11 - Conceiving justice: articulating common causes in distinct regimes  pp. 299-319

Conceiving justice: articulating common causes in distinct regimes

By Stephen Humphreys

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



It is often said that climate change confronts the present generation with a challenge greater than any previous. If so, the global nature of the challenge is perhaps timely, in that it comes at a time when the ‘present generation’ might itself be thought of, really for the first time, as ‘global’. But if several decades of the phenomenon still generally called ‘globalisation’ have helped to create a global audience for this global challenge, it is far less clear that this same event has provided the ‘global’ public policy tools with which the challenge can be managed. Certainly, the ‘promotion’ of human rights and the rule of law around the world in recent decades has not aimed at, or led to, the empowerment of governments to address pressing social and economic rights; if anything the reverse has been the case. Insofar as development policy has concerned itself with law and rights, the emphasis has been firmly on economic freedoms – property rights, contract, investors' rights, banking and commercial law – and judicial enforcement. There has been some attention to civil and political rights, notably gender equality and press freedom, but relatively little to rights to food, water, health, shelter and so on. At the same time, there is an at least plausible case – perhaps best presented in the writing of Thomas Pogge – that the persistence and exacerbation of global poverty over recent decades is itself a human rights violation, largely sustained by international actors and systematised through international law.

11

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Agarwal, Anil and Sunita Narain , Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case of Environmental Colonialism (New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1991).
Alston, Philip , ‘People's Rights: Their Rise and Fall’ in Philip Alston (ed.), People's Rights (Oxford University Press, 2001).
Andreassen, Bård A. and Stephen P. Marks (eds.), Development as a Human Right: Legal, Political, and Economic Dimensions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006).
Baer, Paul , Tom Athanasiou and Sivan Kartha , The Right to Development in a Climate Constrained World (Washington, DC: Heinrich Böll Foundation, 2007).
Brooks, Nick , W. Neil Adger and P. Mick Kelly , ‘The Determinants of Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity at the National Level and the Implications for Adaptation’, Global Environmental Change, 15 (2005), 151.
Craven, Matthew , The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on Its Development (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998).
German Advisory Council on Global Change , Climate Change as a Security Risk (London: Earthscan, 2008).
Guèye, Cheikh , Abdou Salam Fall and Serigne Mansour Tall , ‘Climatic Perturbation and Urbanization in Senegal’, The Geographical Journal, 173 (2007), 88.
Hansen, James , Makiko Sato , Pushker Kharecha , David Beerling , Valerie Masson-Delmotte , Mark Pagani , Maureen Raymo , Dana L. Royer and James C. Zachos , ‘Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?’ (2008). Available at: www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/2008/TargetCO2_20080407.pdf.
Holmes, Stephen and Cass Sunstein , The Cost of Rights: Why Liberty Depends on Taxes (New York: Norton, 1999).
Inter-Agency Standing Committee , Protecting Persons Affected by Natural Disasters: IASC Operational Guidelines on Human Rights and Natural Disasters (Brookings–Bern Project on Internal Displacement, 2006).
International Council on Human Rights Policy , Beyond Voluntarism: Human Rights and the Developing International Legal Obligations of Companies (ICHRP, 2002).
International Council on Human Rights Policy Climate Change and Human Rights: A Rough Guide (ICHRP, 2008).
IOM , Migration and Climate Change, IOM Migration Research Series, 31 (2008).
IPCC , Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
IPCC Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
IPCC Technical Summary: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
IPCC Technical Summary: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
IUCN , ‘Gender Aspects of Climate Change’ (2007). Available at: www.iucn.org/en/news/archive/2007/03/7_gender_climate_change.pdf.
IUCN , Indigenous and Traditional Peoples and Climate Change, Issue Paper, March 2008.
Lohmann, Larry , Carbon Trading: A Critical Conversation on Climate Change, Privatization and Power (Uppsala: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, 2006).
Mace, M. J. , ‘Funding for Adaptation to Climate Change: UNFCCC and GEF Developments Since COP-7’, Review of European Community and International Environmental Law (RECIEL), 14 (2005), 225.
McCarthy, James J. , Osvaldo F. Canziani , Neil A. Leary , David J. Dokken and Kasey S. White (eds.), Climate Change 2001. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2001).
McGray, Heather , Anne Hammill , Rob Bradley with Lisa Schipper and Jo-Ellen Parry , Weathering the Storm: Options for Framing Adaptation and Development (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2007).
Müller, Benito , ‘Climate of Distrust: The 2006 Bonn Climate Change Adaptation Fund Negotiations’ (Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2006).
Müller, Benito , ‘The Nairobi Climate Change Conference: A Breakthrough for Adaptation Funding’, OIES Working Paper (2007).
OHCHR , Human Rights in the Administration of Justice: A Manual on Human Rights for Judges, Prosecutors and Lawyers (United Nations, 2003). Available at: www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/training9chapter16en.pdf.
Oxfam International , ‘Adapting to Climate Change: What's Needed in Poor Countries and Who Should Pay’, Oxfam, Briefing Paper, 104 (2007).
Ribot, Jesse , ‘The Causal Structure of Vulnerability: Its Application to Climate Impact Analysis’, GeoJournal, 35 (1995), 119.
Robb, Cairo A. R. (ed.), International Environmental Law Reports Vol. 3, Human Rights and Environment (Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Salomon, Margot E , ‘Towards a Just Institutional Order: A Commentary on the First Session of the UN Task Force on the Right to Development’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 23 (2005), 409.
Sands, Philippe , Principles of International Environmental Law (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Shelton, Dinah , ‘Environmental Rights’ in Philip Alston (ed.), People's Rights (Oxford University Press, 2001).
Shue, Henry , ‘Subsistence Emissions and Luxury Emissions’, Law & Policy, 15 (1993), 39.
Smit, B. and O. Pilifosova , ‘Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development and Equity’, Climate Change 2001, Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, James J. McCarthy , Osvaldo F. Canziani , Neil A. Leary , David J. Dokken and Kasey S. White (eds.) (Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Stern, Nicholas , Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, HM Treasury, Office of Climate Change (Prepublication) (2006).
Tan, Celine , ‘Mandating Rights and Limiting Mission Creep: Holding the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Accountable for Human Rights Violations’, Human Rights and International Legal Discourse, 2 (2008), 79.
UNDP , Human Development Report 2007/2008: Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World (UNDP, 2007).

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Amnesty International , Clouds of Injustice: Bhopal Disaster 20 Years On (Amnesty International, 2004).
Bekker, Pieter H. F. , ‘Corporate Aiding and Abetting and Conspiracy Liability under International Law’ in Wybo P. Heere (ed.), From Government to Governance, 2003 Hague Joint Conference on Contemporary Issues of International Law (The Hague: Asser Press, 2004).
Biniaz, Susan , ‘Common but Differentiated Responsibilities’, American Society of International Law Proceedings, 96 (2002), 358.
Brown-Weiss, Edith , In Fairness to Future Generations: International Law, Common Patrimony, and Intergenerational Equity (New York: Transnational Publishers, 1989).
Burns, William C. G. , ‘Potential Causes of Action for Climate Change Damages in International Fora: The Law of the Sea Convention’, International Journal of Sustainable Development Law & Policy, 2 (2006), 27.
Caney, Simon , ‘Cosmopolitan Justice, Responsibility and Global Climate Change’, Leiden Journal of International Law, 18 (2005), 747.
Clapham, Andrew , Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors (Oxford University Press, 2006).
Cosbey, Aaron , ‘The Kyoto Protocol and the WTO: Seminar Note’ (IISD, 2007).
Craven, Matthew , The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on its Development (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998).
Dellapenna, Joseph , Suing Foreign Governments and their Corporations (The Bureau of National Affairs, 1988).
Fitzmaurice, Malgosia , ‘Case Study: Wiwa and Royal Dutch Petroleum and Shell Transport and Trading Company before the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (the Aliens Tort Claims Act and the Doctrine of forum non conveniens)’ in Wybo P. Heere (ed.), From Government to Governance, 2003 Hague Joint Conference on Contemporary Issues of International Law (The Hague: Asser Press, 2004).
Franck, Thomas , Fairness in International Law and Institutions (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995).
Gupta, Joyeeta , ‘Legal Steps outside the Climate Convention: Litigation as a Tool to Address Climate Change’, Review of European Community & International Environmental Law (RECIEL), 16 (2007), 76.
Howse, Robert , ‘The Appellate Body Rulings in the Shrimp/Turtle Case: A New Legal Baseline for the Trade and Environment Debate’, Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 27 (2002), 491.
Humphreys, Stephen , ‘Are Social Rights Compatible with the Rule of Law? A Realist Inquiry’, Hauser Global Law Working Paper 10/06 (2006).
International Council on Human Rights Policy , Beyond Voluntarism: Human Rights and the Developing International Legal Obligations of Companies (ICHRP, 2002).
International Council on Human Rights Policy , Climate Change and Human Rights: A Rough Guide (ICHRP, 2008).
IPCC , Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Kamminga, Menno T. and Samin Zia-Zarifi , Liability of Multinational Corporations under International Law (The Hague: Kluwer Law, 2000).
Kiss, Alexander and Dinah L. Shelton , ‘Strict Liability in International Environmental Law’, copy on file with ICHRP, 2007.
Mace, M. J. , ‘Funding for Adaptation to Climate Change: UNFCCC and GEF Developments Since COP-7’, RECIEL, 14 (2005), 225.
Mank, Bradford , ‘Standing and Global Warming: Is Injury to All Injury to None?’, Environmental Law, 35 (2005), 1.
McGray, Heather , Anne Hammill , Rob Bradley with Lisa Schipper and Jo-Ellen Parry , Weathering the Storm: Options for Framing Adaptation and Development (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2007).
New Economics Foundation , Free Riding on the Climate: The Possibility of Legal, Economic and Trade Restrictive Measures to Tackle Inaction on Global Warming (London: New Economics Foundation, 2003).
Newell, Peter , Climate for Change: Non-State Actors and the Global Politics of the Greenhouse (Cambridge University Press, 2000).
Nollkaemper, Andre , ‘Translating Public International Law into Corporate Liability’ in Wybo P. Heere (ed.), From Government to Governance, 2003 Hague Joint Conference on Contemporary Issues of International Law (The Hague: Asser Press, 2004).
Nozick, Robert , Anarchy State and Utopia (New York: Basic Books, 1974).
Okamatsu, Akiko , ‘Problems and Prospects of International Legal Disputes on Climate Change’ (2006). Available at: web.fu-berlin.de/ffu/akumwelt/bc2005/papers/okamatsu_bc2005.pdf.
Open Society Justice Initiative , Legal Remedies for the Resource Curse (New York: Open Society Institute, 2006).
Pew Center on Global Climate Change , Getting Ahead of the Curve: Corporate Strategies that Address Climate Change (October 2006).
Posner, Eric A. and Cass R. Sunstein , ‘Climate Change Justice’, University of Chicago Law & Economics, Olin Working Paper, 354 (2007).
Price, Tom , ‘The Canary is Drowning: Tiny Tuvalu Fights Back against Climate Change’, Global Policy Forum, 3 December 2002.
Provost, René , State Responsibility in International Law (Farnham: Ashgate, 2002).
Rajamani, Lavanya , Differential Treatment in International Environmental Law (Oxford University Press, 2006).
Ralston, Holley , Britta Horstmann and Carina Holl , Climate Change Challenges Tuvalu (Berlin: Germanwatch, 2004).
Ramasastry, Anita and Robert C. Thompson , Commerce, Crime and Conflict: Legal Remedies for Private Sector Liability for Grave Breaches of International Law (Oslo: Fafo, 2006).
Rinnerberger, Nina , ‘Drowning Islands: Social Justice through Litigation?’ (2006). Available at: www.clocksandclouds.org/issue_one_articles/Drowning_Islands.pdf.
Robb, Cairo A. R. (ed.), International Environmental Law Reports Vol. 3, Human Rights and Environment (Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Rosenthal, Elisabeth , ‘As Earth Warms Up, Tropical Virus Moves to Italy’, The New York Times, 23 December 2007.
Sands, Philippe , Principles of International Environmental Law (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Shelton, Dinah , ‘Environmental Rights,’ in Philip Alston (ed.), Peoples' Rights (Oxford University Press, 2001).
Shelton, Dinah ‘Describing the Elephant, International Justice and Environmental Law’, copy on file with ICHRP, 2007a.
Shelton, Dinah ‘Equity’ in Dan Bodansky , Jutta Brunnée and Ellen Hey (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law (Oxford University Press, 2007b).
Shue, Henry , ‘Subsistence Emissions and Luxury Emissions’, Law & Policy, 15 (1993), 39.
Simms, Andrew , Victoria Johnson and Joe Smith , Chinadependence: The Second UK Interdependence Report (London: New Economics Foundation, 2007).
Stern, Nicholas , Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (HM Treasury, Office of Climate Change (prepublication, 2006).
Stiglitz, Joseph , ‘A New Agenda for Global Warming’, The Economists' Voice, 3: 7, article 3 (2006).
Van Dijk, Pieter , Fried van Hoof , Arjen, van Rijn and Leo Zwaak (eds.), Theory and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights (Mortsel: Intersentia, 2006).
Wallace, Perry , ‘Global Climate Change and the Challenge to Modern American Corporate Governance’, SMU Law Review, 55 (2002), 493.
Weisslitz, Michael , ‘Rethinking the Equitable Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility,’ Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy, 13 (2002), 473.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Agarwal, Anil , ‘Global Warming in an Unequal World’, Equity Watch newsletter, 15 November (New Delhi: CSE, 2000). Available at: www.cseindia.org/campaign/ew/art20001115_2.htm.
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (AAM) , Statement of Dave McCurdy on Vermont GHG decision, 12 September, 2007. Available at http://auto.mindville.net/media/pressarchive2007.php?PHPSESSID=cd59c8d746d1a7a9ea40328905a83f35, accessed 24 September 2007.
Amnesty International , Human Rights Principles for Companies (London: Amnesty International, 1998).
Bachram, Heidi , ‘Climate Fraud and Carbon Colonialism: The New Trade in Greenhouse Gases’, Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 15:4 (2004), 10–12.
Chatterjee, P. and M. Finger , The Earth Brokers: Power, Politics and World Development (London: Routledge, 1994).
Chinen, M. A. , ‘Jurisdiction: Foreign Plaintiffs, Forum Non Conveniens, and Litigation Against Multinational Corporations’, Harvard International Law Journal, 28 (1987), 202–9.
Christian Aid , Scorched Earth: Oil and Water in Sudan (London: Christian Aid, 2000).
Cole, Luke , ‘Empowerment as the Key to Environmental Protection: The Need for Environmental Poverty Law’, Ecology Law Quarterly, 19 (1992), 619–83.
Cole, Luke and Sheila Foster , From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement (New York University Press, 2001).
Cutler, C. , ‘Historical Materialism, Globalization and Law,’ in Rupert, M. and H. Smith (eds.), Historical Materialism and Globalisation (London: Routledge, 2002), 230–56.
Frynas, G. , ‘Political Instability and Business: Focus on Shell in Nigeria’, Third World Quarterly, 19:3 (1998), 457–78.
Frynas, G. ‘Legal Change in Africa: Evidence from Oil-related Litigation in Nigeria’, Journal of African Law, 43 (1999), 121–50.
International Chamber of Commerce , Statement by the International Chamber of Commerce before COP1, 29 March 1995, Berlin.
International Council on Human Rights Policy , Beyond Voluntarism: Human Rights and the Developing International Legal Obligations of Companies (Versoix, Switzerland: International Council on Human Rights Policy, 2002).
Jenkins, R. , ‘China and CSR’, paper presented at meeting of the International Research Network on Business, Development and Society, September 2007.
Levy, D. , ‘Business and the Evolution of the Climate Regime: The Dynamics of Corporate Strategies’, in David Levy and Peter Newell (eds.), The Business of Global Environmental Governance (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005), 73–105.
Levy, D. and P. Newell , ‘Oceans Apart? Comparing Business Responses to the Environment in Europe and North America,’ with David Levy , Environment, November, 42:9 (2000), 8–20.
Mason, M. , The New Accountability: Environmental Responsibility Across Borders (London: Earthscan, 2005).
McLaren, D. , The OECD's Revised Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises: A Step Towards Corporate Accountability?, February (London: Friends of the Earth, 2000).
Muchlinski, Peter , ‘Human Rights and Multinationals: Is There a Problem?’, International Affairs, 77:1 (2001), 31–47.
Newell, Peter , Climate for Change: Non-State Actors and the Global Politics of the Greenhouse (Cambridge University Press, 2000).
Newell, Peter ‘Managing Multinationals: The Governance of Investment for the Environment’, Journal of International Development, 13 (2001), 907–19.
Newell, Peter ‘Race, Class and the Global Politics of Environmental Inequality’, Global Environmental Politics, 5:3 (2005a), 70–94.
Newell, Peter ‘Climate for Change: Civil Society and the Politics of Global Warming,’ in F. Holland et al. (eds.), Global Civil Society Yearbook (London: Sage, 2005b).
Newell, Peter ‘The Marketisation of Global Environmental Governance: Manifestations and Implications,’ in J. Park , K. Conca and M. Finger (eds.), The Crisis of Global Environmental Governance: Towards a New Political Economy of Sustainability (London: Routledge, 2008a), 77–96.
Newell, Peter ‘Civil Society, Corporate Accountability and the Politics of Climate Change’, Global Environmental Politics, 8:3 (2008b), 122–53.
Newell, P. and M. Paterson , ‘A Climate for Business: Global Warming, the State and Capital’, Review of International Political Economy, 5 (1998), 679.
Newell, Peter , and Joanna Wheeler (eds.), Rights, Resources and the Politics of Accountability (London: Zed Books, 2006).
Robinson, Mary , ‘The Business Case for Human Rights’, Financial Times Management Visions of Ethical Business (London: Financial Times Professional, 1998), 14.
Rowlands, I. , ‘Beauty and the Beast? BP's and Exxon's Positions on Global Climate Change’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 18:3 (2000), 339–54.
Ruggie, John Gerrard , ‘Business and Human Rights: The Evolving International Agenda,’ Harvard Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, Working Paper No. 38 (2007).
Ruggie, J. , ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy: a Framework for Business and Human Rights’, Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, UN Doc. A/HRC/8/5, 7 April 2008.
Ruiters, G. , ‘Race, Place and Environmental Rights: A Radical Critique of Environmental Justice Discourse,’ in D. McDonald (ed.), Environmental Justice in South Africa (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press; Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2002), 112–27.
Sachs, Wolfgang , ‘Climate Change and Human Rights’, Interactions between Global Change and Human Health, The Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Scripta Varia 106 (Vatican City, 2006) 349–69.
Schedler, A. , L. Diamond and M. Plattner , The Self-Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999).
Sæverud, I. A. and J. B. Skjærseth , ‘Oil Companies and Climate Change: Inconsistencies Between Strategy Formulation and Implementation?’, Global Environmental Politics, 7:3 (2007), 42–63.
Seymour, Frances , ‘Forests, Climate Change and Human Rights’, Note prepared for the meeting of the International Council on Human Rights Policy, Geneva, 12–13 October 2007.
Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General (SRGS) (2007), ‘Corporate Responsibility to Protect Human Rights’, Report of a Multi-Stakeholder Consultation, Geneva, 4–5 December 2007.
UNECE , ‘The Contents of the Convention’, available at: www.unece.org/env/pp/contentofaarhus.htm, accessed 29 November 2007.
UN General Assembly , ‘Promotion of all Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Including the Right to Development,’ 7th session, Human Rights Council, 26 March 2008 (A/HRC/7/L.21/Rev.1).
Ward, H. , Corporate Accountability in Search of a Treaty? Some Insights from Foreign Direct Liability, Briefing Paper No. 4, Chatham House (London: RIIA, 2002).
Watkins, Kevin , Editor of the UNDP Human Development Report, at its launch in Brazil, 27 November. Quoted in Larry Elliot and Ashley Seager, ‘Cut Carbon by up to Third to Save Poor, UN tells West’, The Guardian, 28 November 2007. Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/nov/28/climatechange.
Zadek, Simon , The Civil Corporation: The New Economy of Corporate Citizenship (London: Earthscan, 2001).

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Agrawal, A. , A. Chhatre and R. Hardin , ‘Changing Governance of the World's Forests’, Science, 320 (2008), 1460, 1462.
Alcorn, J. B. and A. G. Royo , ‘Conservation's Engagement With Human Rights: Traction, Slippage or Avoidance’, IUCN Policy Matters, 15 (2007), 115–39.
Barber, C. and J. Schweithelm , ‘Trial by Fire: Forest Fires and Forestry Policy in Indonesia's Era of Crisis and Reform’, World Resources Institute, Forest Frontiers Initiative (2000).
Barr, C. Banking on Sustainability: Structural Adjustment and Forestry Reform in Post-Suharto Indonesia (Washington, DC: WWF Macroeconomics Program Office and CIFOR, 2001), 140.
Bonan, G ., ‘Forests and Climate Change: Forcings, Feedbacks, and the Climate Benefits of Forests’, Science (2008), 320.
Bradshaw, C. , N. Sodhi , K. Peh and B. Brook . ‘Global Evidence that Deforestation Amplifies Flood Risk and Severity in the Developing World’, Global Change Biology, 13 (2007), 2379–95.
Bruijnzeel, L. A. , A. Van Dijk , M. Van Noordwijk , A. Chappell and J. Schellekens , Tropical Deforestation, People and Flooding: A Recent Analysis Claiming that Tropical Deforestation Amplifies Flood Risk and Severity Proves Less than Solid, Response to Bradshaw et al. (World Agroforestry Center, 2007).
Chokkalingam, U. , I. Kurniawan and Y. Ruchiat , ‘Fire, Livelihoods, and Environmental Change in the Middle Mahakam Peatlands, East Kalimantan’, Ecology and Society, 10 (2005), 26. Available at: www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss1/art26/.
Chomitz, K. M. , At Loggerheads? Agricultural Expansion, Poverty Reduction, and Environment in the Tropical Forests (Washington DC: World Bank, 2007).
Colchester, M. , ‘Justice in the Forest: Rural Livelihoods and Forest Law Enforcement’, Forest Perspectives, CIFOR, 3 (2006), 98.
Colchester, M. , ‘Beyond Tenure: Rights-based Approaches to Peoples and Forests. Some Lessons from the Forest Peoples Program’, Presentation to the International Conference on Poverty Reduction in Forests: Tenure, Markets and Policy Reforms, Bangkok, Thailand, 3–7 September 2007.
Colchester, M. et al., ‘Procedural Irregularities and Standards Violations in IFC Support for Wilmar Trading’, Letter to International Finance Corporation concerning IFC's financing of Wilmar Trading (2007). Available at: www.forestpeoples.org/documents/ifi_igo/ifc_wilmar_fpp_let_jul07_eng.pdf.
Colchester, M. and M. Ferrari , ‘Making FPIC Work: Challenges and Prospects for Indigenous Peoples’, FPIC Working Papers, Forest Peoples Program, June (2007).
Colfer, C. J. P. , ‘Longhouse of the Tarsier: Changing Landscapes, Gender, and Well Being in Borneo’, Monograph No. 10, Borneo Research Council (Maine, 2008). Available at: www.cifor.cgiar.org/Publications/Detail?pid=2689.
Colfer, C. J. P. , N. L. Peluso and S. C. Chin , ‘Beyond Slash and Burn: Building on Indigenous Management of Borneo's Tropical Rainforests (Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden, 1997).
Corpuz-Tauli, V. , Statement by the Chair of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues on the occasion of the Launch of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (Bali, Indonesia, 2007). Available at: www.forestpeoples.org/documents/forest_issues/unpfii_statement_fcpf_dec07_eng.pdf.
Debroux, L. , T. Hart , D. Kaimowitz , A. Karsenty and G. Topa , Forests in Post-Conflict Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of a Priority Agenda, CIFOR, World Bank, CIRARD (2007).
Diaz, E. C. , ‘Climate Change, Forest Conservation and Indigenous Peoples Rights’, Global Forest Coalition, Briefing paper (undated).
FAO Corporate Document Repository , ‘The Clean Development Mechanism: Promoting Investment Flows From Developed to Developing Countries: The Possibility for Developing Countries to Participate in the Global Carbon Market’ (undated), Retrieved on 9 September, 2008. Available at: www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/AC836E/AC836E06.htm.
FAO and CIFOR , ‘Forests and Floods: Drowning in Fiction or Thriving on Facts?’, Forest Perspectives 2, RAP Publication 2005/03 (2005).
Fargione, F. , J. Hill , D. Tilman , S. Polasky and P. Hawthorne , ‘Land Clearing and Biofuel Carbon Debt’, Sciencexpress, 7 February 2008.
Forest Peoples Program (FPP) , ‘Statement by the International Forum of Indigenous Peoples on Climate Change, (IFIPCC, 2007), The 13th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC SBSTA 27, agenda item 5/REDD.
Forest Peoples Program (FPP) , 2008 Briefing, ‘The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility: Facilitating the Weakening of Indigenous People's Rights to Lands and Resources’.
Foti, J. , L. de Silva , J. Werksman , L. Shaffer , J. Talbot and H. McGray , ‘Voice and Choice: Opening the Door to Environmental Democracy’ (World Resources Institute, 2008).
Fujita, Y. and K. Phengsopha , ‘The Gap Between Policy and Practice in Laos’, in C. Colfer , G. Dahal and D. Capistranto (eds.), Lessons from Forest Decentralization, Money, Justice and the Quest for Good Governance in Asia-Pacific (London: CIFOR, Earthscan, 2008), 117–32.
Gender and Climate Change Network (GCCN) , ‘Women for Climate Justice Position Paper’, UNFCCC COP 13, Bali, Indonesia, December 2007. Prepared by GenderCC Network–Women for Climate Justice.
Government of the State of Amazonas and Coordination Committee of the Amazonas Initiative (CC-AI) , ‘Amazonas Initiative on Climate Change, Forest Conservation and Sustainable Development’, Bolsa Floresta Program (2007), 16–17. Available at: www.sds.am.gov.br/dsv/download/img_download/20071226155008Relatorio%202.pdf.
Griffiths, T. , ‘Seeing “REDD?” “Avoided deforestation” and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities’ (Forest Peoples Program, 2007).
Guariguata, M. , J. Cornelius , B. Locatelli , C. Forner and G. Sanchez-Azofeifa , ‘Mitigation Needs Adaptation: Tropical Forestry and Climate Change’, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 13:8 (2007).
Halvorsen, K. , ‘A Global Contract’, The Ministers of Finance High Level Event on Climate Change, 11 December 2007, Session 3: Common Objectives on Climate Change Financial Issues. Available at: www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/fin/dep/Finansministeren/taler_artikler/2007/A-Global-Contract-.html?id=493748.
Hare, B. and K. Macey , ‘Tropical Deforestation Emission Reduction Mechanism: A Discussion Paper’, Greenpeace (2008). Available at: www.greenpeace.org/international/press/reports/TDERM-full.
Holdren, J. , ‘Global Climatic Disruption: Risks and Opportunities’, Woods Hole Research Center. See most current PPT version, 20 May 2008.
Hooijer, A. , M. Silvius , H. Wosten and S. Page , ‘Peat-CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia’, Delft Hydraulics Report Q3943 (2006).
Howard, J. , A. Downer and M. Turnbull , Australia to Lead the World: Global Initiative on Forests and Climate, March (2007), press release. Available at: www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/media/Howard%20Downer%20Turnbull%20Release.pdf.
Humphreys, D. (ed.), LogJam: Deforestation and the Crisis of Global Governance (London: Earthscan, 2006), 302.
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) , Agrofuels: Opportunity or Danger? A Global Dialogue on U.S. and EU Agrofuels and Agriculture Policies and their Impact on Rural Development in the North and South, Conference Report, 12–14 December 2007, Berlin, Germany. Available at: www.iatp.org/tradeobservatory/library.cfm?refid=102587.
Intercooperation 2006, ‘FORECA-Madagascar: Emission Reduction through Avoided Deforestation in the Context of the UNFCC: Committing Forests as Carbon Reservoir Pilot Project Madagascar’, Intercooperation. Retrieved on 10 September 2008, available at www.intercooperation.ch/projects/p152.
International Council on Human Rights Policy (ICHRP) , Climate Change and Human Rights: A Rough Guide (2008).
IPCC WG II, 2007 , ‘Summary for Policymakers’, in M. L. Parry , O. F. Canziani , J. P. Palutikof , P. J. van der Linden and C. E. Hanson (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 7–22.
IPCC WG III, 2007 , ‘Summary for Policymakers’ in B. Metz , O. R. Davidson , P. R. Bosch , R. Dave and L. A. Meyer (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Jagger, P. , ‘Negotiating Livelihoods and Sustainability after Uganda's Forest Sector Governance Reform’, Pen Project 1, PEN Newsletters. Available at: www.cifor.cgiar.org/pen/_ref/events/penews/penews-2-2007.htm.
Kalame, F. , M. Idinoba , M. Brockhaus and J. Nkem , ‘Forest policies and forest resource flow in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mali: Conflicting or consistent for adaptation to climate change?’, CIFOR, TroFCCA Brief (2008).
Kanninen, M. , D. Murdiyarso , F. Seymour , A. Angelsen , S. Wunder and L. German , 2007, ‘Do Trees Grow on Money? The implications of Deforestation Research for Policies to Promote REDD’, CIFOR, Forest Perspectives, 4 (2007), 61.
Larson, A. and J. Ribot , ‘The Poverty of Forestry Policy: Double Standards on an Uneven Playing Field’, Special Feature, Sustainability Science (2007).
Laurance, W. , S. Bergen , M. Cochrane , P. Fearnside , P. Delamonica , S. d'Angelo , C. Barber and T. Fernandes , ‘The Future of the Brazilian Amazon’, Science Magazine (2001), Available at: http://lba.cptec.inpe.br/publications/Laurance_etal_2001.pdf.
Luttrell, C. and L. Piron , ‘Operationalizing Norwegian People's Aid's Rights-Based Approach’, Revised Final Report (Overseas Development Institute, 2005).
Luttrell, C. , K. Schreckenberg and L. Peskett , ‘The Implications of Carbon Financing for Pro-Poor Community Forestry’, Forest Policy and Environment Programme (FPEP), ODI Forestry Briefing, 14 (2007).
Macchi, M. , ‘Indigenous and Traditional Peoples and Climate Change’, IUCN, Issues paper (2008).
Mayle, F. , R. Langstroth , R. Fisher and P. Meir , ‘Long-Term Forest–Savannah Dynamics in the Bolivian Amazon: Implications for Conservation’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 362 (2007), 291–307.
Mendelsohn, R. , A. Dinar and L. Williams , ‘The Distributional Impact of Climate Change on Rich and Poor Countries’, Environment and Development Economics, 11 (2006), 159–78.
Menzies, N. , Our Forest, Your Ecosystem, Their Timber. Communities, Conservation, and the State in Community-Based Forest Management (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), 264.
Merrill Lynch , ‘Merrill Lynch & Carbon Conservation Sign First Commercially Financed Avoided Deforestation Agreement’, Merrill Lynch, Press Release 2008. Available at: www.ml.com/?id=7695_7696_8149_88278_95339_96307.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment , Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2005).
Naylor, R. , A. Liska , M. Burke , W. Falcon , J. Gaskell , S. Rozelle and K. Cassman , ‘The Ripple Effect: Biofuels, Food Security, and the Environment’, Environment, 49 (2007) 30–43.
PEACE 2007, ‘Indonesia and Climate Charge: Current Status and Policies’, Available at: siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Environment/ClimateChange_Full_EN.pdf.
Peluso, N. L. , ‘Coercing Conservation? The Politics of State Resource Control’, Global Environmental Change, 32 (1993), 199–218.
Reuters, ‘Indonesia's Aceh, Papua Pledge to Protect Forests’, 27 April 2007. Retrieved on 15 July, 2008. Available at: unfcccbali.org/unfccc/index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=22&pop=1&page=420&Itemid=41.
Salick, J. and A. Byg , ‘Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change’, Tyndall Centre Publication (Oxford: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, 2007).
Searchinger, T. , R. Heimlich , R. A. Houghton , F. Dong , A. Elobeid , J. Fabiosa , S. Tokgoz , D. Hayes and T. Yu , ‘Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land Use Change’, Sciencexpress (2008).
Seymour, F. , ‘Sustaining the Environment at the World Bank’, WRI Policy Note, September (Washington DC: WRI, 2006).
Seymour, F. , ‘Conservation, Displacement, and Conservation’, in Michael Cernea and Hari Mohan Mathur (eds.), Can Compensation Prevent Impoverishment? (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2008).
Shackleton, S. , S. Kaschula , W. Twine , L. Hunter , C. Holding-Anyonge and L. Petheram , ‘Forests as Safety Nets for Mitigating the Impacts of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa’, CIFOR Livelihood Brief 4 (CIFOR, 2006), 4.
Sheil, D. , A. Casson , E. Meijaard , M. van Nordwijk , J. Gaskell , J. Sunderland-Groves , K. Wertz and M. Kanninen , ‘The Impacts and Opportunities of Oil Palm in Southeast Asia: What do we Know and What do we Need to Know?’, Occasional paper No. 51 (CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, 2009).
Sheil, D. , R. K. Puri , I. Basuki , M. van Heist , Saefuddin, Rukmiyati , M. A. Sardjono , I. Samsoedin , K. D. Sidiyasa , Chrisandini E. Permana , E. M. Angi , F. Gatzweiler , B. Johnson and A. Wijaya , Exploring Biological Diversity, Environment and Local People's Perspectives in Forest Landscapes: Methods for a Multidisciplinary Landscape Assessment (Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR, 2001), 93.
Stern, Nicholas , The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review (2007).
Sunderlin, W. , ‘Effects of Crisis and Political Change, 1997–1999’, in C. J. P. Colfer and I. A. P. Resosudarmo (eds.), Which Way Forward? People, Forests and Policymaking in Indonesia (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future/Center for International Forestry Research, 2002), 246–76.
Sunderlin, W. , A. Angelsen , B. Belcher , P. Burgers , R. Nasi , L. Santoso and S. Wunder , ‘Livelihoods, Forests and Conservation in Developing Countries: An Overview’, World Development, 33 (2005), 1383–402.
Sunderlin, W. , J. Hatcher and M. Liddle , From Exclusion to Ownership? Challenges and Opportunities in Advancing Forest Tenure Reform (Washington, DC: Rights and Resources Initiative, July 2008).
Tacconi, L. (ed.), Illegal Logging: Law Enforcement, Livelihoods, and the Timber Trade (London: Earthscan, 2007).
Thomas, D. , ‘A Brief Review of Upland Agricultural Development in the Context of Livelihoods, Watersheds and Governance for Area-based Development Projects in the Lao PDR’, ICRAF Report for International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), September (2003).
Thomas, D. and C. Twyman , ‘Equity and Justice in Climate Change Adaptation Amongst Natural-resource-dependent Societies’, Global Environmental Change, 15 (2005), 115–24.
TroFCCA 2008, CIFOR – Tropical Forests and Climate Change Adaptation, Central America. Available at: www.cifor.cgiar.org/trofcca/_ref/america/index.htm.
UNECE 1998, ‘Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters’, 25 June, 1998 in Aarhus, Denmark.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) , United Nations Environment Program, World Bank and World Resources Institute, The Wealth of the Poor-Managing Ecosystems to Fight Poverty (Washington DC, 2005).
UNFCCC 2005, 11th Session, Montreal, 28 November to 9 December 2005, Item 6, ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries: Approaches to Stimulate Action’. Available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2005/cop11/eng/misc01.pdf.
UNFCCC 2007a, Bali, Indonesia, 3–15 December 2007. 1/CP.13. Bali Action Plan. Available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/cop13/eng/06a01.pdf#page=8.
UNFCCC 2007b, Bali, Indonesia, 3–15 December 2007. 2/CP.13. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries: Approaches to Stimulate Action. Available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/cop13/eng/06a01.pdf#page=8.
UNFCCC 2007c, Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, 27th Session, Bali, Indonesia, 3–11 December 2007, ‘Reducing Emission From Deforestation in Developing Countries: Approaches to Stimulate Action’, Government of Tuvalu proposal.
Wells, A. , C. Luttrell , D. Brown and N. Bird , ‘Public Goods and Private Rights: The Illegal Logging Debate and the Rights of the Poor’, Forestry Briefing (Overseas Development Institute, 2006).
White, A. and A. Martin , Who Owns the World's Forests? (Washington, DC: Forest Trends, 2002), 30.
Wollenberg, E. , B. Belcher , D. Sheil , S. Dewi and M. Moelino , Why are Forest Areas Relevant to Reducing Poverty in Indonesia?, Governance Brief (CIFOR, 2004).
Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), South America , ‘Fire and Savannization’, (2008). Available at: www.whrc.org/southamerica/fire_savann/index.htm.
World Bank (2004), Sustaining Forests: A Development Strategy (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2004). Available at: siteresources.worldbank.org/INTFORESTS/Resources/SustainingForests.pdf.
World Bank (2006), ‘Sustaining Economic Growth, Rural Livelihoods, and Environmental Benefits: Strategic Options for Forest Assistance in Indonesia’ (2006).
World Bank (2007), ‘Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Launched at Bali Climate Meeting’, Press release No. 2008/142/SDN (2007).
Wright, T. , ‘Merrill Lynch: Turning Trees into Money’, Wall Street Journal (2008), accessed on 15 July 2008.
Wunder, S. , ‘The Efficiency of Payments for Environmental Services in Tropical Conservation’, Conservation Biology, 21:1 (2007), 48–58.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Adger, W. N. , ‘Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam’, World Development, 27 (1999), 249–69.
Adger, W. N. , ‘The Right to Keep Cold’, Environment and Planning A, 36 (2004), 1711–15.
Adger, W. N. , ‘Vulnerability’, Global Environmental Change, 16 (2006), 268–81.
Adger, W. N. and P. M. Kelly , ‘Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and the Architecture of Entitlements’, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 4 (1999), 253–66.
Adger, W. N. , J. Paavola , M. Mace and S. Huq (eds.), Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006).
Aditjondro, G. , East Timor: An Indonesian Intellectual Speaks Out (Deakin, ACT: Australian Council for Overseas Aid, 1994).
Alwang, J. , P. Siegel and S. Jorgensen , Vulnerability: A View From Different Disciplines. Social protection discussion paper No. 0115 (Washington: World Bank, 2001).
Baer, P. , J. Harte , B. Haya , A. Herzog , J. Holdren , N. Hultman , D. Kammen , R. Norgaard and L. Raymond , ‘Climate Change: Equity and Greenhouse Gas Responsibility’, Science, 289 (2000), 2287.
Barnett, J. , ‘Titanic States? Impacts and Responses to Climate Change in the Pacific Islands’, Journal of International Affairs, 59 (2005), 203–19.
Barnett, J. , ‘Climate Change, Insecurity and Justice’, in W. Adger , J. Paavola , M. Mace and S. Huq (eds.), Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006), 115–29.
Barnett, J. and W. N. Adger , ‘Climate Dangers and Atoll Countries’, Climatic Change, 61 (2003), 321–37.
Barnett, J. , M. Webber , M. Wang , B. Finlayson and D. Dickinson , ‘Ten Key Questions about the Human Dimensions of Water in the Yellow River Basin’, Environmental Management, 38 (2006), 179–88.
Barnett, J. , S. Dessai and R. Jones , ‘Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in East Timor’, Ambio, 36 (2007), 372–8.
Barnett, J. , R. Matthew and K. O'Brien , ‘Global Environmental Change and Human Security’ (2007), in H. Brauch , J. Grin , C. Mesjasz , P. Dunay , N. Chadha , B. Chourou , U. Oswald-Spring , P. Liotta and P. Kameri-Mbote (eds.), Globalisation and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualising Security in the 21st Century. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2007).
Bates, I. , C. Fenton , J. Gruber , D. Lalloo , A. Lara , S. Squire , S. Theobald , R. Thomson and R. Tolhurst , ‘Vulnerability to Malaria, Tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS Infection and Disease. Part 1: Determinants Operating at Individual and Household Level’, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 4 (2004), 267–77.
Bertram, G and R. Watters , New Zealand and its Small Island Neighbours (Wellington: Institute of Policy Studies, 1984).
Blaikie, P. , T. Cannon , I. Davis and B. Wisner , At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability, and Disasters (London: Routledge, 1994).
Bohle, H. , T. Downing and M. Watts , ‘Climate Change and Social Vulnerability: Toward a Sociology and Geography of Food Insecurity’, Global Environmental Change, 4 (1994), 37–48.
Bouma, G. and H. Kobryn , ‘Vegetation Cover Change in East Timor, 1989–1999’, Natural Resources Forum, 28 (2004), 1–12.
Brooks, N. , N. Adger and M. Kelly , ‘The Determinants of Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity at the National Level and the Implications for Adaptation’, Global Environmental Change, 15 (2005), 151–63.
Brown, D. , M. Tuana , M. Averill , P. Baer , R. Born , C. E. Lessa Brandão , M. T. S. Cabral , R. Frodeman , C. Hogenhuis , T. Heyd , J. Lemons , R. McKinstry , M. Lutes , B. Mueller , J. D. Gonzalez Miguez , M. Munasinghe , M. S. Muylaert de Araujo , C. Nobre , K. Ott , J. Paavola , C. Pires de Campos , L. Pinguelli Rosa , J. Rosales , A. Rose , E. Wells and L. Westra , White Paper on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change (College Park, PA: Rock Ethics Institute, Penn State University, 2006).
Cai, X. , ‘Water Stress, Water Transfer and Social Equity in Northern China – Implications for Policy Reforms’, Journal of Environmental Management, 87 (2008), 14–25.
Changming, L. and Shifeng, Z. , ‘Drying Up of the Yellow River: Its Impacts and Counter-Measures’, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 7 (2002), 203–14.
Commission for Reception, Truth, and Reconciliation Timor-Leste (CAVR) , Chega: The Report of the Commission for Reception, Truth, and Reconciliation Timor-Leste: Executive Summary (Dili: CAVR, 2005).
Cruz, R. V. , H. Harasawa , M. Lal , S. Wu , Y. Anokhin , B. Punsalmaa , Y. Honda , M. Jafari , C. Li , N. Huu Ninh , ‘Asia’ in: M. L. Parry , O. F. Canziani , J. P. Palutikof , P. J. van der Linden and C. E. Hanson (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 469–506.
Cutter, S. , ‘Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards’, Progress in Human Geography, 20 (1996), 529–39.
de Waal, A. , ‘Famine and Human Rights’, Development in Practice, 1 (1991), 77–83.
Donner, S. , W. Skirving , C. Little , M. Oppenheimer and O. Hoegh-Guldberg , ‘Global Assessment of Coral Bleaching and Required Rates of Adaptation under Climate Change’, Global Change Biology, 11 (2005), 2251–65.
Dow, K. , R. Kasperson and M. Bohn , ‘Exploring the Social Justice Implications of Adaptation and Vulnerability’ in W. N. Adger , J. Paavola , M. Mace and S. Huq (eds.), Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2006), 79–96.
Eakin, H. and A. Luers , ‘Assessing the Vulnerability of Social-ecological Systems’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31 (2006), 365–94.
Fankhauser, S. , Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse (London: Earthscan, 1995).
Franke, R. and B. Chasin , Seeds of Famine (New Jersey: Rowman and Allanheld, 1980).
Freedom House , Freedom in the World 2007 (New York: Freedom House, 2007).
Fu, G. and S. Chen , ‘Water Crisis in the Yellow River: Facts, Reasons, Impacts, and Countermeasures’, Water Practice and Technology 1:2 (2006), doi10.2166/wpt.2006.0028, IWA Publishing.
Grubb, M. , ‘Seeking Fair Weather: Ethics and the International Debate on Climate Change’, International Affairs, 71 (1995), 463–96.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) , Indivisible Human Rights: The Relationship of Political and Civil Rights to Survival, Subsistence and Poverty (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1992).
Jun, M. , W. Xuejun and Y. Xiobo , ‘Water Conflict Resolution in China’, China Environment Series, 7 (2005), 99–103.
Juss, S. , ‘Global Environmental Change: Health and the Challenge for Human Rights’, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 5 (1998), 121–78.
Leichenko, R. and K. O'Brien , Double Exposure: Global Environmental Change in an Era of Globalization (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).
Liu, Y. , ‘On Establishment of People's Right to Participate in Water Resources Management’ in YRCC (ed.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Yellow River Forum, vol. I (Zhengzhou: Yellow River Conservancy Press, 2005), 341–6.
Lohmar, B. , J. X. Wang , S. Rozelle , J. K. Huang and D. Dawe , China's Agricultural Water Policy Reforms: Increasing Investment, Resolving Conflicts, and Revising Incentives (Washington DC: Market and Trade Economics Division, Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 2003).
Meyer, A. , Contraction & Convergence: The Global Solution to Climate Change (Totnes: Green Books for the Schumacher Society, 2000).
Millo, Y. and J. Barnett , ‘Educational Development in East Timor’, International Journal of Educational Development, 24 (2004), 721–37.
Mortreux, C. and J. Barnett , ‘Climate Change, Migration and Adaptation in Funafuti, Tuvalu’, Global Environmental Change, 19:1 (2009), 105–12.
Muller, B. , ‘Varieties of Distributive Justice in Climate Change’, Climatic Change, 48 (2001), 273–88.
Nevins, J. , ‘Restitution Over Coffee: Truth, Reconciliation and Environmental Violence in East Timor’, Political Geography, 22 (2003), 677–701.
O'Brien, K. , ‘Are We Missing the Point? Global Environmental Change as an Issue of Human Security’, Global Environmental Change, 16 (2006), 1–3.
Paterson, M. , ‘Principles of Justice in the Context of Climate Change’ in U. Luterbacher and D. Sprinz (eds.), International Relations and Global Climate Change (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001), 119–26.
Pelling, M. , The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disaster and Social Resilience (London: Earthscan, 2003).
Posner, E. , ‘Climate Change and International Human Rights Litigation: A Critical Appraisal’, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 155 (2007), 1925–45.
Sachs, W. , ‘Climate Change and Human Rights’, The Pontifical Academy of Sciences, 106 (2006), 349–57.
Schneider, S. , S. Semenov , A. Patwardhan , I. Burton , C. Magadza , M. Oppenheimer , A. Pittock , A. Rahman , J. Smith , A. Suarez and F. Yamin , ‘Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change’ in M. Parry , O. Canziani , J. Palutikof , P. van der Linden and C. Hanson (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 779–810.
Sen, A. , Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1981).
Shue, H. , ‘Subsistence Emissions and Luxury Emissions’, Law and Policy, 15 (1993), 39–59.
Shue, H. , ‘Bequeathing Hazards: Security Rights and Property Rights of Future Humans’ in M. Dore and T. Mount (eds.), Global Environmental Economics: Equity and the Limits to Markets (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999), 38–53.
Sinden, A. , Climate Change and Human Rights, Social Science Research Network Working Paper, 1 May 2007. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=984266.
Toth, F. (ed.), Fair Weather? Equity Concerns in Climate Change (London: Earthscan, 1999).
Webber, M. , J. Barnett , B. Finlayson and M. Wang , ‘Managing the Yellow River: Questions of Borders, Boundaries and Access’, Transforming Cultures, 1 (2006), 114–35.
Webber, M. , J. Barnett , M. Wang and B. Finlayson , ‘The Yellow River in Transition’, Environmental Science and Policy, 11:5 (2008), 422–9.
Winch, P. , ‘Social and Cultural Response to Emerging Vector-borne Diseases’, Journal of Vector Ecology, 23 (1998), 47–53.
Wisner, B. , ‘Risk and the Neoliberal State: Why Post-Mitch Lessons Didn't Reduce El Salvador's Earthquake Losses’, Disasters, 25 (2001), 251–68.
Yamin, F. , A. Rahman and S. Huq , ‘Vulnerability, Adaptation and Climate Disasters: A Conceptual Overview’, IDS Bulletin, 36 (2005), 1–14.
Yang, H. and Y. Zehnder , ‘China's Regional Water Scarcity and Implications for Grain Supply and Trade’, Environment and Planning A, 33 (2001), 79–95.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Alston, Philip , ‘People's Rights: Their Rise and Fall’ in Philip Alston (ed.), Peoples' Rights (Oxford University Press, 2001).
Baer, Paul , Tom Athanasiou and Sivan Kartha , The Right to Development in a Climate Constrained World (Heinrich Böll Foundation, 2007).
Carothers, Thomas , Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2006).
Humphreys, Stephen , ‘Theatre of the Rule of Law: An Inquiry into Transnational Rule of Law Promotion’ (2008), unpublished doctoral thesis.
IPCC , Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Lohmann, Larry , Carbon Trading: A Critical Conversation on Climate Change, Privatization and Power (Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, 2006).
Mace, M. J. , ‘Funding for Adaptation to Climate Change: UNFCCC and GEF Developments Since COP-7’, Review of European Community and International Environmental Law (RECIEL), 14 (2005), 225.
McCarthy, James , J. Osvaldo , F. Canziani , Neil A. Leary , David J. Dokken and Kasey S. White (eds.), Climate Change 2001. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge University Press, 2001).
McGray, Heather , Anne Hammill , Rob Bradley with Lisa Schipper and Jo-Ellen Parry , Weathering the Storm: Options for Framing Adaptation and Development (World Resources Institute, 2007).
Pogge, Thomas , ‘Recognized and Violated by International Law: The Human Rights of the Global Poor’ (2006), available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/poverty/expert/docs/Thomas_Pogge_new.pdf (revised version of Leiden Journal of International Law, 18 (2005), 717).
Pogge, Thomas , World Poverty and Human Rights (Polity Press, 2002).
Sands, Philippe , Principles of International Environmental Law (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Shelton, Dinah , ‘Environmental Rights’ in Philip Alston (ed.), Peoples' Rights (Oxford University Press, 2001).
Shelton, Dinah , ‘Human Rights, Environmental Rights and the Right to Environment’, Stanford Journal of International Law, 28 (1991), 103.
Stern, Nicholas , Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, HM Treasury, Office of Climate Change (Prepublication) (2006).
Stiglitz, Joseph , ‘A New Agenda for Global Warming’, The Economists' Voice, 3:7, article 3 (2006).
Trubek, David and Alvaro Santos (eds.), The New Law and Economic Development (Cambridge University Press, 2006).