1996a Understanding the Evolution of Intermediate Societies. In Emergent Complexity, edited by J.E. Arnold , pp. 1–12. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor.
Arnold, J.E. 1996b The Archaeology of Complex Hunter-Gatherers. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 3:77–126.
Baker, P.T. , and R.B. Mazess 1963 Calcium: Unusual Sources in the Highland Peruvian Diet. Science 142:1466–1467.
Baleé, W. 1994 Footprints of the Forest: Ka' apor Ethnobotany: The Historical Ecology of Plant Utilization by an Amazonian people. Columbia University Press, New York.
Balter, M. 2007 Seeking Agriculture's Ancient Roots. Science 316: 1830–1835.
Balter, M. 2010 The Tangled Roots of Agriculture. Science 327: 404–406.
Bamforth, D.B. 1986 Technological Efficiency and Tool Curation. American Antiquity 51:38–50.
Bamforth, D.B. 1991 Technological Organization and Hunter-Gatherer Land Use: A California Example. American Antiquity 56: 216–234.
Banning, E.B. , and M. Chazan 2006 Domesticating Space. Construction, Community, and Cosmology in the Late Prehistoric Near East. Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 12. Ex oriente. Berlin.
Barham, L. , and P. Mitchell 2008 The First Africans: African Archaeology from the Earliest Toolmakers to Most Recent Foragers. Cambridge University Press, London.
Barker, G. 2006 The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why Did Foragers Become Farmers? Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Barton, C. , J. Bernabeu , J. Aura , O. Garcia , S. Schmich , and L. Molina 2004 Long-term Socioecology and Contingent Landscapes. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 11:253–295.
Bar-Yosef, O. , and R.H. Meadow 1995 The Origins of Agriculture in the Near East. In Last Hunters-First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, edited by T.D. Price and A.B. Gebauer , pp. 39–94. School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series, Santa Fe.
Beaton, J.M. 1991 Colonizing Continents: Some Problems from Australia and the Americas. In The First Americans: Search and Research, edited by T.D. Dillehay and D.J. Meltzer , pp. 209–230. CRC Press, Baton Rouge, LA.
Becerra, R. 1999 Circulación y transformación de matérias primas: El caso del Paijánese en el valle de Chicama (10.000–7000 A.P.). In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición del los orígenes. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No 3, pp. 19–39. Departamento de Humanidades, Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Becerra, R.M. , and R. Esquerre 1992 Primeros hallazgos del Paijánense en la margen izquierda del Valle de Moche. Revista del Museo de Arqueología 3:18–30. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo, Perú.
Becerra, R. , and C. Gálvez 1996 Matérias Primas y Ocupación Paijánense en el Valle de Chicama, Perú. Revista del Museo de Arqueología, Antropología y Historia, 6, pp. 7–30. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Trujillo.
Behling, H. , H. Hooghiemstra , and A.J. Negret . 1998 Holocene History of the Chocó Rain Forest from Laguna Piusbi, Southern Pacific Lowlands of Colombia. Quaternary Research 50:300–308.
Bell, R.E. 2000 Archaeological Investigation at the Site of El Inga, Ecuador. R.E. Bell Monographs in Anthropology no. 1, Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
Bell, R.E. 1960 Evidence of a Fluted Point Tradition in Ecuador. American Antiquity 26:102–106.
Bellwood, P. 2004 First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell, Malden, MA.
Bender, B. 1978 Gatherer-Hunter to Farmer. A Social Perspective, World Archaeology 10:204–222
Bender, B. 1981 Gatherer-Hunter Intensification. In Economic Archaeology: Towards an Integration of Ecological and Social Approaches (BAR International Series 96), edited by A. Sheridan and G.N. Bailey , pp. 149–157. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Benfer, R.A. 1984 The Challenges and Rewards of Sedentism: The Preceramic Village of Paloma, Perú. In Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture, edited by M. Cohen and G. Armelagos , pp. 76–96. Seminar Press, New York.
Benfer, R.A. 1986 Holocene Coastal Adaptations: Changing Demography and Health at the Fog Oasis of Paloma, Perú, 5000–7000 B.P. In Andean Archaeology, Papers in Memory of Clifford Evans, edited by R. Matos-M ., S.A. Turpin , and H.H. Eiling , Jr., pp. 45–65. Monograph 27, Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.
Benfer, R.A. 1990 The Preceramic Period Site of Paloma, Perú: Bioindicators of Improving Adaptation to Sedentism. Latin American Antiquity 1:284–318.
Benfer, R.A. 1999 Proyecto de Excavaciones en Paloma, Valle de Chilca, Perú. In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición de los origenes, edited by P. Kaulicke , pp. 213–237. Boletín de Arqueología No. 3, Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Berrío, J.C. , H. Behling , and H. Hooghiemstra 2000 Tropical Rain-forest History from the Colombian Pacific Area: A 4200-year Pollen Record from Laguna Jotaordó. The Holocene 10:749–756.
Bettinger, R. , P. Richerson , and R. Boyd 2009 Constraints on the Development of Agriculture. Current Anthropology 50:627–631.
Billman, B. , P.M. Lambert , and L.L. Banks 2000 Cannibalism, Warfare, and Drought in the Mesa Verde Region during the Twelfth Century, A.D. American Antiquity 65:145–178.
Binford, L.R. 1968 Post-Pleistocene Adaptations. In New Perspectives in Archaeology, edited by S.R. Binford and L.R. Binford , pp. 313–341. Aldine, Chicago.
Binford, L.R. 1977 Forty-seven Trips: A Case Study in the Character of Archaeological Formation Processes. In Stone Tools as Cultural Markers: Change, Evolution and Complexity, edited by R.V.S. Wright , pp. 24–36. Humanities Press, Canberra.
Binford, L.R. 1978 Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology. Academic Press, New York.
Binford, L.R. 1979 Organizational and Formation Processes: Looking at Curated Technologies. Journal of Anthropological Research 35:255–273.
Binford, L.R. 1980 Willow Smoke and Dog's Tails: Hunter–Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation. American Antiquity 45:4–20.
Binford, L.R. 1983 In Pursuit of the Past: Decoding the Archaeological Record. Thames and Hudson, London.
Binford, L.R. 1990 Mobility, Housing, and Environment: A Comparative Study. Journal of Anthropological Research 46:119–152
Binford, L.R. 2001 Constructing Frames of Reference: An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter-Gatherer and Environmental Data Sets. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Bird, D.W. , and J.F. O'Connell 2006 Behavioral Ecology and Archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Research 14:143–188.
Bird, J.B. 1943 Excavations in Northern Chile. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 38(4):178–318.
Bird, J.B. 1946 Cultural Sequence of the North Chilean Coast. In Handbook of South American Indians: The Andean Civilizations, edited by J.H. Steward , pp. 587–594. Smithsonian Institution Press, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 143(2), Washington, DC.
Bird, J.B. 1948 Preceramic Cultures in Chicama and Viru. In A Reappraisal of Peruvian Archaeology, edited by W. C. Bennett , pp. 21–29. Memoir of the Society for American Archaeology 4, American Antiquity supplement 13, Menasha.
Bird, J.B. 1969 Comparison of South Chilean and Ecuadorian “Fish-tail” Projectile Points. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 40:52–71.
Bogucki, P. 1999 The Origins of Human Society. Blackwell, Oxford.
Bogucki, P. 2009 Prehistoric Transitions to Agriculture: New Overviews. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19:111–116
Bois, J.F. , T. Winkel , J.P. Lhomme , J.P. Raffaillac , and A. Rocheteau 2006 Response of Some Andean Cultivars of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wlld.) to Temperature: Effects on Germination, Phenology, Growth and Freezing. European Journal of Agronomy 25:299–308.
Bonavia, D. 1982a El Complejo Chivateros: Una Approximación Tecnológica. Revista del Museo Nacional 46:19–37.
Bonavia, D. 1982b Los Gavilanes: Mar, Desierto y Oasis en la Historia del Hombre. Corporación Financiera de Desarollo S.A. y El Instituto Arqueológica Aleman, Lima.
Bonavia, D. 1991 Perú: Hombre e Historia. De Los Orígenes al Siglo XV. Edubanco, Lima.
Bonavia, D. 1993 La domesticación de las plantas y los origenes de la agricultura en los Andes centrales. Revista Historica 38:77–107.
Bonavia, D. 1996 De la caza-recolección a la agricultura: Una perspective loca. Boletín del Instituto Frances de Estudios Andinos 25:169–186.
Bonzani, R. , A. Morgan , and T. Franco 2004 Archeological Plant Remains from Sites in the Jequetepeque Valley, Perú. Manuscript on file at the University of Kentucky, Lexington.
Borrero, L. 1996 The Pleistocene-Holocene Transition in Southern South America. In Humans at the End of the Ice Age: The Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition, edited by L. Straus , B. Eriksen , J. Erlandson , and D. Yesner , pp. 339–354. Plenum Press, New York.
Boutton, T.W. 1996 Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Soil Organic Matter and Their Use as Indicators of Vegetation and Climate Change. In Mass Spectrometry of Soils, edited by T.W. Boutton and S.I. Yamasaki , pp. 47–82. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Boven, K.L. , and D.K. Rea 1998 Partitioning of Eolian and Hemipelagic Sediment in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Core TR163–31B and the Late Quaternary Paleoclimate of the Northern Andes. Journal of Sedimentary Research 68:850–855.
Bradbury, J.P. , B. Leyden , M. Salgado-Labouriau , W.M. Lewis, Jr ., C. Schubert , M.W. Binford , D.G. Frey , D.R. Whitehead , and F.H. Weibezahn 1981 Late Quaternary Environmental History of Lake Valencia, Venezuela. Science 214:1299–1305.
Bradley, R. 2000 An Archaeology of Natural Places. Routledge, London.
Briceño, J. 1995 El Recurso Agua y El Establecimiento de los Cazadores-Recoletores in el Valle de Chicama. In Revista del Museo de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia 5, pp. 143–161. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú.
Briceño, J. 1997 La Tradición de Puntas de Proyectil “Cola de Pescado” en Quebrada Santa Maria, y el Problema del Poblamiento Temprano en los Andes Centrales. SIAN, Trujillo. 4:2–6.
Briceño, J. 1999 Quebrada Santa Maria: Las Puntas en Cola de Pescado y la Antigüedad del Hombre en Sudamerica. In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición del los orígenes. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No. 3, pp. 19–39. Departamento de Humanidades, Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Briceño, J. 2004 Los Primeros Habitantes en los Andes Centrales y la Tradición de Puntas de Proyectil “Cola de Pescado” de la Quebrada de Santa María. In Desarrollo Arqueológico Costa Norte del Perú, edited by L. Valle Alvarez , pp. 29–44. SIAN, Trujillo.
Bronson, B. 1977 The Earliest Farming: Demography as Cause and Consequence. In Origins of Agriculture, edited by C.A. Reed , pp. 23–48. Mouton, The Hague.
Browman, D. 1974 Pastoral Nomadism in the Andes. Current Anthropology 15:188–196
Browman, D. 1981 New Light on Andean Tiawanaku. American Scientist 69:408–419.
Browman, D. , G. Fritz , and P.J. Watson 2009 Origins of Food-producing Economies in the Americas (with G.J. Fritz and P.J. Watson). In The Human Past, 2nd edition, edited by C. Scarre , pp. 306–349. Thames and Hudson, London.
Brown, M. 1985 Tsewa's Gift: Magic and Meaning in an Amazonian Society. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Bruno, M.C. 2006 A Morphological Approach to Documenting the Domestication of Chenopodium in the Andes. In Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder , D.G. Bradley , E. Emshwiller , and B.D. Smith , pp. 32–45. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Bryan, A.L. 1991 The Fluted-Point Tradition in the Americas: One of Several Adaptations to Late Pleistocene American Environments. In Clovis Origins and Adaptations, edited by R. Bonnichsen and K.L. Turnmire , pp.15–34. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
Burger, R.L. 1992 Chavín and the Origins of Andean Civilization. Thames and Hudson, New York.
Bush, L.L. 2004 Boundary Conditions: Macrobotanical Remains and the Oliver Phase of Central Indiana, A.D. 1200–1450. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Bush, M.B. , J.A. Hanselman , and H. Hooghiemstra 2007 Andean Montane Forests and Climate Change. In Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change, edited by M.B. Bush and J.R. Flenley . Springer, Berlin.
Bush, M.B. , B.C.S. Hansen , D.T. Rodbell , G.O. Seltzer , K.R. Young , B. Léon , M.B. Abbott , M.R. Silman , and W.D. Gosling 2005 A 17, 000-Year History of Andean Climate and Vegetation Change from Laguna de Chochos, Perú. Journal of Quaternary Science 20:703–714.
Cadle, J.E. 1989 A New Species of Coniophanes (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Northwestern Perú. Herpetologica 45:411–424.
Cadle, J.E. 1991 Systematics of Lizards of the Genus Stenocercus (Iguania: Tropiduridae) from Northern Perú: New Species and Comments on Relationships and Distribution Patterns. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 143:1–96.
Campbell, K.E. 1979 The Non-Passerine Pleistocene Avifauna at the Talara Tar Seeps, Northwestern Perú. Life Sciences Contribution No. 18, Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto.
Cane, M.A. 2005 The Evolution of El Niño, Past and Future. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 230:227–240.
Canuto, M. , and J. Yaeger 2000 The Archaeology of Communities: A New World Perspective. Routledge, London.
Cárdenas, C. , J. Torres , and J. Rodas 2001 Productividad primaria neta durante El Niño 1997–98 en los bisques secos de Piura, Perú. In El Niño en América Latina: Impactos biológicos y socials, edited by J. Tarazona , W. Arntz , and E. Castillo de Maruenda , pp. 199–211. Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Lima.
Carpenter, J. 1985 Report on the Tropical Vegetation and Insects in the Middle and Upper Zaña Valley. Manuscript in possession of the authors.
Casimir, M. , and A. Rao (editors) 1992 Mobility and Territoriality: Social and Spatial Boundaries among Foragers, Fishers, Pastoralists and Peripatetics. Berg, New York.
del Castillo, C. , T. Winkel , G. Mahy , and J. Bizoux 2007 Genetic Structure of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from the Bolivian Altiplano as Revealed by RAPD Markers. Genetic Resource Crop Evolution 54: 897–905.
Centeno, S.A. , and D. Schorsch 2000 The Characterisation of Gold Layers on Copper Artifacts from the Piura Valley (Perú) in the Early Intermediate Period. In Gilded Metals: History, Technology and Conservation, edited by T. Drayman-Weisser , pp. 223–240. Archetype Publications, London.
Chacón, M.I. , B. Pickersgill , and D.G. Debouck 2005 Domestication Patterns in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and the Origin of the Mesoamerican and Andean Races. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 110:432–444.
Chagnon, N.A. 1968 Yanomamö. The Fierce People. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
Chagnon, N.A. 1992 Yanomamö . The Last Days of Eden. Harcourt Brace, San Diego.
Chapman, R.W. 2003 Archaeologies of Complexity. Routledge, London.
Chauchat, C. 1982 Le Paijanien du Désert de Cupisnique: Recherces sur l'occupation préhistorique de la côte nord du Pérou au début de l'Holocene. Thèse de Doctorat D'État ès Sciences, Université de Bordeaux.
Chauchat, C. 1988 Early Hunter-Gatherers on the Peruvian Coast. In Peruvian Prehistory, edited by R.W. Keatinge , pp. 41–65. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Chauchat, C. , C.G.J. Briceño , and S. Uceda 1998 Sitios Arqueológicos de la Zona de Cupisnique y Margen Derecha del Valle de Chicama. Patrimonio Arqueológico Zona Norte 4, Instituto Nacional de Cultura la Libertad, Trujillo.
Chauchat, C. , J. Pelegrin , C. Gálvez Mora , R. Becerra Urteaga , R. Esquerre Alva , and J. Tixier 2004 Projectile Point Technology and Economy: A Case Study from Paiján, North Coastal Perú. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Chauchat, C. , E. Wing , J. Lacombe , P. Demars , S. Uceda , and C. Deza 2006 Prehistoria de la Costa Norte del Perú. Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, Patronato Hauacas del Valle de Moche, Trujillo.
Chauchat, C. , and J. Zevallos Quiñones 1979 Una Punta en Cola de Pescado Procedente de la Costa Norte del Perú. Ñawpa Pacha 17:143–146.
Cheng, H. , R.L. Edwards , W.S. Broecker , G.H. Denton , X. Kong , Y. Wang , R. Zhang , and X. Wang 2009 Ice Age Terminations. Science 326:248–252.
Childe, V.G. 1952 New Light on the Most Ancient Near East. Praeger, New York.
Church, T. 1994 Lithic Resource Studies: A Sourcebook for Archaeologists. Department of Anthropology, University of Tulsa. Submitted to Special Publication No. 3.
Churcher, C.S. 1959 Fossil Canis from the Tar Pits of La Brea, Perú. Science 130:564–565.
Clapperton, C.M. , M. Hall , P. Mothes , M.J. Hole , J.W. Still , K.F. Helmens , P. Huhry , and A.M.D. Gemmell 1997 A Younger Dryas Icecap in the Equatorial Andes. QuaternaryResearch 47:13–28.
Cohen, M. 1978 Population Pressure and the Origins of Agriculture: An Archaeological Example from the Coast of Perú. In Origins of Agriculture, edited by C.A. Reed , pp. 135–178. Mouton, The Hague.
Colinvaux, P.A. , M.B. Bush , M. Steinitz-Kannan , and M.C. Miller 1997 Glacial and Postglacial Pollen Records from the Ecuadorian Andes and Amazon. Quaternary Research 48:69–78.
Colinvaux, P.A. , P.E. De Oliveira , and M.B. Bush 2000 Amazonian and Neotropical Plant Communities on Glacial Time-scales: The Failure of the Aaridity and Refuge Hypotheses. Quaternary Science Reviews 19:141–169.
Collins, M.B. 1975 Lithic Technology as a Means of Processual Inference. In Lithic Technology: Making and Using Stone Tools, edited by E. Swanson , pp. 15–34. Mouton, The Hague.
Cooke, R.G. 1998 Human settlement of Central America and Northern South America, 14,000–8,000 BP. Quaternary International 49/50:177–190.
Cooke, R. , and A.J. Ranere 1992 Prehistoric Human Adaptations to the Seasonally Dry Forests of Panama. World Archaeology 24:114–133.
Coronato, A. , M. Salemme , and J. Rabassa 1999 Palaeoenvironmental Conditions during the Early Peopling of Southernmost South America (Late Glacial-Early Holocene, 14–8 ka B.P.). Quaternary International 53/54:77–92.
Correal, G. 1989 Aguazuque: Evidencias de Cazadores-Recolectores y Plantadores en el Altiplanicie de la Cordillera Oriental. Fundación de Investigaciones Arqueológicas Nacionales, Banco de la República, Bogotá.
Coursey, D.G. 1976 The Origins and Domestication of Yams in Africa. In Origins of African Plant Domestication, Edited by J.R. Harlan , J.M.J. DeWet , and A.B.L. Stemler , pp. 383–408. The Hague, Mouton.
Crothers, G. (editor) 2004 Hunters and Gatherers in Theory and Archaeology. Occasional paper No. 31, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
Crumley, C.L. 1979 Three Locational Models: An Epistemological Assessment for Anthropology and Archaeology. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, edited by M.B. Schiffer , Vol. 2. Academic Press, New York.
Crumley, C.L. 1993 Analyzing Historic Ecotonal Shifts. Ecological Applications 3:377–384.
Damp, J. 1979 Better Homes and Gardens: The Life and Death of the Early Valdivia Community. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Alberta.
Damp, J. 1984 Architecture of the Early Valdivia Village. American Antiquity 49:573–585.
Damuth, J.E. , and R.W. Fairbridge 1970 Equatorial Atlantic Deep-Sea Arkosic Sands and Ice Age Aridity in Tropical South America. Geological Society of America Bulletin 81:189–206.
D-Arcy, W.G. 1986 Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. Columbia University Press, New York.
DeBlasis, P. , S.K. Fish , M. Dulce Gaspar , and P.R. Fish 1998 Some References for the Discussion of Complexity among the Sambaqui Moundbuilders from the Southern Shores of Brazil. Revista de Arquelogia Americana 15:75–105. Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia, Mexico, Mexico City.
deFrance, S.D. , D.K. Keefer , J.B. Richardson , and A.U. Alvarez 2001 Late Paleo-Indian Coastal Foragers: Specialized Extractive Behavior at Quebrada Tacahuay, Perú. Latin American Antiquity 12:413–426.
Denham, T. , and P. White 2007 The Emergence of Agriculture: A Global View. Routledge, New York.
Denton, G.H. , C.J. Heusser , T.V. Lowell , P.I. Moreno , B.G. Andersen , L.E. Heusser , C. Schlüchter , and D.R. Marchant 1999 Interhemispheric Linkage of Paleoclimate during the Last Glaciation. Geografiska Annaler 81:107–153.
DeVries, T.A 1987 A Review of Geological Evidence for Ancient El Niño Activity in Perú. Journal of Geophysical Research 92(C13): 14471–14479.
Dickau, R. , A.J. Ranere , and R.G. Cooke 2007 Starch Grain Evidence for the Preceramic Dispersals of Maize and Root Crops into Tropical Dry and Humid Forests of Panama. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:3651–3656.
Diesler, J. 1986 Consumption of Rabdotus alternus alternus (Say, 1830) by the Archaeological Inhabitants of the Tucker Archaeological Site, 41NU46, in South Texas. Malacology Data Net Ecoserach Series 1(2):13–20.
Dillehay, T.D. 1987 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 1985 en el Valle de Zaña, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. 1991a Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 1990 en el Valle de Zaña, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. 1991b Disease Ecology and Initial Human Migration. In The First Americans: Search and Research, edited by T.D. Dillehay and D. Meltzer , pp. 231–266. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Dillehay, T.D. 1992 Widening the Socio-Economic Foundations of Andean Civilization: Prototypes of Early Monumental Architecture. Andean Past 3:55–65.
Dillehay, T.D. 1993 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 1992 en el Valle de Zaña, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. 1995 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 1994 en el Valle de Zaña, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. 1996 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 1995 en el Valle de Zaña, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. 1997a Monte Verde: A Late Pleistocene Settlement in Chile, Vol. 2, The Archaeological Context. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Dillehay, T.D. 1997b ¿Dónde están los restos óseos humanos del períodod Pleistoceno Tardío?: problemas y perspectivas en la búsqueda de los primeros Americanos. In La Muerte en el Antiguo Perú: contextos y conceptos funerarios, pp. 55–63. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP no. 1, Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. 1999 The Late Pleistocene Cultures of South America. Evolutionary Anthropology 7:206–216.
Dillehay, T.D. 1998 La Organización Dual en Los Andes: El Problema y La Metodología de Investigación en el Caso De San Luis, Zaña. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 2:37–60. Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. 2000a The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory. Basic Books, New York.
Dillehay, T.D. 2000b What Value Do the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Archaeological Records Have for Understanding the Emergence of Complex Societies in Perú? Paper presented at the International Quaternary Association, La Plata, Argentina.
Dillehay, T.D. 2004 Social Landscape and Ritual Pause: Uncertainty and Integration in Formative Perú. Journal of Social Archaeology 4:239–268.
Dillehay, T.D. 2006 Comment On Crucible of Andean Civilization: The Peruvian Coast from 3000 to 1800 B.C., by J. Haas and W. Creamer. Current Anthropology 47:745–775.
Dillehay, T.D. 2008 Probing Deeper into First American Studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:971–978.
Dillehay, T.D. , G. Ardila Calderón , G. Politis , and M. da Conceicao de Moraes Coutinho Beltrao 1992 Earliest Hunters and Gatherers of South America. Journal of World Prehistory 6:145–204.
Dillehay, T.D. , and D. Bonavia 2010 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 2009 en el Sitio de Huaca Prieta en el Valle de Chicama, Perú. Manuscript submitted at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. , D. Bonavia , and P. Kaulicke 2004 The First Settlers. In Andean Archaeology – Blackwell Studies in Global Archaeology, pp. 16–34. Blackwell, Malden, MA.
Dillehay, T.D. , and H. Eling 1989 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 1990 en el Valle de Zaña-Jequetepeque, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. , H.H. Eling, Jr ., and J. Rossen 2005 Preceramic Irrigation Canals in the Peruvian Andes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:17241–17244.
Dillehay, T.D. , and A. Kolata 1999 Informe Tecnico de la Campaña de 1999 del Proyecto Pacasmayo. Instituto Nacional de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. , and A. Kolata 2000 Informe Tecnico de la Campaña de 2000 del Proyecto Pacasmayo. Instituto Nacional de Cultura. Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. , and A. Kolata 2001 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 2000 en el Jequetepeque de Zaña, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. , and A. Kolata 2003 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 2001 en el Valle de Jequetepeque, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. , and A. Kolata 2004 Preindustrial Human and Environmental Interaction on the North Coast of Perú. Journal of Holocene Studies 18:345–364.
Dillehay, T.D. , and A. Kolata 2006 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 1990 en el Valle de Jequetepeque, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. , and A. Kolata 2008 Informe Tecnico de la Temporada de 2006 en el Valle de Jequetepeque, Perú. Manuscript stored at the Instituto de Cultura, Lima.
Dillehay, T.D. , A.L. Kolata , and E.R. Swenson 2001 Informe sobre la investigación arqueológica del Proyecto Pacasmayo en el Valle de Jequetepeque, campaña de 2001. Technical Report submitted to the Instituto Nacional de Cultura, Lima, Perú.
Dillehay, T.D. , A.L. Kolata , and E.R. Swenson 2009 Paisajes Culturales en el Valle de Jequetepeque: Yacimientos Arqueológicos. Ediciones SIAN, Trujillo.
Dillehay, T.D. , and P.J. Netherly 1983 Exploring the Upper Zaña Valley in Perú: A Unique Tropical Forest Setting Offers Insight into the Andean Past. Archaeology 36(4):22–30.
Dillehay, T.D. , P.J. Netherly , and J. Rossen 1989 Middle Preceramic Public and Residential Sites on the Forested Slope of the Western Andes, Northern Perú. American Antiquity 54:733–759.
Dillehay, T.D. , P.J. Netherly , J. Rossen , D. Ugent , and A. Karathanasis In press Early Holocene Coca Production in Northern Perú. Antiquity.
Dillehay, T.D. , and D. Piperno n.d. The Origins of Agriculture and Food Production and Their Social Implications. Cambridge Encyclopedia of Archaeology, edited by C. Renfrew and P. Bahn . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Dillehay, T.D. , C. Ramírez , M. Pino , M.B. Collins , J. Rossen , and J.D. Pino-Navarro 2008 Monte Verde: Seaweed, Food, Medicine, and the Peopling of South America. Science 320:784–786.
Dillehay, T.D. , and J. Rossen 2002 Plant Food and Its Implications for the Peopling of the New World. In The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, edited. by N.G. Jablonski , pp. 237–253. Wattis Symposium Series in Anthropology, Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 27, San Francisco.
Dillehay, T.D. , J. Rossen , T.C. Andres , and D.E. Williams 2007 Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and Cotton in Northern Perú. Science 316:1890–1893.
Dillehay, T.D. , J. Rossen , G. Maggard , K. Stackelbeck , and P.J. Netherly 2003 Localization and Possible Social Aggregation in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene on the North Coast of Perú. Quaternary International 109–110:3–11.
Dillehay, T.D. , J. Rossen , and P. Netherly 1997 The Nanchoc Tradition: The Beginnings of Andean Civilization. American Scientist 85:46–55.
Dillehay, T.D. , J. Rossen , and P. Netherly 1999 Middle Preceramic Household, Ritual, and Technology in Northern Perú. Chungará 30:111–124.
Dillon, M.O. 1994 Bosques húmedos del norte del Perú. Arnaldoa 2:29–42.
Dillon, M.O. 1997 Lomas Formations: Perú. In Centres of Plant Diversity: A Guide and Strategy for Their Conservation, edited by S.D. Davis , V.H. Heywood , O. Herrera-MacBryde , J. Villa-Lobos , and A.C. Hamilton , pp. 519–527. World Wide Fund for Nature IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Washington, DC.
Dillon, M.O. 2003a www.sacha.org/envir/bosques/intro.html.
Dillon, M.O. 2003b Checklist for Bosque Cachil. www.sacha.org/envir/bosques/cachil/cachil.htm l.
Dillon, M.O. 2003c Checklist for Bosque Monteseco. www.sacha.org/envir/bosques/monte/monte.html.
Dillon, M.O. , and J.E. Cadle 1991 Bosque Monteseco: A Cloud Forest above the Peruvian Desert. Bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History May/June:1–14.
Dillon, M.O. , and P.W. Rundel 1990 The Botanical Response of the Atacama and Peruvian Desert Floras to the 1982–83 El Nino Event. In Global Ecological Consequences of the 1982–83 El Nino–Southern Oscillation, edited by P.W. Glynn , pp. 487–504. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Dillon, M.O. , A. Sagástegui Alva , I. Sánchez Vega , S. Llatas Quiroz , and N. Hensold 1995 Floristic Inventory and Biogeographic Analysis of Montane Forests in Northwestern Perú. In Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests, edited by S.P. Churchill , H. Balslev , E. Forero , and J.L. Luteyn . New York Botanical Garden, New York.
Dixon, E.J. 1999 Bones, Boats, and Bison: Archaeology and the First Colonization of Western North America. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Dongoske, K.E. , D.L. Martin , and T.J. Ferguson 2000 Critique of the Claim of Cannibalism at Cowboy Wash. American Antiquity 65:179–190.
Donnan, C.B. 1964 An Early House from Chilca, Perú. American Antiquity. 30:137–144
Donnan, C.B. , and D. McLelland 1999 Moche Fineline Painting: Its Evolution and Its Artists. UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, Los Angeles.
Dourojeanni, Marc J. 1981 Bosques y desarrollo rural en Lambayeque. Estudio realizado por la Universidad Nacional Agraria de La Molina a solicitud del Senador de la República por Lambayeque, Don Fernando Seminario, en Julio de l981. Mimeo. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima
Engel, F.A. 1957 Early Sites on the Peruvian Coast. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 13:54–68.
Engel, F.A. 1963 A Preceramic Settlement on the Central Coast of Perú: Asia, Unit 1. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 53(3): 313–334.
Engel, F.A. 1966 Geografía Humana Prehistórica y Agricultura Precolombina de La Quebrada De Chilca. Departamento de Publicaciones, Lima.
Engel, F.A. 1970a Exploration of the Chilca Canyon, Perú. Current Anthropology 11:55–58.
Engel, F.A. 1970b Las lomas de Iguanil y el complejo de Haldas. Departamento de Publicaciones, Universidad Nacional Agraria, Lima.
Erickson, D.L. , B.D. Smith , A.C. Clarke , D.H. Sandweiss , and N. Tuross 2005 An Asian Origin for a 10,000 Year-Old Domesticated Plant in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:18315–18320.
Fairbanks, R.G. 1989 A 17,000-Year Glacio-Eustatic Sea Level Record: Influence of Glacial Melting Rates on the Younger Dryas Event and Deep-Ocean Circulation. Nature 342:637–642.
Fall, P. , S. Falconer , L. Lines , and A. Meltzer 2004 Environmental Impacts of the Rise of Civilization in the Southern Levant. In The Archaeology of Global Change, edited by C. Redman , S. James , P. Fish , and D. Rogers , pp. 141–160. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC
Feldman, R.A. 1977 Life in Ancient Perú. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 48(6):12–17.
Feldman, R.A. 1980 Aspero, Perú: Architecture, Subsistence Economy and Other Artifacts of a Preceramic Maritime Cheifdom. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.
Feldman, R.A. 2009 Talking Dogs and New Clothes, or the Maritime Foundations Hypothesis Revisited. In Andean Civilization: A Tribute to Michael E. Moseley, edited by J. Marcus and P. R. Williams , pp. 89–98. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, UCLA, Los Angeles.
Ficcarelli, G. , M. Coltorti , M. Moreno-Espinosa , P.L. Pieruccini , L. Rook , D. Torre 2003 A Model for the Holocene Extinction of the Mammal Megafauna in Ecuador. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 15:835–845.
Fitzhugh, B. , and Habu, J. 2002 Beyond Foraging and Collecting, Evolutionary Change in Hunter–Gatherer Settlement Systems. In Fundamental Issues in Archaeology, edited by G. M. Feinman and T. D. Price . Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Flannery, K.V. 1976 The Early Mesoamerican Village. Academic Press, Orlando.
Fritz G.J. 1999 Gender and the Early Cultivation of Gourds in Eastern North America. American Antiquity 64:417–429.
Fuchs, P. , R. Patzschke , G. Yenque , and J. Briceño In press Del Arcaico al Formativo Temprano. Las investigaciones en Sechín Bajo, valle de Sechín. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 12, Lima.
Fung Pineda, R. 1969 Las Aldas y su Ubicación dentro del Proceso Historico del Perú Antiguo. Dédalo 5:9–10. Sao Paulo Museo de Arte e Arqueología.
Fung Pineda, R. 1988 The Late Preceramic and Initial Period. In Peruvian Prehistory, edited by R. W. Keatinge , pp. 67–98. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gade, D.W. 1979 Inca and Colonial Settlement, Coca Cultivation and Endemic Disease in the Tropical Forest. Journal of Historical Geography 5:263–279
Gálvez, C. 1990 Estructuras evidentes en dos campamentos Paijánenses de quebrada Cuculicote, valle de Chicama. Revista del Museo de Arqueología 1, pp. 24–36. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo.
Gálvez, C. 1992 Un estudio de campamentos Paijánenses en la quebrada Cuculicote, valle de Chicama. In, Estudios de Arqueología Peruana, edited by D. Bonavia , pp. 21–43. FOMCIENCIAS, Lima.
Gálvez, C. 1999 Nuevos Datos y Problemas Sobre el Paijánense en el Chicama: Aportes para una Evaluación de la Ocupación Temprana en el Norte del Perú. In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición del los orígenes. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 3:41–54. Departamento de Humanidades, Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Gálvez, C. 2004 El Precerámico Temprano en la Costa Norte del Perú. In Desarrollo Arqueológico Costa Norte del Perú, edited by L.V. Alvarez , pp. 17–28. SIAN, Trujillo.
Gálvez, C. , and R. Becerra 1995 Propuestas para la Reconstrucción Hipotética de Paravientos Arqueológicos en la Costa Norte del Perú. Revista del Museo de Arqueología, Antropología, y Historia 5, pp. 127–141. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo.
Gálvez, C. , and R. Becerra 1999 Nuevos Datos y Problemas Sobre el Paijánense en el Chicama: Aportes para una Evaluacion de la Ocupación Temprana en el Norte del Perú. In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición del los orígenes. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 3:41–54. Departamento de Humanidades, Pontífica Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Gálvez Mora, C.A. , J.J. Castañeda Murga , and R.M. Becerra Urteaga 1994 Caracoles terrestres: 11,000 años de tradición alimentaria en la costa norte del Perú. In Cultura, identidad y cocina en el Perú, compiled by R. O. Weston , pp. 55–76. Escuela Profesional de Turismo y Hotelería, Universidad San Martín de Porres, Lima, Perú.
Gálvez Mora, C.A. , R. Morales Gamarra , and J. Castañeda Murga 1999 11,000 años de consumo de reptiles en la costa norte del Perú: el caso del Cañán (Dicrodon sp.). In Los Sabores de España y América: Cultura y Alimentación, edited by A. Garrido Aranda , pp. 141–164. La Val de Onsera, Diputación Provinical de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
Gálvez, C. and C. Quiroz 2008 En Torno a la Hipótesis del Uso de Puntas de Pproyectil para Capturar Peces en el Paijánense (ca. 11,000 A.P.) Arqueobios 2:73–90.
Gamble, C.S. 1991 An Introduction to the Living Spaces of Mobile Peoples. In Ethnoarchaeological Approaches to Mobile Campsites: Hunter-Gatherer and Pastoralist Case Studies (International Monographs in Prehistory, Enthoarchaeological Series 1), edited by C.S. Gamble and W.A. Boismier , pp. 1–24. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor.
Gamble, C.S. 2004 Materiality and Symbolic Force: A Palaeolithic View of Sedentism, in Rethinking Materiality: The Engagement of Mind with the Material World, edited by E. De Marrais , C. Gosden , and C. Renfrew , pp. 85–95. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Garcea, E.A.A. 2004 An Alternative Way Towards Food Production: The Perspective from the Libyan Sahara. Journal of World Prehistory 18:107–154.
Gargett, R. , and B. Hayden 1991 Site Structure, Kinship, and Sharing in Aboriginal Australia: Implication for Archaeology. In The Interpretation of Archaeological Spatial Patterning, edited by E.M. Kroll and T.D. Price , pp. 11–32. Plenum Press, New York.
Geertz, C. 1980 Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth Century Bali. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans 2009 The GEBCO_08 Grid, version 20091120, http://www.gebco.net, accessed February 22, 2010.
Gentry, A.H. 1982 Neotropical Floristic Diversity: Phytogeographical Connections between Central and South. Missouri Botanical Garden 69:557–593.
Gentry, A.H. 1995 Diversity and Floristic Composition of Neotropical Dry Forests. In Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests, edited by S.H. Bullock , H.A. Mooney , and E. Medina , pp. 148–194. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK) and New York.
Gepts, P. 2004 Crop Domestication as a Long-Term Selection Experiment. Plant Breeding Reviews 24(2):1–44.
Gnecco, C. , and J. Aceituno 2006 Early Humanized Landscapes of Northern South America. In Paleoindian Archaeology: A Hemispheric Perspective, edited by J.E. Morrow and C. Gnecco , pp. 86–104. Gainesville, University of Florida Press.
Golson, J. 1989 The Origins and Development of New Guinea Agriculture. In Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, edited by D.R. Harris and G.C. Hillman , pp. 678–687. One World Archaeology 13, Unwin Hyman, London.
Gonzalez, A.R. 1966 Las Culturas Paleoindiias o Paleolitícos Sudamericanas: Resumen y Problematica Actual. Actas y Memorias 36th Congreso Internacional de Americanistas 1:15–41.
Gonzalez del Río y Gil, C. 1988 Personal communication.
Goody, J. 1977 The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gosden, C. 1989 Debt, Production, and Prehistory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 8:355–387.
Gow, P. 1995 Land, People, and Paper in Western Amazonia. In The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space, edited by Eric Hirsh and Michael O'Hanlon , pp. 43–62. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Gremillion, K.J. 1996 Diffusion and Adoption of Crops in Evolutionary Perspective. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 15:183–204.
Gremillion, K.J. , and D.R. Piperno 2009 Human Behavioral Ecology, Phenotypic (Developmental) Plasticity, and Agricultural Origins: Insights from the Emerging Evolutionary Synthesis. Current Anthropology 50:615–619.
Grove, M. 2009 Hunter-Gatherer Movement Patterns: Causes and Constraints. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2009.01.003.
Guillén, S. 1988 Análisis del Material Osteológico Humano del Proyecto Zaña-Niepos. Manuscript submitted to author.
Gurven, M. , M. Borgerhoff Mulder , P.L. Hooper , H. Kaplan , R. Quinlan , R. Sear , E. Schniter , C. von Rueden , S. Bowles , T. Hertz , and A. Bell 2010 Domestication Alone Does Not Lead to Inequality. Current Anthropology 51:49–64.
Gushiken, S. , T. Acuña , and J. Torres 2001 Dinámica poblacional de los algarrobales (Prosopis pallida) y El Niño en la Costa Norte del Perú. In El Niño en América Latina: Impactos biológicos y Sociales, edited by J. Tarazona , W.E. Arntz , and E. Castillo de Maruenda , pp. 213–223. Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Lima.
Haas, J. , and W. Creamer 2004 Cultural Transformations in the Central Andean Late Archaic. In Andean Archaeology, edited by H. Silverman , pp. 35–50. Blackwell, Malden, MA.
Haas, J. , and W. Creamer 2006 Crucible of Andean Civilization: The Peruvian Coast from 3000 to 1800 bc . Current Anthropology 47:745–775.
Hamilton, L.S. 2005 Cut Marks as Evidence of Precolumbian Human Sacrifice and Postmortem Bone Modification on the North Coast of Perú. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Tulane University.
Hansen, B. C.S. , and D.T. Rodbell 1995 A Late-Glacial/Holocene Pollen Record from the Eastern Andes of Northern Perú. Quaternary Research 44:216–227.
Hansen, B.C.S. , D.T. Rodbell , G.O. Seltzer , B. León , K.R. Young , and M. Abbot 2003 Late-Glacial and Holocene Vegetational History from Two Sites in the Western Cordillera of Southwestern Ecuador. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194:79–108.
Hansen, B.C.S. , H.E. Wright , and J.P. Bradbury 1984 Pollen Studies in the Junin Area, Central Peruvian Andes. Geological Society of America Bulletin 95:1454–1465.
Harris, D.R. 1977 Alternative Pathways toward Agriculture. In Origins of Agriculture, edited by C.A. Reed , pp. 180–243. The Hague, Mouton.
Harris, D.R. 1989 An Evolutionary Continuum of People-Plant Interactions. In Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, edited by D.R. Harris and G.C. Hillman , pp. 11–26. Unwin Hyman, London.
Hastorf, C.A. 1993 Agriculture and the Onset of Political Inequality before the Inka. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hastorf, C.A. 1999 Cultural Implications of Crop Introductions in Andean Prehistory. In The Prehistory of Food: Appetites for Change, edited by C. Gosden and J. Hather , pp. 35–58. Routledge, New York.
Hastorf, C.A. 2006 Domesticated Food and Society in Early Coastal Perú. In Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology, edited by W. Balee and C.L. Erickson , pp. 87–126. Columbia University Press, New York.
Haug, G.H. , K.A. Hughen , D.N. Sigman , L.C. Peterson , and U. Röhl 2001 Southward Migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone through the Holocene. Science 293:1304–1307.
Hawkes, J.G. 1989 The Domestication of Roots and Tubers in the American Tropics. In Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, edited by D.R. Harris and G.C. Hillman , pp. 471–480. One World Archaeology 13, Unwin Hyman, London.
Hawkes, J.G. , R.N. Lester , and A.D. Skelding 1979 The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linnaen Society of London, Academic Press, London.
Hayden, B. 1995 Pathways to Power: Principles for Creating Socioeconomic Inequalities. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. Douglas Price and G.M. Feinman , pp. 15–86. Plenum Press, New York.
Hayden, B. 2001 Fabulous Feasts: A Prolegomenon to the Importance of Feasting. In Feasts: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics, and Power, edited by M. Dietler and B. Hayden . Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Henderson, A. , S.P. Churchill , and J.L. Luteyn 1991 Neotropical Plant Diversity. Nature 351:21–22.
Henry, D.O. , and G.H. Odell 1989 Alternative Approaches to Lithic Analysis. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, No. 1.
Heusser, L.E. , and N.J. Shackleton 1994 Tropical Climatic Variation on the Pacific Slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes Based on a 25,000-Year Pollen Record from Deep-Sea Sediment Core Tri 163–31B. Quaternary Research 42:222–225.
Hodder, I 1990 The Domestication of Europe: Structure and Contingency in Neolithic Societies. Blackwell, Malden, MA.
Hodder, I. , and C. Cessford 2004 Daily Practice and Social Memory at Catalhoyuk. American Antiquity 69:17–40.
Hoffstetter, R. 1948 Notas sobre el Cuarternario de la Península de Santa Elena. Boletín de Informaciones Científicas Quito, pp. 11–12; 19–44.
Hoffstetter, R. 1952 Les mammiferes pléistocènes de la République de l'Equateur. Mémoires de la Societé Géologique de France 31:1–391.
Holbrook, N.M. , J.L. Whitbeck , and H.A. Mooney 1995 Drought Responses of Neotropical Dry Forest Trees. In Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests, edited by S.H. Bullock , H.A. Mooney , and E. Medina , pp. 243–276. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK) and New York.
Holdridge, L.R. 1947 Determination of World Plant Formations from Simple Climatic Data. Science 105:367–368.
Holdridge, L.R. 1959 A Simple Method for Determining Evapotranspiration from Temperature Data. Science 130:572
Hughen, K.A. , J.T. Overpeck , L.C. Peterson , and S. Trumbore 1996 Rapid Climate Changes in the Tropical Atlantic Region during the Last Deglaciation. Nature 380:51.
Hughen, K.A , J.R. Southon , S.J. Lehman , and J.T. Overpeck 2000 Synchronous Radiocarbon and Climate Shifts during the last Deglaciacion. Science 290:1951
Iltis, H. 2006 Origin of Polystichy in Maize. In Histories of Maize, edited by J. Staller , R. Tykot , and B. Benz , pp. 22–53. Elsevier, San Diego.
Ingold, T. 1980 Hunters, Pastoralists, and Ranchers: Reindeer Economies and Their Transformations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Ingold, T. 1993 Technology, Language, Intelligence: A Reconsideration of Basic Concepts. In Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution, edited by K.R. Gibson and T. Ingold , pp. 449–72. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Iriarte, J. , I. Holst , O. Marozzi , C. Listopad , E. Alonso , A. Rinkerknecht , and J. Montana 2004 Evidence for Cultivar Adoption and Emerging Complexity during the Mid-Holocene in the La Plata Basin. Nature 432:614–617.
Janz, L. 2007 Report on Faunal Remains from Sites in the Zaña Valley, Perú. Manuscript in possession of the authors.
Janzen, D.H. 1988 Tropical Dry Forests: The Most Endangered Major Tropical Ecosystem. In Biodiversity, edited by E.O. Wilson and F.M. Pete . National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Janzen, D.H. , and P.S. Martin 1982 Neotropical Anachronisms: The Fruits the Gomphotheres Ate. Science 215:19–27.
Joyce, R.A. , and S.D. Gillespie 2000 Beyond Kinship: Social and Material Reproduction in House Societies. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Kahn, M. 1996 Your Place and Mine: Sharing Emotional Landscapes in Wamira, Papua New Guinea. In Senses of Place, edited by S. Feld and K.H. Basso , pp. 167–196. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.
Kaplan, L. , and T.F. Lynch 1999 Phaseolus (Fabaceae) in Archaeology: AMS Radiocarbon Dates and Their Significance for Pre-Colombian Agriculture. Economic Botany 53:261–272.
Kaulicke, P. 1994 Los Orígenes de la Civilización Andina. Arqueología del Perú I, Historia General del Perú. Lima, Perú.
Kaulicke, P. 1997 La noción y la organización del espacio en el Formativo Peruano, en Espacio: Teoría y Praxis, edited by H. Córdoba , pp. 113–127. Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Kaulicke, P. 1999 Los Estudios del Período Arcaico en el Perú: logros, problemas, y propuestas. In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición de los origenes, edited by P. Kaulicke , pp. 417–436. Boletín de Arqueología No. 3, Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Kaulicke, P. , and T.D. Dillehay (editors) 1999a El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición del los orígenes. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, N° 3, Departamento de Humanidades, Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Kaulicke, P. , and T.D. Dillehay 1999b Introducción: ¿Porqué Estudiar el Período Arcaico en el Perú? In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición del los orígenes, Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, N° 3, pp. 9–17. Departamento de Humanidades, Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Kelly, R.L. 1992 Mobility/Sedentism: Concepts, Archaeological Measures, and Effects. Annual Review of Anthropology 21:43–66.
Kelly, R.L. 1995 The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Kelly, R.L. 1998 Foraging and Sedentism. In Seasonality and Sedentism:Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World Sites, edited by T.R. Rocek and O. Bar-Yosef , pp. 9–23. Peabody Museum Bulletin, 6. Harvard University, Cambridge.
Kelly, R.L. , and L.C. Todd 1988 Coming into the Country: Early Paleoindian Hunting and Mobility. American Antiquity 53(2):231–244.
Kennett, D.J. , and B. Winterhalder (editors) 2006 Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Kent, S. 1991 The Relationship between Mobility Strategies and Site Structure. In The Interpretation of Archaeological Spatial Patterning, edited by E.M. Kroll and T.D. Price , pp. 33–59. Plenum Press, New York.
Kim, J. 2003 The Spread of Land-Use Strategy and the Rate and Scale of the Transition to Agricultural Economy: A Comparative Study of Southern Scandinavia and Central-Western Korea. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 10:277–321.
Koepcke, H.W. 1961 Synökologische Studien an der Westseite der peruanischen Anden. Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen 29:1–320.
Koepcke, M. 1954 Corte ecológica transversal en los Andes del Perú Central con especial consideración de los aves. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado,” Memorias 3, Lima
Koepke, H.W. , and M. Koepke 1958 Los Restos de Bosques en las Vertientes Occidentales de los Andes Peruanos. Boletín del Comite Nacional de Protección a la Naturaleza 16, Lima.
Koutaavas, A. , J. Lynch-Stieglitz , T.M. Marchitto, Jr ., and J.P. Sachs 2002 El Niño-Like Pattern in Ice Age Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature. Science 297:226–229.
Kuijt, I. (editor) 2000 Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation. Kluwer Academic Press, New York.
Lane, P.J. 2004 The “Moving Frontier” and the Transition to Food Production in Kenya. Azania 39:243–264.
Lanning, E.P. 1963 A Preagricultural Occupation of the Central Coast of Perú. American Antiquity 28:360–371.
Lanning, E.P. 1967 Perú Before the Incas. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Lathrap, D.W. 1970 The Upper Amazon. Thames and Hudson, London.
Lavallée, D. 2000 The First South Americans. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Lavallée, D., P. Bearez, A. Chevalier, M. Julien, P. Usselmann , and M. Fontugne 1999 Paleoambiente y Ocupación Prehistorica del Litoral Extremo-sur del Perú: Las Ocupacóones del Arcaico en la Quebrada de los Burros y Alrededores (Tacna, Perú). Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 3:393–416.
Lavallée, D. , M. Julien , J. Wheeler , and C. Karlin 1985 Telarmachay: Chausseurs et Pasteurs Prehistoriques des Andes, Syntheses 20. Éditions Recherches sur les Civilisations, Paris.
Lechtman, H. 1979 Issues in Andean Metallurgy. In Pre-Columbian Metallurgy of South America, edited by E.P. Benson , pp. 1–40. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Lemmonnier, P. 1992 Elements for an Anthropology of Technology. Anthropological Papers of the Museum of Anthropology No. 88, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Lemon, R.R.H. , and C.S. Churcher 1961 Pleistocene Geology and Paleontology of the Talara Region, Northwest Perú. American Journal of Science 259:410–429.
León Canales, E. 2007 Origenes Humanos en los Andes del Perú. Universidad de San Martin de Porres, Lima.
León Canales, E. , J. Alcalde Gonzáles , C. Toledo Gutiérrez , J. Yataco Capcha , and L.E. Valenzuela Leyva 2004 New Possible Paleoamerican Fish-Tail Point Finds at Laguna Negra, Northern Perú. Current Research in the Pleistocene 21:11–13.
Leyden, B.W. 1985 Late Quaternary Aridity and Holocene Moisture Fluctuations in the Lake Valencia Basin, Venezuela. Ecology 66:1279–1295.
Lichter, C. (editor) 2007 Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien. Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit. Exhibition catalogue. Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe.
Lima, T.A. , and J.M.L. Mazz 2000 La emergencia de complejidad entre los cazadores-recolectores de la costa atlantíco meridional sudamericana. Revista de Arqueología Americana 17,18,19:129–175. Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, México.
Linares, O.F. , and A.J. Ranere 1980 Adaptive Radiations in Prehistoric Panama. Peabody Museum Monographs, No. 5. Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA.
Llagostera, A. 1992 Early Occupations and the Emergence of Fishermen on the Pacific Coast of South America. Andean Past 3:87–109.
López Castaño, C. E. Dispersión de puntas de proyectil bifaciales en la Cuenca media del río Magdalena. In Ambito y ocupaciónes tempranas de la América tropical, edited by I. Cavelier and S. Mora , pp. 73–82. Fundación Erigaie, Instituto Colombiano de Antropología, ICAN – Instituto Colombiano de Cultura, Bogotá.
Lumbreras, L.G. 1989 Chavín de Huantar en el Nacimiento de la Civilización Andina. Instituto Andino de Estudios Arqueológicos, Ediciones INDEA, Lima.
Lynch, T.F. 1973 Harvest Timing, Transhumance, and the Process of Domestication. American Anthropologist 75:1254–1259.
Lynch, T.F. 1980 Guitarrero Cave: Early Man in the Andes. Academic Press, New York.
Maggard, G.J. 2010 Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Colonization and Regionalization in Northern Perú: Fishtail and Paiján Complexes of the Lower Jequetepeque Valley. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.
Malpass, M.A. 1983 The Preceramic Occupations of the Casma Valley, Perú. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Malpass, M.A. 1986 The Paiján Occupation of the Casma Valley, Perú. Ñawpa Pacha 24:99–110.
Malpass, M.A. , and K.E. Stothert 1992 Evidence for Preceramic Houses and Household Organization in Western South America. Andean Past 3:137–163.
Marcos, J. 1978 The Ceremonial Precinct at Real Alto: Organization of Time and Space in Valdivia Society. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Marden, K. 2009 Science and the Epistemology of Culture: How We Know What We “Know” about Human Burials in Chaco Canyon. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 24:159–171.
Mares, M.A. 1992 Neotropical Mammals and the Myth of Amazonian Biodiversity. Science 255:976–979.
Marshall, Y. n.d. Mobility and Sedentism: A Social Perspective. Presented at the 2008 Berlin Conference on Global Sedentism.
Martins, R. 1976 New Arqueological Techniques for the Study of Ancient Root Crops in Perú. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Birmingham, England.
Maybury-Lewis, D. 1999 Lowland Peoples of the Twentieth Century. In Native Peoples of the Americas: Vol. III South America , edited by F. Salomon and S. Schwartz , pp. 872–948. Cambridge University Press, London.
Mayer-Oakes, W.F. 1986a El Inga: A Paleo-Indian Site in the Sierra of Northern Ecuador. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 76(4):117–155.
Mayer-Oakes, W.F. 1986b Early Man Projectile and Lithic Technology in the Ecuadorian Sierra. In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the New World, edited by A. Bryan , pp.133–156. Center for the Study of Early Man, University of Maine, Orono.
McCorriston, J. 1997 The Fiber Revolution: Textile Extensification, Alienation, and Social Stratification in Ancient Mesopotamia. Current Anthropology 38:519–549.
McGhee, R. 1997 Ancient People of the Arctic. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.
McGimsey, C.R. , and M.B. Collins 1986–1987 Cerro Mangote and Its Population. Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society 16(1–2):125–157.
McGlade, J. 1995 Archaeology and the Ecodynamics of Human-Modified Landscapes. Antiquity 69:113–132
McGovern, T , T. H, O. Vésteinsson , A. Friðriksson , M.J. Church , I.T Lawson , I.A Simpson , A. Einarsson , A.J Dugmore , G.T. Cook , S. Perdikaris , K.J. Edwards , A.M. Thomson , W.P. Adderley , A.J. Newton , G. Lucas , R. Edvardsson , O. Aldred , and E. Dunbar 2007 Landscapes of Settlement in Northern Iceland: Historical Ecology of Human Impact and Climate Fluctuation on the Millennial Scale. American Anthropologist 109:27–41
Meggers, B. J. , C. Evans , and E. Estrada 1965 Early Formative Coastal Ecuador: The Valdivia and Machalilla Phases. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 1. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Mehra, K.L. 1999 Subsistence Changes in India and Pakistan: The Neolithic and Chalcolithic from the Point of View of Plant Use Today. In The Prehistory of Food: Appetites for Change, edited by C. Gosden and J. Hather , pp. 139–146. Routledge, London.
Meltzer, D.J. 2002 What Do You Do When No One's Been There Before? Thoughts on the Exploration and Colonization of New Lands. In The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, edited by N.G. Jablonski , pp. 27–58. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 27. San Francisco, California.
Meltzer, D.J. 2009 First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Merkel, J. , I. Shimada , C.P. Swann , and R. Doonan 1994 Pre-Hispanic Copper Alloy Production at Batan Grande, Perú: Interpretation of the Analytical Data for Ore Samples. In Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and Artifacts, edited by D.A. Scott and P. Meyers , pp. 199–227. Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles.
Metcalf, P. , and R. Huntington 1991 Celebrations of Death, the Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Mills, B. 2007 Performing the Feast: Visual Display and Supra-Household Commensalism in the Puebloan Southwest. American Antiquity 72:210–239.
Miotti, L. 2003 Patagonia: A Paradox for Building Images of the First Americans during the Pleistocene/Holocene Transition. Quaternary International 109–110:147–173.
Mooney, H.A. , S.H. Bullock , and E. Medina 1995 Introduction. In Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests, edited by S.H. Bullock , H.A. Mooney , and E. Medina , pp. 243–276. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK) and New York.
Moore, J.D. 1996 Architecture and Power in the Ancient Andes: The Archaeology of Public Buildings. New Studies in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK) and New York.
Moore, K.M. 1998 Measures of Mobility and Occupational Intensity in Highland Perú. In Seasonality and Sedentism, Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World Sites, edited by T.R. Rocek and O. Bar-Yosef , pp. 181–197. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
Mora Costilla, M.M. 2003 Analysis of Shell Specimens Collected by the Proyecto Pacasmayo, Subprojects in the Quebradas del Batán and Talambo. Laboratorio Guadalupe, Trujillo, Perú. Report on file with the author.
Morgan, M 2010 Fixing Residence: Formative Period Place Making at Chiquitan, Guatemala. Ph.D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
Morrow, T.A. 1997 A Chip Off the Old Block: Alternative Approaches to Debitage Analysis. Lithic Technology 22:51–69.
Moseley, M.E. 1975 The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization. Cummings Press, Menlo Park, CA.
Moseley, M.E. 1992 The Incas and Their Ancestors. Thames and Hudson, New York.
Moseley, M.E. 2005 The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization: An Evolving Hypothesis. Submitted August 10, 2004 for Perú y El Mar: 12,000 años del historia del pescaria, edited by P. Trillo . Sociedad Nacional de Pesqueria, Lima, Perú. http://thehallofmaat.com/modules.php?name=Articles&file=article&sid=85, accessed January 11, 2008.
Murphy, P.G. , and A.E. Lugo 1986 Ecology of Tropical Dry Forest. American Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:67–88.
Nami, H.G. 2007 Research in the Middle Negro River Basin (Uruguay) and the Paleoindian Occupation of the Southern Cone. Current Anthropology 48:164–174.
Nesbitt, M. 2002 When and Where Did Domesticated Cereals First Occur in Southwest Asia? In The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, edited by R.T.J. Cappers and S. Botterna , pp. 113–132. Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence and Environment 6, Berlin.
Netherly, P.J. 1985 The Management of Late Andean Irrigation Systems on the North Coast of Perú. American Antiquity 49(2):227–254.
Netherly, P.J. 1986 Wandering Shellfish: New Insights into Intra-Regional Distribution Networks from Southeastern Coastal Ecuador. Paper presented to the Society of American Archaeology, Pittsburgh.
Netherly, P.J. , and T.D. Dillehay 1985 Domestic and Public Contexts at the Cementerio de Nanchoc Site: Refining Preceramic Public and Domestic Production. Paper presented at the 50th annual meeting of the SAA, Denver, May.
Netherly, P.J. , and T.D. Dillehay 1986a Trabajos Arqueológicos en el Alto Zaña: Un Informe Preliminar. Boletín de Lima 48:31–42.
Netherly, P.J. , and T.D. Dillehay 1986b Duality in Public Architecture in the Upper Zaña Valley, Perú. In Perspectives on Andean Prehistory and Protohistory, edited by D.H. Sandweiss and D.P. Kvietok , pp. 85–115. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
O'Connell, J. 1987 Alyawara Site Structure and Its Archaeological Implications. American Antiquity 52:74–108.
Odell, G.H. 1981 The Morphological Express at Function Junction: Searching for Meaning in Lithic Tool Types. Journal of Anthropological Research 37:319–342.
Odell, G.H. 1989a Fitting Analytical Techniques to Prehistoric Problems with Lithic Data. In Alternative Approaches to Lithic Analysis, edited by D. Henry and G.H. Odell , pp. 159–182. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.
Odell, G.H. 1989b Experiments in Lithic Reduction. In Experiments in Lithic Technology, edited by D. Amick and R. Mauldin , pp. 163–198. BAR International Series 528, Oxford.
Odell, G.H. 2003 Lithic Analysis. Springer Science Media, New York.
Odell, G.H. , and F. Odell-Vereecken 1980 Verifying the Reliability of Lithic Use-Wear Assessments by “Blind Tests”: The Low-Power Approach. Journal of Field Archaeology 7:87–120.
Olsen, K.M. 2002 Population History of Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae) Inferred from Nuclear DNA Sequences. Molecular Ecology 11:901–911.
Olsen, K.M. , and B.A. Schaal 1999 Evidence on the Origin of Cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot Esculenta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96:5586–5591.
Olsen, K.M. , and B.A. Schaal 2006 DNA Sequence Data and Inferences on Cassava's Origin of Domestication. In Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder , D.G. Bradley , E. Emshwiller , and B.D. Smith , pp. 123–133. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Ortleib, L 1989 Evolución climatica al final del Cuartenario en las regiones costeras del norte peruano: Breve reseña. Bulletin of the Institut Français des Études Andines 18:143–160. Lima.
Ortleib, L 2000 The Documented Historical Record of El Niño Events in Perú: An Update of the Quinn Record (Sixteenth through Nineteenth Centuries). In El Niño and the Southern Oscillation – Mulatiscale Variability and Global and Regional Impacts, edited by H.F. Diaz and V. Markgraf , pp. 207–295. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Ossa, P. 1976 A Fluted “Fishtail” Projectile Point from La Cumbre, Moche Valley, Perú. Ñawpa Pacha 13:97–98.
Ossa, P. 1978 Paiján in Early Andean Prehistory: The Moche Valley, North Coast Perú. In Early Man in America from a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by A.L. Bryan , pp. 290–295. Archaeological Researches International, Edmonton.
Ossa, P. , and M.E. Moseley 1971 La Cumbre: A Preliminary Report on Research into the Early Lithic Occupation of the Moche Valley. Ñawpa Pacha 9:1–16.
Patterson, T.C. 1971 Central Perú: Its Population and Economy. Archaeology 24:316–321.
Patterson, T.C. 1983 The Historical Development of a Coastal Andean Social Formation in Central Perú, 6000 to 500 B.C. In Investigations of the Andean Past, Papers from the First Annual Northeast Conference on Andean Archaeology and Ethnohistory, edited by D.H. Sandweiss , pp. 21–37. Latin American Studies Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Pavao-Zuckerman, B. 2004 Preceramic Period Vertebrate Use in the Jequetepeque Valley, Perú. S.J. Olsen Laboratory of Zooarchaeology, Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson. Report on file with the author.
Pavao-Zuckerman, B. 2008 Preceramic Period Vertebrate Use in the Upper Zaña Valley, Perú. S.J. Olsen Laboratory of Zooarchaeology, Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson. Report on file with the author.
Pearsall, D.M. 1992 Origins of Plant Cultivation in South America. In Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective, edited by C.W. Cowan and P.J. Watson , pp. 173–205. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Pearsall, D.M. 2003 Plant Food Resources of the Ecuadorian Formative: An Overview and Comparison to the Central Andes. In Archaeology of Formative Ecuador, edited by J.S. Raymond , R.L. Burger , pp. 213–257, J. Quilter, general editor. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC.
Pearsall, D.M. 2008 Plant Domestication and the Shift to Agriculture in the Andes. In Handbook of South American Archaeology, edited by H. Silverman and W.H. Isbell , pp. 105–120. Springer, New York.
Pennington, R.T. , D.E. Prado , and C.A. Pendry 2000 Neotropical Seasonally Dry Forests and Quaternary Vegetation Changes. Journal of Biogeography 27:261–273.
Perry, L. , D.H. Sandweiss , D.R. Piperno , K. Rademaker , and M.A. Malpass , 2006 Early Maize Agriculture and Interzonal Interaction in Southern Perú. Nature 440:76–79.
Peterson, L.C. , G.H. Haug , K.A. Hughen , and U. Röhl . 2000 Rapid Changes in the Hydrologic Cycle of the Tropical Atlantic during the Last Glacial. Science 290:1947–1951.
Peterson, R.L. , W.G. Barker , and M.J. Howarth 1985 Development and Structure of Tubers. In Potato Physiology, edited by P.H. Li , pp.124–152. Academic Press, New York.
Piperno, D.R. 1990 Aboriginal Agriculture and Land Usage in the Amazon Basin, Ecuador. Journal of Archaeological Science 17:665–677.
Piperno, D.R. 2006a Identifying Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Other Crops in Pre-Columbian Tropical America through Starch Grain Analysis. In Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder , D.G. Bradley , E. Emshwiller , and B.D. Smith , pp. 46–61. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Piperno, D.R. 2006b The Origins of Plant Cultivation and Domestication in the Neotropics: A Behavioral Ecological Perspective. In Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture, edited by D. Kennett and B. Winterhalder , pp. 137–166. University of California, Berkeley.
Piperno, D.R. 2007 Prehistoric Human Occupation and Impacts on Neotropical Forest Landscapes During the Late Pleistocene and Early/Middle Holocene. In Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change, edited by M.B. Bush and J.R. Flenley , pp. 193–218. Springer, in association with Praxis Publishing, Berlin and New York.
Piperno, D.R. In press a The Beginnings and Early Dispersals of Plant Cultivation and Domestication in the New World Tropics: Patterns, Processes, and New Ideas. In The Beginnings of Agriculture:New Data, New Ideas, edited by O. Bar-Yosef and T.D. Price. Appearing in a special issue of Current Anthropology in 2010.
Piperno, D.R. In press b New Archaeobotanical Information on Early Cultivation and Plant Domestication Involving Microplant Remains. In Harlan II: Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability, edited by A. Damania and P. Gepts.
Piperno, D.R. , and T.D. Dillehay 2008 Starch Grains on Human Teeth Reveal Early Broad Crop Diet in Northern Perú. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105:19622–19627.
Piperno, D.R. , and D.M. Pearsall 1998 Origins of Agriculture in the Lowland Neotropics. Academic Press, San Diego, London.
Piperno D.R. , A.J. Ranere , I. Holst , and P. Hansell 2000 Starch Grains Reveal Early Root Crop Horticulture in the Panamanian Tropical Forest. Nature 407:894–897.
Piperno, D.R. , A.J. Ranere , I. Holst , J. Iriarte , and R. Dickau 2009 Starch Grain and Phytolith Evidence for Early Ninth Millennium B.P. Maize from the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:5019–5024.
Piperno, D.R. , and K.E. Stothert 2003 Phytolith Evidence for Early Holocene Cucurbita Domestication in Southwest Ecuador. Science 299:1054–1057.
Politis, G.G. 1991 Fishtail Projectile Points in the Southern Cone of South America: An Overview. In Clovis: Origins and Adaptations, edited by R. Bonnichsen and K.L. Turnmire , pp. 287–302. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
Porras, P. 1988 Investigaciones Arqueológicas a las Faldas del Sangay: Tradición Upano. Centro de Investigaciones Arqueológicas P.U.C.E., Quito.
Pozorski, T. , and S. Pozorski 1987 Early Settlement and Subsistence in the Casma Valley, Perú. 1st edition. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.
Prado, D.E. , and P.E. Gibbs 1993 Patterns of Species Distribution in the Dry Seasonal Forests of South America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80:902–927.
Price, T.D. 1981 Complexity in “Non-Complex” Societies. In Archaeological Approaches to the Study of Complexity, edited by S.E. Van Der Leeuw , pp. 55–99. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
Price, T.D. 1995 Social Inequality at the Origins of Agriculture. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T.D. Price and G.M. Feinman , pp. 129–151. Plenum Press, New York.
Prous, A. 1981 Les Fouilles de la Lapa do Boquete. Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 77:77–109.
Quilter, J.F. 1989 Life and Death at Paloma: Society and Mortuary Practices in a Preceramic Peruvian Village. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.
Quinn, W.H. 1992 A Study of Southern Oscillation-Related Climatic Activity for A.D. 622–1900 Incorporating Nile River Flood Data. In El Niño, edited by H.F. Diaz and V. Markgraf , pp. 119–149. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Raimondi, A. 1940 (1874) El Perú Tomo 1. Escuela Tipografica Salesiana, Lima.
Ranere, A.J. , and R.G. Cooke 2002 Late Glacial and Early Holocene Occupation of Central American Tropical Forests. In Under the Canopy: The Archaeology of Tropical Rain Forests, edited by J. Mercader . Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.
Ranere, A.J. , and O.L. Greenfield 1981 Evidence for Incidence of Cannibalism during the Preceramic Period in Central Panama. Paper presented at the 46th Annual Meeting, Society for American Archaeology, San Diego.
Ranere, A.J. , D.R. Piperno , I. Holst , R. Dickau , and J. Iriarte 2009 Preceramic Human Occupation of the Central Balsas Valley, Mexico; Cultural Context of Early Domesticated Maize and Squash. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:5014–5018.
Ravines, R. 1985 Early Monumental Architecture of the Jequetepeque Valley, Perú. In Early Ceremonial Architecture in the Andes, edited by C.B. Donnan , pp. 209–226. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.
Raymond, J.S. 2008 The Process of Sedentism in Northwestern South America. In Handbook of South American Archaeology , edited by H. Silverman and W.H. Isbell , pp. 79–90. Springer, New York.
Reddy, G.P. 1988 Hunter-Gatherers and the Politics of Environment and Development in India. In Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, edited by E.S. Burch, Jr ., and L.J. Ellanna , pp. 357–376. Berg, Oxford.
Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. 1965 Colombia. Praeger, New York.
Rein, B. , A. Lückge , L. Reinhardt , F. Sirocko , A. Wolf , and W.C. Dullo . 2005 El Niño Variability off Perú during the Last 20,000 Years. Paleoceanography 20:4003. doi:10.1029/2004PA001099.
Reitz, E.J. 1988 Faunal Remains from Paloma, an Archaic Site in Perú. American Anthropologist 90:310–322.
Richardson, J.B. 1969 The Preceramic Sequence and Pleistocene and Post-Pleistocene Climatic Change in Northwestern Perú. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois.
Richardson, J.B. 1973 The Preceramic Sequence and the Pleistocene and Post-Pleistocene Climate of Northwest Perú. In Variation in Anthropology, edited by D. Lathrap and J. Douglas , pp. 199–211. Illinois Archaeological Survey, Urbana.
Richardson, J.B. 1978 Early Man on the Peruvian North Coast, Early Maritime Exploitation and the Pleisticene and Holocene Environment. In Early Man in America from a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by A. Bryan , pp. 274–289. Occasional Papers 1, Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Canada.
Richardson, J.B. 1981 Modeling the Development of Sedentary Maritime Economies on the Coast of Perú: A Preliminary Statement. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 50(5):139–150.
Richardson, J.B. 1983 The Chira Beach Ridges, Sea Level Change, and the Origins of Maritime Economies on the Peruvian Coast. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 52(11):265–276.
Richardson, J. III, and D. Sandweiss 2006 Climate Change, El Nino, and the Rise of Complex Society on the Peruvian Coast during the Middle Holocene. In El Nino, Catastrophism, and Culture Change in Ancient America, edited by D.H. Sandweiss and J. Quilter . Dumbarton Oaks, Harvard University, Cambridge.
Richerson, P.J. , and R. Boyd 2000 Institutional Evolution in the Holocene: The Rise of Complex Societies. In The Origins of Human Social Institutions, edited by W. G. Runciman , pp. 197–204. Proceedings of the British Academy 110, London.
Richerson, P.J. , R. Boyd , and R.L. Bettinger 2001 Was Agriculture Impossible during the Pleistocene but Mandatory during the Holocene? A Climate Change Hypothesis. American Antiquity 66:387–412.
Rick, J.W. 1980 Prehistoric Hunters of the High Andes. Academic Press, New York.
Rick, J.W. , and K.M. Moore 1999 El Preceramico de la Punas de Junin: El Punto de vista desde Panaulauca. In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definición de los orígenes, edited by P. Kaulicke , pp. 263–296. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No. 3. Pontíficia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Rindos, D. 1984 The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective. Academic Press, New York.
Rodbell, D. T. 1993a The Timing of the Last Deglaciation in the Cordillera Oriental, Northern Perú, Based on Glacial Geology and Lake Sedimentology. Geological Society of America Bulletin 105:923–934.
Rodbell, D. T. 1993b Subdivision of Late Pleistocene Moraines in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú. Based on Rock-Weathering Features, Soils and Radiocarbon Dates. Quaternary Research 39:133–143.
Rodriguez, R. , R. Woodman , B. Balsley , A. Mabres , and R. Phipps 1993 Avances sobre estudios dendrocronológicos en la región costera norte del Perú para obatener un registro pasado del fenómeno El Niño. Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Études Andines 22(1):267–281.
Rommel, A.F. , and M. Gorriti 1987 Análisis malacológico del Precerámico de Nanchoc. Manuscript in possession of J. Rossen (Ithaca College) and T. Dillehay (Vanderbilt University).
Roosevelt, A. 1980 Parmana: Prehistoric Maize and Manioc Subsistence along the Orinoco and Amazon. Academic Press, New York.
Roosevelt, A. 1984 Problems Interpreting the Diffusion of Cultivated Plants. In Pre-Columbian Plant Migration, edited by D. Stone . Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 76. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Rosas, R.V. , T. Andres , and M. Nee 2004 “The Goldman Cucurbit Collecting Expedition in Perú, 2004.” www.cucurbit.org/Peru/PeruReport.html, accessed October, 2010.
Rossen, J. 1991 Ecotones and Low-Risk Intensification: The Middle Preceramic Habitation of Nanchoc, Northern, Perú. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.
Rossen, J. 1997 Investigations at the Preceramic Village of Cerro Guitarra, Lower Zaña Valley, Northern Perú. Paper presented at annual meeting of Northeast Andean Archaeology and Ethnology, Orono, ME.
Rossen, J. 1998 Unifaces in Early Andean Culture History: The Nanchoc Lithic Tradition of Northern Perú. Andean Past 5:241–300.
Rossen, J. 2008 Exploring New Dimensions in the Study of Archaeological Plants. In Current Northeast Paleoethnobotany II, edited by J.P. Hart , pp. 191–198. Bulletin Series #512, New York State Museum, Albany.
Rossen, J. , and T.D. Dillehay 1999 La colonización y el asentamiento del norte del Perú: Innovación, technología y adaptación en el valle de Zaña In El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacía una definición de los origenes (The Archaic Period in Perú: Toward a Definition of Origins), edited by P. Kaulicke, pp. 121–140. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, No. 3. Lima.
Rossen, J. , and T.D. Dillehay 2001a The Nanchoc Lithic Tradition of Northern Perú: Microscopic Use-Wear Analysis. Andean Past 6:7–35.
Rossen, J. , and T.D. Dillehay 2001b Bone Cutting, Placement, and Cannibalism? Middle Preceramic Mortuary Patterns of Nanchoc, Northern Perú. Chungara, Revista de Antropología Chilena 33(1):63–72.
Rossen, J. , T.D. Dillehay , and D. Ugent 1996 Ancient Cultigens or Modern Intrusions?: Evaluating Botanical Remains in an Andean Case Study. Journal of Archaeological Science 23:391–407.
Rostworowski, M. 1973 Las Etnias del Valle de Chillón. Revista del Museo Nacional 38: 250–314. Lima, Perú
Rothhammer, F. , and T.D. Dillehay 2009 The Late Pleistocene Colonization of South America: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Annals of Human Genetics 73:540–549. doi:10.1111/j.1469–1809.2009.00537.x.
Rowley-Conwy, P. 2001 Time, Change and the Archaeology of Hunter-Gatherers: How Original is the “Original Affluent Society”? In Hunter-Gatherers: An Interdiscipinary Perspective, edited by C. Painter-Brick , R.H. Layton , and P. Rowly-Conwy , pp. 39–72. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Salati, E. , and P.B. Vose 1984 Amazon Basin: A System in Equilibrium. Science 225:129–138.
Sagástegui, A.A. 1973. Manual de las malezas de la costa norperuana. Talleres Gráficos de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo, Perú.
Sandweiss, D.H. 2003 Terminal Pleistocene through Mid-Holocene Archaeological Sites as Paleoclimatic Archives from the Peruvian Coast. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194:23–40.
Sandweiss, D.H. 2005a Early Maritime Adaptations in Western South America, Part I of a Two-Part Story. Mammoth Trumpet 20(4):14–20.
Sandweiss, D.H. 2005b Early Maritime Adaptations in Western South America, Conclusion. Mammoth Trumpet 21(1):14–17.
Sandweiss, D.H. 2009 Early Fishing and Inland Monuments: Challenging the Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization? In Andean Civilization: A Tribute to Michael E. Moseley, edited by J. Marcus and P. R. Williams , pp. 39–55. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, University of California, Los Angeles.
Sandweiss, D.H. , K.A. Maasch , D.F. Belknap , J.B. Richardson III , and H.B. Rollins 1998a Discussion of: L.E. Wells, 1996. The Santa Beach Ridge Complex. Journal of Coastal Research 14:367–373.
Sandweiss, D.H. , H. McInnis , R.L. Burger , A. Cano , B. Ojeda , R. del Carmen Paredes , M. Sandweiss , and D. Glascock 1998b Quebrada Jaguay: Early South American Maritime Adaptations. Science 281:1830–1832.
Sandweiss, D.H. , J.B. Richardson III , E.J. Reitz , J.T. Hsu , and R.A. Feldman 1989 Early Maritime Adaptations in the Andes: Preliminary Studies at the Ring Site, Perú. In Ecology, Settlement and History in the Osmore Drainage, edited by D.S. Rice , C. Stanish , and P.R. Scarr , pp. 35–86. B.A.R. International Series 545 (i), Great Britain.
Sanjur, O.I. , D.R. Piperno , T.C. Andres , and L. Wessel-Beaver 2002 Phylogenetic Relationships among Domesticated and Wild Species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) Inferred from a Nitochondrial Gene: Implications for Crop Plant Evolution and Areas of Origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99:535–540.
Santoro, C. 1989 Antiquos Cazadores de la Puna. In Prehistoria desde sus Origenes Hasta Los Albores de la Conquista, edited by J. Hildalgo , V. Schiappacasse , H. Niemeyer , C. Aldunate , and I. Solimano , pp. 33–56. Editorial Andrés Bello, Santiago.
Santoro C. , V. Standen , B. Arriaza , and T. Dillehay 2005 Archaic Funerary Pattern or Postdepositional Alternation? The Patapatane Burial in the Highlands of South Central Andes. Latin American Antiquity 16:329–346.
Sarmiento, G. 1975 The Dry Plant Formations of South America and Their Floristic Connections. Journal of Biogeography 2:233–251.
Sassaman, K. 2008 The New Archaic, It Ain't What It Used to Be. SAA Archaeological Record 8:6–8.
Sauer, C.O. 1952 Agricultural Origins and Dispersals. American Geographical Society, New York.
Scarre, C. 2002 Monuments and Landscape in Atlantic Europe: Perception and Society during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Routledge, New York.
Schiappacasse, V. , and H. Niemeyer 1984 Estudio del yacimiento arqueológico Camarones 14. In Publicación Ocasional del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile.
Schmitz, P.I. 1987 Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherers of Brazil. Journal of World Prehistory 1:53–126.
Seijo, G. , G.I. Lavia , A. Fernandez , A. Krapovickas , D.A. Ducasse , D.J. Bertioli , and E.A. Moscone 2007 Genomic Relationships between the Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) and Its Closest Relatives Revealed by Double GISH. American Journal of Botany 94:1963–1971.
Severinghaus, J.P. 2009 Monsoons and Meltdowns. Science 326:240–241.
Shady Solis, R. 1997 La ciudad sagrada de Caral-Supe en los albores de la civilización en el Perú. Universidad Nacional Mayor en San Marcos, Fondo Editorial, Lima, Perú.
Shady Solis, R. 2000 Sustento Socioeconómico de la Sociedad de Caral-Supe en los Orĺgenes de la Civilización en el Perú. Arqueología y Sociedad 13:49–66.
Shady Solis, R. 2005 Caral-Supe y su Entorno Natural y Social en los Orígenes de la Civilización. Investigaciones Sociales Año IX(14):89–120.
Shady Solis, R. , J. Haas , and W. Creamer 2001 Dating Caral, a Preceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Perú. Science 292:723–726.
Shady Solís, R. , and C. Leyva (editors) 2003 La ciudad sagrada de Caral-Supe: Los orígenes de la civilización andina y la formación del estado prístino en el antiguo Perú. Proyecto Especial Arqueológico Caral-Supe, Lima, Perú.
Sherratt, A. 1990 The Genesis of Megaliths: Monumentality, Ethnicity and Social Complexity in Neolithic North-West. World Archaeology 22:147–167.
Shimada, M. 1982 Zooarchaeology of Huacaloma: Behavioral and Cultural Implications. In Excavations at Huacaloma in the Cajamarca Valley, Perú 1979, edited by T. Kazuo and Y. Onuki , pp. 303–336. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.
Shimada, M. 1985 Continuities and Changes in Patterns of Faunal Resource Utilization: Formative through Cajamarca Periods. In The Formative Period in the Cajamarca Basin, Perú: Excavations at Huacaloma and Layzon, 19, edited by T. Kazuo and Y. Onuki , pp. 289–310. University of Tokyo Press: Tokyo.
Sievert, A.K. , and K. Wise 2001 A Generalized Technology for a Specialized Economy: Archaic Period Chipped Stone at Kilometer 4, Perú. In Lithic Debitage: Context, Form, Meaning, edited by W. Andrefsky, Jr ., pp. 80–105. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Simpson, B.B. 1975a Glacial Climates in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. Nature 253:34–36.
Simpson, B.B. 1975b Pleistocene Changes in the Flora of the High Tropical Andes. Palaeobiology 1:273–294.
Smith, B.D. 1997 The Initial Domestication of Cucurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 Years Ago. Science 276:932–934.
Smith, B.D. 2001 Low-Level Food Production. Journal of Archaeological Research 9:1–43.
Speth, J.D. 1972 The Mechanical Basis of Percussion Flaking. American Antiquity 37:34–60.
Stackelbeck, K.L. 2008 Adaptational Flexibility and Processes of Emerging Complexity: Early to Mid-Holocene Foragers in the Lower Jequetepeque Valley, Northern Perú. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.
Staller, J. , and R. Thompson 2002 A Multidisciplinary Approach to Understanding the Initial Introduction of Maize into Coastal Ecuador. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:33–50.
Standen, V. 2003 Bienes funerarios del cementerio Chinchorro Morro 1: Descripción, análisis e interpretación. Chungará 35(2):175–207.
Stewart, T.D. 1979 Essentials of Forensic Anthropology, Especially as Developed in the United States. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
Stone, D. 1984 Pre-Columbian Plant Migration. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 76. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Stordeut, D. , and G. Willcox 2009 Indices de culture et d'utilisation des cereals à Jerf el Ahmar. In De méditerranée at d'ailleurs. Mélanges offerts à Jean Guilane, edited by Collectif, pp. 693–710. Archives d'Écologie Préhistorique, Toulouse.
Stothert, K.E. 1974 Lithic Technology of the Santa Elena Peninsula. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York.
Stothert, K.E. 1985 The Preceramic Las Vegas Culture of Coastal Ecuador. American Antiquity 50:613–637.
Stothert, K.E. 1988 La prehistoria temprana de la península de Santa Elena, Ecuador: Cultura Las Vegas. Miscelánea Antropológica Ecuatoriana. Serie Monográfica 10, Museos del Banco Central del Ecuador, Guayaquil.
Stothert, K.E. 1992 Early Economies of Coastal Ecuador and the Foundations of Andean Civilization. Andean Past 3:43–54.
Stothert, K.E. , D.R. Piperno , T.C. Andres , K.E. Stothert , D.R. Piperno , and T.C. Andres 2003 Terminal Pleistocene/Early Holocene Human Adaptation in Coastal Ecuador: The Las Vegas Evidence. Quaternary International 109(110):23–43.
Strong, W. D. , and C. Evans 1952 Cultural Stratigraphy in the Virú Valley. Columbia University Press, New York.
Stuiver, M. , and P.J. Reimer 1993 Extended 14C Database and Revised CALIB Radiocarbon Calibration Program. Radiocarbon 35:215–230.
Suárez, R. 2000 Paleoindian Occupations in Uruguay. Current Research in the Pleistocene 17:78–80.
Suárez, R. 2001 Technomorphological Observations on Fishtail Projectile Points and Bifacial Artifacts from Northern Uruguay. Current Research in the Pliestocene 18:56–58.
Suárez, R. 2003 Paleoindian Components of Northern Uruguay: New Data on Early Human Occupations of the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. In Where the South Wind Blows: Ancient Evidence of Paleo South Americans, edited by L. Miotti , M. Salemme , and N. Flegenheimer , pp. 29–36. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Symes, S. A. , C.W. Rainwater , E.N. Chapman , D.R. Gipson , and A.L. Piper 2008 Patterned Thermal Destruction of Human Remains in a Forensic Setting. In The Analysis of Burned Human Remains, edited by C.W. Schmidt and S.A. Symes , pp.15–54. Elsevier, New York.
Tellenbach, M. 1986 Las Excavaciones en el Asentamiento Formativo de Montegrande, Valle de Jequetepeque en el Norte del Perú. Materialien zue Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Archaologie 39. Bonn.
Tello, J.C. 1929 Antiguo Perú. Primera Epoca, Lima.
Tello, J.C. 1930 Andean Civilization: Some Problems of Peruvian Archaeology. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Americanists (New York 1928), pp. 31–43. Science Printing Company, New York.
Tello, J.C. 1942 Origen y desarrollo de las civilizaciones prehistóricas andinas. In Actas y trabajos científicos del 27 Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Lima 1939, T.1, 589–720. Lima.
Temme, M. 1982 Excavaciones en el Sitio Precerámico de Cubilan (Ecuador). Miscelánea Antropológica Ecuatoriana 2:136–163.
Terada, K. , and Y. Onuki , (editors) Excavations at Huacaloma in the Cajamarca Valley, Perú, 1979. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.
Thomas, J. 1991 Rethinking the Neolithic. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Tilley, C. 1994 A Phenomenology of Landscape. Berg Publishers, Oxford.
Toggweiler, J.R. 2009 Shifting Westerlies. Science 323:1434–1435.
Tosi, J.A. 1960 Zonas de Vida Natural en el Perú: Memoria Explicativa Sobre el Mapa Ecológico del Perú. Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agrícolas, Boletín Tecnico 5. OAS, Zona Andina, Proyecto 39.
Tosi, J.A. 1964 Climatic Control of Terrestrial Ecosystems: A Report on the Holdridge Model. Economic Geography 40(2):173–181.
Turner, C.G. 1983 Taphonomic Reconstructions of Human Violence and Cannibalism Based on Mass Burials in the American Southwest. In Carnivores, Human Scavengers and Predators: A Question of Bone Technology, edited by G.M. LeMoine and A.S. MacEachern , pp. 219–240. University of Calgary Archaeology Association, Calgary.
Turner, C.G. , and N.T. Morris 1970 A Massacre at Hopi. American Antiquity 35:320–331.
Turner, C.G. , and J. Turner 1998 Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Ubelaker, D.H. 1999 Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation, third edition. Manuals on Archeology 2. Taraxacum, Washington.
Ugent, D. , and C.M. Ochoa 2006 La Etnobotánica del Perú: Desde la Prehistoria al Presente. CONCYTEC, Lima, Perú.
Ugent, D. , S. Pozorski , and T. Pozorski 1986 Archaeological Manioc (Manihot) from Coastal Perú. Economic Botany 40:78–102.
Uhle, M. 1925 Report on explorations at Supe. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 21:257–263.
Van Der Hammen, T. 1974 The Pleistocene Changes in Vegetation and Climate in Tropical South America. Journal of Biogeography 1:3–26.
Van Der Leeuw, S. , and C.L. Redman 2002 Placing Archaeology at the Center of Socio-Natural Studies. American Antiquity 67:597–605
Verano, J. 1998 Sacrificios humanos, desmembramientos y modificaciones culturales en restos osteológicos: evidencias de las temporadas de investigación 1995–96 en la Huaca de la Luna. In Investigaciones en la Huaca de la Luna 1996, edited by S. Uceda , E. Mujica and R. Morales , pp. 159–171. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo.
Verano, J. 2001 Paleopathological Analysis of Sacrificial Victims at the Pyramid of the Moon, Moche River Valley, Northern Perú. Chungará, Revista de Antropología Chilena 32(1):61–70.
Verano, J. 2008 Communality and Diversity in Moche Human Sacrifice. In The Art and Archaeology of the Moche, edited by S. Bourget and K.L. Jones , pp. 195–213. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Villa, P.B. , C. Courtin , and J. Helmer 1986 Cannibalism in the Neolithic. Science 233:431–436.
Vuilleumier, B.S. 1971 Pleistocene Changes in the Fauna and Flora of South America. Science 173:771–780.
Vuilleumier, F. 1969 Pleistocene Speciation in Birds Living in the High Andes. Nature 223:1179–1180.
Wang, Y.J. , H. Cheng , R.L. Edwards , Z.S. AN , J.Y. Wu , S-C Shen , and JI.A. Dorale 2001 A High-Resolution Absolute-Dated Late Pleistocene Monsoon Record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294:2345–2348.
Wang, Y. , H. Cheng , R.L. Edwards , Y. He , X. Kong , Z. An , J. Wu , M.J. Kelly , C.A. Dykoski , and X. Li 2005 The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 3008:854–857.
Wang, Y. , H. Cheng , R.L. Edwards , X. Kong , K. Shao , S. Chen , J. Wu , X. Jiang , X. Wang , and Z. An 2008 Millennial- and Orbital-Scale Changes in the East Asian Monsoon over the Past 224,000 Years. Nature 451:1090–1093.
Weber, S.A. 2003 Archaeobotany at Harappa: Indications for Change. In Indus Ethnobiology: New Perspectives from the Field , edited by S.A. Weber and W.R. Belcher , pp. 175–198. Lexington Books, Lanham, MD.
Weberbauer, A. 1936 Phytogeography of the Peruvian Andes. In Flora of Perú, edited by J.F. McBride , Part I. Field Museum of Natural History, Publication 351. Botanical Series. Vol. XIII. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
Weberbauer, A. 1945 El Mundo Vegetal de los Andes Peruanos. Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima.
Wells, L.E. 1987 An Alluvial Record of El Niño Events from Northern Coastal Perú. Journal of Geophysical Research 92(C13):14,463–14,470.
Wells, L.E. 1990 Holocene History of the El Niño Phenomenon as Recorded in Flood Sediments of Northern Coastal Perú. Geology 18:1134–1137.
Weng, C. , M.B. Bush , J.H. Curtis , A.L. Kolata , T.D. Dillehay , and M.W. Binford 2006 Deglaciation and Holocene Climate Change in the Western Peruvian Andes. Quaternary Research 66:87–96.
Wessel-Beaver, L. 2000 Evidence for the Center of Diversity of Cucurbita moschata in Colombia. Cucurbita Genetics Cooperative 23:54–55.
Westengen, O.T. , Z. Huaman , and M. Heun 2005 Genetic Diversity and Geographic Pattern in Early South American Cotton Domestication. Theoretical Applied Genetics 110:392–402.
White, T.D. 1992 Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Wiessner, P. 1982 Beyond Willow Smoke and Dog's Tails: A Commentary on Binford's Analysis of Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems. American Antiquity 47:171–178.
Wikepedia 2010 en.wikipedia.org.
Wilcox, G. 2002 Geographical Variation in Major Cereal Components and Evidence for Independent Domestication Events in Western Asia. In The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, edited by R.T.J. Cappers and S. Bottema , pp. 133–140. Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6. Ex oriente, Berlin.
Willey, G.R. 1953 Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Virú Valley, Perú. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 155. Washington, DC.
Wilson, P.J. 1988 The Domestication of the Human Species Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Winterhalder, B. , and E. Smith 1992 Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior. Aldine Press, New York.
Wise, K. 1999 Kilometro 4 y la Ocupación del Período Arcaico en el area de Ilo, al sur del Perú. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP: El Período Arcaico en el Perú: Hacia una definicion de los origenes 3:335–364.
Woodburn, J. 1980 Hunters and Gatherers Today and Reconstruction of the Past. In Soviet and Western Anthropology, edited by E. Gellner , pp. 95–117. Duckworth Publishers, London.
Wright, H.E , G.O. Seltzer , and B.C.S. Hansen 1989 Glacial and Climatic History of the Central Peruvian Andes. National Geographic Research 5:439–445.
Wunch, G. , and R. Piquè 1995 El período pre-cerámico en el Ecuador. Un asignatura pendiente. In Primer Encuentro de Investigatores de la Costa Ecuatoriana en Europa, edited by A. Alvaraez , S.G. Alvarez , C. Fauria , and J.G. Marcos , pp. 179–201. Abya-Yala, Quito.
Zarrillo, S. , D.M. Pearsall , J.S. Raymond , M.A. Tisdate , and D.J. Quon 2008 Directly Dated Starch Residues Document Early Formative Maize (Zea mays L.) in Tropical Ecuador. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:5006–5011.
Zeder, M.A. , E. Emdhwiller , B.D. Smith , and D.G. Bradley 2006 Documenting Domestication: The Intersection of Genetics and Archaeology. Trends in Genetics 22(3):13–25.
Zeidler, J.A. 1998 Cosmology and Community Plan in Early Formative Ecuador: Some Lessons from Tropical Ethnoastronomy. Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society 26 (1–2):37–68. Urbana, IL.
Zevallos Menéndez, C. 1971 La Agricultura en el Formativo Temprano de Ecuador: Cultura Valdivia. Casa de Cultura Ecuatoriana, Núcleo del Guayas, Guayaquil.