1 - Climate Engineering  pp. 9-73


By J. Eric Bickel, Lee Lane, Roger A. Jr. Pielke and Anne E. Smith

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Considering Climate Engineering as a Response to Climate Change

Climate Change and Benefit-Cost Analysis

The task of this chapter is to answer a question that has been posed as part of the Copenhagen Consensus exploration of climate policy. That question is:

If the global community wants to spend up to, say, $250 billion per year over the next 10 years to diminish the adverse effects of climate changes, and to do most good for the world, which solutions would yield the greatest net benefits?

To address this question, we agreed to summarize the existing literature regarding the costs and benefits of geoengineering (GE), supplement these estimates where needed and feasible, and to provide benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) for at least two GE alternatives. Based on this analysis, the current chapter argues that some portion (0.3%) of the hypothetical $250 billion a year should be devoted to the task of researching and developing two GE areas: solar radiation management (SRM) and air capture (AC). As the reader will see, we argue that more emphasis should be placed on SRM but that AC merits some research support.

The reader should not interpret our focus on climate engineering (CE) as implying that other responses to climate change are unneeded. The proper mix and relative priority of various responses to climate change is in the purview of the expert panel, to which our chapter is one input.

1

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Lomborg, B., 2001: The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Nordhaus, W.D., 2009: A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Akbari, H., S. Menson, and A. Rosenfeld, 2009: Global cooling: increasing world-wide urban albedos to offset CO2, Climatic Change 94(3–4), 275–86
Angel, R., 2006: Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spacecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(46), 17184–89
Arrow, K., 2007: Global climate change: a challenge to policy, The Economists' Voice 4(3), 1–5
Barrett, S., 2007a: Why Cooperate? The Incentive to Supply Global Public Goods, Oxford University Press, New York
Barrett, S., 2007b: The incredible economics of geoengineering, Environmental and Resource Economics 39(1), 45–54
Barrett, S., 2009: Geoengineering's role in climate change policy, Working Paper for the AEI Geoengineering Project
Bial, J.R., D. Houser, and G.D. Libecap, 2000: Public choice issues in international collective action: global warming regulation, Working Paper 00–05, Arizona University, Tucson, AZ
Borenstein, S., 2009: Obama looking at cooling air to fight warming, The Associated Press, April 9
Bower, K., T. Choularton, J. Latham, J. Sahraei, and S. Salter, 2006: Computational assessment of a proposed technique for global warming mitigation via albedo-enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds, Atmospheric Research 82(1–2), 328–36
Broder, J.M. and M.L. Wald, 2009: Big science role is seen in global warming cure, New York Times, February 12, A24
Caldeira, K. and L. Wood, 2008: Global and Arctic climate engineering: numerical model studies, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 366(1882), 4039–56
Cao, L. and K. Caldeira, 2008: Atmospheric CO2 stabilization and ocean acidification, Geophysical Research Letters 35(19), L19609
Christoffersen, P. and M.J. Hambrey, 2006: Is the Greenland Ice Sheet in a state of collapse?, Geology Today 22(3), 98–103
Cohen, L.R. and R.G. Noll, with J.S. Banks, S.A. Edelman, and W.M. Pegram, 1991: The Technology Pork Barrel, The Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC
Cooper, R.N., 2000: International approaches to global climate change, World Bank Research Observer 15(2), 145–72
Corell, R.W., S.J. Hassol, and J. Melillo, 2008: Emerging challenges – methane from the Arctic: global warming wildcard, UNEP Year Book 2008: An Overview of Our Changing Environment, United Nations Environment Programme, Stevenage, UK
Crutzen, P.J., 2006: Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: a contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?, Climatic Change 77(3–4), 211–20
Easterly, W., 2006: The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good, Penguin Press, New York
Edgerton, D., 2007: The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History since 1900, Oxford University Press, New York
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2009: Economics of Climate Change, National Center for Environmental Economics, July 21, http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eed.nsf/webpages/ClimateEconomics.html
Fleming, J.R., 2007: The climate engineers, The Wilson Quarterly 31(2), 46–60
Gaskill, A., 2004: Summary of meeting with US DOE to discuss geoengineering options to prevent abrupt and long-term climate change, www.global-warming-geo-engineering.org/DOE-Meeting/DOE-Geoengineering-Climate-Change-Meeting/org.html
Global Carbon Project, 2008: Carbon Budgets and Trends 2007, September 26
Goes, M., K. Keller, and N. Tuana, 2009: The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol geoengineering, submitted to Climate Change
Govindasamy, B. and K. Caldeira, 2000: Geoengineering Earth's radiation balance to mitigate CO2 induced climate change, Geophysical Research Letters 27(14), 2141–4
Gulledge, J., 2008: Three plausible scenarios of future climate change, in K.M. Campbell (ed.), Climatic Cataclysm: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Climate Change, K.M. Campbell, The Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC
Hamwey, R.M., 2007: Active amplification of the terrestrial albedo to mitigate climate change: an exploratory study, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12(4), 419–39
Hu, Z.-Z., M. Latif, E. Roeckner, and L. Bengtsson, 2000: Intensified Asian summer monsoon and its variability in a coupled model forced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, Geophysical Research Letters 27(17), 2681–4
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, B. Metz, O. Davidson, P. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. Meyer (eds.), Cambridge University Press, New York
Jacoby, H.D., M.H. Babiker, S. Paltsev, and J.M. Reilly, 2008: Sharing the burden of GHG reductions, MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Report 167
Keith, D.W. and M. Ha-Duong, 2003: CO2 capture from the air: technology assessment and implications for climate policy, Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies – 6th International Conference: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies: October 1–4, 2002, Kyoto, Japan, Pergamon, Oxford
Keith, D.W., M. Ha-Duong, and J.K. Stolaroff, 2006: Climate strategy with CO2 capture from the air, Climatic Change 74(1–3), 17–45
Kerr, R.A., 2007: Is battered Arctic sea ice down for the count?, Science 318(5847), 33–4
Kiehl, J.T. and K.E. Trenberth, 1997: Earth's annual global mean energy budget, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78(2), 197–208
Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins, 2006: Impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs and other marine calcifiers: a guide for future research, Workshop report sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the US Geological Survey
Kravitz, B., A. Robock, L. Oman, G. Stenchikov, and A.B. Marquardt, 2009: Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 114(D14109)
Kuylenstierna, J.C.I., H. Rodhe, S. Cinderby, and K. Hicks, 2001: Acidification in developing countries: ecosystem sensitivity and the critical load approach on a global scale, Ambio 30(1), 20–8
Lackner, K.S., P. Grimes, and H.-J. Ziock, 2001: Capturing carbon dioxide from air, Proceedings of the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC
Lal, M., U. Cubasch, R. Voss, and J. Waszkewitz, 1995: Effect of transient Increase in Greenhouse Gases and sulphate aerosols on monsoon climate, Current Science 69(9), 752–63
Lane, L., K. Caldeira, R. Chatfield, and S. Langhoff, 2007: Workshop Report on Managing Solar Radiation, NASA Ames Research Center, Carnegie Institute of Washington Department of Global Ecology, NASA/CP-2007–214558
Lane, L. and D. Montgomery, 2008: Political institutions and greenhouse gas controls, AEI Center for Regulatory and Market Studies, Related Publication 08–09
Latham, J., 1990: Control of global warming?, Nature, 347, 339–40
Latham, J., P.J. Rasch, C.C. Chen, L. Kettles, A. Gadian, A. Gettleman, H. Morrison, K. Bower, and T. Choularton, 2008: Global temperature stabilization via controlled albedo enhancement of low-level maritime clouds, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A 366(1882), 3969–87
Lenton, T.M. and N.E. Vaughan, 2009: The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 9, 2559–2608
MacCracken, M.C., 2006: Geoengineering: worthy of cautious evaluation?, Climatic Change 77(3–4), 235–43
Matthews, H.D. and K. Caldeira, 2007: Transient climate – carbon simulations of planetary geoengineering, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(24), 9949–54
May, W., 2002: Simulated changes of the Indian summer monsoon under enhanced greenhouse gas conditions in a global time-slice experiment, Geophysical Research Letters 29(7), 22.1–22.4
Mearsheimer, J.J., 1994: The false promise of international institutions, International Security 19(3), 5–49
Meehl, G.A. and W.M. Washington, 1993: South Asian summer monsoon variability in a model with doubled atmospheric Carbon Dioxide concentration, Science 260(5111), 1101–4
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 1992: Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base, National Academy Press, Washington, DC
National Research Council, 2005: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties, Committee on Radiative Forcing Effects on Climate, Climate Research Committe Board on Atmospheric Sciences and climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC
Nelson, R.R. and S.G. Winter, 1977: In search of useful theory of innovation, Research Policy 6(1), 36–76
Nelson, R.R. and S.G. Winter, 1982: An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA
Nordhaus, W.D., 1994: Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Nordhaus, W.D., 2002: Modeling induced innovation in climate-change policy, Technological Change and the Environment, A. Grübler, N. Nakićenović, and W.D. Nordhaus (eds), RFF Press, Washington, DC
Nordhaus, W.D., 2008: A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Nordhaus, W.D., and J. Boyer, 2000: Warming the World: Economics Models of Global Warming, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
North, D.C., 1990: Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance, Cambridge University Press, New York
North, D.C., 2005: Understanding the Process of Economic Change, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ
North, D.C., J.J. Wallis, and B.R. Weingast, 2009: Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History, Cambridge University Press, New York
Olson, Mancur, 1982: The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Pacala, S. and R. Socolow, 2004: Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies, Science 305(5686), 968–72
Pearson, J., J. Oldson, and E. Levin, 2006: Earth rings for planetary environment control, Acta Astronautica 58(1), 44–57
Pielke, R.A. Jr., 2009: An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy, Environmental Science & Policy 12(3), 216–25
Rasch, P.J., P.J. Crutzen, and D.B. Coleman, 2008: Exploring the geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulfate aerosols: the role of particle size, Geophysical Research Letters 35(2), L02809
Rasch, P.J., S. Tilmes, R.P. Turco, A. Robock, L. Oman, C.-C. Chen, G.L. Stenchikov, and R.R. Garcia, 2008: An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A 366, 4007–37
Rau, G.H., K.G. Knauss, W.H. Langer, and K. Caldeira, 2007: Reducing energy-related CO2 emissions using accelerated weathering of limestone, Energy 32(8), 1471–77
Richels, R.G., A.S. Manne, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2004: Moving beyond concentrations: the challenge of limiting temperature change, AEI–Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, Working Paper 04–11
Ridgwell, A., J.S. Singarayer, A.M. Hetherington, and P.J. Valdes, 2009: Tackling regional climate change by leaf albedo bio-geoengineering, Current Biology 19(2), 146–50
Robock, A., 2008a: Whither geoengineering?, Science 320, 1166–7
Robock, A., 2008b: 20 reasons why geoengineering may be a bad idea, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 64(2), 14–18
Robock, A. and J. Mao, 1995: The volcanic signal in surface temperature observations, Journal of Climate 8(5), 1086–1103
Robock, A., A.B. Marquardt, B. Kravitz, and G. Stenchikov, 2009: The benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering, Geophysical Research Letters 36(L19703)
Robock, A., L. Oman, and G. Stenchikov, 2008: Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16101
Royal Society, 2005: Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, Policy Document 12/05
Salter, S., G. Sortino, and J. Latham, 2008: Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A 366(1882), 3989–4006
Sarewitz, D. and R. Nelson, 2008: Three rules for technological fixes, Nature 456, 871–2
Schelling, T.C., 2002: What makes greenhouse sense?: time to rethink the Kyoto Protocol, Foreign Affairs 81(3), 2–9
Skeffington, R.A., 2006: Quantifying uncertainty in critical loads: (A) literature review, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 169(1–4), 3–24
Stern, D.I., 2005: Global sulfur emissions from 1850 to 2000, Chemosphere 58(2), 163–75
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Stocker, Thomas F., 2003: Changes in the global carbon cycle and ocean circulation on the millennial time scale, Global Climate: Current Research and Uncertainties in the Climate System, X. Rodó and F.A. Comín (eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin
Summers, L., 2007: Foreword, Architectures for Agreement: Addressing Global Climate Change in the Post-Kyoto World, J. Aldy and R. Stavins (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Teller, E., L. Wood, and R. Hyde, 1997: Global warming and ice ages: I. Prospects for physics-based modulation of global change, University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Teller, E., R. Hyde, and L. Wood, 2002: Active climate stabilization: practical physics-based approaches to prevention of climate change, University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Teller, E., R. Hyde, M. Ishikawa, J. Nuckolls, and L. Wood, 2003: Active stabilization of climate: inexpensive, low-risk, near-term options for preventing global warming and ice ages via technologically varied solar radiative forcing, University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Tetlock, P.E. and M. Oppenheimer, 2008: The boundaries of the thinkable, Daedalus 137(2), 59–70
Tilmes, S., R. Müller, and R. Salawitch, 2008: The sensitivity of polar ozone depletion to proposed geoengineering schemes, Science 320(5880), 1201–4
Tol, R.S.J., 2006: The Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change: a comment, Energy & Environment 17(6), 977–81
Tol, R.S.J., 2008: The social cost of carbon: trends, outliers and catastrophes, Economics 2, 2008–25
Travis, W.R., 2009: Geo-engineering the climate: an emerging technology assessment, Discussion Paper prepared for the National Research Council, Committee on America's Climate Choices, http://americasclimatechoices.org/Geoengineering_Input/attachments/Travis_geoengineering.pdf
Trenberth, K.E., J.T. Fasullo, and J.T. Kiehl, 2009: Earth's global energy budget, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(2), 311–23
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 2008: UNFCCC: rising industrialized countries' emissions underscore urgent need for political action on climate change at Poznan meeting, Press Release, November 17
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 2009: Changes in GHG emissions from 1990 to 2004 for Annex I Parties, July 21, http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/application/pdf/ghg_table_06.pdf
United Nations Statistics Division, 2008: National Accounts, UN Statistics Division
United States Department of Energy, 2002: Response options to limit rapid or severe climate change: assessment of research needs, National Climate Change Technology Initiative
United States Energy Information Administration, 2006: International Energy Outlook, 2006, Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2009: Economics of climate change, US EPA National Center for Environmental Economics
Victor, D.G., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, J. Steinbruner, and K. Ricke, 2009: The geoengineering option: a last resort against global warming?, Foreign Affairs 88(2), 64–76
Weitzman, M.L., 2007: A review of The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Journal of Economic Literature 45(3), 703–24
Weitzman, M.L., 2009: On modeling and interpreting the economics of catastrophic climate change, Review of Economics and Statistics 91(1), 1–19
Wigley, T.M.L., 2006: A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization, Science 314(5798), 452–4
Wingenter, O.W., S.M. Elliot, and D.R. Blake, 2007: New directions: enhancing the natural sulfur cycle to slow global warming, Atmospheric Environment 41(34) 7373–5
Zickfeld, K., B. Knopf, V. Petoukhov, and H.J. Schellnhuber, 2005: Is the Indian summer monsoon stable against global change?, Geophysical Research Letters 32, L15707

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Bickel, J.E. and L. Lane, 2009: An analysis of climate change as a response to global warming, Copenhagen Consensus Center, August 7
COSEPUP [NRC] 1992. Policy implications of greenhouse warming: mitigation, adaptation, and the science base. National Academy of Science, Committee on Science Engineering and Public Policy (COSEPUP), National Academy Press. Washington, DC
Goes, M., K. Keller, and N. Tuana, 2009: The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol geoengineering, submitted to Climatic Change
Graham-Rowe, D., 2007: Scientists attempt to roll back emissions, Guardian Unlimited, July 30, www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/jul/30/news.greentech
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2005: Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007a: Working Group I – The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/wg1-report.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007b: Summary for Policy Makers of Working Group I – The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/wg1-report.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007c: Working Group III – Mitigation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, www.mnp.nl/ipcc/pages_media/AR4-chapters.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007d: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group III – Chapter 3 Issues Related to Mitigation in the Long-term Context, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, www.mnp.nl/ipcc/pages_media/FAR4docs/chapters/Ch3_Longterm.pdf
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007e: Summary for Policy Makers, Report of Working Group II – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, www.ipcc.ch/SPM040507.pdf
Keith, D.W., M. Ha-Duong, and J.K. Stolaroff, 2006: Climate strategy with CO2 capture from the air, Climatic Change 74, 17–45
Lunt, D.J., A. Ridgwell, P.J. Valdes, and A. Seale, 2008: “Sunshade world”: a fully coupled GCM evaluation of the climatic impacts of geoengineering, Geophysical Research Letters 35(L12710).
McKinsey & Co., 2008: The carbon productivity challenge: curbing climate change and sustaining economic growth, June, www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/pdfs/Carbon_Productivity/MGI_carbon_productivity_full_report.pdf
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 1992: Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base, National Academy Press, Washington, DC
National Research Council (NRC), 2005: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties, Committee on Radiative Forcing Effects on Climate, National Academies Press, Washington, DC
Pielke, R. A., Jr., 2009: “An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy,” Environmental Science & Policy 12, 216–25
Robock, A., 2008: 20 reasons why geoengineering may be a bad idea, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 64, 14–18
Robock, A., L. Oman, and G.L. Stenchikov, 2008: Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 113(D16101).
Sarewitz, D. and R. Nelson, 2008: Three rules for technological fixes, Nature 456: 871–2
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, www.hmtreasury.gov.uk./media/F/0/Chapter_9_Identifying_the_Costs_of_Mitigation.pdf; www.hm-treasury.gov.uk./media/B/7/Chapter_10_Macroeconomic_Models_of_Costs.pdf
Travis, W., 2009: Geo-engineering the climate: an emerging technology assessment, Discussion Paper prepared for the National Research Council, Committee on America's Climate Choices, americasclimatechoices.org/Geoengineering_Input/attachments/Travis_geoengineering.pdf
Trenberth, K.E. and A. Dai, 2007: Effects of Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the hydrological cycle as an analog of geoengineering, Geophysical Research Letters 34(L15702).
Wigley, T.M.L., 2006: A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization, Science 314, 452–4

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Bickel, J.E. and L. Lane, 2009: An analysis of climate change as a response to global warming, Copenhagen Consensus Center, August 7

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J.A. Robinson, 2001: The colonial origins of comparative development: an empirical investigation, American Economic Review 91(4), 1369–1401
Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J.A. Robinson, 2002: Reversal of fortune: geography and institutions in the making of the modern world income distribution, Quarterly Journal of Economics 117(4), 1231–94
Adger, W.N., 2006: Vulnerability, Global Environmental Change 16(3), 268–81
Alberini, A., A. Chiabai, and L. Muehlenbachs, 2006: Using expert judgement to assess adaptive capacity to climate change: evidence from a conjoint choice survey, Global Environmental Change 16(2), 123–44
Anthoff, D., C.J. Hepburn, and R.S.J. Tol, 2009: Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change, Ecological Economics 68(3), 836–49
Arrow, K.J., R.M. Solow, P.R. Portney, E.E. Leamer, R. Radner, and H. Schuman, 1993: Report of the NOAA Panel on Contingent Valuation, Federal Register 58(10), 4016–64
Ashley, R.M., D.J. Balmforth, A.J. Saul, and J.D. Blanksby, 2005: Flooding in the future – predicting climate change, risks and responses in urban areas, Water Science and Technology 52(5), 265–73
Atkinson, G.D., S. Dietz, J. Helgeson, C.J. Hepburn, and H. Saelen, 2009: Siblings, not triplets: social preferences for risk, inequality and time in discounting climate change, Economics Discussion Papers 2009–14, Kiel Institute of the World Economy, Kiel
Babiker, M.H., G.E. Metcalf, and J.M. Reilly, 2003: Tax distortions and global climate policy, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 46, 269–87
Barker, T., I. Bashmakov, A. Alharthi, M. Amann, L. Cifuentes, J. Drexhage, M. Duan, O. Edenhofer, B.P. Flannery, M.J. Grubb, M. Hoogwijk, F.I. Ibitoye, C.J. Jepma, W.A. Pizer, and K. Yamaji, 2007: Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective, in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and C.A. Meyer (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 619–90
Barker, T., J. Koehler, and M. Villena, 2002: The costs of greenhouse gas abatement: a meta-analysis of post-SRES mitigation scenarios, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies 5, 135–66
Berrittella, M., A. Bigano, R. Roson, and R.S.J. Tol, 2006: A general equilibrium analysis of climate change impacts on tourism, Tourism Management 27(5), 913–24
Boehringer, C., T. Hoffmann, and C. Manrique-de-Lara-Penate, 2006a: The efficiency costs of separating carbon markets under the EU emissions trading scheme: a quantitative assessment for Germany, Energy Economics 28(1), 44–61
Boehringer, C., H. Koschel, and U. Moslener, 2008: Efficiency losses from overlapping regulation of EU carbon emissions, Journal of Regulatory Economics 33(3), 299–317
Boehringer, C., A. Loeschel, and T.F. Rutherford 2006b: Efficiency gains from “what”-flexibility in climate policy: an integrated CGE assessment, Energy Journal (Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy Special Issue 3), 405–24
Bosello, F., R. Roson, and R.S.J. Tol, 2006: Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: human health, Ecological Economics 58(3), 579–91
Bosello, F., R. Roson, and R.S.J. Tol, 2007: Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: sea level rise, Environmental and Resource Economics 37(3), 549–71
Breslow, P.B. and D.J. Sailor, 2002: Vulnerability of wind power resources to climate change in the continental United States, Renewable Energy 27(4), 585–98
Brouwer, R. and F.A. Spaninks, 1999: The validity of environmental benefits transfer: further empirical testing, Environmental and Resource Economics 14(1), 95–117
Burtraw, D., A. Krupnick, K. Palmer, A. Paul, M. Toman, and C. Bloyd, 2003: Ancillary benefits of reduced air pollution in the US from moderate greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the electricity sector, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45, 650–73
Butkiewicz, J.L. and H. Yanikkaya, 2005: The impact of sociopolitical instability on economic growth: analysis and implications, Journal of Policy Modeling 27(5), 629–45
Carmichael, C.G., W.A. Gallus, Jr., B.R. Temeyer, and M.K. Bryden, 2004: A winter weather index for estimating winter roadway maintenance costs in the Midwest, Journal of Applied Meteorology 43(11), 1783–90
Ceronsky, M., D. Anthoff, C.J. Hepburn, and R.S.J. Tol, 2006: Checking the Price Tag on Catastrophe: The Social Cost of Carbon under Non-linear Climate Response, Working Paper 87, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg
Champ, P.A., K.J. Boyle, and T.C. Brown (eds.) 2003: A Primer on Nonmarket Valuation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston, and London
Clarke, L.E., J.P. Weyant, and J. Edmonds, 2008: On the sources of technological change: what do the models assume?, Energy Economics 30(2), 409–24
Cline, W.R., 1992: The Economics of Global Warming, Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC
Darwin, R.F., 2004: Effects of greenhouse gas emissions on world agriculture, food consumption, and economic welfare, Climatic Change 66(1–2), 191–238
Darwin, R.F. and R.S.J. Tol, 2001: Estimates of the economic effects of sea level rise, Environmental and Resource Economics 19(2), 113–29
Davidson, M.D., 2006: A social discount rate for climate damage to future generations based on regulatory law, Climatic Change 76(1–2), 55–72
Davidson, M.D., 2008: Wrongful harm to future generations: the case of climate change, Environmental Values 17, 471–88
Dell, M., B.F. Jones, and B.A. Olken, 2008: Climate Change and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Half Century, Working Paper 14132, National Bureau of Economic Research, Washington DC
Denman, K.L., G.P. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Hollad, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S. Ramachandran, P.L. Silva de Dias, S.C. Wofsy, and X. Zhang, 2007: Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry', in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 499–587
Dorland, C., R.S.J. Tol, and J.P. Palutikof, 1999: Vulnerability of the Netherlands and Northwest Europe to storm damage under climate change, Climatic Change 43(3), 513–35
Easterly, W. and R. Levine, 2003: Tropics, germs, and crops: how endowments influence economic development, Journal of Monetary Economics 50(1), 3–39
Fankhauser, S., 1994a: Protection vs. retreat – the economic costs of sea level rise, Environment and Planning A 27, 299–319
Fankhauser, S., 1994b: The economic costs of global warming damage: a survey, Global Environmental Change 4(4), 301–9
Fankhauser, S., 1995: Valuing Climate Change – The Economics of the Greenhouse, 1st edn., EarthScan, London
Fankhauser, S. and R.S.J. Tol, 1996: Climate change costs – recent advancements in the economic assessment, Energy Policy 24(7), 665–73
Fankhauser, S. and R.S.J. Tol, 1997: The social costs of climate change: the IPCC Second Assessment Report and beyond, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 1(4), 385–403
Fankhauser, S. and R.S.J. Tol, 2005: On climate change and economic growth, Resource and Energy Economics 27(1), 1–17
Fankhauser, S., R.S.J. Tol, and D.W. Pearce, 1997: The aggregation of climate change damages: a welfare theoretic approach, Environmental and Resource Economics 10(3), 249–66
Fankhauser, S., R.S.J. Tol, and D.W. Pearce, 1998: Extensions and alternatives to climate change impact valuation: on the critique of IPCC Working Group III's Impact Estimates, Environment and Development Economics 3, 59–81
Fischer, C. and R.D. Morgenstern, 2006: Carbon abatement costs: why the wide range of estimates?, Energy Journal 272, 73–86
Fischer, C., I.W.H. Parry, and W.A. Pizer, 2003: Instrument choice for environmental protection when technological innovation is endogenous, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45, 523–45
Forster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T.K. Berntsen, R.A. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D.C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. van Dorland, 2007: Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 129–234
Gallup, J.L., J.D. Sachs, and A.D. Mellinger, 1999: Geography and economic development, CAER II Discussion Papers 39, Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA
Galor, O. and D.N. Weil, 1999: From Malthusian stagnation to modern growth, American Economic Review 89(2), 150–4
Gillingham, K., R.G. Newell, and W.A. Pizer, 2008: Modeling endogenous technological change for climate policy analysis, Energy Economics 30(6), 2734–53
Gitay, H., S. Brown, W.E. Easterling, III, B.P. Jallow, J.M. Antle, M. Apps, R.J. Beamish, F.S. Chapin, W. Cramer, J. Frangi, J.K. Laine, E. Lin, J.J. Magnuson, I.R. Noble, J. Price, T.D. Prowse, T.L. Root, E.-D. Schulze, O.D. Sirotenko, B.L. Sohngen, and J.-F. Soussana 2001: Ecosystems and their goods and services, in Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.J. McCarthy, O.F. Canziani, N.A. Leary, D.J. Dokken, and K.S. White (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 235–342
Goulder, L.H. and K. Mathai, 2000: Optimal CO2 abatement in the presence of induced technological change, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 39, 1–38
Goulder, L.H. and S.H. Schneider, 1999: Induced technological change and the attractiveness of CO2 abatement policies, Resource and Energy Economics 21, 211–53
Haines, A. and C. Fuchs, 1991: Potential impacts on health of atmospheric change, Journal of Public Health Medicine 13(2), 69–80
Hammitt, J.K., R.J. Lempert, and M.E. Schlesinger, 1992: A sequential-decision strategy for abating climate change, Nature 357, 315–18
Harvey, L.D.D. and H. Zhen, 1995: Evaluation of the potential impact of methane clathrate destabilization on future global warming, Journal of Geophysical Research 100(D2), 2905–26
Hitz, S. and J.B. Smith, 2004: Estimating global impacts from climate change, Global Environmental Change 14(3), 201–18
Hohmeyer, O. and M. Gaertner, 1992: The Costs of Climate Change – A Rough Estimate of Orders of Magnitude, Fraunhofer-Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe
Hope, C.W., 2006: The marginal impact of CO2 from PAGE2002: an integrated assessment model incorporating the IPCC's five reasons for concern, Integrated Assessment Journal 6(1), 19–56
Hope, C.W., 2008: Optimal carbon emissions and the social cost of carbon over time under uncertainty, Integrated Assessment Journal 8(1), 107–22
Horowith, J.K. and K.E. McConnell, 2002: A review of WTA/WTP studies, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 44(3), 426–47
Hourcade, J.-C., K. Halsneas, M. Jaccard, W.D. Montgomery, R.G. Richels, J. Robinson, P.R. Shukla, and P. Sturm, 1996: A review of mitigation cost studies, in Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions – Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.P. Bruce, H. Lee, and E.F. Haites (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 297–366
Hourcade, J.-C., P.R. Shukla, L. Cifuentes, D. Davis, J.A. Edmonds, B.S. Fisher, E. Fortin, A. Golub, O. Hohmeyer, A. Krupnick, S. Kverndokk, R. Loulou, R.G. Richels, H. Segenovic, and K. Yamaji, 2001: Global, regional and national costs and ancillary benefits of mitigation, in Climate Change 2001: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, O.R. Davidson and B. Metz (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 499–559
IMAGE Team, 2001: The IMAGE 2.2 Implementation of the SRES Scenarios: A Comprehensive Analysis of Emissions, Climate Change, and Impacts in the 21st Century, RIVM CD-ROM Publication 481508018, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven
Kane, S., J.M. Reilly, and J. Tobey, 1992: An empirical study of the economic effects of climate change on world agriculture, Climatic Change 21(1), 17–35
Kikkawa, T., J. Kita, and A. Ishimatsu, 2004: Comparison of the lethal effect of CO2 and acidification on red sea bream (Pagrus major) during the early developmental stages, Marine Pollution Bulletin 48(1–2), 108–10
Kjellstrom, T., R.S. Kovats, S.L. Lloyd, M.T. Holt, and R.S.J. Tol, 2008: The direct impact of climate change on regional labour productivity, Working Paper 260, Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin
Kuik, O., L. Brander, and R.S.J. Tol, 2009: Marginal abatement costs of greenhouse gas emissions: a meta-analysis, Energy Policy 37(4), 1395–1403
Kundzewicz, Z.W., D. Graczyk, T. Maurer, I. Pinkswar, M. Radziejeswki, C. Svensson, and M. Szwed, 2005: Trend detection in river flow series: 1. annual maximum flow, Hydrological Sciences Journal 50(5), 797–810
Leggett, J., W.J. Pepper, and R.J. Swart, 1992: Emissions scenarios for the IPCC: an update, in Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, 1st edn., vol. 1, J.T. Houghton, B.A. Callander, and S.K. Varney (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 71–95
Lindmark, M., 2002: An EKC-pattern in historical perspective: carbon dioxide emissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden 1870–1997, Ecological Economics 42, 333–47
Link, P.M. and R.S.J. Tol, 2004: Possible economic impacts of a shutdown of the thermohaline circulation: an application of FUND, Portuguese Economic Journal 3(2), 99–114
Long, S.P., E.A. Ainsworth, A.D.B. Leakey, J. Noesberger, and D.R. Ort, 2006: Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations, Science 312(5811), 1918–21
Maddison, D.J., 2003: The amenity value of the climate: the household production function approach, Resource and Energy Economics 25(2), 155–75
Maier-Reimer, E. and K. Hasselmann, 1987: Transport and storage of carbon dioxide in the ocean: an inorganic ocean circulation carbon cycle model, Climate Dynamics 2, 63–90
Manne, A.S. and R.G. Richels, 1998: On stabilizing CO2 concentrations – cost-effective emission reduction strategies, Environmental Modeling and Assessment 2, 251–65
Manne, A.S. and R.G. Richels, 2001: An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases, Nature 410, 675–7
Manne, A.S. and R.G. Richels, 2004: US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol: the impact on compliance costs and CO2 emissions, Energy Policy 32, 447–54
Marotzke, J., 2000: Abrupt climate change and thermohaline circulation: mechanisms and predictability, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 97(4), 1347–50
Masters, W.A. and M.S. McMillan, 2001: Climate and scale in economic growth, Journal of Economic Growth 6(3), 167–86
McDonald, R.E., D.G. Bleaken, D.R. Cresswell, V.D. Pope, and C.A. Senior, 2005: Tropical storms: representation and diagnosis in climate models and the impacts of climate change, Climate Dynamics 25(1), 19–36
Mendelsohn, R.O., W.D. Nordhaus, and D. Shaw, 1994: The impact of climate on agriculture: a Ricardian analysis, American Economic Review 84(4), 753–71
Mendelsohn, R.O., W.N. Morrison, M.E. Schlesinger, and N.G. Andronova, 2000a: Country-specific market impacts of climate change, Climatic Change 45(3–4), 553–69
Mendelsohn, R.O., M.E. Schlesinger, and L.J. Williams, 2000b: Comparing impacts across climate models, Integrated Assessment 1(1), 37–48
Narita, D., D. Anthoff, and R.S.J. Tol, 2008: Damage costs of climate change through intensification of tropical cyclone activities: an application of FUND, Working Paper 259, Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin
Nakicenovic, N. and R.J. Swart (eds.), 2001: IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Nakicenovic, N. and R.J. Swart, 2009: Economic costs of extratropical storms under climate change: an application of FUND, Working Paper 274, Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin
Nicholls, R.J. and R.S.J. Tol, 2006: Impacts and responses to sea level rise: a global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the twenty-first century, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 364(1849), 1073–95
Nicholls, R.J., R.S.J. Tol, and A.T. Vafeidis, 2008: Global estimates of the impact of a collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet: an application of FUND, Climatic Change 91(1–2), 171–91
Nordhaus, W.D., 1991: To slow or not to slow: the economics of the greenhouse effect, Economic Journal 101(444), 920–37
Nordhaus, W.D., 1993: Rolling the ‘DICE’: an optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases, Resource and Energy Economics 15(1), 27–50
Nordhaus, W.D., 1994a: Expert opinion on climate change, American Scientist 82(1), 45–51
Nordhaus, W.D., 1994b: Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change , MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Nordhaus, W.D., 2006: Geography and macroeconomics: new data and new findings, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 103(10), 3510–17
Nordhaus, W.D. and J.G. Boyer, 2000: Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA and London, UK
Nordhaus, W.D. and Z. Yang, 1996: RICE: a regional dynamic general equilibrium model of optimal climate-change policy, American Economic Review 86(4), 741–65
O'Brien, K.L., L. Sygna, and J.E. Haugen, 2004: Vulnerable or resilient? A multi-scale assessment of climate impacts and vulnerability in Norway, Climatic Change 64(1–2), 193–225
Olsthoorn, A.A., P.E. Van Der Werff, L.M. Bouwer, and D. Huitema, 2008: Neo-Atlantis: the Netherlands under a 5-m sea level rise, Climatic Change 91(1–2), 103–22
Paavola, J. and W.N. Adger, 2006: Fair adaptation to climate change, Ecological Economics 56(4), 594–609
Parry, M.L., 1990: Climate Change and World Agriculture, EarthScan, London
Pearce, D.W. and D. Moran, 1994: The Economic Value of Biodiversity, EarthScan, London
Pizer, W.A., 1997: Prices vs. quantities revisited: the case of climate change, Discussion Paper 98–02, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC
Plamberk, E.L. and C.W. Hope, 1996: PAGE95 – an updated valuation of the impacts of global warming, Energy Policy 24(9), 783–93
Pratt, J.W., H. Raiffa, and R. Schlaifer, 1995: Introduction to Statistical Decision Theory, 1st edn., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Ramsey, F., 1928: A mathematical theory of saving, Economic Journal 38, 543–9
Rehdanz, K. and D.J. Maddison, 2005: Climate and happiness, Ecological Economics 52(1), 111–25
Reilly, J.M., M. Sarofim, S. Paltsev, and R. Prinn, 2006: The role of non-CO2 GHGs in climate policy: analysis using the MIT IGSM, Energy Journal (Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy Special Issue 3), 503–20
Repetto, R. and D. Austin, 1997: The Costs of Climate Protection: A Guide for the Perplexed, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC
Saelen, H., G.D. Atkinson, S. Dietz, J. Helgeson, and C.J. Hepburn, 2008: Risk, inequality and time in the welfare economics of climate change: is the workhorse model underspecified?, Discussion Paper 400, Department of Economics, Oxford University, Oxford
Schaefer, A. and H.D. Jacoby, 2005: Technology detail in a multisector CGE model: transport under climate policy, Energy Economics 27(1), 1–24
Schaefer, A. and H.D. Jacoby, 2006: Vehicle technology under CO2 constraint: a general equilibrium analysis, Energy Policy 34(9), 975–85
Schelling, T.C., 2000: Intergenerational and international discounting, Risk Analysis 20(6), 833–7
Schimel, D., D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heimann, F. Joos, M. Raynaud, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K.P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D.L. Albritton, I.S.A. Isaksen, M. Lal, and D.J. Wuebbles, 1996: Radiative forcing of climate change, in Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change – Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1st edn., J.T. Houghton, (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 65–131
Schneider, S.H. and R.S. Chen, 1980: Carbon dioxide warming and coastline flooding: physical factors and climatic impact, Annual Review of Energy 5, 107–40
Smit, B. and J. Wandel, 2006: Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability, Global Environmental Change 16(3), 282–92
Smith, J.B., 1996: Standardized estimates of climate change damages for the United States, Climatic Change 32(3), 313–26
Smith, J.B., H.-J. Schellnhuber, M.Q. Mirza, S. Fankhauser, R. Leemans, L. Erda, L. Ogallo, A.B. Pittock, R.G. Richels, C. Rosenzweig, U. Safriel, R.S.J. Tol, J.P. Weyant, and G.W. Yohe, 2001: Vulnerability to climate change and reasons for concern: a synthesis, in Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.J. McCarthy, O.F. Canziani, N.A. Leary, D.J. Dokken, and K.S. White (eds.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 913–67
Stern, N. et al., 2006:
Svensson, C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, and T. Maurer, 2005: Trend detection in river flow series: 2. Flood and low-flow index series, Hydrological Sciences Journal 50(5), 811–24
Szolnoky, C., K. Buzas, and A. Clement, 1997: Impacts of the climate change on the operation of a freshwater cooled electric power plant, Periodica Polytechnica: Civil Engineering 41(2), 71–94
Titus, J.G., 1992: The costs of climate change to the United States, in Global Climate Change: Implications, Challenges and Mitigation Measures, S.K. Majumdar et al. (eds.), Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Easton, 384–409
Tol, R.S.J., 1995: The damage costs of climate change toward more comprehensive calculations, Environmental and Resource Economics 5(4), 353–74
Tol, R.S.J., 1999: Spatial and temporal efficiency in climate change: applications of FUND, Environmental and Resource Economics 14(1), 33–49
Tol, R.S.J., 2002a: Estimates of the damage costs of climate change – part 1: benchmark estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics 21(1), 47–73
Tol, R.S.J., 2002b: Estimates of the damage costs of climate change – part II: dynamic estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics 21(2), 135–60
Tol, R.S.J., 2003: Is the uncertainty about climate change too large for expected cost-benefit analysis?, Climatic Change 56(3), 265–89
Tol, R.S.J., 2005a: An emission intensity protocol for climate change: an application of FUND, Climate Policy 4, 269–87
Tol, R.S.J., 2005b: Emission abatement versus development as strategies to reduce vulnerability to climate change: an application of FUND, Environment and Development Economics 10(5), 615–29
Tol, R.S.J., 2006: Multi-gas emission reduction for climate change policy: an application of FUND, Energy Journal (Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy Special Issue 3), 235–50
Tol, R.S.J., 2008a: Climate, development and malaria: an application of FUND, Climatic Change 88(1), 21–34
Tol, R.S.J., 2008b: The social cost of carbon: trends, outliers and catastrophes, Economics – the Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal 2(25), 1–24
Tol, R.S.J., 2008c: Why worry about climate change? A research agenda, Environmental Values 17(4), 437–70
Tol, R.S.J., 2009: Why worry about climate change?, Research Bulletin 09(1), 2–7
Tol, R.S.J. and H. Dowlatabadi, 2001: Vector-borne diseases, development and climate change, Integrated Assessment 2(4), 173–81
Tol, R.S.J., K.L. Ebi, and G.W. Yohe, 2007: Infectious disease, development, and climate change: a scenario analysis, Environment and Development Economics 12, 687–706
Tol, R.S.J., S. Fankhauser, R.G. Richels, and J.B. Smith, 2000: How much damage will climate change do?, World Economics 1(4), 179–206
Tol, R.S.J., S.W. Pacala, and R.H. Socolow, 2009: Understanding long-term energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the USA, Journal of Policy Modeling 31(3), 425–45
Tol, R.S.J. and S. Wagner, 2008: Climate change and violent conflict in Europe over the last millennium, Working Paper 154, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg
Tol, R.S.J. and G.W. Yohe, 2006: Of dangerous climate change and dangerous emission reduction, in Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change, H.-J. Schellnhuber et al. (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 291–8
Tol, R.S.J. and G.W. Yohe, 2007a: Infinite uncertainty, forgotten feedbacks, and cost-benefit analysis of climate change, Climatic Change 83(4), 429–42
Tol, R.S.J. and G.W. Yohe, 2007b: The weakest link hypothesis for adaptive capacity: an empirical test, Global Environmental Change 17(2), 218–27
USEPA, 2003: International Analysis of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Abatement Opportunities: Report to Energy Modeling Forum, Working Group 21, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC
van Kooten, G.C., 2004: Climate Change Economics – Why International Accords Fail, Edward Elgar, UK and Northampton, MA
Vaughan, D.G., 2008: West Antarctic ice sheet collapse – the fall and rise of a paradigm, Climatic Change 91(1–2), 65–79
Vaughan, D.G. and J.R. Spouge, 2002: Risk estimation of collapse of the West Antarctic sheet, Climatic Change 52(1–2), 65–91
Weitzman, M.L., 1974: Prices vs. quantities, Review of Economic Studies 41(4), 477–91
Weitzman, M.L., 2009: On modelling and interpreting the economics of catastrophic climate change, Review of Economics and Statistics 91(1), 1–19
Weyant, J.P., 1993: Costs of reducing global carbon emissions, Journal of Economic Perspectives 7(4), 27–46
Weyant, J.P., 1998: The costs of greenhouse gas abatement', in Economics and Policy Issues in Climate Change, W.D. Nordhaus (ed.), Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, 191–214
Weyant, J.P., 2004: Introduction and overview, Energy Economics 26, 501–15
Weyant, J.P., F.C. de la Chesnaye, and G.J. Blanford, 2006: Overview of EMF-21: multigas mitigation and climate policy, The Energy Journal: Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy (Special Issue 3), 1–32
Weyant, J.P. and J.N. Hill, 1999: Introduction and overview of the special issue, Energy Journal Special Issue on the Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, vii–xliv
Wigley, T.M.L., R.G. Richels, and J.A. Edmonds, 1996: Economic and environmental choices in the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Nature 379, 240–3
Wilson, K.J., J. Falkingham, H. Melling, and R.A. de Abreu, 2004: Shipping in the Canadian Arctic: other possible climate change scenarios, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 3, 1853–6
Yates, D.N. and K.M. Strzepek, 1998: An assessment of integrated climate change impacts on the agricultural economy of Egypt, Climatic Change 38(3), 261–87
Yohe, G.W. and M.E. Schlesinger, 2002: The economic geography of the impacts of climate change, Journal of Economic Geography 2(3), 311–41
Yohe, G.W. and R.S.J. Tol, 2002: Indicators for social and economic coping capacity – moving towards a working definition of adaptive capacity, Global Environmental Change 12(1), 25–40
Zhang, D.D., C.Y. Jim, G.C.S. Lin, Y.-Q. He, J.J. Wang, and H.F. Lee, 2006: Climatic change, wars and dynastic cycles in China over the last millennium, Climatic Change 76, 459–77
Zhang, D.D., J. Zhang, H.F. Lee, and Y.-Q. He, 2007: Climate change and war frequency in Eastern China over the last millennium, Human Ecology 35(4), 403–14

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Brouwer, R., L. Brander, and Van P. Beukering, 2008: “A convenient truth”: air travel passengers' willingness to pay to offset their CO2 emissions, Climatic Change 90, 299–313
Kuik, O.J., B. Buchner, M. Catenacci, A. Goria, E. Karakaya, and R.S.J. Tol, 2008: Methodological aspects of recent climate change damage cost studies. The Integrated Assessment Journal 8, 19–40
Tol, R.S.J., 2008: The economic impact of climate change, ESRI Working Paper, 255, Dublin
Weyant, J.P., F.C. de la, Chesnaye, and G.J. Blanford, 2006: Overview of EMF-21: multigas mitigation and climate policy, The Energy Journal: Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy (Special Issue 3), 1–32

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Anthoff, D. and R.S.J. Tol, 2008: The climate framework for uncertainty, negotiation and distribution (FUND), Technical Description, Version 3.3, www.fnu.zmaw.de/FUND.5679.0.html
Tol, R.S.J., 2009: The economic effects of climate change, Journal of Economic Perspectives 23(2), 29–51

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Antinori, C. and J. Sathaye, 2007: Assessing Transaction Costs of Project-Based Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report LBNL-57315
Antle, J.M., S.M. Capalbo, S. Mooney, E.T. Elliot, and K.H. Paustian, 2003: Spatial heterogeneity, contract design, and the efficiency of carbon sequestration policies for agriculture, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 46, 231–50
Blaser, J. and C. Robledo, 2008: Initial analysis on the mitigation potential in the forestry sector, Update of a background paper prepared for the UNFCCC Secretariat in August 2007, presented to the International Expert Meeting on Addressing Climate Change through Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests, Yokohama, Japan, April 30–May 2
Cacho, O. and L. Lipper, 2007: Abatement and transaction costs of carbon-sink projects involving smallholders, FEEM Working Paper 27.2007, Fundacion Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan
Eliasch, J., 2008: Climate Change: Financing Global Forests, Office of Climate Change, UK Government, London
Grieg-Gran, M., 2008: The cost of avoiding deforestation, Update of the Report prepared for The Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change, Working Paper, International Institute for Environment and Development, Cambridge
Hoehn, H.F. and B. Solberg, 1994: Potential and economic efficiency of carbon sequestration in forest biomass through silvicultural management, Forest Science 40, 429–51
Houghton, R.A., 1999: The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850–1990, Tellus, 51B, 298–313
Houghton, R.A., 2003: Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management 1850–2000, Tellus, 55b, 378–90
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change – Report of Working Group III, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Kurz, W.A. and M.J. Apps, 1999: A 70-year retrospective analysis of carbon fluxes in the Canadian forest sector, Ecological Applications 9(2), 526–47
Murray, B., R. Lubowski, and B. Sohngen, 2009: Including international forest carbon incentives in a United States climate policy: understanding the economics, Working Paper, The Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University, Durham, NC
Murray, B.C., B. Sohngen, and M.T. Ross, 2007: Economic consequences of consideration of permanence, leakage and additionality for soil carbon sequestration projects, Climatic Change, 80(1–2), 127–43
Nordhaus, W., 2009: A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Nordhaus, W. and J. Boyer, 2000: Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Richards, K. and C. Stokes, 2004: A review of forest carbon sequestration cost studies: a dozen years of research, Climatic Change 63, 1–48
Searchinger, T., R. Heimlich, R.A. Houghton, F. Dong, A. Elobeid, J. Fabiosa, S. Tokgoz, D. Hayes, and T-H Yu, 2008: Use of US croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change, Science 319, 1238–40
Sedjo, R.A., 1989: Forests: a tool to moderate global warming?, Environment 31(1), 14–20
Sedjo, R.A., J. Wisniewski, A.V. Sample, and J.D. Kinsman, 1995: The economics of managing carbon via forestry: assessment of existing studies, Environmental and Resource Economics 6, 139–65
Smith, W.B., P.D. Miles, J.S. Vissage, and S.A. Pugh, 2003: Forest resources of the United States, 2002, General Technical Report NC-241, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station, St Paul, MN
Sohngen, B., 2008: Paying for avoided deforestation – should we do it?, Choices 23, (1) www.choicemagazine.org/2008–1/theme/2008–1-08.htm
Sohngen, B., K. Andrasko, M. Gytarsky, G. Korovin, L. Laestadius, B. Murray, A. Utkin, and D. Zamolodchikov, 2005: Stocks and Flows: Carbon Inventory and Mitigation Potential of the Russian Forest and Land Base, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC
Sohngen, B., A. Golub, and T. Hertel, 2009: The role of forestry in carbon sequestration in general equilibrium models, chapter 11 in T. Hertel, S. Rose, and R. Tol. (eds.), Economic Analysis of Land Use in Global Climate Change Policy, Routledge, New York
Sohngen, B. and S. Brown, 2004: Measuring leakage from carbon projects in open economies: a stop timber harvesting project as a case study, Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34, 829–39
Sohngen, B. and S. Brown, 2006: The influence of conversion of forest types on carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services in the South Central United States, Ecological Economics 57, 698–708
Sohngen, B. and S. Brown, 2008: Extending timber rotations: carbon and cost implications, Climate Policy 8, 435–51
Sohngen, B. and R. Sedjo, 2006: Carbon sequestration in global forests under different carbon price regimes, Energy Journal 27, 109–26
Sun, B. and B. Sohngen, 2009: Set-asides for carbon sequestration: implications for permanence and leakage, Climatic Change, published online, July 23, DOI: 10.1007/s10584–009-9628–9
Tavoni, M., B. Sohngen, and V. Bosetti, 2007: Forestry and the carbon market response to stabilize climate, Energy Policy 35(11), 5346–53
UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 2006: Global forest resources assessment 2005: progress towards sustainable forest management, FAO Forestry Paper 147, United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, www.fao.org
Van Kooten, G., Cornelis, Alison J. Eagle, James Manley, and Tara Smolak, 2004: How costly are carbon offsets? A meta-analysis of carbon forest sinks, Environmental Science & Policy 7, 239–51

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Adams, D.M., R.J. Alig, B.A. McCarl, J.M. Callaway, and S.M. Winnett, 1999: Minimum cost strategies for sequestering carbon in forests, Land Economics 75, 360–74
Angelsen, A., S. Brown, C. Loisel, L. Peskett, C. Streck, and D. Zarin, 2009: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD): an options assessment report, Report prepared for the government of Norway, www.redd-oar.org/links/REDD-OAR_en.pdf
Benitez, P., I. McCallum, M. Obersteiner, and Y. Yamagata, 2004: Global supply for carbon sequestration: identifying least-cost afforestation sites under country risk consideration, Interim Report IR-04–022, International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
Bosetti, V., R. Lubowski, A. Golub, and A. Markandya, 2009: Linking reduced deforestation and a global carbon market: impacts on costs, financial flows, and technological innovation, FEEM Nota di Lavoro 56.2009, feem.it/NR/rdonlyres/396DBB3D-C57B-4878–9AE6-E493471DDC89/2930/5609.pdf
Böttcher, H., K. Aoki, S. De Cara, M. Gusti, P. Havlik, G. Kindermann, U.A. Schneider, and M. Obersteiner, 2008: GHG mitigation potentials and costs from land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) in Annex 1 countries, GAINS Methodology Report; International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
Busch, J., B. Strassburg, A. Cattaneo, R. Lubowski, F. Bolz, R. Ashton, A. Bruner, and D. Rice, 2009: Open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet (OSIRIS v2.4), collaborative modeling initiative on REDD economics, www.conservation.org/osiris/Pages/overviews.aspx
Dinan, T. and P. Orszag, 2008: Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions, Congressional Budget Office, US Congress, Washington, DC, February, www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/89xx/doc8934/02-12-Carbon.pdf
Dixit, A.K. and R.S. Pindyck, 1994: Investment under Uncertainty (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ
Eliasch, J., 2008: Climate Change: Financing Global Forests, Office of Climate Change, London, UK
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2000: The global outlook for future wood supply from forest plantations, Working Paper GFPOS/WP/03, FAO, Rome
Foley, J.A., G.P. Asner, M. Heil Costa, M.T. Coe, R. DeFries, H.K. Gibbs, E.A. Howard, S. Olson, J. Patz, N. Ramankutty, and P. Snyder, 2007: Amazonia revealed: forest degradation and loss of ecosystem goods and services in the Amazon Basin, Frontiers in Ecology 5, 25–32
Golub, A., S. Fuss, J. Szolgayova, and M. Obersteiner, 2009: Effects of low-cost offsets on energy investment: new perspectives on REDD, FEEM Nota di Lavoro 17.2009, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1397144 or http://www.feem.it/NR/rdonlyres/80EAC8FD-07E5–4135-8642–5D959AE95C25/2832/1709.pdf
Gusti, M., P. Havlik, and M. Obersteiner, 2008: Technical description of the IIASA model cluster, The Eliasch Review, Office of Climate Change, London, UK, www.occ.gov.uk/activities/eliasch/Gusti_IIASA_model_cluster.pdf
Gusti, M., P. Havlik, and M. Obersteiner, 2009: How much additional carbon can be stored in forests if economic measures are used and how much could it cost?, Research Reports of the National University of Bioresources and Nature Management of Ukraine, www.nbuv.gov.ua/Portal/chem_biol/nvau/2009_135/9m.pdf
Hansen, J., Mki. Sato, P. Kharecha, D. Beerling, R. Berner, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. Pagani, M. Raymo, D.L. Royer, and J.C. Zachos, 2008: Target atmospheric CO2: where should humanity aim?, Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2, 217–31
Kindermann, G., M. Obersteiner, B. Sohngen, J. Sathaye, K. Andrasko, E. Rametsteiner, B. Schlamadinger, S. Wunder, and R. Beach, 2008: Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(30), 10302–7
Lubowski, R., A. Plantinga, and R. Stavins, 2006: Land-use change and carbon sinks: econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 51, 135–52
Murray, B., 2008: Leakage from an avoided deforestation compensation policy: concepts, empirical evidence, and corrective policy options, Working Paper 08–02, Nicholas Institute for the Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University, www.nicholas.duke.edu/institute/wp-leakage.pdf
Murray, B., R. Lubowski, and B. Sohngen, 2009: Including international forest carbon incentives in a United States climate policy: understanding the economics, Working Paper, Nicholas Institute for the Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University, Durham, NC
Murray, B.C., B.L. Sohngen, A.J. Sommer, B.M. Depro, K.M. Jones, B.A. McCarl, D. Gillig, B. DeAngelo, and K. Andrasko, 2005: EPA-R-05–006, Greenhouse gas mitigation potential in US forestry and agriculture, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Washington, DC
Naidoo, R. and T. Iwamura, 2007: Global-scale mapping of economic benefits from agricultural lands: implications for conservation priorities,” Biological Conservation 140, 40–9
Nordhaus, W., A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Pagiola, S. and B. Bosquet, 2009: Estimating the costs of REDD at the country level, Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/fcp/sites/forestcarbonpartnership.org/files/The%20Costs%20of%20REDD%2004–09-09.pdf
Plantinga, A.J., T. Mauldin, and D.J. Miller, 1999: An econometric analysis of the costs of sequestering carbon in forests, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 81, 812–24
Ramankutty, N., J.A. Foley, J. Norman, and K. McSweeney, 2002: The global distribution of cultivable lands: current patterns and sensitivity to possible climate change, Global Ecology & Biogeography 11, 377–92
Sohngen, B. and R. Mendelsohn, 2003: An optimal control model of forest carbon sequestration, American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 85(2), 448–57
Sohngen, B. and R. Mendelsohn, 2007: A sensitivity analysis of carbon sequestration, chapter 19 in M. Schlesinger, H.S. Kheshgi, J. Smith, F.C. de la Chesnaye, J.M. Reilly, T. Wilson, and C. Kolstad (eds.), Human-Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Stavins, R., 1999: The costs of carbon sequestration: a revealed preference approach, American Economic Review 89, 994–1009
Tavoni, M., B. Sohngen, and V. Bosetti, 2007: Forestry and the carbon market response to stabilize climate, Energy Policy 35, 5346–53
Van Velthuizen, H. et al., 2007: Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability, Environment and Natural Resources Series XI, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Rome
Wise, M. et al., 2009: Implications of Limiting CO2 concentrations for land use and energy, Science 324, 1183–6

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Andreae, M.O. and A. Geleneser, 2006: Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6, 3131–48
Bahner, M., 2007: Use of Black Carbon and Organic Carbon Inventories for Projections and Mitigation Analysis, EPA Emissions Inventory Conference, Research Triangle Park, NC
Barrett, S., 2007: Why Cooperate? The Incentive to Supply Global Public Goods, Oxford University Press, New York
Bate, R. and W.D. Montgomery, 2005: Beyond Kyoto: real solutions to greenhouse emissions from developing countries, in Towards a Liberal Utopia?, Philip Booth (ed.), The Institute of Economic Affairs, London
Bond, T., 2006: Bottom-Up Methods to Improve Global BC/OC Inventory, Energy Modeling Forum, BC/OC Subgroup, Washington, DC
Bond, T., 2007: Testimony for the hearing on black carbon and climate change, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, October 18
Bond, T.C., E. Bhardwaj, R. Dong, R. Jogani, S. Jung, C. Roden, D.G. Streets, S. Fernandes, and N. Trautmann, 2004: Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–2000, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21: GB2018
Bond, T., D. Streets, K. Yarber, S. Nelson, J. Woo, and Z. Klimont, 2004: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, Journal of Geophysical Research 109(D14203)
Bond, T.C., D.G. Streets, K. F. Yarber, S. M. Nelson, J.-H. Woo, and Z. Klimont, 2005: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, Journal of Geophysical Research 109(D14)
Bond, T. and H. Sun, 2005: Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?, Environmental Science Technology 39, 5921–6
Boucher, O. and M.S. Reddy, 2008: Climate trade-off between black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions, Energy Policy 36, 193–200
Carl, J., 2009: Cookstoves, Carbon, and Climate, Indian Express, April
CGAP, 2009: Microfinance and Climate Change: Threats and Opportunities, Focus Note, CGAP, Washington, DC, February
Chandler, K., K. Vertin, T. Alleman and N. Clark, 2003: Ralph's Grocery EC–DieselTM Truck Fleet: Final Results, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC
Cofala, J., M. Amann, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, and L. Hoglund-Isaksson, 2006. Scenario of Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Air Pollutants and Methane Until 2030, Final Report for WP3, Atmospheric Pollution and Economic Development Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
Cooke, W.F. and J.J.N. Wilson, 1996: A global black carbon aerosol model, Journal of Geophysical Research 101(D14), 19,395–19,409
Cooke, W.F., C. Liousse, H. Cachier and J. Feichter, 1999: Construction of a 1° × 1° fossil fuel emission data set for carbonaceous aerosol and implementation and radiative impact in the ECHAM4 model, Journal of Geophysical Research 104, 22,137–62
Gulledge, Jay, 2008: Three plausible scenarios of future climate change, in Climatic Cataclysm, K.M. Campbell (ed.), The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC
Hanson, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G.A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Niang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, M. Muller, P. Minnis, S. Menon, T. Novavov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tansner, D. Thresher, B. Wrelick, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, 2005: Geophysical Research 110(D18).
Hedon, 2007: Household Energy Network, Improved Cookstove in Africa – An Analysis of the Difficulties, September
IGSD/INECE, 2008: Reducing black carbon may be fastest strategy for slowing climate change, Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development (IGSD) and International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE), 12
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.T. Hongton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Jacobson, M., 2007: Testimony for the Hearing on Black Carbon and Arctic, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, October 18
Jacoby, H.D., B.H. Babiker, S. Paltsev, and J.M. Reilly, 2008: Sharing the burden of GHG reductions, MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Report 167, November
Kheshgi, H.S., 2007: Probabilistic estimates of climate change: methods, assumptions and examples, chapter 4 in M. Schlesinger, H. Kheshgi, J. Smith, F. de la Chesnaye, J.M. Reilly, T. Wilson, and C. Kolstad (eds.), Human-Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Kheshgi, H.S., 2008. R&D as key to climate policy success, Conference on Technology Policy and Climate Change, Palo Alto, California, October
Larsen, B., G. Hutton, and N. Khanna, 2008: Air pollution, Copenhagen Consensus 2008 Challenge Paper, April
Montgomery, W.D. and S.D. Tuladhar, 2006: The Asia Pacific Partnership: its role in promoting a positive climate for investment, economic growth and greenhouse gas reductions, International Council for Capital Formation, Brussels
Montgomery, W.D. and R. Bate, 2005: A (mostly) painless path forward: reducing greenhouse gases through economic freedom, in Climate Change Policy and Economic Growth: A Way Forward to Ensure Both, M. Thorning and A. Illarionov (eds.), International Council for Capital Formation, Brussels
Newell, R.G. and William A. Pizer, 2003: Regulating stock externalities under uncertainty, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 45(2), Supplement 1, March, 416–32
Nordhaus, W., 2008: A Question of Balance, Weighing the Options of Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Penner, J.E., H. Eddleman, and T. Novakov, 1993: Towards the development of a global inventory of carbon emissions, Atmospheric Environment, A 27, 1277–95
Pettus, A., 2009: Agricultural fires and Arctic climate change, Clean Air Task Force, May
Ramanathan, V., 2007a: Testimony for the Hearing on the Role of Black Carbon on Global and Regional Climate Change, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, October 18
Ramanathan, V., 2007b: Global warming & dangerous climate change: buying time with black carbon reductions, Proposal to King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, November 15
Ramanathan, V. and K. Balakrishnan, 2007: Project Surya, reduction of air pollution and global warming by cooking with renewable sources: a controlled and practical experiment in rural India, Project Surya, www.projectsurya.org/storage/Surya-WhitePaper.pdf
Rosenthal, E., 2009: Third-world stove soot is target in climate fight, New York Times, April 16
Rypdal, K., N. Rive, T. Berntsen, Z. Klimont, T. Mideksa, G. Myhre, and Ragnhild Skeie, 2009: Costs and global impacts of black carbon abatement strategies, Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology 4, 625–41
Shine, K.P., J.S. Fuglestvedt, A.K. Hailemariam, and N. Stuber, 2005: Alternatives to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases, Climatic Change 68, 281–302
Sokolov, A.P., P.H. Stone, C.E. Forest, R. Prinn, M.C. Sarofim, M. Webster, S. Paltsev, C.A. Schlosser, D. Kicklighter, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Reilly, C. Wang, B. Felzer, and H.D. Jacoby, 2009: Probabilistic forecast for 21st century climate based on uncertainties in emissions (without policy) and climate parameters, Journal of Climate 22(19), 5175–204
Stegeman, R., 2008: Black carbon: playing a major role in arctic climate change, www.polarfoundation.org/www_sciencepoles/index.php?/articles_interviews/black_carbon_playing_a_major_role_in_arctic_climate_change/&uid=1253&pg=8
Tol, R.S.J., 2008: The social cost of carbon: trends, outliers, and catastrophes, economics, the open-access, Open-Assessment E-Journal 2(25), 1–24
Weitzman, M.L., 2008: On modeling and interpreting the economics of catastrophic climate change, Review of Economics and Statistics 91(1), 1–19
Wigley, T.M.L., R. Richels, and J.A. Edmonds, 2007: Overshoot pathways to CO2 stabilization in a multi-gas context, in Human Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment, M. Schlesinger, F.C. de la Chesnaye, H. Kheshgi, C.D. Kolstad, J. Reilly, J.B. Smith, and T. Wilson (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 84–92

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Anderson, H.R., R. Atkinson, B. Chen, A. Cohen, D. Greenbaum, A.J. Hedley, W. Huang, J. Pande, C.A., Pope, and K. Smith, 2004: Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries of Asia: A Literature Review, Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA
Andreae, M.O. and A. Gelencsér, 2006: Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6, 3131–48
Auffhammer, M., V. Ramanathan, and J.R. Vincent, 2006: Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India, PNAS 103, 19668–72
Barnes, D.F., K. Openshaw, K.R. Smith, and R. Van Der Plas, 1994: What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? A Comparative International Review of Stove Programs, The World Bank, Washington, DC
Baron, R.E., W.D. Montgomery, and S.D. Tuladhar, 2009: Black carbon mitigation, chapter 4 in this volume
Bice, K., A. Eil, B. Habib, P. Heijmans, R. Kopp, J. Nogues, F. Norcross, M. Sweitzer-Hamilton, and A. Whitworth, 2009: Black carbon: a review and policy recommendations, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
Bond, T.C., 2007: Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?, Environmental Research Letters 2, 045030
Bond, T.C., D.G. Streets, K.F. Yarber, S.M. Nelson, J.H. Woo, and Z. Klimont, 2004: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 109, D14203
Bond, T.C. and H.L. Sun, 2005: Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 5921–6
Ezzati, M., A.D. Lopez, A. Rodgers, S. Vander Hoorn, and C.J.L. Murray, 2002: Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 360, 1347–60
Ezzati, M., S. Vander Hoorn, A.D. Lopez, G. Danaei, A. Rodgers, C.D. Mathers, and C.J.L. Murray, 2006: Comparative quantification of mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected risk factors, in A.D. Lopez, C.D. Mathers, M. Ezzati, D.T. Jamison, and C.J.L. Murray (eds.), Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 241–68
Forster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R.V. Dorland, 2007: Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing, in S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 129–234
Grieshop, A.P., C.C.O. Reynolds, M. Kandlikar, and H. Dowlatabadi, 2009: A black-carbon mitigation wedge, Nature Geoscience 8, 533–4
Hausker, K., 2004: Vehicle inspection and maintenance programs: international experience and best practice, office of Energy and Information Technology, US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC
Haywood, J.M. and V. Ramaswamy, 1998: Global sensitivity studies of the direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate and black carbon aerosols, Journal of Geophysical Research 103, 6043–58
Jacobson, M.Z., 2004: Climate response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot's feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity, Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D21201
Jacobson, M.Z., 2006: Effects of externally-through-internally-mixed soot inclusions within clouds and precipitation on global climate, Journal of Physical Chemistry A 110, 6860–73
Koren, I., J.V. Martins, L.A. Remer, and H. Afargan, 2008: Smoke invigoration versus inhibition of clouds over the Amazon, Science 321, 946–9
MacCarty, N., D. Ogle, D. Still, T. Bond, and C. Roden, 2008: A laboratory comparison of the global warming impact of five major types of biomass cooking stoves, Energy for Sustainable Development 12, 56–65
Mehta, S. and C. Shahpar, 2004: The health benefits of interventions to reduce indoor air pollution from solid fuel use: a cost-effectiveness analysis, Energy for Sustainable Development 8, 53–9
Molina, M. and L. Molina, 2004: Megacities and atmospheric pollution, Journal of Air & Waste Management Association 54, 644–80
Nordhaus, W.D., 2007: A review of the Stern Review on the economics of climate change, Journal of Economic Literature 45, 686–702
Pacala, S. and R. Socolow, 2004: Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies, Science 305, 968–72
Ramanathan, V. and G. Carmichael, 2008: Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, Nature Geoscience 1, 221–7
Ramanathan, V., M.V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, 2007: Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption, Nature 448, 575–8
Reynolds, C.C.O. and M. Kandlikar, 2008: Climate impacts of air quality policy: switching to a natural gas-fueled public transportation system in New Delhi, Environmental Science and Technology 42, 5860–5
Rodgers, A., P. Vaughan, T. Prentice, T.T. Edejer, D. Evans, and J. Lowe, 2002: The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life, World Health Organization, Geneva
Shindell, D. and G. Faluvegi, 2009: Climate response to regional radiative forcing during the twentieth century, Nature Geoscience 2, 294–300
Sinton, J.E., K.R. Smith, J.W. Peabody, L. Yaping, Z. Xiliang, R. Edwards, and G. Quan, 2004: An assessment of programs to promote improved household stoves in China, Energy for Sustainable Development 8, 33–52
Smith, K.R., S. Gu, K. Huang, and D. Qiu, 1993: One hundred million improved cookstoves in China: how was it done?, World Development: 21, 941–61
Smith, K.R. and E. Haigler, 2008: Co-benefits of climate mitigation and health protection in energy systems: scoping methods, Annual Review of Public Health 29, 11–25
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Subramanian, R., E. Winijkul, T. Bond, W. Thiansathit, N.T. Kim Oanh, I. Paw-Armart, and K. Duleep, 2009: Climate-relevant properties of diesel particulate emissions: results from a piggyback study in Bangkok, Thailand, Environmental Science and Technology 43, 4213–18
Weitzman, M.L., 2007: A review of the Stern review on the economics of climate change, Journal of Economic Literature 45, 703–24
Wigley, T.M.L., 2006: A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization, Science 314, 452–4
Zhang, J.F., K.R. Smith, Y. Ma, S. Ye, F. Jiang, W. Qi, P. Liu, M.A.K. Khalil, R.A. Rasmussen, and S.A. Thorneloe, 2000: Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors, Atmospheric Environment 34, 4537–49
Zickfeld, K., A. Levermann, M.G. Morgan, T. Kuhlbrodt, S. Rahmstorf, and P. Keith, 2007: Expert judgements on the response of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to climate change, Climatic Change 82, 235–65

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Aaheim, A. et al., 2006: Costs savings of a flexible multi-gas climate policy, The Energy Journal, Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy, Special Issue 3, 485–502
Bousquet, P. et al., 2006: Contribution of anthropogenic and natural sources to atmospheric methane variability, Nature 443, 439–43
DeAngelo, B.J. et al., 2006: Methane and nitrous oxide mitigation in agriculture, The Energy Journal, Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy, Special Issue 3, 89–108
de la Chesnaye, F.C. et al., 2001: Cost-effective reductions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, Energy Policy 29, 1325–31
de la Chesnaye, F.C. and J.P. Weyant, 2006: Multi-greenhouse gas mitigation and climate policy, The Energy Journal, Special Issue 3, 1–520
Delhotal, K.C. et al., 2006: Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from waste, energy and industry, The Energy Journal, Special Issue 3, 45–62
Gallaher, M. et al., 2005: Region-specific marginal abatement costs for methane from coal, natural gas, and landfills through 2030, in E.S. Rubin, D.W. Keith, and C.F. Gilboy (eds.), Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, vol. I, Oxford University Press, Oxford
Golub, A., T. Hertel, H.L. Lee et al., 2009: The opportunity cost of land use and the global potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture and forestry, Resource and Energy Economics 31(4), 299–319
Hope, C. 2005: The climate change benefits of reducing methane emissions, Climatic Change 86, 21–39
European Commission, 2009: Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), release version 4.0. http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu
international environmental agreement, 2003: Building the cost curves for the industrial sources on non-CO2-greenhouse gases, Report PH4/25, International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, October
international environmental agreement, 2008: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (2008 edn.), International Energy Agency, Paris
IPPC, 1995: Climate change 1995. The science of climate change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
IPPC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Houghton, J.T., Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C.A. Johnson (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
IPPC, 2007a: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report – Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and A. Reisinger (eds.), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva
IPPC, 2007b: Technical summary, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
IPPC, 2007c: Summary for policymakers, in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L.A. Meyer (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
IPPC, 2007d: Agriculture, in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L.A. Meyer (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
IPPC, 2007e: Waste management, in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Jakeman, G. and B.S. Fisher, 2006: Benefits of multi-gas mitigation: an application of the global trade and environment model (GTEM), The Energy Journal, Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy, Special Issue 3, 323–42
Johnson, J.M.-F. et al., 2007: Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, Environmental Pollution 150, 107–24
Kemfert, C. et al., 2006: Economic impact assessment of climate change – a multi-gas investigation with WIAGEM-GTAPEL-ICM, The Energy Journal, Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy, Special Issue 3, 441–60
Keppler, F. et al., 2006: Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions, Nature 439, 187–91
Lechtenbömer, S. et al., 2007: Tapping the leakages: methane losses, mitigation options and policy issues for Russian long distance gas transmission pipelines, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 1, 387–95
Lelieveld, J. et al., 2005: Low methane leakage from gas pipelines, Nature, 434(7035), 841–2
Lucas, P.L. et al., 2007: Long-term reduction potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, Environmental Science & Policy 10, 85–103
McKinsey & Co., 2007: Reducing US greenhouse gas emissions: how much at what cost? US Greenhouse Gas Abatement Mapping Initiative, Executive Report, Jon Creyts et al., December, www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/pdf/US_ghg_final_report.pdf
Methane to Markets, 2008: Global methane emissions and mitigation opportunities. Fact Sheet, www.methanetomarkets.org
Milich, L. 1999: The role of methane in global warming: where might mitigation strategies be focused?, Global Environmental Change 9, 179–201
Monni, S., R.P. Patti, A. Letilä, I. Savolainen, and S. Syri, 2006: Global climate change mitigation scenarios for solid waste management, VTT Publications 603, VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications2006/P603.pdf, accessed September 1, 2009
Nisbet, R.E.R. et al., 2009: Emission of methane from plants, Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276(1660), 1347–54
Nordhaus, W. 2007: The Challenge of Global Warming: Economic Models and Environmental Policy, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2008: Costs of Inaction on Key Environmental Challenges, OECD, Paris
Povellato, A. et al., 2007: Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey, Environmental Science & Policy 10, 474–90
Smith, P. et al., 2009: Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363, 789–813
Stern, N. 2007, The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Tol, R.S.J. 2002a: Estimates of the damage costs of climate change, part 1: benchmark estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics 21, 47–73
Tol, R.S.J., 2002b: Estimates of the damage costs of climate change, part 2: dynamic estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics 21, 135–60
Tol, R.S.J.,2008: The social cost of carbon: trends, outliers and catastrophes, Economics 2, 2008–25
USEPA, 2006a: Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs EPA 430-R-06-005, Washington, DC
USEPA, 2006b: Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990–2020, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division, Washington, DC
van Vuuren D. et al., 2006: Long-term multi-gas scenarios to stabilise radiative forcing – exploring costs and benefits within an integrated assessment framework, The Energy Journal, Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy, Special Issue 3, 201–34
Wassmann, R. and H. Pathak, 2007: Introducing greenhouse gas mitigation as a development objective in rice-based agriculture: II. Cost-benefit assessment for different technologies, regions and scales, Agricultural Systems 94, 826–40
Weiske, A. et al., 2006: Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in European conventional and organic dairy farming, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 112, 221–32
Weitzman, M. 2007: A review of The Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change, Journal of Economic Literature 45(3), 703–24
von Witzke, H. and S. Noleppa, 2007: Methan und Lachgas: die vergessenen Klimagase, Berlin, WWF
Yang, M., 2009: Climate change and energy policies, coal and coalmine methane in China, Energy Policy 37, 2858–69
Yoon, S. et al., 2009: Feasibility of atmospheric methane removal using methanotrophic biotrickling filters, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 83, 949–56

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Anthoff, D. et al., 2009a: Discounting for climate change, Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal 3, 2009–24
Anthoff, D., 2009b: Risk aversion, time preference, and the social cost of carbon, Environmental Research Letters 4(2)
Batjes, J.J. and C.G.M. Goldewijk, 1994: The IMAGE 2 Hundred Year (1890–1990) Database of the Global Environment (HYDE), RIVM, Bilthoven, 410100082
Cline, W.R., 1992: The Economics of Global Warming, Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC
Fankhauser, S., 1994: Protection vs. retreat – the economic costs of sea level rise, Environment and Planning A 27, 299–319
Gollier, C., 2004: Maximizing the expected net future value as an alternative strategy to gamma discounting, Finance Research Letters 1, 85–9
Gollier, C. and R. Zeckhauser, 2005: Aggregation of heterogeneous time preferences, Journal of Political Economy 113(4), 878–96
Guo, J. et al., 2006: Discounting and the social cost of carbon: a closer look at uncertainty, Environmental Science & Policy 9(3), 205–16
Hammitt, J.K. et al., 1992: A sequential-decision strategy for abating climate change, Nature 357, 315–18
Hope, C. and D. Newbery 2007: Calculating the social cost of carbon, in Delivering a Low Carbon Electricity System: Technologies, Economics and Policy, M. Grubb, T. Jamasb and M.G. Pollitt (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Kattenberg, A. et al., 1996: Climate models – projections of future climate, in Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change – Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meiro Filho, B.A. Callander et al. (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 285–357
Kemfert, C. and W.-P. Schill, 2009: Methane mitigation, chapter 5 in this volume
Leggett, J. et al., 1992: Emissions scenarios for the IPCC: an update in Climate Change 1992 – The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, J.T. Houghton, B.A. Callander and S.K. Varney (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 71–95
Link, P.M. and R.S.J. Tol, 2004: Possible economic impacts of a shutdown of the thermohaline circulation: an application of FUND, Portuguese Economic Journal 3(2), 99–114
Maier-Reimer, E. and K. Hasselmann, 1987: Transport and storage of carbon dioxide in the ocean: an inorganic ocean circulation carbon cycle model, Climate Dynamics 2, 63–90
Manne, A.S. and R.G. Richels, 2001: An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases, Nature 410, 675–77
Mendelsohn, R.O. et al., 2000: Comparing impacts across climate models, Integrated Assessment 1, 37–48
Nordhaus, W., 2008: A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Nordhaus, W. and J. Boyer, 2000: Warming the World: Economics Models of Global Warming, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Shine, K.P. et al., 1990: Radiative forcing of climate, in climate change – The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J.T. Houghton, G.J. Jenkins and J.J. Ephraums (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 41–68
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Tol, R.S.J., 1995: The damage costs of climate change – towards more comprehensive calculations, Environmental and Resource Economics 5, 353–74
Tol, R.S.J., 1996: The damage costs of climate change: towards a dynamic representation, Ecological Economics 19, 67–90
Tol, R.S.J., 2002a: Estimates of the damage costs of climate change. part 1: benchmark estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics 21(2), 47–73
Tol, R.S.J., 2002b: Estimates of the damage costs of climate change. part 2: dynamic estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics 21(2), 135–60
Tol, R.S.J., 2005: An emission intensity protocol for climate change: an application of FUND, Climate Policy 4, 269–87
Tol, R.S.J., 2006: Multi-gas emission reduction for climate change policy: an application of FUND, The Energy Journal: Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy (Special Issue 3), 235–50
Weitzman, M.L., 1998: Why the far-distant future should be discounted at its lowest possible rate, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 36, 201–8
Weitzman, M.L., 2001: Gamma discounting, American Economic Review 91(1), 260–71
Weitzman, M.L., 2008: On modeling and interpreting the economics of catastrophic climate change, Review of Economics and Statistics 91(1), 1–19

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Allais, O. and V. Nichele, 2007: Capturing structural changes in french meat and fish demand over the period 1991–2002, European Review of Agricultural Economics 34(4), 517–38
Allan, R. et al., 2007: Bali Climate Declaration by Scientists, Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, www.ccrc.unsw.edu.au/news/2007/Bali.html
Archer, D., M. Eby, V. Brovkin, A. Ridgwell, L. Cao, U. Mikolajewicz, K. Caldeira, K. Matsumoto, G. Munhoven, A. Montenegro, and K. Tokos, 2009: Atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel carbon dioxide, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 37, 117–34
Azar, C., 1998: Are optimal CO2 emissions really optimal? – Four critical issues for economists in the greenhouse, Environmental and Resource Economics 11(3–4), 301–15
Banse, M., H. Grethe, and S. Nolte, 2005: Documentation of ESIM Model Structure, Base Data and Parameters, in GAMS, User Handbook, Berlin and Göttingen
Burton, M. and T. Young, 1992: The structure of changing tastes for meat and fish in Great Britain, European Review of Agricultural Economics 19(2), 165–80
Carlsson-Kanyama, A. and A.D. González, 2009: Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89(5), 1704–9
Cederberg, C., U. Sonesson, M. Henriksson, V. Sund, and J. Davis, 2009: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Production of Meat, Milk and Eggs in Sweden 1990 and 2005, SIK Report 793, Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK), Gothenburg
Dasgupta P., 2008: Discounting climate change, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 37, 141–69
FAO, 2009: FAO statistical database, http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx
Fiore A.M., J.J. West, L.W. Horowitz, V. Naik, and M.D. Schwarzkopf, 2008: Characterizing the tropospheric ozone response to methane emission control and the benefits to climate and air quality, Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D8), D08307
Forster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D.C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, 2007: Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Fuglestvedt, J.S., T.K. Berntsen, O. Godal, R. Sausen, K.P. Shine, and T. Skodvin, 2003: Metrics of climate change: assessing radiative forcing and emission indices, Climatic Change 58, 267–331
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2009: GGI Scenario Database, www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/GGI/DB/
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007: Summary for Policymakers, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Jansen, E., J. Overpeck, K.R. Briffa, J.-C. Duplessy, F. Joos, V. Masson-Delmotte, D. Olago, B. Otto-Bliesner, W.R. Peltier, S. Rahmstorf, R. Ramesh, D. Raynaud, D. Rind, O. Solomina, R. Villalba, and D. Zhang, 2007: Palaeoclimate, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Johansson, D.J.A., 2009: Temperature stabilization, ocean heat uptake and radiative forcing profiles, submitted to Climate Change
Johansson, D.J.A., U.M. Persson, and C. Azar, 2006: The cost of using global warming potentials: analysing the trade off between CO2, CH4, and N2O, Climatic Change 77, 291–309
Johansson, D.J.A., U.M. Persson, and C. Azar, 2008: Uncertainty and learning: implications for the trade-off between short-lived and long-lived greenhouse gases, Climatic Change 88, 293–308
Joos, F., M. Bruno, R. Fink, U. Siegenthaler, T.F. Stocker, C. Le Quéré, and J.L. Sarmiento, 1996: An efficient and accurate representation of complex oceanic and biospheric models of anthropogenic carbon uptake, Tellus B 48(3), 397–417
Kandlikar, M., 1996: Indices for comparing greenhouse gas emissions: Integrating science and economics, Energy Economics 18, 265–81
Kemfert, C. and W.-P. Schill 2009: Methane mitigation, chapter 5 in this volume
Kriegler, E., J.W. Hall, H. Held, R. Dawson, and H.J. Schellnhuber, 2009: Imprecise probability assessment of tipping points in the climate system, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(13), 5041–6
Manne, A.S. and R.G. Richels, 2001: An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases, Nature 410(6829), 675–77
Matthews, H.D. and K. Caldeira, 2008: Stabilizing climate requires near-zero emissions, Geophysical Research Letters 35, L04705
Nordhaus, W.D., 2008: A Question of Balance: Economic Modeling of Global Warming, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Parry M.L., O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. Van Der Linden, and C.E. Hanson (eds), 2007: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Prather, M., D.H. Ehhalt, F. Dentener, R. Derwent, E. Dlugokencky, E. Holland, I. Isaksen, J. Katima, V. Kirchhoff, P. Matson, P. Midgley, and M. Wang, 2001: Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Ramaswamy, V., O. Boucher, J. Haigh, D. Hauglustaine, J. Haywood, G. Myhre, T. Nakajima, G.Y. Shi, and S. Solomon, 2001: Radiative forcing of climate change, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Reilly, J.M. and K.R. Richards, 1993: Climate change damage and the trace gas index issue, Environmental and Resource Economics 3, 41–61
Richardson, K., W. Steffen, H.J. Schellnhuber, J. Alcamo, T. Barker, D. Kammen, R. Leemans, D. Liverman, M. Munasinghe, B. Osman-Elasha, N. Stern, and O. Waever, 2009: Synthesis Report: Climate Change – Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, www.climatecongress.ku.dk
Schmutzler, A. and L.H. Goulder, 1997: The choice between emission taxes and output taxes under imperfect monitoring, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 32(1), 51–64
Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, W. Bell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2005: An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone, Geophysical Research Letters 32(4), L048031
Stehfest, E., L. Bouwman, D.P. van Vuuren, M.G.J. den Elzen, B. Eickhout, and P. Kabat, 2009: Climate benefits of changing diet, Climatic Change 95(1–2), 83–102
Smith, J.B., S.H. Schneider, M. Oppenheimer, G.W. Yohe, W. Hare, M.D. Mastrandrea, A. Patwardhan, I. Burton, J. Corfee-Morlot, C.H.D. Magadza, H.M. Füssel, A.B. Pittock, A. Rahman, A. Suarez, and J.P. van Ypersele, 2009: Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “reasons for concern,” Proceedings of National Academy Science 106, 4133–7
Solomon, S., G.K. Plattner, R. Knutti, and P. Friedlingstein, 2009: Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 106(6), 1704–9
Stern, N.H., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Sterner, T., 2003: Policy Instruments for Environmental and Natural Resource Management, RFF Press; Washington, DC, USA
Stitch, S., P.M. Cox, W.J. Collins, and C. Huntingford, 2007: Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through effects on the land-carbon sink, Nature 448, 791–4
Tanaka, K., 2008: Inverse Estimation for the Simple Earth System Model ACC2 and Applications, PhD thesis, International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg
The Royal Society, 2008: Ground-Level Ozone in the 21st Century: Future Trends, Impacts and Policy Implications, Science Policy Report 15/08, royalsociety.org
Tol, R.S.J., 2008: The social cost of carbon: trends, outliers, and catastrophes, Economics 2, 2005–25
Tol, R.S.J., 2009: The economic effects of climate change, Journal of Economic Perspectives 23(2), 29–51
USEPA, 2006: Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs (6207J), Washington, DC
van Vuuren, D.P., J. Weyant, and F. de la Chesnaye, 2006: Multi-gas scenarios to stabilize radiative forcing, Energy Economics 28, 102–20
Warren, R., 2006: Impacts of global climate change at different annual mean global temperature increases, in H.J. Schellnhuber, W. Cramer, N. Nakicenovic, T. Wigley, and G. Yohe (eds.), Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Warren, R., C. Hope, M. Mastrandrea, P.S.J. Tol, N. Adger, and I. Lorenzoni, 2006: Spotlighting Impact Functions in Integrated Assessment: Research Report Prepared for the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 91
Watkiss, P. and T. Downing 2008: The social cost of carbon: valuation estimates and their use in UK policy, Integrated Assessment 8(1), 85–105
Weitzman, M.L., 2009: On Modeling and interpreting the economics of catastrophic climate change, The Review of Economics and Statistics 91(1), 1–19
West, J.J. and A.M. Fiore, 2005: Management of tropospheric ozone by reducing methane, Enviornmental Science & Technology 39(13), 4685–91
West, J.J., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, and D.L. Mauzerall, 2006: Global health benefits of mitigating ozone pollution with methane emissions control, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 103(11), 3988–93
West, J.J, S. Szopa, and D.A. Hauglustaine, 2007: Human mortality effects of future concentrations of tropospheric ozone, Comptes Rendus Geosciences 339, 775–83
Williams, A.G., E. Audsley, and D.L. Sandars, 2006: Determining the Environmental Burdens and Resource Use in the Production of Agricultural and Horticultural Commodities, Silsoe Research Institute, Cranfield University, Bedford
Wigley, T.M.L., S.J. Smith, and M.J. Prather, 2002: Radiative forcing due to reactive gas emissions, Journal of Climate 15, 2690–6
Wirsenius, S., F. Hedeus, and K. Mohlin, 2009: Greenhouse gas taxes on animal food products: rationale, tax scheme and climate mitigation effects, submitted to Climatic Change

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Association of British Insurers, 2005: Financial Risk of Climate Change, Summary Report
Adams, R.M., L.L. Houston, and B.A. McCarl, 2000: The benefits to Mexican agriculture of an El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) early warning system, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 115, 183–94
Adger, N.W., N.W. Arnell, and E.L. Thompkins, 2005: Successful adaptation to climate change across scales, Global Environmental Change 15, 77–86
Agrawala, S. and S. Fankhauser (eds.), 2008: Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change. Costs, Benefits and Policy Instrument, OECD, Paris
Barrett, S., 2008: A portfolio system of climate treaties, Discussion Paper 08–13, The Harvard Project on International Climate Change Agreements
Bettina, M. and K.L. Ebi (eds.), 2006: Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies for Human Health, Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt
Bosello, F., 2008: Adaptation, mitigation and green R&D to combat global climate change. Insights from an empirical integrated assessment exercise, CMCC Research Paper 20
Bosello, F., E. De Cian, F. Eboli, and R. Parrado, 2009: Macro economic assessment of climate change impacts: a regional and sectoral prespective, in Impacts of Climate Change and Biodiversity Effects, Final Report of the CLIBO project, European Bank, University Research Sponsorship Programme
Bosello, F., R. Roson, and R.S.J. Tol, 2006: Economy wide estimates of the implication of climate change: human health, Ecological Economics 58, 579–91
Bosetti, V., C. Carraro, E. De Cian, R. Duval, E. Massetti, and M. Tavoni, 2009: The incentives to participate in and the stability of international climate coalitions: a game-theoretic approach using the WITCH model, OECD Working Paper 702, OECD, Paris
Bosetti, V., C. Carraro, R. Duval, A. Sgobbi, and M. Tavoni, 2009: The role of R&D and technology diffusion in climate change mitigation: new perspectives using the WITCH model, OECD Working Paper 664, OECD, Paris
Bosetti, V., C. Carraro, M. Galeotti, E. Massetti, and M. Tavoni, 2006: WITCH: a world induced technical change hybrid model, The Energy Journal, Special Issue on Hybrid Modeling of Energy-Environment Policies: Reconciling Bottom-up and Top-down, 13–38
Bosetti, V., E. Massetti, and M. Tavoni, 2007: The WITCH model. Structure, baseline, solutions, FEEM Working Paper 10–2007
Boutkan, E. and A. Stikker, 2004: Enhanced water resource base for sustainable integrated water resource management, Natural Resources Forum 28, 150–4
Buonanno, P., C. Carraro, E. Castelnuovo, and M. Galeotti, 2000: Efficiency and equity of emission trading with endogenous environmental technical change, in C. Carraro (ed.), Efficiency and Equity of Climate Change Policy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht
Burton, I., 1992: Adapt and Thrive, Unpublished manuscript, Canadian Climate Centre, Downsview
Butt, T.A. and B.A. McCarl, 2004: Farm and forest carbon sequestration: can producers employ it to make some money?, Choices 19, 3–11
Caparrós, A. and F. Jacquemont, 2003: Conflicts between biodiversity and carbon offset programs: economic and legal implications, Ecological Economics 46, 143–57
Callaway, J.M., D.B. Louw, J.C. Nkomo, E.M. Hellmuth, and D.A. Sparks, 2006: The Berg River Dynamic Spatial Equilibrium Model: a new tool for assessing the benefits and costs of alternatives for coping with water demand growth, climate variability, and climate change in the Western Cape, AIACC Working Paper 31, The AIACC Project Office, International START Secretariat, Washington, DC, 41, www.aiaccproject.org
Carraro, C. and D. Siniscalco, 1998: International environmental agreements: incentives and political economy, European Economic Review 42, 561–72
Dang, H.H., A. Michaelowa, and D.D. Tuan, 2003: Synergy of adaptation and mitigation strategies in the context of sustainable development: the case of Vietnam, Climate Policy 3, S81–S96
Darwin, R. and R.S.J. Tol, 2001: Estimates of the economic effects of sea level rise, Environmental and Resource Economics 19, 113–29
de Bruin, K.C., R.B. Dellink, and S. Agrawala, 2009: Economic aspects of adaptation to climate change: integrated assessment modelling of adaptation costs and benefits, OECD Environment Working Paper 6, OECD, Paris
de Bruin, K.C., R.B. Dellink, and R.S.J. Tol, 2007: AD-DICE: an implementation of adaptation in the DICE model, FEEM Working Paper 51.2007
Deke, O., K.G. Hooss, C. Kasten, G. Klepper, and K. Springer, 2001: Economic impact of climate change: simulations with a regionalized climate-economy model, Kiel Working Paper 1065.
Ebi, K.L., 2008: Adaptation costs for climate change cases of diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition and malaria in 2030, Globalization and Health 2008 4(9)
EIA, 2008: Annual Energy Outlook. Energy Information Administration, EIA, Washington, DC
European Commission, 2005: Winning the Battle Against Global Climate Change, COM/2005/ 0035, Brussels
European Commission, 2007a: Limiting Global Climate Change to 2 degrees Celsius – The Way Ahead for 2020 and Beyond, COM2007/0002, Brussels
European Commission, 2007b: Green Paper from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, COM2007/0354, Brussels
European Commission, 2009: White paper – adapting to climate change: towards a European framework for action, COM/2009/0147, Brussels
European Environment Agency (EEA), 2005: Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe, EEA Technical Report 7/2005
European Environment Agency (EEA), 2007: Climate change: the cost of inaction and the cost of adaptation, EEA Technical Report 13/2007
Fankhauser, S. and R.S.J. Tol, 1996: The social costs of climate change, the IPCC Assessment Report and beyond, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global change, 1(4), 386–403
Fankhauser, S., J.B. Smith, and R.S.J. Tol, 1999: Weathering climate change: some simple rules to guide adaptation decisions, Ecological Economics 30, 67–78
Farrell, A.E. and A.R. Brandt, 2005: Risk of the oil transition, Environmental Research Letters 1(1).
Füssel, H.M. and R.J.T. Klein, 2006: Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking, Climatic Change 75, 301–29
Hanemann, W.M., 2008: What is the cost of climate change?, CUDARE Working Paper 1027, University of California, Berkeley, CA
Hope, C., 2003: The marginal impacts of CO2, CH4 and SF6 emissions, Judge Institute of Management Research Paper 2003/10, University of Cambridge, Judge Institute of Management, Cambridge
Hope, C., J. Anderson, and P. Wenman, 1993: Policy analysis of the greenhouse effect: an application of the PAGE model, Energy Policy 21, 327–38
Hope, C. and D. Newbery, 2007: Calculating the social cost of carbon, Electricity Policy Research Group Working Papers EPRG 07/20, University of Cambridge, Cambridge
Huq, S., A. Rahman, M. Konate, Y. Sokona, and H. Reid, 2003: Mainstreaming adaptation is climate change in least developed countries (LDCs), International Institute for Environment and Development, London
international environmental agreement, 2005: Resources to Reserves – Oil & Gas Technologies for the Energy Markets of the Future, IEA, Paris
international environmental agreement, 2007: World Energy Outlook 2007, OECD/IEA, Paris
Ingham, A., J. Ma, and A.M. Ulph, 2005a: Can adaptation and mitigation be complements?, Working Paper 79, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia
Ingham, A., J. Ma, and A.M. Ulph, 2005b: How do the costs of adaptation affect optimal mitigation when there is uncertainty, irreversibility and learning?, Working Paper 74, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia
Jamison, D.T., J.G. Breman, A.R. Measham, G. Alleyne, M. Claeson, D.B. Evans, P. Jha, A. Mills, and P. Musgrove (eds.), 2006: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, World Bank, Washington, DC
Kane, S. and J. Shogren, 2000: Linking adaptation and mitigation in climate change policy, Climatic Change 45, 75–102
Kane, S. and G. Yohe, 2000: Societal adaptation to climate variability and change: an introduction, Climatic Change 45, 1–4
Kirch, W., B. Menne, and R. Bertollini (eds.), 2005: Extreme Weather Events and Public Health Responses, Springer Verlag, Berlin
Kirshen, P., 2007: Adaptation Options and Coast of Water Supply, Tuft University, Cambridge, MA
Kirshen, P., M. Ruth and W. Anderson, 2006: Climate's long-term impacts on urban infrastructures and services: the case of metro Boston, in M. Ruth (ed.), Regional Climate Change and Variability: Local Impacts and Responses, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham
Klein, R.J.T., S. Huq, F. Denton, T.E. Downing, R.G. Richels, J.B. Robinson, and F.L. Toth, 2007: Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation. Climate change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Klein, R.J.T., E.L. Schipper, and S. Dessai, 2003: Integrating mitigation and adaptation into climate and development policy: three research questions, Working Paper 40, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia
Klein, R.J.T. and R.S.J. Tol, 1997: Adaptation to climate change: options and technologies – an overview paper, Technical Paper FCCC/TP/1997/3, UNFCC Secretariat, Bonn, Germany
Kouvaritakis, N., A. Soria, and S. Isoard, 2000: Endogenous learning in world post-Kyoto scenarios: application of the POLES Model under adaptive expectations, International Journal of Global E 14(1–4), 228–48
Kurukulasuriya P. and R. Mendelsohn, 2008: How will climate change shift agro-ecological zones and impact African agriculture? Policy Research Working Paper WPS4717, The World Bank, Washington, DC
Kypreos, S., 2007: A MERGE model with endogenous technical change and the cost of carbon stabilization, Energy Policy 35, 5327–36
Leary, N.A., 1999: A framework for benefit-cost analysis of adaptation to climate change and climate variability, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 4, 307–18
Lecoq, F. and Z. Shalizi, 2007: Balancing expenditures on mitigation and adaptation to climate change: an exploration of issues relevant for developing countries, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4299, World Bank, Washington, DC
Lim, B. and E. Spanger-Siegfred (eds.), 2005: Adaptation Policy Framework for Climate Change: Developing Policies Strategies and Measures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
McCarthy, J.J, O.F. Canziani, N.A. Leary, D.J. Dokken, and K.S. White (eds.), 2001: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
McKibbin, W.J. and P.J. Wilcoxen, 2004: Climate policy and uncertainty: the roles of adaptation versus mitigation, Brookings Discussion papers in International Economics 161
McKinsey & Co., 2009: Pathways to a Low-Carbon Economy. Version 2 of the Global Greenhouse Gas Abatement Curve, McKinsey & Co
Mendelsohn, P.O., W.N. Morrison, M.E. Schlesinger, and N.G. Adronova, 2000: Country-specific impacts of climate change, Climatic Change 45(3–4), 553–69
Metz, B., O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L.A. Meyer (eds.), 2007: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Nemet, G.F., 2006: Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics, Energy Policy 34, 3218–32
Nicholls, R.J. and R.J.T. Klein, 2003: Climate change and coastal management on Europe's Coast, EVA Working Paper 3
Nordhaus, W.D., 1994: Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of the Greenhouse Effect, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Nordhaus, W.D., 2007: http://nordhaus.econ.yale.edu/DICE2007.htm
Nordhaus, W.D. and J.G. Boyer, 2000: Warming The World: The Economics of The Greenhouse Effect, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Palutikof, P.J. van Der Linden, and C.E. Hanson (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 745–77
Parry, M., 2009: Closing the loop between mitigation, impacts and adaptation, Climatic Change 96, 23–7
Parry, M., N. Arnell, T. McMichael, R. Nicholls, P. Martens, S. Kovats, M. Livermore, C. Rosenzweig, A. Iglesias, and G. Fischer, 2001: Millions at risk: defining critical climate change threats and targets, Global Environmental Change 11, 181–3
Parry, M., O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. van der Linden, and C. Hanson (eds.), 2007: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Pearce, D.W., W.R. Cline, A.N. Achanta, S. Fankhauser, R.K. Pachauri, R.S.J. Tol, and P. Vellinga, 1996: The social costs of climate change: greenhouse damage and the benefits of control, in Bruce and E.F. Haites (eds.), climate change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions, Contribution of Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University, Cambridge
Pielke, R.A., 1998: Rethinking the role of adaptation in climate policies, Global Environmental Change 8, 159–70
Smit, B. (ed.), 1993: Adaptation to Climatic Variability and Change, Environment Canada, Guelph
Smit, B., I. Burton, R.J.T. Klein, and R. Street, 1999: The science of adaptation: a framework for assessment, Mitigation and Adaption Strategies for Global Change 4(3–4), 199–213
Smit, B., I. Burton, J.T. Klein, and J. Wandel, 2000: An anatomy of adaptation to climate change and variability, Climatic Change 45, 223–51
Smit, B. and O. Pilifosova, 2001: Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity, in Climate Change 2001 – Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 877–912
Smith, J.B. and J.K. Lazo, 2001: A summary of climate change impact assessments from the US Country Studies Programme, Climatic Change 50, 1–29
Smith, J.B. and D.A. Tirpak (eds.), 1989: The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States. Executive Summary, US Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC
Smithers, J. and B. Smit, 1997: Human adaptation to climatic variability and change, Global Environmental Change 7, 129–46
Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.), 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Tol, R.S.J., 2005: Emission abatement versus development as strategies to reduce vulnerability to climate change: an application of FUND, Environment and Development Economics 10, 615–29
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2006: Secretariat website, quoted by E. Lerina and D.A. Tirpak, in Adaptation to climate change: key terms, OECD, Paris
UN, 2004: World Population to 2300, Report ST/ESA/SER.A/236, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2007: Investments and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change, Climate Change Secretariat, Bonn
Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, Richard H. Moss, and D.J. Dokken (eds.), 1995: Climate Change, 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses – Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Wheaton, E.E. and D.C. Maciver, 1999: A framework and key questions for adapting to climate variability and change, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 4, 215–25
Wigley, T.M.L., 1994: MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change): User's Guide and Scientific Reference Manual. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
Wilbanks, T.J., 2005: Issues in developing a capacity for integrated analysis of mitigation and adaptation, Environmental Science & Policy 8, 541–7
World Bank, 2006: Clean Energy and Development: Towards an Investment Framework, World Bank, Washington, DC
Yohe, G. and K. Strzepek, 2007: Adaptation and mitigation as complementary tools for reducing the risk of climate impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12, 727–39

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Agrawala, S. and S. Fankhauser, 2008: Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change. Costs, Benefits and Policy Instruments, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris
Bosello, F., C. Carraro, and E. De Cian, 2010: Market- and Policy-Driven Adaptation, chapter 6 in this volume
Commission of the European Communities, 2007: Commission Staff Document. Accompanying Document to the Communication of the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee on the Regions on Limiting Global Climate Change to 2 degrees Celsius. Impact Assessment SEC (2007) 8, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/pdf/ia_sec_8.pdf
Easterling, W.E. et al., 2007: Food, fibre and forest products, in IPCC, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Fankhauser, S., 2009: The costs of adaptation, in Wiley Interdisciplinary Review Climate Change 1(1), 23–30
Fankhauser, S., J.B. Smith, and R.S.J. Tol, 1999: Weathering climate change. Some simple rules to guide adaptation investments, Ecological Economics 30(1), 67–78
Hallegatte, S., 2009: Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change, Global Environmental Change – Human and Policy Dimensions 19(2), 240–7
McGray, H., A. Hamill, R. Bradley, E.L. Schipper, and J.-O. Parry, 2007: Weathering the Storm. Options for Framing Adaptation and Development, World Resources Institute, Washington DC
McKinsey & Company, 2009: Shaping Climate-Resilient Development. A Framework for Decision-Making, Report of the Economics of Adaptation Working Group, McKinsey & Company and Swiss Re
Noy, I., 2009: The macro-economic consequences of disaster; Journal of Development Economics 88, 221–31
Schelling, T., 1992: Some economics of global warming, American Economic Review 82(1), 1–14
Smith, J.B. et al., 1998: Proactive Adaptation to Climate Change. Three Case Studies on Infrastructure Investments, Working Paper D-98/03, Institute for Environmental Studies, Free University, Amsterdam
Smith, J.B., 2001: Lines of evidence for vulnerability of climate change: a synthesis, IPCC, Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC, Cambridge: CUP
Smith, J.B., 2009: Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “reasons for concern”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106(11), 4133–7
Stern, N., 2009: Blueprint for a Safer Planet, The Bodley Head, London
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2007: Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change, UNFCCC, Bonn

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Ackerman, F., S.J. DeCanio, R.B. Howarth, and K. Sheeran, 2009: Limitations of integrated assessment models of climate change, Climatic Change 95, 297–315
Baer, P., 2009: Equity in climate – economy scenarios: the importance of subnational income distribution, Environmental Research Letters 4, 1–11
Bosello, F., C. Carraro, and E. De Cian, 2009: Market- and Policy-Driven Adaptation, chapter 6 in this volume
Ciscar, J.C., A. Soria, A. Iglesias, L. Garrote, S. Pye, L. Horrocks, P. Watkis, R. Nicholls, R. Roson, F. Bosello, L. Feyen, R. Dankers, A. Moreno, B. Amelung, J.M. Labeaga, X. Labandeira, O.B. Christensen, C. Goodess, and D. van Regemorter, 2009: Effects of climate change in Europe: results from the PESETA study, IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Sciences 6 (322002)
Garnaut, R., 2008: The Garnaut Climate Change Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Nordhaus, W.G., 2007: The Challenge of Global Warming: Economic Models and Environmental Policy, Yale University, New Haven, CT
Nordhaus, W.D. and J.G. Boyer, 2000: Warming the World: The Economics of the Greenhouse Effect, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Parry, M., N. Arnell, P. Berry, D. Dodman, S. Fankhauser, C. Hope, S. Kovats, R. Nicholls, D. Sattherwaite, R. Tiffin, and T. Wheeler, 2009: Assessing the Costs of Adaptation to Climate Change: A Critique of the UNFCCC Estimates, International Institute for Environment and Development and Grantham Institute for Climate Change, London
Quiggin, J., 2008: Stern and his critics on discounting and climate change: an editorial essay, Climatic Change 89(3–4), 195–205
Richardson, C. et al., 2009: Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, Synthesis Report from the Copenhagen Climate Change Congress, University of Copenhagen/International Alliance of Research Universities
Schellnhuber, J., 2009: Terra quasi-incognita: beyond the 2°C line, Presentation at conference 4 Degrees and Beyond, Oxford, September 28–30
Spash, C., 2007: The economics of climate change impacts à la Stern: novel and nuanced or rhetorically restricted?, Ecological Economics 63(4), 706–13
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Tol, R.S.J., 2005: The marginal damage costs of carbon dioxide emissions: an assessment of the uncertainties, Energy Policy 33, 2064–74
Tol, R.S.J., 2009: Carbon dioxide mitigation, chapter 2 in this volume
Weitzman, M.L., 2009: On modeling and interpreting the economics of catastrophic climate change, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(1), 1–19

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Aldy, J. and W. Pizer, 2009: The competitiveness impacts of climate change mitigation policies, Pew Center on Global Climate Change
Allen, M.R. et al., 2009: Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne, Nature 458(7242), 1163–6
Arrow, K.J., 1962: Economic welfare and the allocation of resources for invention, in The Allocation of Economic Resources, Stanford University, 609–26
Arthur, W.B., 1989: Competing technologies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events, Economic Journal 99(394), 116–31
Baker, E. and K. Adu-Bonnah, 2008: Investment in risky R&D programs in the face of climate uncertainty, Energy Economics 30(2), 465–86
Baker, E. et al., 2008: Technical change and the marginal cost of abatement, Energy Economics 30(6), 2799–2816
Baksi, S. and C. Green, 2007: Calculating economy-wide energy intensity decline rate: the role of sectoral output and energy shares, Energy Policy 35(12), 6457–66
Barker, T., I. Bashmakov, A. Althari, M. Amann, L. Chifuentes, J. Drexhage, M. Duan, O. Edenhofer, B. Flannery, M. Grubb, M. Hoogwijk., F.I. Ibitoye, C.J. Jepma, W.A. Pizer, and K. Yamaji, 2007: Mitigation from a cross-sectional perspective, in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L.A. Meyer (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Barrett, S., 2009: The coming global climate technology revolution, The Journal of Economic Perspectives 23, 53–75
Bataille, C., B. Dachis, and N. Rivers, 2009: Pricing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Impact on Canada's Competitiveness, C.D. Howe Institute, Toronto, Canada, February
Battelle Memorial Institute, 2001: Global energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change, Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park, MD
Bernedes, G., 2002: Bioenergy and water – the implications of large-scale bioenergy production for water use and supply, Global Environmental Change 12(4), 253–71
Blanford, G.J., 2009: R&D investment strategy for climate change, Energy Economics 31(Supplement 1), S27–S36
Blanford, G.J., R.G. Richels, and T.F. Rutherford, 2009: Feasible climate targets: the roles of economic growth, coalition development and expectations, Energy Economics 31, S82–S93
Blees, T., 2008: Prescription for the Planet, www.booksurge.com
Bosetti, V., C. Carraro, R. Duval, A. Sgobbi, and M. Tavoni, 2009: The role of R&D and technology diffusion in climate change mitigation: new perspectives using the WITCH model, OECD Economics Department Working Papers 664, OECD, Paris
Bosetti, V. and M. Tavoni, 2009: Uncertain R&D, backstop technology and GHGs stabilization, Energy Economics 31(Supplement 1), S18–S26
Brandt, L. and T. Rawski, 2008: China's Great Economic Transformation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Breakthrough Institute, 2009: http://breakthrough.org
Caldeira, K. et al., 2003: Climate sensitivity uncertainty and the need for energy without CO2 emission, Science 299(5615), 2052–4
Clarke, L., J. Weynant, and A. Birky, 2006: On the sources of technological change: assessing the evidence, Energy Economics 28(5–6), 579–95
Cline, W.R., 1992: The Economics of Climate Change, Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC
Cline, W.R., 2004: Climate Change, in chapter of Global Crises, Global Solutions, (ed.) Bjorn Lomborg, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Crutzen, P., 2006: Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: a contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?, Climatic Change 77(3), 211–20
Dasgupta, P. and J. Stightz, 1980: Uncertainty, industrial-structure, and the speed of R&D, Bell Journal of Economics 11(1), 1–28
Denholm, P. and R.M. Margolis, 2007a: Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies, Energy Policy 35(9), 4424–33
Denholm, P. and R.M. Margolis, 2007b: Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems, Energy Policy 35(5), 2852–61
Dosi, G., 1988: Sources, procedures, and microeconomic effects of innovation, Journal of Economic Literature 26(3), 1120–71
Edenhofer, O., K. Lessmann, C. Kemfert, M. Grubb, and J. Kohler, 2006: Induced technological change: exploring its implications for the economics of atmospheric stabilization, The Energy Journal, Special Issue, 57–107
Edmonds, J.A., C. Green, and J. Clark, 2004: The value of energy technology in addressing climate change, in M. Thorning and A. Illaronov (eds.), Climate Change Policy and Economic Growth: A Way Forward to Ensure Both, International Council for Capital Investment and the Institute for Economic Analysis, Brussels
Edmonds, J.A. and S.J. Smith, 2006: The technology of two degrees, in Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change (eds.), H.J. Schnellnhuber et al., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 385–92
Edmonds, J.A., M.A. Wise, J.J. Dooley, S.H. Kim, S.J. Smith, P.J. Runci, L.E. Clarke, E.L. Malone, and G.M. Stokes, 2007: Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change, Global Energy Technology Strategy Program, Battelle Memorial Institute, College Park, MD
Farrell, A.E. et al. 2006: Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals, Science 311, 506–8
Fargione, J. et al., 2008: Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt, Science 319(5867), 1235–8
Fisher, B.S., N. Nakicenovic, K. Alfsen, J. Corfee Morlot, F. de la Chesnaye, J.-Ch. Hourcade, K. Jiang, E. La Rovere, A. Matysek, A. Rana, K. Riahi, R. Richels, S. Rose, D. van Vuuren, and R. Warren, 2007: Issues related to mitigation in the long term context, in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L.A. Meyer (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Gerbens-Leenes, W. et al., 2009: The water footprint of bioenergy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(25), 10219–23
Green, C., 1994: The greenhouse effect and environmentally induced technological change, in Y. Shionoya and M. Perlman, Innovations in Technology, Industries, and Institutions: Studies in Schumpeterian Perspectives, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI
Green, C., S. Baksi, and M. Dilmaghani, 2007: Challenges to a climate stabilizing energy future, Energy Policy 35, 616–26
Green, C. and H.D. Lightfoot, 2002: Making climate stabilization easier than it will be: the report of IPCC WG III, C2GCR Quarterly, 2002–1
Greene, D. et al., 2009: Advanced technologies to achieve US energy goals for climate change and oil independence, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN
Hansen, J. et al., 2005: Earth's energy imbalance: confirmation and implications, Science 308(5727), 1431–5
Heal, G., 2009: Climate Economics: a meta-review and some suggestions for future research, Review of Environmental Economic Policy 3(1), 4–21
Held, H. et al., 2009: Efficient climate policies under technology and climate uncertainty, Energy Economics 31(Supplement 1), S50–S61
Herzog, H., 2001: What future for carbon capture and sequestration?, Environmental Science and Technology 35(7), 148–53
Hoffert, M.I. et al., 1998: Energy implications of future stabilization of atmospheric CO2 content, Nature 395(6705), 881–4
Hoffert, M.I., 2002: Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: energy for a greenhouse planet, Science 298(5595), 981–7
Hoffmann, V.H., 2007: EU ETS and investment decisions: the case of the German electricity industry, European Management Journal 25(6), 464–74
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2000: Emissions Scenarios, N. Nakicenovic and R. Swart (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2001: Contribution of Working Group III, Climate Change 2001: Mitigation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2005: Special Report, Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007a: Working Group III, Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007b: Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007b: Synthesis Report, Summary for Policy Makers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Jaffe, A.B. et al., 2005: A tale of two market failures: technology and environmental policy, Ecological Economics 54(2–3), 164–74
Johnson, D.G., 2000: Population, food, and knowledge, American Economic Review 90(1), 1–14
Kemp, R., 1997: Environmental Policy and Technical Change: A Comparison of the Technological Impact of Policy Instruments, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK
Lackner, K.S., 2003: A guide to CO2 sequestration, Science 300(5626), 1677–8
Lewis, N.S., 2007a: Toward cost-effective solar energy use, Science 315(5813), 798–801
Jaffe, A.B., 2007b: Powering the planet, Engineering and Science 2, 13–23
Lightfoot, H.D. and C. Green, 2001: Energy intensity decline implications for stabilization of atmospheric CO2, Centre for Climate and Global Change Research Report, 2001–7, McGill University, October
Lightfoot, H.D. and C. Green, 2002: An Assessment of IPCC Working Group III Findings of the Potential Contribution of Renewable Energies to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Stabilization, Centre for Climate and Global Change Research, Report 2002–5, McGill University, November
Love, M., 2003: Land Area and Storage Requirements for Wind and Solar Generation to Meet US Hourly Electric Demand, University of Victoria, BC, Canada, MSc Thesis
Love, M., L. Pitt, T. Niet, and G. McLean, 2003: Utility scale renewable energy systems: spatial and storage requirements, Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, BC, Canada
Lucas, R.E., 1993: Making a miracle, Econometrica 61, 251–72
MacKay, D.J.C., 2009: Sustainable Energy – Without the Hot Air, UIT, Cambridge
Maskin, E.S., 2008: Mechanism design: how to implement social goals, American Economic Review 98(3), 567–76
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 2003: The Future of Nuclear Power, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 2007: The Future of Coal, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Matthews, H.D. and K. Caldeira, 2007: Transient climate-carbon simulations of planetary geoengineering, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(24), 9949–54
Meinshausen, M. et al., 2009: Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2degC, Nature 458(7242), 1158–62
Metcalf, G.E., 2009: Market-based policy options to control US greenhouse gas emissions, The Journal of Economic Perspectives 23, 5–27
Metz, B., P. Bosch, R. Dave, O. Davidson, and L. Meyer, 2007: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Metz, B., O. Davidson, R. Swart, and J. Pan, 2001: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Third Assessment Report, Working Group III, Climate Change 2001: Mitigation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Montgomery, D. and A. Smith, 2007: Price, quantity and technology strategies for climate change Policy, in M.E. Schlesinger, H.S. Kheshgi, J. Smith, F.C. de la Chesnaye, J.M. Reilly, T. Wilson, and C. Kolstad (eds.), Human-Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
National Round Table on Environment and Economy (NRTEE), 2009: Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada, Ottawa
Naughton, B., 2007: The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Nemet, G., 2009a: Perspective paper 7.2 in this chapter
Nemet, G., 2009b: Demand-pull, technology-push, and government-led incentives for non-incremental technical change, Research Policy 38(5), 700–9
Nemet, G.F. and D.M. Kammen, 2007: US energy research and development: declining investment, increasing need, and the feasibility of expansion, Energy Policy 35(1), 746–55
Nordhaus, W.D., 1992: An optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases, Science 258(5086), 1315–9
Nordhaus, W.D., 1994: Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Nordhaus, W.D., 2002: Modeling induced innovation in climate change policy, in A. Grubler, N. Nakicenovic, and W.D. Nordhaus (eds.), Modeling Induced Innovation in Climate Change Policy, Resources for the Future Press, Washington, DC
Nordhaus, W.D., 2007a: Critical Assumptions in the Stern Review on Climate Change, Science 317(5835), 201–2
Nordhaus, W.D., 2007b: A review of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Journal of Economic Literature 45(3), 686–702
Nordhaus, W.D., 2008: A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Pacala, S. and R. Socolow, 2004: Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies, Science 305(5686), 968–72
Parry, M. et al., 2009: Overshoot, adapt and recover, Nature 458(7242), 1102–3
Pielke, R.A., Jr., 2007: Future economic damages from tropical cyclones: sensitivities to societal and climate changes, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A – Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences 2086, 1–13
Pielke, R.A., Jr., 2009a: Mamizu climate policy: an evaluation of Japanese carbon emissions reduction targets, Environmental Research Letters 4(4) –
Pielke, R.A., Jr., 2009b: The British Climate Change Act: a critical evaluation and proposed alternative approach, Environmental Research Letters 4, 1748–57
Pielke, R.A., Jr., 2009c: An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy, Environmental Science & Policy 12(3), 216–25
Pielke, R.A., Jr., T.M.L. Wrigley and C. Green, 2008: Dangerous assumptions, Nature 452(7187), 531–2
Pimentel, D. and T. Patzek, 2005: Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood: biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower, Natural Resources Research 14(1), 65–76
Pimentel, D. et al., 2009: Food versus biofuels: environmental and economic costs, Human Ecology 37, 1–12
Popp, D., 2004: ENTICE: endogenous technological change in the DICE model of global warming, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 48(1), 742–68
Popp, D., R.G. Newell, and A.B. Jaffe, 2009: Energy, the environment, and technological change, NBER Working Paper 14832
Prins, G. and S. Rayner, 2007: Time to ditch Kyoto, Nature 449(7165), 973–5
Riahi, K., A. Grubler, and N. Nakicenovic, 2007: Scenarios of long-term socio-economic and environmental development under climate stabilization, Technological Forecasting & Social Change 74, 887–935
Rosen, D. and T. Houser, 2007: China energy: a guide for the perplexed, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC
Sandén, B.A. and C. Azar, 2005: Near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets – economy wide versus technology specific approaches, Energy Policy 33(12), 1557–76
Schelling, T.C., 1992: Some economics of global warming, The American Economic Review 82(1), 1–14
Schelling, T.C., 2005: What makes greenhouse sense?, Indiana Law Review 38, 581–93
Scherer, F.M., 1996: Learning-by-doing and international trade in semiconductors, Behavioral Norms, Technological Progress, and Economic Dynamics: Studies in Schumpeterian Economics (eds.), E. Helmstadter and M. Perlman, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, 247–60
Schmidt, G. and D. Archer, 2009: Climate change: too much of a bad thing, Nature 458(7242), 1117–18
Schumpeter, J.A., 1942: Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Harper & Bros, New York, 2nd edn., 1946
Scruggs, J. and P. Jacob, 2009: Harvesting ocean wave energy, Science 323(5918), 1176–8
Searchinger, T. et al., 2008: Use of US croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change, Science 319(5867), 1238–40
Searle, A.D., 1945: Productivity changes in selected wartime shipbuilding programs, Monthly Labor Review 61, 1132–47
Smalley, R., 2005: Future global energy prosperity: the terawatt challenge, Material Research Society (MRS) Bulletin 30, 412–17
Solomon, S. et al., 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, HM Treasury, London
Stern, N., 2008: The Economics of Climate Change, The American Economic Review 98(2), 1–37
Tol, R.S.J., 2009: The economic effects of climate change, Journal of Economic Perspectives 23(2), 29–51
Tollefson, J., 2008: Nuclear fuel: keeping it civil, Nature 451, 380–1
Weitzman, M.L., 2007: A review of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Journal of Economic Literature 45(3), 703–24
Weitzman, M.L., 2009: On modeling and interpreting the economics of catastrophic climate change, Review of Economics and Statistics 91(1), 1–19
Wigley, T.M.L., 2006: A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization, Science 314(5798), 452–4
Wigley, T.M.L. et al., 1996: Economic and environmental choices in the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Nature 379(6562), 240–3
Wigley, T.M.L., 2007: Climate, energy and CO2 stabilization, unpublished manuscript, March
Wise, M. et al., 2009: Implications of limiting CO2 concentrations for land use and energy, Science 324(5931), 1183–6
Wright, T.P., 1936: Factors affecting the cost of airplanes, Journal of Aeronautical Science 2, 122–8
Wright, B.D., 1983: The economics of invention incentives: patents, prizes, and research contracts, The American Economic Review 73(4), 691–707
Yohe, G.W, R.J.S. Tol, R.G. Richels, and G.J. Blanford, 2009: Climate change, chapter 5 in B. Lomborg (ed.), Global Crises, Global Solutions, 2nd edn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Adu-Bonnah, K. and E. Baker, 2008: Investment in risky R&D programs in the face of climate uncertainty, Energy Economics 30, 465–86
Baker, E., H. Chon, and J. Keisler, 2009: Carbon capture and storage: combining economic analysis with expert elicitations to inform climate policy, Climatic Change, Special Issue “The Economics of Climate Change: Targets and Technologies” 96(3), 379–408
Barrett, S., 2003: Environment and Statecraft, Oxford University Press, Oxford
Blanford, G.J., 2009: R&D investment strategy for climate change, Energy Economics 31(1), S27–S36
Bosetti V., C. Carraro, M. Galeotti, E. Massetti, and M. Tavoni, 2006: WITCH: a world induced technical change hybrid model, The Energy Journal, Special Issue. Hybrid Modeling of Energy-Environment Policies: Reconciling Bottom-up and Top-down, 13–38
Bosetti, V., C. Carraro, R. Duval, A. Sgobbi, and M. Tavoni, 2009a: The role of R&D and technology diffusion in climate change mitigation: new perspectives using the WITCH model, OECD Economics Department Working Paper, 664, OECD, Paris
Bosetti, V., C. Carraro, R. Duval, A. Sgobbi, and M. Tavoni, 2009b: Optimal energy investment and R&D strategies to stabilise greenhouse gas atmospheric concentrations, Resource and Energy Economics 31(2), 123–37
Bosetti, V. and M. Tavoni, 2009: Uncertain R&D, backstop technology and GHGs stabilization, Energy Economics 31, 18–26
Burniaux, J.M., J. Chateau, R. Dellink, R. Duval, and S. Jamet, 2009: The economics of climate change mitigation: how to build the necessary global action in a cost-effective manner, OECD Economics Department Working Paper 701, OECD, Paris
Dechezleprêtre et al., 2008: Invention and transfer of climate change mitigation technologies on a global scale: a study drawing on patent data, www.cerna.ensmp.fr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=192&Itemid=288, December
Fisher, C. and R.G. Newell, 2004: Environmental and technology policies for climate change and renewable energy, RFF Discussion Paper 04–05, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC
Galiana, I. and C. Green, 2009: Technology-Led Climate Policy, chapter 7 in this volume
Hanemann, W.M., 2008: What is the cost of climate change?, CUDARE Working Paper 1027, University of California, Berkeley, CA
Hendriks, C., W. Graus, and F. van Bergen, 2004: Global carbon dioxide storage potential and costs, EEP-02001, Ecofys, Utrecht
Hoel, M. and A. de Zeeuw, 2009: Can a focus on breakthrough technologies improve the performance of international environmental agreements?, NBER Working Paper 15043, NBER, Cambridge, MA
International Energy Agency (IEA), 2008: CO2 Capture and Storage – A Key Carbon Abatement Option, IEA, Paris
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 2007: Prospective Evaluation of Applied Energy Research and Development, NAS, Washington, DC
Nemet, G.F. and D.M. Kammen, 2007: US energy research and development: declining investment, increasing need, and the feasibility of expansion, Energy Policy 35(1), 746–55
Newell, R.G., 2008: International climate technology strategies, discussion Paper 08–12, Harvard Project on International Climate Agreements, Cambridge, MA
Philibert, C., 2003: Technology innovation, development and diffusion, OECD and IEA Information Paper, 4, International Energy Agency, Paris
Sandén, B. and C. Azar, 2005: Near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets – economy-wide versus technology specific approaches, Energy Policy 33, 1557–76
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge Press, Cambridge
Vollebergh, H.R.J., 2006: Differential impact of environmental policy instruments on technological change: a review of the empirical literature, Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07–042/3, Tinbergen Institute, University of Amsterdam

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Arrow, K., 1962: Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention. The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ
Bernstein, J.I. and M.I. Nadiri, 1988: Interindustry R&D spillovers, rates of return, and production in high-tech industries, American Economic Review 78(2), 429–34
Bernstein, J.I. and M.I. Nadiri, 1991: Product Demand, Cost of Production, Spillovers, and the Social Rate of Return to R&D. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Berrens, R.P., et al., 2004: Information and effort in contingent valuation surveys: application to global climate change using national internet samples, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 47(2), 331–63
Bovenberg, A.L. et al., 2008: Costs of alternative environmental policy instruments in the presence of industry compensation requirements, Journal of Public Economics 92(5–6), 1236–53
Cohen, L.R. and R.G. Noll, 1991: The Technology Pork Barrel, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC
David, P.A. et al., 2000: Is public R&D a complement or substitute for private R&D? A review of the econometric evidence, Research Policy 29(4–5), 497–529
Goolsbee, A., 1998: Does government R&D policy mainly benefit scientists and engineers?, American Economic Review 88(2), 298–302
Goto, A. and K. Suzuki, 1989: R&D capital, rate of return on R&D investment and spillover of R&D in Japanese manufacturing-industries, Review of Economics and Statistics 71(4), 555–64
Griliches, Z., 1992: The search for R&D spillovers, Scandinavian Journal of Economics 94(S), 29–42
Jones, C.I. and J.C. Williams, 1998: Measuring the social return to R&D, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(4), 1119–35
Li, H. et al., 2009: Public support for reducing US reliance on fossil fuels: investigating household willingness-to-pay for energy research and development, Ecological Economics 68(3), 731–42
Mansfield, E. et al., 1977: Social and private rates of return from industrial innovations, Quarterly Journal of Economics 91(2), 221–40
Nadiri, M.I., 1993: Innovations and Technological Spillovers, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Nelson, R.R., 1959: The simple economics of basic scientific-research, Journal of Political Economy 67(3), 297–306
Nemet, G., 2010: Cost containment in climate policy and incentives for technology development, Climate Change, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-009-9779-8, in press
Nemet, G., T. Holloway, and P. Meier 2010: Implications of incorporating air-quality co-benefits of climate change policymaking, Environmental Research Letters 5(1), 014007
Okubo, S. et al., 2006: R&D satellite account: preliminary estimates, Bureau of Economic Analysis/National Science Foundation, Washington, DC
Scherer, F.M., 1982: Inter-industry technology flows in the United States, Research Policy 11(4), 227–45
Sveikauskas, L., 1981: Technological inputs and multifactor productivity growth, Review of Economics and Statistics 63(2), 275–82
Teece, D.J., 1986: Profiting from technological innovation – implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy, Research Policy 15(6), 285–305
Terleckyj, N., 1974: Effects of R&D on the Productivity Growth of Industries: An Explanatory Study, National Planning Association, Washington, DC
Tol, R.S.J., 2009: The economic effects of climate change, Journal of Economic Perspectives 23(2), 29–51

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Borensztein, E., J. De Gregorio, and J.-W. Lee, 1998: How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?, Journal of International Economics 45, 115–35
Brewer, T., 2008: Climate change technology transfer: a new Paradigm and policy agenda, Climate Policy 8(5), 516–26
deConnick, H., F. Haake, and N. Van Der Linden, 2007: Technology transfer in the clean development mechanism, Climate Policy 7, 444–56
Ellis, J. et al., 2004: CDM: taking stock and looking forward, Energy Policy 32(1), 15–28
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1992: Climate Change 1992: The IPCC Supplementary Report, J. T. Houghton, B. A. Callanders, and S. K. Varney (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Second Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000a: Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000b: Emission Scenarios, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001: Climate Change 2000: The Third Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Fourth Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Keller, W., 2004: International technology diffusion, Journal of Economic literature 42(3), 752–82
Layard, R., 1994: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Less, C., and S. McMillan, 2005: Achieving the successful transfer of environmentally sound technologies: trade-related aspects, OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper, 2005–02, OCCD, Paris
Martinot, E., J. Sinton, and B. Haddad, 1997: International technology transfer for climate change and the cases of Russia and China, Annual Reviews of Energy and Environment 22, 357–401
Nordhaus, W. D. 1994: Managing the Global Commons, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Nordhaus, W. D., 2008: A Question of Balance: Weighing the options on Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
Nordhaus, W. D. and Z. Yang, 1996: A regional dynamic general-equilibrium model of alternative climate-change strategies, American Economic Review 86(4), 741–65
Philibert, C., 2004: International Energy Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, OECD/IEA, Paris
Saggi, K., 2004: Trade, foreign direct investment, and international technology transfer: a survey, The World Bank Research Observer 17(2), 191–235
Yang, Z., 1999: Should North make unilateral technology transfers to South? – North–South cooperation and conflicts in responses to global climate change, Resource and Energy Economics 21(1), 67–87
Yang, Z., 2008: Strategic bargaining and cooperation in greenhouse gas mitigations: an integrated assessment modeling approach, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Yang, Z. and W. Nordhaus, 2006: Magnitude and direction of technological transfers for mitigating GHG emissions, Energy Economics 28, 730–41

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Bosetti, V., C. Carraro, E. Massetti, and M. Tavoni, 2008: International energy R&D spillovers and the economics of greenhouse gas atmospheric stabilization, Energy Economics 30(6), 2912–29
Dechezleprêtre, A., M. Glachant, I. Hascic, N. Johnstone, and Y. Ménière, 2008a: Invention and transfer of climate change mitigation technologies on a global scale: a study drawing on patent data, Working Paper, CERNA, Mines ParisTech
Dechezleprêtre, A., M. Glachant, and Y. Ménière, 2008b: The clean development mechanism and the international diffusion of technologies: an empirical study, Energy Policy 36, 1273–83
Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2007: International Energy Outlook 2007, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC
Hall, B.H., 1996: The private and social returns to research and development, in B.L.R. Smith and C.E. Barfield (eds.), Technology, R&D and the Economy, Brookings Institution and American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC, 140–62
Jaffe, A. B., 1986: Technological opportunity and spillovers of R&D: evidence from firms' patents, profits, and market value, American Economic Review 76(5), 984–1001
Johnstone, N., I. Hascic, and D. Popp. 2010: Renewable energy policies and technological innovation: evidence based on patent counts, Environmental and Resource Economics 45(1), 133–5
Jones, C.I. and J.C. Williams, 1998: Measuring the social rate of return to R&D, Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(4), 119–35
Keller, W., 2004: International technology diffusion, Journal of Economic Literature 42, 752–82
Lecocq, F. and P. Ambrosi, 2007: The clean development mechanism: history, status, and prospects, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 1(1), 134–51
Lovely, M. and D. Popp, 2008: Trade, technology and the environment: why do poorer countries regulate sooner, NBER Working Paper 14286
Mansfield, Edwin, 1977: social and private rates of return from industrial innovations, Quarterly Journal of Economics 91, 221–40
Mansfield, Edwin, 1996: Estimating Social and Private Returns from Innovations Based on the Advanced Technology Program: Problems and Opportunities, NIST GCR 99–780, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD
Narain, U. and K. van't Veld, 2008: The clean development mechanism's low-hanging fruit problem: when might it arise and how might it be solved?, Environmental and Resource Economics 40, 445–65
Nordhaus, W., 2002: Modeling induced innovation in climate change policy, in A. Grubler, N. Nakicenovic, and W. Nordhaus (eds.), Technological Change and the Environment, Resources for the Future Press, Washington, DC
Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2008: Main Science and Technology Indicators, vol. 2008/1, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris
Pakes, A., 1985: On patents, R&D, and the stock market rate of return, Journal of Political Economy 93(2), 390–409
Popp, David, 2002: Induced innovation and energy prices, American Economic Review 92(1), 160–80
Popp, David, 2006: R&D subsidies and climate policy: is there a “free lunch”?, Climatic Change 77(3–4), 311–41
Popp, David, 2008: International technology transfer for climate policy, Center for Policy Research Policy Brief 39, Syracuse University
Rose, A., E. Bulte, and H. Folmer, 1999: Long-run implications for developing countries of joint implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation, Environmental and Resource Economics 14, 19–31
Saggi, K., 2000: Trade, foreign direct investment, and international technology transfer, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2349
State Environmental Protection Administration, 2007: Report on the state of the Environment in China, Information office of the state council of the People's Republic of China, Beijing
World Bank, 2008: Global Economic Prospects: Technology Diffusion in the Developing World, World Bank, Washington, DC