4 - ECUADOR: LATIN AMERICA'S STRONGEST INDIGENOUS MOVEMENT  pp. 85-151

ECUADOR: LATIN AMERICA'S STRONGEST INDIGENOUS MOVEMENT

By Deborah J. Yashar

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Ecuador claims Latin America's strongest, oldest, and most consequential indigenous movement, CONAIE. CONAIE first gained national and international notoriety in 1990 with a protest that shut down commerce for a week and forced the government to negotiate with them on several issues. By the end of the twentieth century, it had sustained this power of mobilization and parlayed it into a national force to be reckoned with when debating development policy, bicultural education, and institutional design. Moreover, several of its regional and national leaders have been elected to the national legislature and appointed to national office. Indeed, they took part in drafting the country's new Constitution in 1997–1998. Dramatically, CONAIE also helped to topple two national governments (Presidents Bucaram in 1997 and Mahuad in 2000). In a country where civil society is notoriously weak (Pachano 1996), the strength of Ecuador's indigenous movement is all the more striking.

This chapter explains the emergence of Ecuador's indigenous movements. It seeks to strike a balance between delineating the common origins of these movements and presenting the organizational stories that make these movements so unique in Ecuadorian history. Drawing on the framework outlined in Chapter 3, this chapter illustrates how the Ecuadorian state unintentionally granted pockets of local autonomy to indigenous people, only later to challenge that very autonomy through changing citizenship regimes. This change in citizenship regimes catalyzed indigenous communities to mobilize, beginning in the 1960s on through the present day.

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Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

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Reference Title: Interviews

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: BOLIVIA

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Individual Interviews (all in La Paz unless otherwise stated)

Reference Type: bibliography

Aimaretti, Marco Antonio (Centro de Estudios Jurídicos e Investigación Social, Santa Cruz), July 1, 1997
Albó, Xavier (Centro de Investigación y Promoción del Campesinado), October 18, 1995; May 22, 1997; and August 2, 1997
Aranibar, Sonia (USAID), May 21, 1997
Arias, Iván (Director, Apoyo a los Pueblos Indígenas), May 27, 1997
Barrientos, Bonifacio, July 2, 1997; July 24, 1997; and July 25, 1997 (Capitanía del Alto y Bajo Izozog, Santa Cruz)
Bravo, Nestor (Confederación Sindical Unica de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia), October 24, 1995; July 4, 1997; and July 9, 1997
Calla, Ricardo (TAIPI), May 27, 1997; July 4, 1997; and August 4, 1997
Calvo, Luz María (Subsecretary of Asuntos Etnicos in Secretaría Nacional de Asuntos Etnicos, de Género, y Generacionales) October 31, 1995 and August 9, 1997
Canqui, Sonia (ICAB/Aywi-Aroma, Machacamarca Sur), July 19, 1997
Cárdenas, Víctor Hugo (Vice President of Bolivia), June 19, 1997
Castillo, Oscar (Central de Pueblos Indígenas del Beni, Santa Cruz), July 25, 1997
Choque Quispe, María Eugenia (Taller de Historia Oral Andina), May 21, 1997
Conde Mamani, Ramón (Taller de Historia Oral Andina), June 25, 1997
Contreras, Manuel E. (Universidad Católica Boliviana), October 23, 1995 and May 30, 1997
Crespo, Mónica (Centro de Investigación y Promoción del Campesinado, Cochabamba), June 23, 1997
De la Cruz, Juan (Confederación Sindical Unica de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia), October 24, 1995
Delgado, Sergio (Fondo Indígena), October 20, 1995
Fabricano, Marcial (former President of Confederación Indígena del Oriente, Chaco y Amazonía de Bolivia and Central de Pueblos Indígenas del Beni; vice presidential candidate for Movimiento Bolivia Libre in 1997 elections), October 31, 1995; November 2, 1995 (Santa Cruz); June 13, 1997; and June 20, 1997
Flores, Jenaro (former Secretary General of Confederación Sindical Unica de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia), October 24, 1995; October 30, 1995; November 3, 1995; May 26, 1997; and June 10, 1997
Gray Molina, George (UDAPSO), May 23, 1997
Guasebi, José (Central de Pueblos Indígenas del Beni, Trinidad), October 26, 1995
Iturralde, Diego (Fondo Indígena), October 19, 1995; October 20, 1995; May 23, 1997; June 16, 1997; and August 13, 1997
Lavadenz, Isabel (Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria), August 4, 1997; August 5, 1997; and August 15, 1997
Layme Escalante, Diomedes (ICAB), June 12, 1997; June 17, 1997; and July 9, 1997
Lehm, Zulehma (Centro de Investigación y Documentación para el Desarollo del Beni, Trinidad), October 26, 1995 and August 1, 1997
Lima, Constantino (former leader of Indianista movement), June 16, 1997 (El Alto); June 17, 1997 (El Alto); and July 15, 1997 (El Alto)
Loayza, Román (Confederación Sindical Unica de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia), June 11, 1997 and June 19, 1997
Machado, Freddy (Centro de Investigación y Documentación para el Desarollo del Beni, Trinidad), October 27, 1995
Mamani, Belizario (Secretary General of Aywi-Aroma, Machacamarca Sur), July 19, 1997
Mamani, Carlos (Taller de Historia Oral Andina), June 2, 1997 and June 16, 1997
Mamani, Liño (ICAB and Aywi-Aroma), July 9, 1997
Molina, Carlos Hugo (Secretaría de Participación Popular), July 17, 1997
Molina Ramiro (as Secretary of the Secretaría Nacional de Asuntos Etnicos, Genero, y Generacionales), October 23, 1995 and October 25, 1995; and (as Scholar at Ministerio de Justicia), May 28, 1997 and May 30, 1997
Molina, Wilder (Centro de Investigación y Documentación para el Desarollo del Beni, Trinidad), July 29, 1997
Morales, Evo (leader of cocalero movement and national deputy in Congress), July 15, 1997 and August 6, 1997
Morales Ramos, Gerarda (ICAB), June 17, 1997
Múñoz, Jorge (UDAPSO), May 31, 1997
Murillo, David, Roberto Rozo, and Luis Antonio Rodríguez (joint interview at UNDP), June 9, 1997
Noe, Ernesto (Central de Pueblos Indígenas del Beni), July 25, 1997
Pérez, Federica (President of la Federación Departamental de Mujeres, Bartolina Sisa/Confederación Sindical Unica de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia), July 17, 1997
Pinelo, José (Semilla), June 4, 1997; June 10, 1997; and July 8, 1997
Rojas, Gonzalo (Secretaría de Participación Popular), October 19, 1995 and May 27, 1997
Romero Bonifaz, Carlos (Centro de Estudios Jurídicos e Investigación Social), July 1, 1997 (Santa Cruz) and July 29, 1997 (Trinidad)
Rufina Quispe Yumpace, Lucy (ICAB), July 9, 1997
Torranza, Carlos (ILDIS), October 23, 1995 and May 30, 1997
Urañabi, José (Confederación Indígena del Oriente, Chaco y Amazonía de Bolivia), July 2, 1997
Vadillo, Alcides (Oficina de Asuntos Etnicos), October 31, 1995 and (Legal Director, Secretaría de Participación Popular), June 11, 1997 and June 13, 1997
Vare Chávez, Lorenzo (Centro de Investigación y Documentación para el Desarollo del Beni, Trinidad), August 1, 1997
Vargas, Humberto (CERES, Cochabamba), June 23, 1997
Velasco, Arminda (SIPADEM), June 24, 1997 and August 7, 1997
Veliz, Alejo (Presidential Candidate for Asamblea por la Soberanía de los Pueblos in 1997 elections), June 10, 1997; June 11, 1997; and July 18, 1997
Yandura, Oscar (Capitanía del Alto y Bajo Izozog, Santa Cruz), July 28, 1997
Zolezzi, Graciela (Apoyo para el Campesino-Indígena del Oriente Boliviano, Santa Cruz), July 2, 1997

Reference Title: BOLIVIA: Community Interviews

Reference Type: bibliography

Community discussions in several communities in Department of Santa Cruz; conducted by Marcial Fabricano, José Urañabi, and Felicia Barrientos (representatives from Confederación Indígena del Oriente, Chaco y Amazonía de Bolivia) (June 27–30). Discussions held in Camiri among Guarani (June 28, 1997); in Villamonte among Weenhayek (June 29, 1997); and in Monteagudo among Consejo de Capitanes de Chuquisaca (June 30)
Community discussion with Aywi Aroma (youth group) in Lahuachaca, Department of La Paz, July 10, 1997
Discussion with community leaders from Llojlla Chico, Llojlla Grande, and Llojlla Pampa (July 10, 1997)

Reference Title: ECUADOR

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Individual Interviews

Reference Type: bibliography

Bottasso, Juan (Salesian priest who has worked in various capacities with Ecuador's indigenous movements), Quito, November 17, 1995 and November 22, 1995
Buñay, Francisco (President of Unión de Inca Atahualpa, Tixan, Chimborazo), April 22, 1997
Cabascango, José María (former president of Federación Indígena y Campesina de Imbabura, former elected leader of Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador for human rights and lands, and temporary president of Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador, Quito), November 27, 1995; March 19, 1997; March 26, 1997; and April 23, 1997
Cerda, César (President of Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de Pastaza, Quito), May 6, 1997
Conejo, Roberto (Member of Centro de Estudios Pluriculturales [Centro de Estudios Pluriculturales], Otavalo), March 12, 1997
De la Cruz, Pedro (President of Federación Nacional de Organizaciones Campesinas e Indígenas, Quito), December 8, 1995
Díaz, Carlos (researcher at Centros de Estudios y Difusion Social [CEDIS] working with Unión de Inca Atahualpa, Tixan, Chimborazo), March 31, 1997
Grefa, Ignacio (former president of Federación de Organizaciones Indígenas del Napo, Tena, Napo), December 6, 1995
Grefa, Valerio (former president of Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador and Secretary General of Coordinadora de Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica; involved in various capacities in the Movimiento Pachakutik, Quito), November 29, 1995 and March 18, 1997
Hurtado, Osvaldo (former President of Ecuador, Quito), December 1, 1995
Ibarra, Hernán (researcher on indigenous affairs, Quito), February 22, 1997
Karakras, Ampam (indigenous activist and researcher who has worked in various capacities with the Amazonian organizations and Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador, Quito), November 26, 1995; February 20, 1997; and April 7, 1997
Larrea, Carlos (researcher on poverty and inequality, Quito), March 5, 1997
Leon, Jorge (researcher on indigenous affairs, Quito), February 17, 1997
Lluco, Miguel (National Deputy in National Congress and former president of Ecuador Runacunapac Riccharimui (Awakening of the Ecuadorean Indian), Quito), March 13, 1997; March 26, 1997; and April 30, 1997
Lluilema, Anselmo (member of Unión de Inca Atahualpa, Tixan, Chimborazo), March 21, 1997
Macas, Luis (former president of Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador and national deputy in the National Congress, Quito), May 6, 1997
Maldonado, Luis (Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador and President of Centro de Estudios Pluriculturales), March 12, 1997
Merino Gayes, Tito (General Coordinator of 1992 Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de Pastaza march; interview at Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de Pastaza conference, Alishungu, Pastaza), April 3, 1997
Ortiz Crespo, Gonzalo (Secretary to the president during the Rodrigo Borja administration, Quito), February 27, 1997 and March 11, 1997
Pacari, Nina (formerly part of directorate of Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador; at time of interview, she was providing legal advice to the recently elected indigenous members of the National Congress, Quito), March 5, 1997
Ramón, Galo (researcher on indigenous affairs, Quito), March 20, 1997 and April 28, 1997
Rosero, Fernando (researcher on indigenous affairs, Quito), March 11, 1997 and March 18, 1997
Shutka, Juan (Catholic priest who helped to found the Shuar Federation, Quito), November 24, 1995
Tapuy, Cristóbal (former president of FOIN, CONFENAIE, and Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador), November 24, 1995 and February 18, 1997
Torres, Ramón (Coordinador Programa Derechos Pueblos Indígenas at CEPLAES [Centro de Planificación y Estudios Sociales], Quito), November 21, 1995 and March 5, 1997
Tovar, Benjamín (Director Nacional de Desarrollo Campesino, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería), December 1, 1995
Vargas, Antonio (President of Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador, Quito), February 28, 1997 and March 4, 1997
Viteri, Cecilia (researcher at Centro de Estudios y Difusión Social [CEDIS], Quito), February 27, 1997
Viteri, Leonardo (Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de Pastaza and Director of Amazangas, Quito), March 6, 1997
Yamberla, Carmen (President of Federación Indígena y Campesina de Imbabura, Otavalo, Ecuador), March 12, 1997
Wray, Natalia (researcher. Interview in offices of Coordinadora de Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica, Quito), November 23, 1995

Reference Title: Group Interviews

Reference Type: bibliography

Anonymous group discussion outside of Puyo, Pastaza on May 2, 1997 and May 3, 1997
Federación de Organizaciones Indígenas de Napo (Federación de Organizaciones Indígenas del Napo) in Tena, Napo on December 6, 1995 with Ignacio Grefa, Blas Chimbo Chong, and Víctor Coyafeo
Unión de Inca Atahualpa, Tixan, Chimborazo on March 14, 1997 with President Francisco Buñay, Secretary Augustín Vargas, José Guacho, and Vice President Albino Chicaisa
Unión de Inca Atahualpa, Tixan, Chimborazo on April 21, 1997 with fourteen anonymous individuals
Unión de Inca Atahualpa, Tixan, Chimborazo on April 22, 1997 with four anonymous individuals

Reference Title: Participant Observation at Meetings

Reference Type: bibliography

Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de Pastaza conference, Primera asamblea ordinaria de los pueblos quichua y shiwiar de Pastaza, Alishungu, Pastaza, April 3, 1997
Taller de Jóvenes organized by the Centro de Estudios Pluriculturales (Centro de Estudios Pluriculturales), Otavalo, April 22, 1997

Reference Title: PERU

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Interviews in La Paz, Bolivia about Unión de Comunidades Aymaras

Reference Type: bibliography

Cruz Alanguía, Bonifacio (Unión de Comunidades Aymaras), June 22, 1997; June 24, 1997; July 9, 1997; July 17, 1997; August 6, 1997; August 7, 1997; and August 14, 1997
Jose Pinelo (Semilla), July 8, 1997

Reference Title: Interviews in Lima, Peru

Reference Type: bibliography

Aroca Medina, Américo Javier. Jefe del Programa Especial de Comunidades Nativas, Defensoría del Pueblo. Interview conducted for this book by Maritza Rodríguez-Seguí, September 16, 1999
Cantalicio, Julio (President of Confederación Nacional Agraria), August 20, 1997
Inoach, Gil (President of Asociación Interétnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana), August 19, 1997
Nukjuag, Evaristo (former-president of Asociación Interétnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana), August 18, 1997; August 19, 1997; August 20, 1997; and August 21, 1997
Sarasara, César (President of Confederación de Nacionalidades de la Amazonía Peruana), August 20, 1997

Reference Title: Group Interviews in Peru

Reference Type: bibliography

ADECAP, anonymous group interview, August 19, 1997, Lima
Unión de Comunidades Aymaras, collective discussion with an estimated twenty-five community leaders and Executive Council, Puno, Peru on August 21, 1997
Unión de Comunidades Aymaras, collective discussion with twenty community members in Desaguadero (Puno), Peru on August 22, 1997
Unión de Comunidades Aymaras, group discussion with President (Héctor Velasquez) and Executive Council in Puno, Peru on August 21, 1997 and August 22, 1997