19 - Management of pain in arthritis  pp. 307-327

Management of pain in arthritis

By Raphael J. Leo and Thomas J. Romano

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Introduction

The negative impact of arthritis on virtually every aspect of society is so great as to be almost inestimable. In addition to direct costs of care, the indirect costs resulting from arthritis-related work disability, absences, and decreased productivity, are monumental. Thus, arthritic conditions not only generate pain and suffering, but contribute to financial hardship, decreased quality of life, and life dissatisfaction. The resulting social and psychological impact of arthritic conditions can be staggering.

According to the National Health Interview Survey over 46 million adults in the USA have some form of arthritis. Almost half of these adults, i.e., 18.9 million patients, have limitations in daily activities attributable to the arthritis. Arthritis prevalence increases with age and is higher among women in every age group in the USA. Prevalence rates are expected to rise; by the year 2030 an estimated 67 million adults in the United States will have diagnosable arthritis. The adverse impact of arthritic conditions is therefore expected to rise significantly.

Despite these and other problems and challenges faced by arthritis sufferers, there are now more and varied treatment options available to them than in the past. The first portion of this chapter will examine current diagnostic and treatment approaches to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The second portion of this chapter will address psychological and psychopharmacological treatment approaches, particularly for pain management, in arthritic conditions.

Abatacept (Orencia) for rheumatoid arthritis. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2006; 28: 17–18.
Abbott FV , Hong Y , Blier P . Persisting sensitization of the behavioural response to formalin-induced injury through activation of serotonin 2A receptors. Neuroscience 1997; 77: 575–84.
Abell JE , Hootman JM , Zack MM , Moriarty D , Helmick CG. Physical activity and health related quality of life among people with arthritis. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005; 59: 380–5.
Affleck G , Tennen H , Keefe FJ , et al. Everyday life with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis: independent effects of disease and gender on daily pain, mood, and coping. Pain 1999; 83: 601–9.
Altman R , Asch E , Bloch D , et al, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American Rheumatism Association. Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis. Classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 1039–49.
Altman RD , Hochberg M , Murphy WA , Wolfe F , Lequesne M. Atlas of individual radiographic features in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1995; 3(suppl A): 3–70.
Altman RD , Moskowiwtz R. Intraarticular sodium hyaluronate (Hyalgan) in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized clinical trial. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 2203–12.
American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines . Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: 2000 update. American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 1905–15.
Anderson JJ , Felson DT . Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the first national Health and Nutrition Examinaton Survey (HANES I). Evidence for an association with overweight, race, and physical demands of work. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 179–85.
Ang DC , Choi H , Kroenke K , Wolfe F. Comorbid depression is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 1013–9.
Arnett F , Edwardworthy S , Bloch D , et al. The American Rheumatism Assocation 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 315–24.
Ash G , Dickens CM , Creed FH , Jayson MI , Tomesnson B. The effects of dothiepin on subjects with rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999; 38: 959–67.
Astin JA , Beckner W , Soeken K , Hochberg MC , Berman B. Psychological interventions for rheumatoid arthritis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 47: 291–302.
Bagheri-Nesami M , Mohseni-Bandpei MA , Shayesteh-Azar M. The effect of Benson relaxation technique on rheumatoid arthritis patients: extended report. Int J Nurs Pract 2006; 12: 214–19.
Baird CL , Sands L. A pilot study of the effectiveness of guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation to reduce chronic pain and mobility difficulties of osteoarthritis. Pain Manag Nurs 2004; 5: 97–104.
Baird CL , Sands LP. Effect of guided imagery with relaxation on health-related quality of life in older women with osteoarthritis. Res Nurs Health 2006; 29: 442–51.
Barlow JH , Turner AP , Wright CC. A randomised controlled trial study of the arthritis self-management programme in the UK. Health Educ Res 2000; 15: 665–80.
Bathon JM , Martin RW , Fleischmann RM , et al. A comparison of entanercept and methotrexate in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1586–93.
Bazzichi L , Maser J , Piccinni A , et al. Quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis impact of disability and lifetime depressive spectrum symptomatology. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2005; 23: 783–8.
Bird H , Broggini M. Paroxetine versus amitriptyline for treatment of depression associated with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 2791–7.
Birnbaum HG , Barton M , Greenberg PE , et al. Direct and indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis to an employer. J Occup Environ Med. 2000; 42: 588–96.
Boers M , Verhoeven AC , Markusse HM , et al. Randomized comparison of combined step-down prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine with sulphasalazine alone in early rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1997; 350: 309–18.
Bongartz T , Sutton AJ , Sweeting MJ , et al. Anti-TNF antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of serious infections and malignancies: systemic review and meta-analysis of rare harmful effects in randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2006; 295: 2275–85.
Bradley LA , Young LD , Anderson KO , et al. Effects of psychological therapy on pain behavior of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 1105–14.
Burman P , Toy GG , Babao S , et al. A comparative evaluation of quality of life and life satisfaction in patients with psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2007; 26: 330–4.
Burns JW , Johnson BJ , Mahoney N , et al. Cognitive and physical capacity process variables predict longterm outcome after treatment of chronic pain. J Consult Clin Psychology 1998, 66: 434–9.
Calfas KJ , Kaplan RM , Ingram RE. One-year evaluation of cognitive-behavioral intervention in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1992; 5: 202–9.
Calguneri M , Pay S , Caliskaner Z , et al. Combination therapy versus monotherapy for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1999; 17: 699–704.
Carson JW , Keefe FJ , Affleck G , et al. A comparison of conventional pain coping skills training and pain coping skills training with a maintenance training component: a daily diary analysis of short- and long-term treatment effects. J Pain 2006; 7: 615–25.
Center for Disease Control . Update: direct and indirect costs of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions-United States, 1997. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004; 53: 388–9.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . Prevalence of disabilities and associated health conditions – United States, 1999. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001; 50: 120–5.
Chang DM , Lan JL , Lin HY , Luo SF. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of women with mild to moderate systemic lupus erythematosus: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 2924–7.
Cohen SB , Emery P , Greenwald MW , et al. REFLEX Trial Group. Rituximab for rheumatoid arthritis refractory to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating primary efficacy and safety at twenty-four weeks. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 2793–806.
Covic T , Tyson G , Spencer D , Howe G. Depression in rheumatoid arthritis patients: demographic, clinical, and psychological predictors. J Psychosom Res 2006; 60: 469–76.
Creamer P , Lethbridge-Cejku M , Hochberg MC. Factors associated with functional impairment in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000; 39: 490–6.
Cronan TA , Hay M , Groessl E , et al. The effects of social support and education on health care costs after three years. Arthritis Care Res 1998; 11: 326–34.
Curtis JR , Patkar N , Xie A , et al. Risk of serious bacterial infections among rheumatoid arthritis patients exposed to tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 1125–33.
Dexter P , Brandt K. Distribution and predictors of depressive symptoms in osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 279–86.
Dionne CE , Koepsell TD , von Korff M , et al. Predicting long-term functional limitations among back pain patients in primary care settings. J Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50: 31–43.
Dougados M. Evaluation of disease progression during nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment: imaging by arthroscopy. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1999; 7: 345–7.
Dougados M. The role of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis: a European viewpoint. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2001; 19 (Suppl 25): S9–S14.
Ettinger WH , Davis MA , Neuhas JM , Mallon KP. Long-term physical functioning in persons with knee osteoarthritis from NHANES I: effects of comorbid medical conditions. J Clin Epidemiol 1994; 47: 809–15.
Euler HH , Schroeder JO , Harten P , Zeuner RA , Gutschmidt HJ. Treatment-free remission in severe systemic lupus erythematosus following synchronization of plasmapheresis with subsequent pulse cyclophosphamide. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 1784–94.
Evers AW , Kraaimaat FW , van Riel PL , de Jong AJL . Tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis for paients at risk: a randomized controlled trial. Pain 2002; 100: 141–53.
Felson DT , Anderson JJ , Naimark A , Walker AM , Meenan RF. Obesity and knee osteoarthritis. The Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1988; 109: 18–24.
Felson DT , Chaisson CE , Hill CL , et al. The association of bone marrow lesions with pain in knee osteoarthritis. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 541–9.
Felson DT , Lawrence RC , Hochberg MC , et al. Osteoarthritis: new insights. Part 2: treatment approaches. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 726–37.
Fields HL. Pain modulation. Prog Brain Res 2000; 122: 245–53.
Fishbain D. Evidence-based data on pain relief with antidepressants. Ann Med 2000; 32: 305–16.
Frank RG , Kashani JH , Parker JC , et al. Antidepressant analgesia in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 1632–8.
Fuchs HA , Kaye JJ , Callahan LF , Nance EP , Pincus T. Evidence of significant radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis within the first 2 years of disease. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 585–91.
Gatchel RJ. A biopsychosocial overview of pretreatment screening of patients with pain. Clin J Pain 2001; 17: 192–9.
Gay MC , Philippot P , Luminet O. Differential effectiveness of psychological interventions for reducing osteoarthritis pain: a comparison of Erikson hypnosis and Jacobson relaxation. Eur J Pain 2002; 6: 1–16.
Genovese MC , Becker JC , Schiff M , et al. Abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis refractory to tumor necrosis factor inhibition. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1114–23.
Gladman DD , Urowitz MB , Cole E , et al. Kidney biopsy in SLE. A clinical-morphological evaluation. Quart J Med 1989; 73: 1125–53.
Gonzalez-Gay MA , Gonzalez-Juanatey C , Martin J. Rheumatoid arthritis: a disease associated with accelerated atherogenesis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2005; 35: 8–17.
Grace EM , Bellamy N , Kassam Y , Buchanan WW. Controlled double-blind randomized trial of amitriptyline in relieving articular pain and tenderness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Med Res Opin 1985; 9: 426–9.
Gustafsson M , Gaston-Johansson F , Aschenbrenner D , Merboth M. Pain, coping and analgesic medication usage in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Patient Educ Counsel 1999; 37: 33–41.
Hagglund KJ , Haley WE , Reveille JD , Alarcon GS. Predicting individual differences in pain and functional impairment among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 851–8.
Hale ED , Treharne GJ , Norton Y , et al. “Concealing the evidence”: the importance of appearance concerns for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2006; 15: 532–40.
Hammond A. Joint protection behaviour in patients with rheumatoid arthritis following an education program: a pilot study. Arthritis Care Res 1994; 7: 5–9.
Hawley DJ. Psycho-educational interventions in the treatment of arthritis. Baillieres Clinical Rheumatology 1995; 9: 803–23.
Helliwell PS , O'Hara M , Holdsworth J , et al. A 12-month randomized controlled trial of patient education on radiographic changes and quality of life in early rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 1999; 38: 303–8.
Hochberg MC. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1725.
Hollander JL , Brown EM , Jessar RA , Brown CY . Hydrocortisone and cortisone injected into arthritic joints: comparative effects of and use of hydrocortisone as a local antiarthritic agent. J Am Med Assoc 1951; 147: 1629–35.
Holzberg AD , Robinson ME , Geisser ME , Gremillion HA . The effects of depression and chronic pain on psychosocial and physical functioning. Clin J Pain 1996; 12: 118–25.
Hootman J , Bolen J , Helmick C , Langmaid G. Prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation – United States, 2003–2005. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006; 55: 1089–92.
Hootman JM , Helmick CG. Projections of U.S. prevalence of arthritis and associated activity limitations. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 226–9.
Hughes GR. Is it lupus? St. Thomas's Hospital “alternative” criteria. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1998; 16: 250–2.
Huskisson EC , Berry H , Gishen P , Jubb RW , Whitehead J. on behalf of the LINK Study Group. Effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on the progression of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1941–6.
Julkunen HA. Oral contraceptives in systemic lupus erythematosus: side-effects and influence on the activity of SLE. Scand J Rheumatol 1991; 20: 427–33.
Jump Rl , Robinson ME , Armstrong AE , et al. Fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus: contributions of disease activity, pain, depression, and perceived social support. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 1699–705.
Katon W , Sullivan M , Walker E. Medical symptoms without identified pathology. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 917–25.
Katz PP , Yelin EH. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among persons with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 790–6.
Keefe FJ , Abernethy AP , Campbell LC. Psychological approaches to understanding and treating disease-related pain. Annu Rev Psychol 2005; 56: 601–30.
Keefe FJ , Affleck G , Lefebvre JC , et al. Pain coping strategies and coping efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis: a daily process analysis. Pain 1997; 69: 35–42.
Keefe FJ , Caldwell DS , Baucom D , et al. Spouse-assisted coping skills training in the management of knee pain in osteoarthritis: long-term followup results. Arthritis Care Res 1999; 12: 101–11.
Keefe FJ , Caldwell DS , Baucom D , et al. Spouse-assisted coping skills training in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. Arthritis Care Res 1996; 9: 279–91.
Keefe FJ , Caldwell DS , Queen KT , et al. Pain coping strategies in osteoarthritis patients. J Consult Clin Psychol 1987; 55: 208–12.
Keefe FJ , Caldwell DS , Williams DA , et al. Pain coping skills training in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain II: follow-up results. Behav Ther 1990; 21: 435–47.
Keefe FJ , Caldwell DS , Williams DA , et al. Pain coping skills training in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain: a comparative study. Behav Ther 1990; 21: 49–62.
Keefe FJ , Caldwell DS. Cognitive behavioral control of arthritis pain. Med Clin North Am 1997; 81: 277–90.
Keefe FJ , Lefebvre JC , Egert J , et al. The relationship of gender to pain, pain behavior, and disability in osteoarthritis patients: the role of catastrophizing. Pain 2000; 87: 325–34.
Keefe FJ , Smith SJ , Buffington AL , et al. Recent advances and future directions in the biopsychosociaI assessment and treatment of arthritis. J Consult Clin Psychol 2002; 70: 640–55.
Keefe FJ , Van Horn Y . Cognitive-behavioral treatment of rheumatoid arthritis pain: maintaining treatment gains. Arthritis Care Res 1993; 6: 213–22.
Klippel JH. Is aggressive therapy effective for lupus? Rheum Dis Clin N Amer 1993; 19: 249–61.
Kozora E , Arciniegas DB , Zhang L , West S. Neuropsychological patterns in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with depression. Arthritis Res Ther 2007; 9: art. No. R48.
Kozora E, Ellison MC, West S. Depression, fatigue, and pain in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) relationship to the American College of Rheumatology SLE neuropsychological battery. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 628–35.
Kraaimaat FW , Brons MR , Geenen R , Bijlsma JW. The effect of cognitive behavior therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Behav Res Ther 1995; 33: 487–95.
Krishnam E , Hubert HB. Ethnicity and mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus in the U.S. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 1500–5.
Kvien TK. Epidemiology and burden of illness of rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacoeconomics 2004; 22(suppl): 1–12.
Laboni A , Ibanez D , Gladman DD , Urowitz MB , Moldofsky H. Fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus: contributions of disordered sleep, sleepiness, and depression. J Rheumatol 2006; 33: 2453–7.
Lamb SE , Guralnik JM , Buchner DM , et al. Factors that modify the association between knee pain and mobility limitation in older women. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 331–37.
Landewe RB , Boers M , Verhoeven AC , et al. COBRA combination therapy in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: long-term structural benefits of a brief intervention. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 347–56.
Lawrence RC , Helmick CG , Arnett FC , et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 778–99.
Lazarus RS , Folkman S. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping (New York: Springer, 1984).
Leibing E , Pfingsten M , Bartmann U , Rueger U , Schuessler G. Cognitive-behavioral treatment in unselected rheumatoid arthritis outpatients. Clin J Pain 1999; 15: 58–66.
Leo RJ. Clinical Manual of Pain Management in Psychiatry (Washington, DC. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2007).
Leveille SG , Fried LP , McMullen W , Guralnik JM. Advancing the taxonomy of disability in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004; 59: 86–93.
Li X , Gignac MA , Anis AH. The indirect costs of arthritis resulting from unemployment, reduced performance, and occupational changes while at work. Med Care 2006; 44: 304–10.
Lin EH , Katon W , Von Korff M , et al. Effect of improving depression care on pain and functional outcomes among older adults with arthritis. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 2428–34.
Lipsky PE , van der Heijde D , St . Clair EW , et al. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy Study Group. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1594–602.
Lundgren S , Stenstrom CH. Muscle relaxation training and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Scand J Rheumatol 1999; 28: 47–53.
Maini R, St . Clair EW , Breedveld F , et al. ATTRACT Study Group. Infliximab (chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving concomitant methotrexate: a randomized phase III trial. Lancet 1999; 354: 1932–9.
Mazieres B , Combe B , Phan Van A , Tondut J , Grynfeltt M. Chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective, double blind, placebo controlled multicenter clinical study. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 173–81.
Mc Cracken LM. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a preliminary review of efficacy and methodology. Ann Behav Med 1991; 13: 57–65.
McWilliams LA , Clara IP , Murphy PDJ , Cox BJ , Sareen J. Associations between arthritis and a broad range of psychiatric disorders: findings from a nationally representative sample. J Pain 2008; 9: 37–44.
McWilliams LA , Cox BJ , Enns MW. Mood and anxiety disorders associated with chronic pain: an examination in a nationally representative sample. Pain 2003; 106: 127–33.
Memel DS , Kirwan JR , Sharp DJ , Hehir M. General practitioners miss disability and anxiety as well as depression in their patients with osteoarthritis. Br J Gen Pract 2000; 50: 645–8.
Miller MH , Urowitz MB , Gladman DD. The significance of thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 1181–6.
Mjanek NJ , Lane NE. Osteoarthritis: current concepts in diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician 2000; 61: 1795–1804.
Monaghan SM , Sharpe L , Denton F , et al. Relationship between appearance and psychological distress in rheumatic disease. Arthritis Care Res 2007; 57: 303–9.
Morley S , Eccleston C , Williams A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cognitive-beaviour therapy and behaviour therapy for chronic pain in adults, excluding headache. Pain 1999; 80: 1–13.
Mullen PD , Laville EA , Biddle AK , Lorig K. Efficacy of psychoeducational interventions on pain, depression, and disability in people with arthritis: A meta-analysis. J Rheumatol 1987; 14 (Suppl 15): 33–9.
Murphy H , Dickens C , Creed F , Bernstein R. Depression, illness perception and coping in rheumatoid arthritis. J Psychosom Res 1999; 46: 155–64.
Nadon R , Laurence JR , Perry C. Multiple predictors of hypnotic susceptibility. J Pers Soc Psychol 1987; 53: 948–60.
Nell VP , Machold KP , Stamm TA , Eberl G et al. Autoantibody profiling as early diagnostic and prognostic tool for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 1731–6.
Neuwelt CM , Lacks S , Kaye BR , Ellman JB , Borenstein DG. Rose of intravenous cyclophosphamide in the treatment of severe neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med 1995; 98: 32–41.
Newhall-Perry K , Law NJ , Ramos B , et al. Direct and indirect costs associated with the onset of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. Western Consortium of Practicing Rheumatologists. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 1156–63.
Nielson WR , Weir R. Biopsychosocial approaches to the treatment of chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2001; 17(4 suppl): 114–27.
Nunez M , Sanchez A , Nunez E , et al. Patients perceptions of health related quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis and chronic low back pain. Qual Life Res 2006; 15: 93–102.
Ofluoglu D , Berker N , Guven Z , et al. Quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2005; 24: 490–2.
Pariser D , O'Hanlon A. Effects of telephone intervention on arthritis self-efficacy, depression, pain and fatigue in older adults with arthritis. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2005; 28: 67–73.
Parker JC , Frank R , Beck N , et al. Pain in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship to demographic, medical, and psychological factors. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 433–7.
Parker JC , Frank R , Beck N , et al. Pain management in rheumatoid arthritis: a cognitive-behavioral approach. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 593–601.
Parker JC , Smarr KL , Buckelew SP , et al. Effects of stress management on clinical outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 1807–18.
Parker JC , Smarr KL , Slaughter JR , et al. Management of depression in rheumatoid arthritis: a combined pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral approach. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 49: 766–77.
Pavelka K , Manopulo R , Bucsi L. Double blind, dose-effect study of oral chondroitin 4&6 sulphate 1200 mg, 800 mg, 200 mg and placebo in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Litera Rheumatologica 1999; 24: 21–30.
Petri M. Exogenous estrogen in systemic lupus erythematosus: oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Lupus 2001; 10: 222–6.
Puolakka K , Kautiainer H , Pekuriner M , et al. Monetary value of lost productivity over a five year follow-up in early rheumatoid arthritis estimated on the basis of official register data on patients' sickness absence and gross income: experience from the FIN-RACo trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 899–904.
Radhakrishnan J , Kunis Cl , D' Agati V , Appel GB. Cyclosporin treatment of lupus membranous nephropathy. Clin Nephrol 1994; 42: 147–54.
Radojevic V , Nicassio PM , Weisman MH. Behavioral intervention with and without family support for rheumatoid arthritis. Behav Ther 1992; 23: 13–30.
Raza K , Breese M , Nightingale P , et al. Predictive value of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide in patients with very early inflammatory arthritis. J. Rheumatol 2005; 32: 231–8.
Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: 2000 update . American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 1905–15.
Reeves WH , Satoh M , Wang J , Chou CH , Ajmani AK. Antibodies to DNA, DNA-binding proteins and histones. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1994; 20: 1–28.
Reijman M , Bierma-Zeinstra SM , Pols HA , et al. Is there an association between the use of different types of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and radiologic progression of osteoarthritis? The Rotterdam Study. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 3137–42.
Reisine ST , Goodenow C , Grady KE. The impact of rheumatoid arthritis on the homemaker. Soc Sci Med 1987; 25: 89–95.
Riemsma RP , Taal E , Kirwan JR , Rasker JJ. Systematic review of rheumatoid arthritis patient education. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 1045–59.
Romano TJ. Coexistence of the fibromyalgia syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Pain Manage 1992; 2: 211–4.
Romano TJ. Fibromyalgia syndrome in other rheumatic conditions. Lyon Mediterr Med Med Sud Est 32: 2143–6.
Rubin RL , Teodorescu M , Beutner EH , Plunkett RW. Complement-fixing properties of anti-nuclear antibodies distinguish drug-induced lupus from systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2004; 13: 249–56.
Samad TA , Moore KA , Sapirstein A , et al. Interleukin-1 beta-mediated induction of COX-2 in the CNS contributes to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Nature 2001; 410: 471–5.
Sarzi-Puttini P , Cazzola M , Boccassini L , et al. A comparison of dothiepin versus placebo in the treatment of pain in rheumatoid arthritis and the association of pain with depression. J Int Med Res 1988; 16: 331–7.
Schreiber S , Bleich A , Pick CG . Venlafaxine and mirtazapine: different mechanisms of antidepressant action, common opioid-mediated anti nociceptive effects: a possible opioid involvement in severe depression? J Molecular Neuroscience 2002; 18: 143–9.
Shakoor N , Michalska M , Harris CA , Block JA. Drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus associated with etanercept therapy. Lancet 2002; 259: 579–80.
Sharpe L , Sensky T , Timberlake N , et al. A blind, randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural intervention for patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis: preventing psychological and physical morbidity. Pain 2001; 89: 275–83.
Simon GE , von Korff M , Barlow W. Health care costs of primary care patients with recognized depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52: 850–6.
Sinclair VG , Wallston KA , Dwyer KA , Blackburn DS , Fuchs H. Effects of a cognitive-behavioural intervention for women with rheumatoid arthritis. Res Nurs Health 1998; 21: 315–26.
Sinclair VG , Wallston KA. Predictors of improvement in a cognitive-behavioral intervention for women with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Behav Med 2001; 23: 291–7.
Sokka T. Work disability in early rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2003; 21(suppl 31): S71–S74.
Sontheimer RD , Gilliam JN. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the skin. In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, 2nd edn., ed. RG Lahita . (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1992), pp. 657–81.
Spalton DJ , Verton Roe GM , Hughes GRV. Hydroxychloroquine dosage parameters and retinopathy. Lupus 1993; 2: 355–8.
Stojanovich L , Zandman-Goddard G , Pavlovich S , Sikanich N. Psychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmun Rev 2007; 6: 421–6.
Stricker RB , Davis JA , Gershow J , Yamamoto KS , Kiprov DD. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura complicating systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and literature review from the plasmapheresis era. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 1469–73.
Tersley L , Torp-Pedersen S , Savnick A , et al. Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of synovial inflammation of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 2434–41.
The Canadian Hydroxychloroquine Study Group . A randomized study of the effect of withdrawing hydroxychoroquine sulfate in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 150–4.
Theis KA , Helmick CG , Hootman JM. Arthritis burden and impact are greater among U.S. women than men: intervention opportunities. J Women's Health 2007; 16: 441–53.
Thorn BE , Kuhajda MC. Group cognitive therapy for chronic pain. J Clin Psychol 2006; 62: 1355–66.
Tokuda M , Kurata N , Mizogushi A , et al. Effect of low-dose cyclosporin A on systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 551–8.
Turk DC , Rudy TE. The robustness of an empirically derived taxonomy of chronic pain patients. Pain 1990; 43: 27–35.
Turk DC , Rudy TE. Toward an empirically derived taxonomy of chronic pain patients: integration of psychological assessment data. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988; 56: 233–8.
Turk DC. Customizing treatment in chronic pain patients, who, what, and why. Clin J Pain 1990; 6: 255–70.
Van Baar ME , Dekker J , Lemmens JA , Oostendorp RA , Bijlsma JW. Pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 125–33.
van der Heijde DM , van Leeuwen MA , van Riel PL , van de Putte LB . Radiographic progression on radiographs of hands and feet during the first 3 years of rheumatoid arthritis measured according to Sharp's method (van der Heijde modification). J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1792–96.
Vasoo S. Drug-induced lupus: an update. Lupus 2006; 15: 757–61.
Walco G , Varni JW , Bowite NT. Cognitive-behavioral pain management in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatrics 1992; 89: 1075–9.
Wallace DJ. The Lupus Book: A Guide for Patients and their families (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Ward MM , Pyun E , Studenski S. Long-term survival in systemic lupus erythematosus. Patient characteristics associated with poorer outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 274–83.
Weinblatt ME , Keystone EC , Furst DE , et al. Adalimunab, a fully human anti-tumor necrosis factor a monoclonal anti-body, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients taking concomitant methotrexate: the ARMADA trial. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 35–45.
Weinblatt ME , Keystone, EC , Furst DE , et al. Long term efficacy and safety of adalimumab plus methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: ARMADA 4 year extended study. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 753–9.
Weinblatt ME , Kremer JM , Bankhurst AD , et al. A trial of etanercept, a recombinant tumor necrosis factor receptor: Fc fusion protein, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving methotrexate. N Engl J Med 1999; 340; 253–9.
West SG , Johnson SC. Danazol for the treatment of refractory autoimmune thrombo cytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 1988; 108: 703–6.
Wilson A , Yu HT , Goodnough LT , Nissenson AR. Prevalence and outcomes of anemia in rheumatoid arthritis: a systemic review of the literature. Am J Med 2004; 116(Suppl 7A): 50–7.
Woolf AD , Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81: 646–56.
Yaksh TL . Central pharmacology of nociceptive transmission, In Textbook of Pain, 4th edn. eds. PD Wall and RG Melzack . (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1999), pp. 253–308.
Yelin E. The costs of rheumatoid arthritis: absolute, incremental, and marginal estimates. J Rheumatol Suppl. 1996; 44: 47–51.
Young LD , Bradley LA , Turner RA. Decreases in health care resource utilization in patients with rheumatoid arthritis following a cognitive behavioral intervention. Biofeedback Self Regul 1995; 20: 259–68.
Young LD. Psychological factors in rheumatoid arthritis. J Consult Clin Psychol 1992; 60: 619–27.