14 - Rocky intertidal shores: prognosis for the future  pp. 209-225

Rocky intertidal shores: prognosis for the future

By George M. Branch et al.

14

Reference Type: reference-list

Abbott, I. A. & Hollenberg, G. J. (1976) Marine Algae of California. Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University Press.
Åberg, E. (1992) Tree colonization of three mires in southern Sweden. In: Peatland Ecosystems and Man: An Impact Assessment, ed. O. M. Bragg , P. D. Hulme , H. A. P. Ingram & R. A. Robertson , pp. 268–270. Dundee, UK: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee.
Abernethy, R. K. & Turner, R. E. (1987) US forested wetlands: 1940–1980. BioScience 37: 721–727.
Abramovitz, J. N. (1996) Imperiled Waters, Impoverished Future: The Decline of Freshwater Ecosystems, Worldwatch Paper No. 128. Washington, DC, USA: Worldwatch Institute.
Acharya, G. (2000) Approaches to valuing the hidden hydrological services of wetland ecosystems. Ecological Economics 35: 63–74.
ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment) (2004) Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ackefors, H. & Enell, M. (1994) The release of nutrients and organic matter from aquaculture systems in Nordic countries. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 10: 225–241.
Adam, P. (1978) Geographical variation in British saltmarsh vegetation. Journal of Ecology 66: 339–366.
Adam, P. (1990) Saltmarsh Ecology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Adam, P. (2000) Morecambe Bay saltmarshes: 25 years of change. In: British Saltmarshes, ed. B. R. Sherwood , B. G. Gardiner & T. Harris , pp. 81–107. Tresaith, UK: Forrest Text.
Adam, P. (2002) Saltmarshes in a time of change. Environmental Conservation 29: 39–61.
Adams, N. L. (2001) UV radiation evokes negative phototaxis and covering behavior in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis . Marine Ecology Progress Series 213: 87–95.
Adams, W. M. (2001) Green Development: Environment and Sustainability in the Third World, 2nd edn. London, UK: Routledge.
Adey, W. H. & Steneck, R. S. (2001) Thermogeography over time creates biogeographic regions: a temperature/space/time-integrated model and an abundance-weighted test for benthic marine algae. Journal of Phycology 37: 677–698.
Adey, W. H. (1964) The genus Phymatolithon in the Gulf of Maine. Hydrobiologia 24: 377–420.
Adis, J. & Junk, W. J. (2002) Terrestrial invertebrates inhabiting lowland river floodplains of Central Amazonia and Central Europe: a review. Freshwater Biology 47: 711–731.
Ærtebjerg, G. , Andersen, J. H. & Hansen, O. S. (2003) Nutrients and eutrophication in Danish marine waters: a challenge for science and management. Unpublished report. Roskilde, Denmark: National Environmental Research Institute.
Aerts, R. , Wallén, B. & Malmer, N. (1992) Growth-limiting nutrients in Sphagnum-dominated bogs subject to low and high atmospheric nitrogen supply. Journal of Ecology 80: 131–140.
Agawin, N. S. R. & Duarte, C. M. (2002) Evidence of direct particle trapping by a tropical seagrass meadow. Estuaries 25: 1205–1209.
Agnew, D. J. & Nicol, S. (1996) Marine disturbances: commercial fishing. In: Foundations for Research West of the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Research Series vol. 70, ed. R. M. Ross , E. E. Hofmann & L. B. Quetin , pp. 417–35. Washington, DC, USA: American Geophysical Union.
Aioi, K. & Nakaoka, M. (2003) The seagrasses of Japan. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 201–210. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Airoldi, L. (1998) Roles of disturbance, sediment stress, and substratum retention on spatial dominance in algal turf. Ecology 79: 2759–2770.
Aladin, N. V. & Potts, W. T. W. (1992) Changes in the Aral Sea ecosystems during the period 1960–1990. Hydrobiologia 237(2): 67–79.
Aladin, N. V. , Filippov, A. A. , Plotnikov, I. S. , Orlova, M. I. & Williams, W. D. (1998) Changes in the structure and function of biological communities in the northern part of the Aral Sea (Small Aral Sea), 1984–1994. International Journal of Salt Lake Research 7: 301–343.
Albers, P. H. (2002) Sources, fate, and effects of PAHs in shallow water environments: a review with special reference to small watercraft. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 37: 143–150.
Alcamo, J. , Döll, P. , Kaspar, F. & Siebert, S. (1997) Global Change and Global Scenarios of Water Use and Availability: An Application of WaterGAP1.0. Kassel, Germany: Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel.
Alcocer, J. & Escobar, E. (1990) The drying up of the Mexican Plateau axalapazcos. Salinet 4: 44–46.
Alcocer, J. & Williams, W. D. (1996) Historical and recent changes in Lake Texcoco, a saline lake in Mexico. International Journal of Salt Lake Research 5: 45–61.
Alcocer, J. , Escobar, E. & Lugo, A. (2000) Water use (and abuse) and its effects on the crater-lakes of Valle de Santiago, Mexico. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 5: 145–149.
Aldhous, P. (2003) The world's forgotten crisis. Nature 422: 251–253.
Alewell, C. , Manderscheid, B. , Meesenburg, H. & Bittersohl, J. (2000) Is acidification still an ecological threat? Nature 407: 856–857.
Al Hamed, M. I. (1966) Limnological studies on the inland waters of Iraq. Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum 3: 1–22.
Alin, S. , Cohen, A. , Bills, R. , et al. (1999) Effects of landscaped disturbance on animal communities in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Conservation Biology 13: 1017–1033.
Allan, J. D. & Flecker, A. S. (1993) Biodiversity conservation in running waters. BioScience 43: 32–43.
Allan, J. D. , Abell, R. , Hogan, Z. , et al. (2005) Overfishing of inland waters. BioScience 55: 1041–1051.
Allen, J. R. , Slinn, D. J. , Shammon, T. M. , Hartnoll, R. G. & Hawkins, S. J. (1998) Evidence for eutrophication of the Irish Sea over four decades. Limnology and Oceanography 43: 1970–1974.
Allen, J. R. L. (2000) Morphodynamics of Holocene salt marshes: a review sketch from the Atlantic and Southern North Sea coasts of Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 1155–1231.
Allen, M. , Raper, S. & Mitchell, J. (2001) Uncertainty in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report . Science 293: 430–433.
Allendorf, F. W. & Lundquist, L. L. (2003) Introduction: population biology, evolution, and control of invasive species. Conservation Biology 17: 24–30.
Allison, G. W. , Lubchenco, J. & Carr, M. H. (1998) Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation. Ecological Applications 8: 79–92.
Alm, J. , Sculman, L. , Walden, J. , et al. (1999) Carbon balance of a boreal bog during a year with an exceptionally dry summer. Ecology 80: 161–174.
Almendinger, J. E. & Leete, J. H. (1998 a) Peat characteristics and groundwater chemistry of calcareous fens in the Minnesota River Basin, USA. Biogeochemistry 43: 17–41.
Almendinger, J. E. & Leete, J. H. (1998 b) Regional and local hydrogeology of calcareous fens in the Minnesota River Basin, USA. Wetlands 18: 184–202.
Alongi, D. M. (1998) Coastal Ecosystem Processes. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Alongi, D. M. (2002) Present state and future of the world's mangrove forests. Environmental Conservation 29: 331–349.
Alroy, J. (2001) A multispecies overkill simulation of the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction. Science 292: 1893–1896.
AMAP (1998) AMAP Assessment Report: Arctic Pollution Issues. Oslo, Norway: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.
Ambroggi, R. P. (1977) Underground reservoirs to control the water cycle. Scientific American 236: 21–28.
Ambrose, R. F. (2000) Wetland mitigation in the United States: assessing the success of mitigation policies. Wetlands 19: 1–27.
Amon, J. P. , Thompson, C. A. , Carpenter, Q. J. & Miner, J. (2002) Temperate zone fens of the glaciated midwestern USA. Wetlands 22: 301–317.
Amoros, C. & Petts, G. E. , eds. (1993) Hydrosystèmes Fluviaux. Paris, France: Masson.
Amsberry, L. , Baker, M. A. , Ewanchuk, P. J. & Bertness, M. D. (2000) Clonal integration and the expansion of Phragmites australis . Ecological Applications 10: 1110–1118.
Amthor, J. S. (1995) Terrestrial higher-plant response to increasing atmospheric (CO2) in relation to the global carbon cycle. Global Change Biology 1: 243–274.
Andersen, U. V. (1995 a) Resistance of Danish coastal vegetation types to human trampling. Biological Conservation 71: 223–230.
Andersen, U. V. (1995 b) Invasive aliens: a threat to the Danish coastal vegetation? In: Directions in European Coastal Management, ed. M. G. Healy & P. J. Doody , pp. 335–344. Cardigan, UK: Samara Publishing Ltd.
Anderson, D. M. , Glibert, P. M. & Burkholder, J. M. (2002 a) Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: nutrient sources, composition, and consequences. Estuaries 25: 704–726.
Anderson, D. M. , Overpeck, J. T. & Gupta, A. K. (2002 b) Increase in the Asian Southwest monsoon during the past four centuries. Science 297: 596–599.
Anderson, J. A. R. (1983) The tropical peatswamps of western Malesia. In: Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor, Regional Studies, Ecosystems of the World 4B, ed. A. J. P. Gore , pp. 181–199. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Anderson, O. F. & Clark, M. R. (2003) Analysis of bycatch in the fishery for orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus, on the South Tasman Rise. Marine Freshwater Research 54: 643–652.
Anderson, R. J. , Carick, P. , Levitt, G. J. & Share, A. (1997) Holdfasts of adult kelp Ecklonia maxima provide refuges from grazing for recruitment of juvenile kelps. Marine Ecology Progress Series 159: 265–273.
Anderson, S. & Moss, B. (1993) How wetland habitats are perceived by children: consequences for children's education and wetland conservation. International Journal for Science Education 15: 473–485.
Anderson, T. W. (1994) Role of macroalgal structure in the distribution and abundance of a temperate reef fish. Marine Ecology Progress Series 113: 279–290.
Andersson, F. & Olsson, B. , eds. (1985) Lake Gårdsjön: an acid forest lake and its catchment. Ecological Bulletins (Stockholm) Special Issue 37.
Andersson, G. , Berggren, H. , Cronberg, G. & Gelin, C. (1978) Effects of planktivorous and benthivorous fish on organisms and water chemistry in eutrophic lakes. Hydrobiologia 59: 9–15.
Andréasson-Gren, I.-M. & Groth, K.-H. (1995) Economic evaluation of Danube floodplains. Unpublished report. Gland, Switzerland: WWF International.
Andrew, N. L. (1993) Spatial heterogeneity, sea urchin grazing, and habitat structure on reefs in temperate Australia. Ecology 74: 292–302.
Andrew, N. L. (1994) Survival of kelp adjacent to areas grazed by sea urchins in New South Wales, Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 19: 466–472.
Andrew, N. L. & Choat, J. H. (1982) The influence of predation and non-specific adults on the abundance of juvenile Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea: Echinodermata). Oecologia 54: 80–87.
Andrew, N. L. & Jones, G. P. (1990) Patch formation by herbivorous fish in a temperate kelp forest. Oecologia 85: 57–68.
Andrew, N. L. & O'Neill, A. L. (2000) Large-scale patterns in habitat structure on subtidal rocky reefs in New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research 51: 255–263.
Andrew, N. L. & Underwood, A. J. (1993) Density-dependent foraging in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii on shallow subtidal reefs in New South Wales, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 99: 89–98.
Angel, A. & Ojeda, F. P. (2001) Structure and trophic organization of subtidal fish assemblages on the northern Chilean coast: the effect of habitat complexity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 217: 81–91.
Angus, S. & Elliott, M. M. (1992) Erosion in Scottish machair with particular reference to the Outer Hebrides. In: Coastal Dunes: Geomorphology, Ecology and Management for Conservation, ed. R. W. G. Carter , T. G. F. Curtis & M. J. Sheehy-Skeffington , pp. 93–112. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: A. A. Balkema.
Annadotter, H. , Cronberg, G. , Aagren, R. , et al. (1999) Multiple techniques for lake restoration. Hydrobiologia 395/396: 77–85.
Anon . (1999) Wetlands: A Source of Life, Conclusions of the 2nd International Conference on Wetlands and Development, 10–14 November 1998, Dakar, Senegal. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wetlands International; Gland, Switzerland: IUCN; and Dakar, Senegal: Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection.
Anon . (2003) Indien: Ende aller Sorgen. Der Spiegel 40: 116–117 (in German).
Anon . (2004) A remedy for financial turbulence? The Economist 371: 72.
Antila, C. K. , Daehler, C. C. , Rank, N. E. & Strong, D. R. (1998) Greater male fitness of a rare invader (Spartina alterniflora Poaceae) threatens a common native (Spartina foliosa) with hybridization. American Journal of Botany 85: 1597–1601.
Antila, C. K. , King, R. A. , Ferris, C. , Ayres, D. R. & Strong, D. R. (2000) Reciprocal hybrid formation of Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Molecular Ecology 9: 765–770.
Applegate, V. & Moffett, J. (1955) The sea lamprey. Scientific American 192: 36–41.
Archibold, O. W. (1995) Ecology of World Vegetation. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.
Armentano, T. V. & Menges, E. S. (1986) Patterns of change in the carbon balance of organic soil-wet lands of the temperate zone. Journal of Ecology 74: 755–774.
Arntz, W. E. , Valdivia, E. & Zeballos, J. (1988) Impact of El Niño 1982–83 on the commercially exploited invertebrates (Mariscos) of the Peruvian shore. Meeresforschung 32: 3–22.
Aronson, R. B. & Precht, W. F. (2001) Evolutionary paleoecology of Caribbean coral reefs. In: Evolutionary Paleoecology: The Ecological Context of Macroevolutionary Change, ed. W. D. Allmon & D. J. Bottjer , pp. 171–233. New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
Arp, W. J. & Drake, B. G. (1991) Increased photosynthetic capacity of Scirpus olneyi after 4 years of exposure to elevated CO2 . Plant, Cell and Environment 14: 1003–1006.
Arp, W. J. , Drake, B. G. , Pockman, W. T. , Curtis, P. S. & Whigham, D. F. (1993) Interactions between C3 and C4 salt marsh plant species during four years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 . Vegetatio 104/105: 133–143.
Arrigo, K. R. , Worthen, D. , Schnell, A. & Lizotte, M. P. (1998) Primary production in Southern Ocean waters. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 103: 15587–15600.
Arrow, K. , Bolin, B. , Costanza, R. , et al. (1995) Economic growth, carrying capacity and the environment. Science 268: 520–521.
Arthington, A. H. & Pusey, P. J. (2003) Flow restoration and protection in Australian rivers. River Research and Applications 19: 377–395.
Aselmann, I. & Crutzen, P. J. (1989) Global distribution of natural wetlands and rice paddies, their net primary productivity, seasonality and possible methane emissions. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 8: 307–358.
Ashjian, C. J. , Smith, S. L. & Lane, P. V. Z. (1995) The northeast water polynya during summer 1992: distribution and aspects of secondary production of copepods. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 100: 4371–4388.
Ashton, E. D. , Macintosh, J. & Hogarth. P. (2003) A baseline study of the diversity and community ecology of crab and molluscan macrofauna in the Sematan mangrove forest, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19: 127–142.
Ashworth, W. (1987) The Late, Great Lakes: An Environmental History. Detroit, MI, USA: Wayne State University Press.
Asiaweek (2000) The bottom line. Asiaweek 24(45). Available online at www.asiaweek.com/asiaweek/magazine/2000/1117/bottomline.html
Aubrey, D. G. (1993) Coastal erosion's influencing factors include development, dams, wells, and climate change. Oceanus 36: 5–9.
Auster, P. J. & Langton, R. W. (1999) The effects of fishing on fish habitat. American Fisheries Society Symposium 22: 150–187.
Awosika, L. F. , Ibe, A. C. & Ibe, C. E. (1993) Anthropogenic activities affecting sediment load balance along the west African coastline. In: Coastlines of Western Africa, ed. L. F. Awosika , A. C. Ibe & P. Shroader , pp. 26–39. New York, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Ayres, D. R. , Garcia-Rossi, D. , Davis, H. G. & Strong, D. R. (1999) Extent and degree of hybridization between exotic (Spartina alterniflora) and native (S. foliosa) cordgrass (Poaceae) in California, USA determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). Molecular Ecology 8: 1179–1186.
Ayres, D. R. , Strong, D. R. & Baye, P. (2003) Spartina foliosa (Poaceae): a common species on the road to rarity? Madroño 50: 209–213.
Baan, P. J. A. & van Buuren, J. T. (2003) Testing of Indicators for the Marine and Coastal Environment in Europe. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
Babcock, R.C , Kelly, S. , Shears, N. T. , Walker, J. W. & Willis, T. J. (1999) Changes in community structure in temperate marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series 189: 125–134.
Bach, S. S. , Borum, J. , Fortes, M. D. & Duarte, C. M. (1998) Species composition and plant performance of mixed seagrass beds along a siltation gradient at Cape Bolinao, the Philippines. Marine Ecology Progress Series 174: 247–256.
Baden, S. P. & Pihl, L. (1990) Effects of oxygen depletion on the ecology, blood physiology and fishery of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus . Marine Ecology Progress Series 67: 151–155.
Baer, K. E. & Pringle C. M. (2000) Special problems of urban river conservation: the encroaching megapolis. In: Global Perspectives in River Conservation, ed. P. J. Boon , B. R. Davies & G. E. Petts , pp. 385–402. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Baeteman, C. (1994) Subsidence in coastal lowlands due to groundwater withdrawal: the geological approach. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 37: 61–75.
Bailey, R. G. (1998) Ecoregions: The Ecosystem Geography of the Oceans and Continents. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Baird, R. C. , Thompson, N. P. , Hopkins, T. L. & Weiss, W. R. (1975) Chlorinated hydrocarbons in mesopelagic fishes of the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 25: 473–481.
Baisre, J. (2000) Chronicles of Cuban Marine Fisheries (1935–1995): Trend Analysis and Fisheries Potential, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 394. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Baker, A. C. , Starger, C. J. , McClanahan, T. R. & Glynn, P. W. (2004) Corals' adaptive response to climate change. Nature 430: 741.
Bakker, J. B. (1989) Nature Management by Grazing and Cutting: On the Ecological Significance of Grazing and Cutting – Regimes Applied to Restore Former Species-Rich Grassland Communities in the Netherlands. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Bakker, S. A. , Van den Berg, N. J. & Speleers, B. P. (1994) Vegetation transitions of floating wetlands in a complex of turbaries between 1937 and 1989 as determined from aerial photographs with GIS. Vegetatio 114: 161–167.
Baldwin, N. , Saalfeld, R. , Ross, M. & Buettner, H. (1979) Commercial Fish Production in the Great Lakes 1867–1977, Technical Report No. 3. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
Balgos, M. C. , Ricci, N. , Walker, L. , et al. (2005) Draft: Compilation of summaries of national and regional ocean policies. The Nippon Foundation Research Task Force on National Ocean Policies, Gerard J. Mangone Center for Marine Policy, University of Delaware [www document]. URL http://www.globaloceans.org/tops2005/pdf/OceanPolicySummaries. pdf#search=%22%22national%20ocean%20policy%22%22
Ball, M. C. , Cochrane, M. J. & Rawson, H. M. (1997) Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 . Plant Cell and Environment 20: 1158–1166.
Balls, P. W. , Macdonald, A. , Pugh, K. & Edwards, A. C. (1995) Long-term nutrient enrichment of an estuarine system: Ythan, Scotland (1958–1993). Environmental Pollution 90: 311–321.
Baltuck, M. , Dickey, J. , Dixon, T. & Harrison, G. A. (1996) New approaches raise questions about future sea-level change. Eos 77: 385–388.
Bandeira, S. O. & Gell, F. (2003) The seagrasses of Mozambique and Southeastern Africa. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 105–112. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Barber, K. E. (1981) Peat Stratigraphy and Climate Change. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: A.A. Balkema.
Barber, R. T. , Vijayakumar, A. & Cross, F. A. (1972) Mercury concentrations in recent and ninety-year-old benthopelagic fish. Science 178: 636–639.
Barbier, E. B. (1997) The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 352: 891–899.
Barbier, E. B. (2000) The economic linkages between rural poverty and land degradation: some evidence from Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 82: 355–370.
Barbier, E. B. & Thompson, J. R. (1998) The value of water: floodplain versus large-scale irrigation benefits in Northern Nigeria. Ambio 27: 434–440.
Barbraud, C. & Weimeskirch, H. (2001) Emperor penguins and climate change. Nature 411: 183–186.
Barkai, A. & McQuaid, C. (1988) Predator–prey role reversal in a marine benthic ecosystem. Science 242: 4875.
Barlow, M. & Clarke, T. (2002) Blue Gold: The Battle Against Corporate Theft of the World's Water. Toronto, Ontario Canada: Stoddart.
Barnes, R. S. & Hughes, R. N. (1988) An Introduction to Marine Ecology, 2nd edn. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, Scientific Publications.
Barnett, P. R. O. (1971) Some changes in intertidal sand communities due to thermal pollution. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 177: 353–364.
Barnett, P. R. O. & Hardy, B. L. S. (1969) The effects of temperature on the benthos near the Hunterston generating station, Scotland. Chesapeake Science 16: 255–256.
Barnett, T. P. , Pierce, D. W. & Schnur, R. (2001) Detection of anthropogenic climate change in the world's oceans. Science 292: 270–274.
Barraclough, S. & Finger-Stich, A. (1996) Social Implications of Commercial Shrimp Farming in Asia. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Barrales, H. L. & Lobban, C. (1975) The comparative ecology of Macrocystis pyrifera with emphasis on the forests of Chubut, Argentina. Ecology 63: 657–677.
Bart, D. & Hartman, J. M. (2003) The role of large rhizome dispersal and low salinity windows in the establishment of common reed, Phragmites australis, in salt marshes: new links to human activities. Estuaries 26: 433–436.
Bartley, D. M. (2000) International mechanisms for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. In: Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, ed. B. Gopal , W. J. Junk & J. A. Davis , pp. 331–345. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Bascand, L. D. (1970) The roles of Spartina species in New Zealand. Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society 17: 33–40.
Baumgartner, T. R. , Soutar, A. & Ferreira-Bartrina, V. (1992) Reconstruction of the history of Pacific sardine and northern anchovy populations over the past two millennia from sediments of the Santa Barbara basin, California. CalCOFI Report 33: 24–40.
Bax, N. J. (2000) Stock Assessment Report 2000: Orange Roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus). Hobart, Tasmania, Australia: South East Fishery Stock Assessment Group.
Baye, P. (1990) Ecological history of an artificial foredune ridge on a northeastern barrier spit. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal Sand Dunes, ed. R. G. D. Davidson-Arnott , pp. 389–403. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: National Research Council Canada.
Bayley, P. B. (1995) Understanding large river–floodplain ecosystems. BioScience 45: 143–158.
Bayliss, B. , Brenman, K. , Elliot, I. , et al. (1997) Vulnerability Assessment of Predicted Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory Australia, Supervising Scientist Report No. 123. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Supervising Scientist.
Bayly, I. A. E. (1967) The general biological classification of aquatic environments with special reference to those in Australia. In: Australian Inland Waters and their Fauna: Eleven Studies, ed. A. H. Weatherley , pp. 78–104. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian National University Press.
Beamish, R. J. (1993) Climate and exceptional fish production off the west coast of North America. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 2270–2291.
Beardall, J. , Beer, S. & Raven, J. A. (1998) Biodiversity of marine plants in an era of climate change: some predictions based on physiological performance. Botanica Marina 41: 113–123.
Bebianno, M. J. & Langston, W. J. (1991) Metallothionein induction in Mytilus edulis exposed to cadmium. Marine Biology 108: 91–96.
Bebianno, M. J. & Langston, W. J. (1992) Cadmium induction of metallothionein synthesis in Mytilus galloprovincialis . Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C 103: 79–85.
Bebianno, M. J. & Langston, W. J. (1995) Induction of metallothionein synthesis in the gill and kidney of Littorina littorea exposed to cadmium. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 75: 173–186.
Bebianno, M. J. , Nott, J. A. & Langston, W. J. (1993) Cadmium metabolism in the clam Ruditapes decussata: the role of metallothioneins. Aquatic Toxicology 27: 315–333.
Beck, B. F. & Herring J. G. (2002) Geotechnical and environmental applications of karst geology and hydrology. In: Proceedings of the 8th Interdisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, ed. B. F. Beck & J. G. Herring , pp. 83–88. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: A. A. Balkema.
Beck, M. W. , Heck Jr, K. L. , Able, K. W. , et al. (2003) The role of nearshore ecosystems as fish and shellfish nurseries. Issues in Ecology 11: 1–12.
Beck, W. (1998) Warmer and wetter 6000 years ago? Science 279: 1003–1004.
Becker, A. & Grünewald, U. (2003) Flood risk in Central Europe. Science 300: 1099.
Becker, B. (1997) Sustainability assessment: a review of values, concepts and methodological approaches. The World Bank – Issues in Agriculture 10: 1–63.
Bedford, B. L. (1996) The need to define hydrologic equivalence at the landscape scale for freshwater wetland mitigation. Ecological Applications 6: 57–68.
Bedford, B. L. (1999) Cumulative effects on wetland landscapes: links to wetland restoration in the United States and southern Canada. Wetlands 19: 775–788.
Bedford, B. L. & Godwin, K. S. (2003) Fens of the United States: distribution, characteristics, and scientific connection versus legal isolation. Wetlands 23: 608–629.
Bedford, B. L. & Preston, E. M. (1988) Developing the scientific basis for assessing cumulative effects of wetland loss and degradation on landscape functions: status, perspectives, and prospects. Environmental Management 12: 751–771.
Bedford, B. L. , Leopold, D. J. & Gibbs, J. (2001) Wetland ecosystems. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, vol. 5, ed. S. A. Levin , pp. 781–804. New York, USA: Academic Press.
Beeftink, W. G. (1966) Vegetation and habitat of the salt marshes and beach plains in the south-western part of the Netherlands. Wentia 15: 83–108.
Beer, S. & Koch, E. (1996) Photosynthesis of marine macroalgae and seagrass in globally changing CO2 environments. Marine Ecology Progress Series 141: 199–204.
Beeton, A. (1965) Eutrophication of the St Lawrence Great Lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 10: 240–254.
Beeton, A. (1969) Changes in the environment and biota of the Great Lakes. In: Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives Symposium Proceedings, pp. 150–187. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy of Sciences.
Beeton, A. (1984) The world's Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 10: 106–13.
Beeton, A. (2002) Large freshwater lakes: present state, trends, and future. Environmental Conservation 29: 21–38.
Beeton, A. & Edmondson, W. (1972) The eutrophication problem. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29: 673–682.
Beeton, A. & Hageman, J. (1994) Impact of Dreissena polymorpha on the zooplankton community of western Lake Erie. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie 25: 2349 (abstract).
Beeton, A. , Sellinger, C. & Reid, D. (1999) An introduction to the Laurentian Great Lakes ecosystem. In: Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management, ed. W. W. Taylor & C. P. Ferreri , pp. 3–54. East Lansing, MI, USA: Michigan State University Press.
Bellamy, D. J. & Rieley, J. (1967) Ecological statistics of a miniature bog. Oikos 18: 33–40.
Bellan, G. & Bellan-Santini, D. (2001) A review of littoral tourism, sport and leisure activities: consequences on marine flora and fauna. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 11: 325–333.
Beltman, B. , Van den Broek, T. & Bloemen, S. (1995) Restoration of acidified rich-fen ecosystems in the Vechtplassen area: successes and failures. In: Restoration of Temperate Wetlands, ed. B. D. Wheeler , S. C. Shaw , W. J. Fojt & R. A. Robertson , pp. 273–286. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Beltman, B. , Van den Broek, T. , Van Maanen, K. & Vaneveld, K. (1996) Measures to develop a rich-fen wetland landscape with a full range of successional stages. Ecological Engineering 7: 299–314.
Belyea, L. R. & Clymo, R. S. (2001) Feedback control of the rate of peat formation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 268: 1315–1321.
Belyea, L. R. & Malmer, N. (2004) Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change. Global Change Biology 10: 1043–1052.
Benayas, J. M. R. , Colomer, M. G. S. & Levassor, C. (1999) Effects of area, environmental status and environmental variation on species richness per unit area in Mediterranean wetlands. Journal of Vegetation Science 10: 275–80.
Benda, L. E. , Poff, N. L. , Tague, C. , et al. (2002) How to avoid train wrecks when using science in environmental problem solving. BioScience 52: 1127–1136.
Benke, A. C. , Chaubey, I. , Ward, M. & Dunn, E. L. (2000) Flood pulse dynamics of an unregulated river floodplain in the Southeastern US coastal plain. Ecology 81: 2730–2741.
Bennett, E. M. , Carpenter, S. R. , Peterson, G. D. , et al. (2003) Why global scenarios need ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 1: 322–329.
Benson, L. , Kashgarian, M. , Rye, R. , et al. (2002) Holocene multidecadal and multicentennial droughts affecting Northern California and Nevada. Quaternary Science Reviews 21: 659–682.
Berdnikov, S. V. , Selyutin, V. V. , Vasilchenko, V. V. & Caddy, J. F. (1999) Trophodynamic model of the Black and Azov Sea pelagic ecosystem: consequences of the comb jelly, Mnemiopsis leidyi, invasion. Fisheries Research 42: 261–289.
Berendonk, T. U. & Bonsall, M. B. (2002) The phantom midge and a comparison of metapopulation structures. Ecology 83: 116–128.
Berendse, F. , van Breemen, N. , Rydin, H. , et al. (2001) Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs. Global Change Biology 7: 591–598.
Bergkamp, G. , Pirot, J.-Y. & Hostetter, S. , eds. (2000) Integrated Management of Wetlands and Water Resources. Proceedings of the 2nd International Wetlands Conference, Dakar, 1998. Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar.
Berglund, B. E. , Malmer, N. & Persson, T. (1991) Landscape-ecological aspects of long-term changes in the Ystad area. Ecological Bulletins 41: 405–424.
Bergstad, O. A. (1990) Distribution, population structure, growth and reproduction of the roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris) (Pisces: Macrouridae) in the deep waters of the Skagerrak. Marine Biology 107: 25–39.
Berkes, F. (1987) The common property resource problem and the fisheries of Barbados and Jamaica. Environmental Management 11: 225–235.
Berkes, F. , Hughes, T. P. , Steneck, R. S. , et al. (2006) Globalization, roving bandits, and marine resources. Science 311: 1557–1558.
Berkes, F. , Mahon, R. , McConney, P. , Pollnac, R. & Pomeroy, R. (2001) Managing Small-Scale Fisheries: Alternative Directions and Methods. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: International Development Research Centre.
Berkmüller, K. , Mukherjee, S. & Mishra. B. (1990) Grazing and cutting pressures on Ranthambhore National Park, Rajasthan, India. Environmental Conservation 17: 135–140.
Bernstein, B. B. & Jung, N. (1980) Selective pressures and coevolution in a kelp canopy community in Southern California. Ecological Monographs 49: 335–355.
Bernstein, B. B. & Welsford, R. W. (1982) An assessment of feasibility of using high-calcium quicklime as an experimental tool for research into kelp bed/sea urchin ecosystems in Nova Scotia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 968: 1–51.
Bertness, M. D. (1984) Habitat and community modification by an introduced herbivorous snail. Ecology 65: 370–381.
Bertness, M. D. & Ellison, A. M. (1987) Determinants of pattern in a New England marsh plant community. Ecological Monographs 57: 129–147.
Bertness, M. D. , Ewanchuk, P. & Silliman, B. R. (2002) Anthropogenic modification of New England salt marsh landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99: 1395–1398.
Bethoux, J. P. , Morin, P. , Chaumery, C. , et al. (1998) Nutrients in the Mediterranean Sea, mass balance and statistical analysis of concentrations with respect to environmental change. Marine Chemistry 63: 155–169.
Bett, B. J. (2001) UK Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology. Continental Shelf Research 21: 917–956.
Betts, R. A. (2000) Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo. Nature 408: 187–190.
Beutel, M. W. , Horne, A. J. , Roth, J. C. & Barratt, N. J. (2001) Limnological effects of anthropogenic desiccation of a large, saline lake, Walker Lake, Nevada. Hydrobiologia 466(1–3): 91–105.
Beyth, M. (2002) The Red Sea and the Mediterranean Dead Sea canals project [www document]. URL http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/go.asp?MFAH0mb90.
Biebl, R. & McRoy, C. P. (1971) Plasmatic resistance and rate of respiration and photosynthesis of Zostera marina at different salinities and temperatures. Marine Biology 8: 48–56.
Bigot, J. (2002) Les stocks ne diminuent pas, ils se déplacent. L'Industrie Nouvelle 2851: 10.
Bijlsma, L. , Ehler, C. N. , Klein, R. J. L. , et al. (1996) Coastal zones and small islands. In: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change, ed. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , pp. 289–324. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Billett, D. S. M. , Bett, B. J. , Rice, A. L. , et al. (2001) Long-term change in the megabenthos of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic). Progress in Oceanography 50: 325–348.
Bird, E. C. F. (1985) Coastline Changes: A Global Review. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Bird, E. C. F. (1990) Artificial beach nourishment on the shores of Port Phillip Bay, Australia. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 6: 55–68.
Bird, E. C. F. (1993) Submerging Coasts: The Effects of a Rising Sea Level on Coastal Environments. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Bird, E. C. F. & Cullen, P. W. (1996) Recreational uses and problems of Port Phillip Bay, Australia. In: Recreational Uses of Coastal Areas, ed. P. Fabbri , pp. 39–51. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Birkeland, C. (1982) Terrestrial runoff as a cause of outbreaks of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Marine Biology 69: 175–185.
Birkeland, C. , Dayton, P. K. & Engstrom, N. A. (1982) A stable system of predation on a holothurian by four asteroids and their top predator. Australian Museum Memoirs 16: 175–189.
Biswas, A. K. (1998) Deafness to global water crisis: causes and risks. Ambio 27: 492–493.
Bjorgo, E. , Johannessen, O. M. & Miles, M. W. (1997) Analysis of merged SSMR–SSMI time series of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice parameters 1978–1995. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 413–416.
Bjorndal, K. A. (1980) Nutrition and grazing behaviour of the green turtle Chelonia mydas . Marine Biology 56: 147–154.
Blasco, F. (1983) Mangroves of Gambia and Senegal. Toulouse, France: University of Toulouse and UN Sahelian Office.
Blasco, F. (1984) Taxonomic considerations of the mangrove species. In: The Mangrove Ecosystem, ed. S. C. Snedaker & J. G. Snedaker , pp. 81–90. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Blasco, F. , Aizpuru, M. & Gers, C. (2001) Depletion of the mangroves of Continental Asia. Wetlands Ecology and Management 9: 255–266.
Blasco, F. , Gauquelin, T. , Rasolofoharinoro, M. , Aizpuri, M. & Caldairou, V. (1998) Recent advances in mangrove studies using remote sensing data. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 287–296.
Blossey, B. (2003) A framework for evaluating potential ecological effects of implementing biological control of Phragmites australis . Estuaries 26: 607–617.
Blowers, A. & Smith, S. (2003) Introducing environmental issues: the environment of an estuary. In: Understanding Environmental Issues, ed. S. Hinchliffe , A. Blowers & J. Freeland , pp. 3–48. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Bobbink, R. , Ashmore, M. , Braun, S. , Flückiger, W. & Van den Wyngaert, I. J. J. (2003) Empirical nitrogen critical loads for natural and semi-natural ecosystems: 2002 update. In: Empirical Critical Loads for Nitrogen, Environmental Documentation No. 124, ed. B. Acherman & R. Bobbink , pp. 43–170. Berne, Switzerland: Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape.
Bodkin, J. L. (1988) Effects of kelp forest removal on associated fish assemblages in central California. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 117: 227–238.
Boehlert, G. W. (1986) Productivity and population maintenance of seamount resources and future research directions. In: Environment and Resources of Seamounts in the North Pacific, NOAA Technical Report, ed. R. Uchida , S. Hayasi & G. W. Boehlert , pp. 95–101. Seattle, WA, USA: National Marine Fisheries Service.
Boehlert, G. W. , Yoklavich, M. M. & Chelton, D. B. (1989) Time series growth in the genus Sebastes from the northeast Pacific Ocean. Fishery Bulletin 87: 791–806.
Boesch, D. F. , Brinsfield, R. B. & Magnien, R. E. (2001) Chesapeake Bay eutrophication: scientific understanding of ecosystem restoration and challenges for agriculture. Journal of Environmental Quality 30: 303–320.
Boesch, D. F. , Josselyn, M. N. , Mehta, A. J. , et al. (1994) Scientific assessment of coastal wetland loss, restoration, and management in Louisiana. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 20: 1–103.
Bogan, A. E. (1993) Freshwater bivalve extinctions (Mollusca, Unionoida): a search for causes. American Zoologist 33: 599–609.
Bohrer, B. , Heidenreich, H. , Schimmele, M. & Schultze, M. (1998) Numerical prognosis for salinity profiles of future lakes in the opencast mine of Merseburg-Ost. International Journal of Salt Lake Research 7: 235–260.
Boje, R. & Tomczak, M. (1978) Upwelling Ecosystems. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Bokn, T. , Berge, J. A. , Green, N. & Rygg, B. (1990) Invasion of the planktonic algae Chrysochromulina polylepis along south Norway in May–June 1988: acute effects on biological communities along the coast. In: Eutrophication and Algal Blooms in North Sea Coastal Zones, the Baltic and Adjacent Areas: Prediction and Assessment of Preventative Actions, Water Pollution Research Report No. 12, ed. C. Lancelot , G. Billen & H. Barth , pp. 183–193. Brussels, Belgium: Commission of the European Communities.
Bokuniewicz, H. C. (1990) Tailoring local responses to rising sea level: a suggestion for Long Island. Shore and Beach 58(3): 22–25.
Bolen, E. G. & Guthery, F. S. (1982) Playas, irrigation, and wildlife in West Texas. North American Wildlife Conference 47: 528–541.
Bologna, P. A. X. & Steneck, R. S. (1993) Kelp beds as habitat for American lobster Homarus americanus . Marine Ecology Progress Series 100: 127–134.
Bolton, J. J. (1996) Patterns of species diversity and endemism in comparable temperate brown algal floras. Hydrobiologia 326/327: 173–178.
Bolton, J. J. & Anderson, R. J. (1987) Temperature tolerances of two southern African Ecklonia species (Alariaceae: Laminariales) and of hybrids between them. Marine Biology 96: 293–297.
Bonacci, O. , Zdenko, T. & Trninic, D. (1992) Effects of dams and reservoirs on the hydrological characteristics of the Lower Drava River. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 7: 349–357.
Bondesan, M. , Castiglioni, G. B. , Elmi, C. , et al. (1995) Coastal areas at risk from storm surges and sea-level rise in northeastern Italy. Journal of Coastal Research 11: 1354–1379.
Bongaarts, J. , Mauldin, W. P. & Phillips, J. F. (1990). The demographic impact of family planning programs. Studies in Family Planning 21: 299–310.
Bonner, W. N. (1982) Seals and Man. Seattle, WA, USA: University of Washington Press.
Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. M. , Mattila, J. & Norkko, A. (1997) Coastal eutrophication: causes, consequences and perspectives in the archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 44: 63–72.
Boorman, L. A. (1989) The grazing of British sand dune vegetation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh B 96: 75–88.
Boorman, L. A. (2003) Saltmarsh Review: An Overview of Coastal Saltmarshes, their Dynamic and Sensitivity Characteristics for Conservation and Management, JNCC Report No. 334. Peterborough, UK: Joint Nature Conservation Council.
Bootsma, H. & Hecky, R. (1993) Conservation of the African Great Lakes: a limnological perspective. Conservation Biology 7: 644–656.
Bootsma, H. & Hecky, R. (2003) A comparative introduction to the biology and limnology of the African Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29(2): 3–19.
Borum, J. (1996) Shallow waters and land/sea boundaries. In: Eutrophication in Coastal Marine Ecosystems, ed. K. Richardson & B. B. Jorgensen , pp. 179–203. Washington, DC, USA: American Geophysical Union.
Boström, C. , Baden, S. & Krause-Jensen, D. (2003) The seagrasses of Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 35–54. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Botch, M. S. & Masing, V. V. (1983) Mire ecosystems in the USSR. In: Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor, Regional Studies, Ecosystems of the World 4B, ed. A. J. P. Gore , pp. 95–152. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Bothner, M. H. , Buchholtz ten Brink, M. & Manheim, F. T. (1998) Metal concentrations in surface sediments of Boston Harbor: changes with time. Marine Environmental Research 45: 127–155.
Bothner, M. H. , Takada, H. , Knight, I. T. , et al. (1994) Sewage contamination in sediments beneath a deep-ocean dump site off New York. Marine Environmental Research 38: 43–59.
Botsford, L. W. , Castilla, J. C. & Peterson, C. H. (1997) The management of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Science 277: 509–515.
Botton, M. L. , Loveland, R. E. & Jacobsen, T. R. (1988) Beach erosion and geochemical factors: influence on spawning success of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) in Delaware Bay. Marine Biology 99: 325–332.
Botton, M. L. , Loveland, R. E. & Jacobsen, T. R. (1994) Site selection by migratory shorebirds in Delaware Bay, and its relationship to beach characteristics and abundance of Horseshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs. Auk 111: 605–616.
Boudouresque, C. F. , Charbonel, E. , Meinesz, A. , et al. (2000) A monitoring network based on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 7: 328–331.
Boulé, M. E. (1994) An early history of wetland ecology. In: Global Wetlands: Old World and New, ed. W. J. Mitsch , pp. 57–74. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Boulton A. J. , Sheldon, F. , Thoms, M. C. & Stanley, E. H. (2000) Problems and constraints in managing rivers with variable flow regimes. In: Global Perspectives on River Conservation: Science, Policy and Practice, ed. P. J. Boon , B. R. Davies & G. E. Petts , pp. 411–426. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Bourke, R. H. & Garrett, R. P. (1987) Sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Cold Regions Science and Technology 13: 259–280.
Bourke, R. H. & McLaren, A. S. (1992) Contour mapping of Arctic Basin ice draft and roughness parameters. Journal of Geophysical Research 97: 17715–17728.
Bourque, B. J. (1995) Diversity and Complexity in Prehistoric Maritime Societies: A Gulf of Maine Perspective. New York, USA: Plenum Press.
Bowen-Jones, E. (1998) A Review of the Commercial Bushmeat Trade, with Emphasis on Central/West Africa and the Great Apes. Cambridge, UK: Ape Alliance/Flora International.
Bowes, G. (1993) Facing the inevitable: plants and increasing atmospheric CO2 . Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 44: 309–332.
Bowles, I. (2001) Environmental meltdown in the White house. Boston Globe 22 April.
Bowman, M. J. (1995) The Ramsar Convention comes of age. Netherlands International Law Review 42: 1–52.
Bowman, M. (2002) The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: has it made a difference? In: Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 2002–03, eds. O. S. Stokke & B. Øystein , pp. 61–68. London, UK: Earthscan Publications.
Bowman, R. S. & Lewis, J. R. (1977) Annual fluctuations in the recruitment of Patella vulgata L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57: 793–815.
Boyd, P. W. & Newton, P. P. (1999) Does pelagic community structure determine downward particulate organic carbon flux in different oceanic provinces? Deep-Sea Research I 46: 63–91.
Boyer, K. E. & Zedler, J. B. (1996) Damage to cordgrass by scale insects in a constructed salt marsh: effects of nitrogen additions. Estuaries 19: 1–12.
Boyer, K. E. & Zedler, J. B. (1998) Effects of nitrogen additions on the vertical structure of a constructed cordgrass marsh. Ecological Applications 8: 692–705.
Boyer, K. E. & Zedler, J. B. (1999) Nitrogen addition could shift species composition in a restored California salt marsh. Restoration Ecology 7: 74–85.
Boyer, K. E. , Callaway, J. C. & Zedler, J. B. (2000) Evaluating the progress of restored cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) marshes: belowground biomass and tissue N. Estuaries 23: 711–721.
Boynton, W. R. , Hagy, J. D. , Murray, L. , Stokes, C. & Kemp, W. M. (1996) A comparative analysis of eutrophication patterns in a temperate coastal lagoon. Estuaries 19: 408–421.
Bradbury, R. & Seymour, R. (1997) Waiting for COTS. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama, June 24–29 1996, vol. 1, ed. H. A. Lessios & I. E. Macintyre , pp. 1357–1362. Balboa, Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
Bradbury, R. H. , Hammond, L. S. , Moran, P. J. & Reichelt, R. E. (1985) Coral reef communities and the crown-of-thorns starfish: evidence for qualitatively stable cycles. Journal of Theoretical Biology 113: 69–80.
Bradley, D. C. & Ormerod, S. J. (2001) Community persistence among stream invertebrates tracks the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 987–996.
Bradley, D. C. & Ormerod, S. J. (2002) Long-term effects of catchment liming on invertebrates in upland streams. Freshwater Biology 47: 161–171.
Bradley, P. M. & Morris, J. T. (1991) The influence of salinity on the kinetics of NH4+ uptake in Spartina alterniflora . Oecologia 85: 375–380.
Bradley, P. M. & Morris, J. T. (1992) Effect of salinity on the critical nitrogen concentration of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Aquatic Botany 43: 149–161.
Bradshaw, C. J. A. , Thompson, C. M. , Davis, L. S. & Lalas, C. (1999) Pup density related to terrestrial habitat use by New Zealand fur seals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 1579–1586.
Bradshaw, M. J. (1977) Earth, the Living Planet. Sevenoaks, UK: Hodder & Stoughton.
Branch, G. M. & Moreno, C. A. (1994) Intertidal and subtidal grazers. In Rocky Shores: Exploitation in Chile and South Africa, ed. W. Siegfried , pp. 75–100. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Branch, G. M. & Odendaal, F. (2003) Marine protected areas and wave action: impacts on a South African limpet, Cymbula oculus . Biological Conservation 114: 255–269.
Branch, G. M. & Steffani, C. N. (2004) Can we predict the effects of alien species? A case-history of the invasion of South Africa by Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 300: 189–215.
Branch, G. M. , Eekhout, S. & Bosman, A. L. (1990) Short-term effects of the Orange River floods on the intertidal rocky-shore communities of the open coast. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 47: 331–354.
Bravard, J. P. (1987) Le Rhône du Léman à Lyon. Lyon, France: La Manufacture.
Bray, R. N. (1981) Influence of water currents and zooplankton densities on daily foraging movements of blacksmith, Chromis punctipinnis, a planktivorous reef fish. Fishery Bulletin of the US 78: 829–841.
Breen, P. A. & Mann, K. H. (1976) Changing lobster abundance and the destruction of kelp beds by sea urchins. Marine Biology 34: 137–142.
Breitburg, D. L. , Baxter, J. W. , Hatfield, C. A. , et al. (1998) Understanding effects of multiple stressors: ideas and challenges. In: Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science, ed. M. L. Pace & P. M. Groffman , pp. 416–431. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Breitburg, D. L. , Sanders, J. G. , Gilmour, C. C. , et al. (1999) Variability in responses to nutrients and trace elements, and transmission of stressor effects through an estuarine food web. Limnology and Oceanography 44: 837–863.
Breitfuss, M. J. , Connolly, R. M. & Dale, P. E. R. (2003) Mangrove distribution and mosquito control: transport of Avicennia marina propagules by mosquito-control runnels in southeast Queensland saltmarshes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56: 573–579.
Bren, L. J. (1988) Effects of river regulation on flooding of a riparian red gum forest on the River Murray, Australia. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 2: 65–77.
Bricker, S. B. (1993) The history of Cu, Pb, and Zn inputs to Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island as recorded by saltmarsh sediments. Estuaries 16: 589–607.
Bricker, S. B. , Clement, C. G. , Pirhalla, D. E. , Orlando, S. P. & Farrow, D. R. G. (1999) National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment: Effects of Nutrient Enrichment in the Nation's Estuaries. Silver Spring, MD, USA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Special Projects Office and the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science.
Bricker-Urso, S. , Nixon, S. W. , Cochran, J. K. , Hirschberg, D. J. & Hunt, C. (1989) Accretion rates and sediment accumulation in Rhode Island salt marshes. Estuaries 12: 300–317.
Brierley, A. S. & Thomas, D. N. (2002) Ecology of Southern Ocean pack ice. Advances in Marine Biology 43: 171–276.
Brierley, A. S. , Fernandes, P. G. , Brandon, M. A. , et al. (2002) Antarctic krill under sea ice: elevated abundance in a narrow band just south of ice edge. Science 295: 1890–1892.
Briers, R. A. , Cariss, H. M. & Gee, J. H. R. (2002) Dispersal of adult stoneflies (Plecoptera) from upland streams draining catchments with contrasting land-use. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 155: 627–644.
Briers, R. A. , Gee, J. H. R. , Cariss, H. H. & Geoghan, R. (2004) Interpopulation dispersal by adult stoneflies detected by stable isotope enrichment. Freshwater Biology 49: 425–431.
Brinson, M. M. (1990) Riverine forests. In: Forested Wetlands, ed. A. E. Lugo , M. M. Brinson & S. Brown , pp. 87–141. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Brinson, M. M. (1993) A Hydrogeomorphic Classification for Wetlands, Technical Report No. WRP-DE-4. Washington, DC, USA: US Army Corps of Engineers. Available online at http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/wetlands/pdfs/wrpde4.pdf
Brinson, M. M. & Malvárez, A. I. (2002) Temperate freshwater wetlands: types, status, and threats. Environmental Conservation 29: 115–133.
Brito, M. A. , Sobrevila, C. , Dalponte, J. C. & Borges, G. A. (undated) Setting Conservation Priorities in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, Relatório ao Centro de Dados para Conservação. Cuiabá, Brasil: Fundação Estadual de Meio Ambiente.
Brock, J. H. (1994) Tamarix spp. (salt cedar), and invasive exotic woody plant in arid and semi-arid riparian habitats of western USA. In: Ecology and Management of Invasive Riverside Plants, ed. L.C. de Waal , L. E. Child , P. M. Wade & J. H. Brock , pp. 27–44. New York, USA: John Wiley.
Brönmark, C. & Hansson, L.-A. (2002) Environmental issues in lakes and ponds: current state and perspectives. Environmental Conservation 29: 290–306.
Brooks, T. M. , Mittermeier, R. A. , Mittermeier, C. G. , et al. (2002) Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16: 909–923.
Brough, C. N. & White, K. N. (1990) Localization of metals in the gastropod Littorina saxatilis (Prosobranchia, Littorinoidea) from a polluted site. Acta Zoologica 71: 77–88.
Brouns, J. J. (1994) Seagrasses and climate change. In: Impact of Climate Change on Ecosystems and Species: Marine and Coastal Ecosystems, ed. J. C. Pernetta , R. Leemnas , D. Elder & S. Humphrey , pp. 59–71. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Broussard, J. (1983) National Audubon Society v. Superior Court, 33 Cal. 3d 419, California Supreme Court, CA, USA.
Browman, H. I. , Rodriguez, C. A. , Beland, F. , et al. (2000) Impact of ultraviolet radiation on marine crustacean zooplankton and ichthyoplankton: a synthesis of results from the estuary and Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series 199: 281–311.
Brown, A. C. (1983) The ecophysiology of sandy-beach animals: a partial review. In: Sandy Beaches as Ecosystems, ed. A. McLachlan & T. Erasmus , pp. 575–605. The Hague, the Netherlands: Dr W. Junk.
Brown, A. C. (1985) The Effects of Crude Oil Pollution on Marine Organisms, Report No. 99. Pretoria, South Africa: South African National Scientific Programmes.
Brown, A. C. (1994) Plutonium and marine life. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 49: 213–224.
Brown, A. C. (1996) Behavioural plasticity as a key factor in the survival and evolution of the macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 69: 469–474.
Brown, A. C. (2001) Biology of sandy beaches. In: Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, vol. 5, ed. J. H. Steele , S. A. Thorpe & K. K. Turekian , pp. 2496–2504. London, UK: Academic Press.
Brown, A. C. & McLachlan, A. (1990) Ecology of Sandy Shores. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Brown, A. C. & McLachlan, A. (2002) Sandy shores ecosystems and the threats facing them: some predictions for the year 2025. Environmental Conservation 29: 62–77.
Brown, A. C. , Davies, B. R. , Day, J. A. & Gardiner, A. J. C. (1991) Chemical pollution loading of False Bay. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 47: 703–716.
Brown, A. C. , McLachlan, A. , Kerley, G. I. H. & Lubke, R. A. (2000) Functional ecosystems: sandy beaches and dunes. In: Summary Marine Biodiversity Status Report for South Africa, ed. B. D. Durham & J. C. Pauw , pp. 4–5. Pretoria, South Africa: National Research Foundation.
Brown Jr, E. , Busiahn, T. , Jones, M. & Argyle, R. (1999) Allocating Great Lakes forage bases in response to multiple demand. In: Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management, ed. W. W. Taylor & C. P. Ferreri , pp. 385–394. East Lansing, MI, USA: Michigan State University Press.
Brown, K. (2002) Water scarcity: forecasting the future with spotty data. Science 297: 926–927.
Brown, L. R. (2003) Plan B: Rescuing a Planet under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble. London, UK: W.W. Norton.
Brown, R. , Ebener, M. & Gorenflo, T. (1999) Great Lakes commercial fisheries: historical overview and prognosis for the future. In: Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management, ed. W. W. Taylor & C. Ferreri , pp. 307–354. East Lansing, MI, USA: Michigan State University Press.
Brünig, E. F. (1990) Oligotropic forested wetlands in Borneo. In: Ecosystems of the World, vol.15, Forested Wetlands, ed. A. E. Lugo , M. Brinson & S. Brown , pp. 299–334. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Brunke, M. & Gonser, T. (1997) The ecological significance of exchange processes between rivers and groundwater. Freshwater Biology 37: 1–33.
Brunsden, D. & Moore, R. (1999) Engineering geomorphology on the coast: lessons from west Dorset. Geomorphology 31: 391–409.
Bryan, G. W. & Langston, W. J. (1992) Bioavailability, accumulation, and effects of heavy metals in sediments with special reference to United Kingdom estuaries: a review. Environmental Pollution 76: 89–131.
Bryan, G. W. , Gibbs, P. E. , Hummerstone, L. G. & Burt, G. R. (1986) The decline of the gastropod Nucella lapillus around southwest England: evidence for the effect of tributyl tin from antifouling paints. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 66: 611–640.
Bryant, D. , Burke, L. , McManus, J. & Spalding, M. (1998) Reefs at Risk. Washington, DC, USA: World Resources Institute.
Bryant, J. C. & Chabreck, R. H. (1998) Effects of impoundment on vertical accretion of coastal marsh. Estuaries 21: 416–422.
Budd, A. F. (2000) Diversity and extinction in the Cenozoic history of Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs 19: 25–35.
Budd, J. , Beeton, A. , Stumpf, R. , Culver, D. & Kerfoot, C. (2001) Satellite observations of Microcystis blooms in western Lake Erie. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie 27: 3787–3793.
Buddemeier, R. W. & Smith, S. V. (1988) Coral reef growth in an era of rapidly rising sea level: predictions and suggestions for long-term research. Coral Reefs 7: 51–56.
Buijse, A. D. , Coops, H. , Staras, M. , et al. (2002) Restoration strategies for river floodplains along large lowland rivers in Europe. Freshwater Biology 47: 889–907.
Bujang, J. S. & Zakeia, M. H. (2003) The seagrasses of Malaysia. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 166–176. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Bulgarian Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (2001) Strategy for the protection and restoration of floodplain forests on the Bulgarian Danube islands. Unpublished report. Vienna, Austria: WWF International Danube Carpathian Programme.
Bulkley, J. , Wright, S. & Wright, D. (1984) Preliminary study of the diversion of 283 m3 s−1 (10 000 cfs) from Lake Superior to the Missouri River basin. Journal of Hydrology 68: 461–472.
Bull, D. , Kemp, A. E. S. & Weedon, G. P. (2000) A 160-ky-old record of El Niño–Southern Oscillation in marine production and coastal run off from Santa Barbara Basin, California, USA. Geology 28: 1007–1010.
Bumb, B. L. & Bannante, C. A. (1996) The Role of Fertilizer in Sustaining Food Security and Protecting the Environment to 2020, IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 17. Washington, DC, USA: World Resources Institute.
Bunn, S. E. & Arthington, A. H. (2002) Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environmental Management 30: 455–467.
Bunn, S. E. , Boon, P. I. , Brock, M. A. & Schofield, N. J. , eds. (1997) National Wetlands R&D Program Scoping Review, Special Publication No. 1/97. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Land and Water Resources R&D Corporation.
Bunt, J. S. (1992) Introduction. In: Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems, ed. A. I. Robertson & D. M. Alongi , pp. 1–6. Washington, DC, USA: American Geophysical Union.
Burby, R. J. (2002) Flood insurance and floodplain management: the US experience. Environmental Hazards 3: 111–119.
Burd, F. (1992) Erosion and Vegetation Change on the Salt Marshes of Essex and North Kent Between 1973 and 1978, Research and Survey in Nature Conservation No. 42. Peterborough, UK: Nature Conservancy Council.
Burdick, D. M. & Konisky, R. A. (2003) Determinants of expansion of Phragmites australis, common reed, in natural and impacted coastal marshes. Estuaries 26: 407–416.
Burdick, D. M. & Short, F. T. (1999) The effects of boat docks on eelgrass beds in coastal waters of Massachusetts. Environmental Management 23: 231–240.
Burdick, D. M. , Short, F. T. & Wolf, J. (1993) An index to assess and monitor the progression of the wasting disease in eelgrass, Zostera marina . Marine Ecology Progress Series 94: 83–90.
Burger, J. (1991) Foraging behaviour and effects of human disturbance on the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus). Journal of Coastal Research 7: 39–52.
Burger, J. & Gochfeld, M. (1991) Human activity influence and diurnal and nocturnal foraging of Sanderlings (Calidris alba). Condor 93: 259–265.
Burger, J. , Gochfeld, M. & Niles, L. J. (1995) Ecotourism and birds in coastal New Jersey: contrasting responses of birds, tourists and managers. Environmental Conservation 22: 56–65.
Burke, L. , Kura, Y. , Kassem, K. , et al. (2001) Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): Coastal Ecosystems. Washington, DC, USA: World Resources Institute.
Burkett, V. & Kusler, J. (2000) Climate change: potential impacts and interactions in wetlands of the United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36: 313–320.
Burkholder, J. M. (1998) Implications of harmful microalgae and heterotrophic dinoflagellates in management of sustainable marine fisheries. Ecological Applications 8 (Suppl.): S37–S62.
Burns, K. A. & Codi, S. (1998) Contrasting impacts of localized versus catastrophic oil spills in mangrove sediments. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 2: 63–74.
Burns, K. A. & Yelle-Simmons, L. (1994) The Galeta oil spill. IV. Relationship between sediment and organism hydrocarbon loads. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 38: 397–412.
Burns, K. A. , Levings, S. & Garrity, S. (1993) How many years before mangrove ecosystems recover from a catastrophic oil spill? Marine Pollution Bulletin 26: 239–248.
Burrows, M. T. , Hawkins, S. J. & Southward, A. J. (1992) A comparison of reproduction in co-occurring chthamalid barnacles, Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) and Chthamalus montagui (Southward). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 160: 229–249.
Burrows, M. , Kawai, K. & Hughes, R. (1999) Foraging by mobile predators on a rocky shore: underwater TV observations of movements of blennies Lipophrys pholis and crabs Carcinus maenas . Marine Ecology Progress Series 187: 237–250.
Busnita, T. (1967) Die Ichthyofauna der Donau. In: Limnologie der Donau, ed. R. Liepolt , pp. 198–224. Stuttgart, Germany: Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
Bussau, C. , Schriever, G. & Thiel, H. (1995) Evaluation of abyssal metazoan meiofauna from a manganese nodule area of the eastern South Pacific. Vie Milieu 45: 39–48.
Bustamante, R. H. & Branch, G. M. (1996 a) The dependence of intertidal consumers on kelp-derived organic matter on the west coast of South Africa. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology Ecology 196: 1–28.
Bustamante, R. H. & Branch, G. M. (1996 b) Large scale patterns and trophic structure of southern African rocky shores: the roles of geographic variation and wave exposure. Journal of Biogeography 23: 339–351.
Bustamante, R. H. , Branch, G. M. & Eekhout, S. (1995 a) Maintenance of an exceptional intertidal grazer biomass in South Africa: subsidy by subtidal kelps. Ecology 76: 2314–2329.
Bustamante, R. H. , Branch, G. M. , Eekhout, S. , et al. (1995 b) Gradients of intertidal productivity around the coast of South Africa and their relationship with consumer biomass. Oecologia 102: 189–201.
Bustnes, J. O. , Lonne, O. J. , Skjoldal, H. R. , et al. (1995) Sea ducks as predators on sea urchins in a northern kelp forest. In: Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters, ed. H. R. Skjoldal , C. Hopkins & K. E. Erikstad , pp. 599–608. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Busuioc, A. , Chen, D. L. & Hellström, C. (2001) Performance of statistical downscaling models in GCM validation and regional climate change estimates: application for Swedish precipitation. International Journal of Climatology 21: 557–578.
Cabello-Pasini, A. , Lara-Turrent, C. & Zimmerman, R. C. (2002) Effects of storms on photosynthesis, carbohydrate content and survival of eelgrass populations from a coastal lagoon and the adjacent open ocean. Aquatic Botany 74: 149–164.
Caddy, J. , Csirke, J. , Garcia, S. & Grainger, R. (1998) How pervasive is ‘Fishing down marine food webs’? Science 282: 183.
CAFF (Arctic Council Working Group on Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna). (2001) Arctic Flora and Fauna: Status and Conservation. Helsinki, Finland: Edita.
Cahill, T. A. , Gill, T. E. , Reid, J. S. , Gearhart, E. A. & Gillette, D. A. (1996) Saltating particles, playa crusts and dust aerosols at Owens (dry) Lake, California. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 21: 621–639.
Caillet, G. M. , Andrews, A. H. , Burton, E. J. , et al. (2001) Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer? Experimental Gerontology 36: 739–764.
Cairns Jr, J. & Heckman, J. R. (1996) Restoration ecology: the state of an emerging field. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 21: 167–189.
Caldeira, K. & Wickett, M. E. (2003) Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425: 365.
Callaway, J. C. & Josselyn, M. N. (1992) The introduction and spread of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in South San Francisco Bay. Estuaries 15: 218–226.
Cambell, G. W. & Lee, D. S. (1996) Atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen species in the UK. Freshwater Biology 36: 151–167.
Cambridge, M. L. , Chiffings, A. W. , Brittan, C. , Moore, L. & McComb, A. J. (1986) The loss of seagrass in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. II. Possible causes of seagrass decline. Aquatic Botany 24: 269–285.
Campana, S. E. , Zwanenburg, K. C. T. & Smith, J. N. (1990) 210Pb/226Ra determination of longevity in red fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 163–165.
Campbell, I. D. , Campbell, C. , Yu, Z. C. , Vitt, D. H. & Apps, M. J. (2000) Millennial-scale rhythms in peatlands in the western interior of Canada and in the global carbon cycle. Quaternary Research 54: 155–158.
Campbell, L. , Hecky, R. & Dixon, D. (2003) Review of mercury in Lake Victoria (East Africa): implications for human and ecosystem health. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B 6: 325–356.
Carbiener, R. & Schnitzler, A. (1990) Evolution of major pattern models and processes of alluvial forests of the Rhine in the rift valley (France/Germany). Vegetatio 88: 115–129.
Carbonell, M. , Nathai-Gyan, N. & Finlayson, C. M. , eds. (2001) Science and Local Communities: Strengthening Partnerships for Effective Wetland Management. Memphis, TN, USA: Ducks Unlimited.
Cardinale, B. J. , Palmer, M. A. & Collins, S. L. (2002) Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation. Nature 415: 426–429.
Cardoso, P. G. , Pardal, M. A. , Raffaelli, D. , Baeta, A. & Marques, J. C. (2004) Macroinvertebrate response to different species of macroalgal mats and the role of disturbance history. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 308: 207–220.
Cargill, S. M. & Jefferies, R. L. (1984) Nutrient limitation of primary production in a sub-arctic salt marsh. Journal of Applied Ecology 21: 657–668.
Carlson, D. B. , O'Bryan, P. D. & Rey, J. R. (1994) The management of Florida's (USA) salt marsh impoundments for mosquito control and natural resource enhancement. In: Global Wetlands: Old World and New, ed. W. J. Mitsch , pp. 805–814. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Carlton, J. T. (1989) Man's role in changing the face of the oceans: biological conservation of near-shore environments. Conservation Biology 3: 265–273.
Carlton, J. T. (1999) Molluscan invasions in marine and estuarine communities. Malacologia 41: 439–454.
Carlton, J. T. (2000) Global change and biological invasions in the oceans. In: Invasive Species in a Changing World, ed. H. A. Mooney & R. J. Hobbs , pp. 31–53. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Carlton, J. T. & Geller, J. B. (1993) Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261: 78–82.
Carpenter, R. C. (1988) Mass-mortality of a Caribbean sea urchin: immediate effects on community metabolism and other herbivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 85: 511–514.
Carpenter, S. R. , Caraco, N. F. , Correll, D. L. , et al. (1998) Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8: 559–568.
Carr, M. H. (1989) Effects of macroalgal assemblages on the recruitment of temperate zone reef fishes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 126: 59–76.
Carreiro-Silva, M. , McClanahan, T. R. & Kiene, W. E. (2005) The role of inorganic nutrients and herbivory in controlling microbioerosion of carbonate substrate. Coral Reefs 24: 214–221.
Carricart-Ganivet, J. P. & Beltran-Torres, A. U. (2000) Skeletal extension, density and calcification rate of the reef building coral Montastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander) in the Mexican Caribbean. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 215–224.
Carroll, P. & Crill, P. M. (1997) Carbon balance of a temperate poor fen. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11: 349–356.
Casagrande, R. A. , Balme, G. & Blossey, B. (2003) Rhizedra lutosa, a natural enemy of Phragmites australis in North America. Estuaries 26: 602–606.
Castellanos, E. M. , Figueroa, M. E. & Davy, A. J. (1994) Nucleation and facilitation in saltmarsh succession: interactions between Spartina maritima and Arthrocnemum perenne . Journal of Ecology 82: 239–248.
Castilla, J. C. (1996) Copper mine tailing disposal in northern Chile rocky shores: Enteromorpha compressa (Chlorophyta) as a sentinel species. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 40: 171–184.
Castilla, J. C. (1999) Coastal marine communities: trends and perspectives from human-exclusion experiments. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 280–283.
Castilla, J. C. (2000) Roles of experimental marine ecology in coastal management and conservation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250: 3–21.
Castilla, J. C. (2001) Marine ecosystems, human impacts on. Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity 4: 27–35.
Castilla, J.C & Camus, P. (1992) The Humboldt–El Niño scenario: coastal benthic resources and anthropogenic influences, with particular reference to the 1982/83 ENSO. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 703–712.
Castilla, J. C. & Duran, L. R. (1985) Human exclusion from the rocky intertidal zone of Central Chile: the effects on Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda). Oikos 45: 391–399.
Castilla, J. C. & Moreno, C. A. (1982) Sea urchins and Macrocystis pyrifera: experimental test of their ecological relations in southern Chile. In: Echinoderms: Proceedings of the International Conference, Tampa Bay, FL, USA, ed. J. M. Lawrence , pp. 257–263. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: A. A. Balkema.
Castillo, J. M. , Fernández-Baco, L. , Castellanos, E. M. , et al. (2000) Lower limits of Spartina densiflora and S. maritima in a Mediterranean salt marsh determined by different ecophysiological tolerances. Journal of Ecology 88: 801–812.
Castro, M. S. , Driscoll, C. T. , Jordan, T. E. , Reay, W. G. & Boynton, W. R. (2003) Sources of nitrogen to estuaries in the United States. Estuaries 26: 803–814.
Causey, B. , Delany, J. , Diaz, E. , et al. (2002) Status of coral reefs in the US Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico: Florida, Texas, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Navassa. In: Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2002, ed. C. Wilkinson , pp. 251–276. Townsville, Queensland, Australia: Australian Institute of Marine Science.
Cavalieri, D. J. , Gloersen, P. , Parkinson, C. L. , Comiso, J. C. & Zwally, H. J. (1997) Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes. Science 278: 1104–1106.
Cayan, D. R. , Redmond, K. T. & Riddle, L. G. (1999) ENSO and hydrologic extremes in the western United States. Journal of Climatology 12: 2881–2893.
Cearreta, A. , Irabien, M. J. , Leorri, E. , et al. (2000) Recent anthropogenic impacts on the Bilbao estuary, northern Spain: geochemical and macrofaunal evidence. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 50: 571–592.
Cerda, M. & Castilla, J. C. (2001) Diversity and biomass of macro-invertebrates in intertidal matrices of the tunicate Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878) in the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 74: 841–853.
Ceulemans, R. & Mousseau, M. (1994) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on woody plants. New Phytologist 127: 425–446.
Chalker-Scott, L. (1995) Survival and sex ratios of the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus californicus, following ultraviolet-B (290–320 nm) radiation exposure. Marine Biology 123: 799–804.
Chambers, F. M. (1997) Bogs as treeless wastes: the myth and the implications for conservation. In: Conserving Peatlands, ed. L. Parkyn , R. E. Stoneman & H. A. P. Ingram , pp. 168–175. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Chambers, F. M. , Mauquoy, D. & Todd, P. A. (1999 a) Recent rise to dominance of Molinia caerulea in environmentally sensitive areas: new perspectives from palaeoecological data. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 719–733.
Chambers, R. M. , Meyerson, L. A. & Saltonstall, K. (1999 b) Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America. Aquatic Botany 64: 261–273.
Chapelle, F. H. (2001) Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry. New York, USA: John Wiley.
Chapman, A. R. O. (1986) Age versus stage: an analysis of age- and size-specific mortality and reproduction in a population of Laminaria longicruris Pyl. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 97: 113–122.
Chapman, A. R. O. & Johnson, C. R. (1990) Disturbance and organization of macroalgal assemblages in the Northwestern Atlantic. Hydrobiologia 192: 77–121.
Chapman, D. M. (1989) Coastal Dunes of New South Wales: Status and Management. Technical Report No. 89/3. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: University of Sydney Coastal Studies Unit.
Chapman, J. L. & Reiss, M. (1998) Ecology: Principles and Applications, 2nd edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Chapman, L. J. , Balirwa, J. , Bugenyi, F. W. B. , Chapman, C. & Crisman, T. L. (2001) Wetlands of East Africa: biodiversity, exploitation and policy perspectives. In: Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, vol. 2, ed. B. Gopal , W. J. Junk & J. A. Davis , pp. 101–131. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Chapman, M. G. & Bulleri, F. (2003) Intertidal seawalls: new features of landscape in intertidal environments. Landscape and Urban Planning 62: 159–172.
Chapman, P. M. , Paine, M. D. , Arthur, A. D. & Taylor, L. A. (1996) A triad study of sediment quality associated with a major, relatively untreated marine sewage discharge. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32: 47–64.
Chapman, V. J. (1974) Salt Marshes and Salt Deserts of the World, 2nd edn. Lehre, Germany: Cramer.
Chapman, W. L. & Walsh, J. E. (1993) Recent variations of sea ice and air temperature in high latitudes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74: 33–47.
Charles, C. D. , Hunter, D. E. & Fairbanks, R. D. (1997) Interaction between the ENSO and the Asian Monsoon in a coral record of tropical climate. Science 277: 925–928.
Charman, D. (2002) Peatlands and Environmental Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Chauhan, M. & Gopal, B. (2001) Biodiversity and management of Keoladeo National Park (India): a wetland of international importance. In: Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, vol. 2, ed. B. Gopal , W. J. Junk & J. A. Davis , pp. 217–256. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Chavez, F. P. , Ryan, J. , Lluch-Cota, S. E. & Miguel Niquen, C. (2003) From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299: 217–221.
Chazottes, V. , Le Campion-Alsumard, T. & Peyrot-Clausade, M. (1995) Bioerosion rates on coral reefs: interactions between macroborers, microborers and grazers (Moorea, French Polynesia). Palaeo 113: 189–198.
Chen, J. , Carlson, B. E. & Del Genio, A. D. (2002) Evidence for strengthening of the tropical general circulation in the 1990s. Science 295: 838–841.
Chesney, E. J. , Baltz, D. M. & Thomas, R. G. (2000) Louisiana estuarine and coastal fisheries and habitats: perspectives from a fish's eye view. Ecological Applications 10: 350–366.
Chesterfield, E. A. (1986) Changes in the vegetation of the river red gum forest at Barmah, Victoria. Australian Forestry 49: 4–15.
Choat, J. H. & Ayling, A. M. (1987) The relationship between habitat and fish faunas of New Zealand reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 110: 228–284.
Choat, J. H. & Schiel, D. R. (1982) Patterns of distribution and abundance of large brown algae and invertebrate herbivores in subtidal regions of northern New Zealand. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 60: 129–162.
Christensen, J. H. & Christensen, O. B. (2002) Severe summertime flooding in Europe. Nature 421: 805.
Christensen, T. R. & Keller, M. (2004) Element interactions and trace gas exchange. In: Interactions of the Major Biogeochemical Cycles: Global Change and Human Impacts, ed. J. M. Melillo , C. B. Field & B. Moldan , pp. 247–258. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Christensen, T. R. , Lloyd, D. , Svensson, B. , et al. (2002) Biogenic controls on trace gas fluxes in northern wetlands. Global Change News Letter 51: 9–15.
Christensen, V. (1998) Fishery-induced changes in the marine ecosystem: insights from models of the Gulf of Thailand. Journal of Fish Biology 53 (Suppl. A): 128–142.
Christensen, V. & Pauly, D. , eds. (1993) Trophic Models of Aquatic Ecosystems: ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26. Manila, Philippines: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources.
Christensen, V. , Guénette, S. , Heymans, J. J. , et al. (2003) Hundred-year decline of North Atlantic predatory fishes. Fish and Fisheries 4: 1–24.
Christie, J. , Becker, M. , Cowden, J. & Vallentyne, J. (1986) Managing the Great Lakes Basin as a home. Journal of Great Lakes Research 12: 2–17.
Chung, C.-H. (1985) The effects of introduced Spartina grass on coastal morphology in China. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie (Suppl.) 57: 169–174.
Chung, C.-H. (1994) Creation of Spartina plantations as an effective measure for reducing coastal erosion in China. In: Global Wetlands: Old World and New, ed. W. J. Mitsch , pp. 443–452. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Chung, C.-H. , Zhuo, R. Z. & Xu, G. W. (2004) Creation of Spartina plantations for reclaiming Dongtai, China, tidal flats and offshore sands. Ecological Engineering 23: 135–150.
Cincotta, R. P. & Engelman, R. (2000) Nature's Place: Human Population and the Future of Biological Diversity. Washington, DC, USA: Population Action International.
Cisneros-Mata, M. A. , Botsford, L. & Quinn, J. F. (1997) Projecting the viability of Totoba macdonaldi, a population with unknown age dependent variability. Ecological Applications 7: 968–980.
Ciupek, R. B. (1986) Protecting wetlands under Clean Water Act 404: EPA's conservation policy on mitigation. Natural Wetlands Newsletter 8: 12–15.
Clark, J. R. (1983) Coastal Ecosystem Management. Malabar, FL, USA: R.E. Krieger.
Clark, J. R. (1995) Coastal Zone Management Handbook. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publishers.
Clark, J. R. (1998) Endangered and Threatened Species: Threatened Status for Johnson's Seagrass, Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 50 CFR Part 227. Federal Register, Vol. 63, No. 177. Available online at www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/fr/fr63-49035.pdf
Clark, J. S. , Carpenter, S. R. , Barber, M. , et al. (2001) Ecological forecasts: an emerging imperative. Science 293: 657–660.
Clark, M. (1999) Fisheries for orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) on seamounts in New Zealand. Oceanologica Acta 22: 593–602.
Clark, M. R. (1995) Experience with the management of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) in New Zealand, and the effects of commercial fishing on stocks over the period 1980–1993. In: Deep-Water Fisheries of the North Atlantic Oceanic Slope, ed. A. G. Hopper , pp. 251–266. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Clark, M. R. & Tracey, D. M. (1994) Changes in a population of orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus, with commercial exploitation on the Challenger Plateau, New Zealand. Fishery Bulletin 92: 236–253.
Clark, M. R. , Finncham, D. J. & Tracey, D. M. (1994) Fecundity of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 28: 193–200.
Clark, M. W. (1998) Management implications of metal transfer pathways from a refuse tip to mangrove sediments. Science of the Total Environment 222: 17–34.
Clark, R. , ed. (1999) Global Environment Outlook 2000. London, UK: Earthscan Publications for United Nations Environment Programme.
Clark, R. B. (1992) Marine Pollution, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Clark, R. B. , Frid, C. L. J. & Atrill, M. (1997) Marine Pollution. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Clark, R. L. & Guppy, J. C. (1988) A transition from mangrove forest to freshwater wetland in the monsoon tropics of Australia. Journal of Biogeography 15: 665–684.
Clark, W. C. , Mitchell, R. B. & Cash, D. W. (2006) Evaluating the influence of global environmental assessments. In: Global Environmental Assessments: Information and Influence, ed. R. B. Mitchell , W. C. Clark , D. W. Cash , and N. M. Dickson , pp. 1–28. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
Clarke, A. (1996) The influence of climate change on the distribution and evolution of organisms. In: Animals and Temperature: Phenotypic and Evolutionary Adaptation, ed. I. A. Johnston & A. F. Bennett , pp. 377–407. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Clarke, A. & Harris, C. M. (2003) Polar marine ecosystems: major threats and future change. Environmental Conservation 30: 1–25.
Clarke, F. W. (1920) The Data of Geochemistry, US Geological Survey Bulletin No. 695. Menlo Park, CA, USA: US Geological Survey.
Clarke, T. (2003) Lightning satellite survey. Nature 421: 228.
CLIMAP Project Members (1976) The surface of the ice-age Earth. Science 191: 1131–1137.
Cloern, J. E. (2001) Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 210: 223–253.
Close, A. (1990) The impact of man on the natural flow regime. In: The Murray, ed. N. Mackay & D. Eastburn , pp. 61–74. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Murray–Darling Basin Commission.
Clough, B. F. , Boto, K. G. & Attiwill, P. M. (1983) Mangroves and sewage : a re-evaluation. In: Biology and Ecology of Mangroves: vol. 8, Tasks for Vegetation Science, ed. H. J. Teas , pp. 151–161. The Hague, the Netherlands: Dr W. Junk.
Cluis, D. & Laberge, C. (2002) Analysis of El Niño effect on the discharge of selected rivers in the Asia Pacific region. Water International 27: 279–293.
Clymo, R. S. (1965) Experiments on breakdown of Sphagnum in two bogs. Journal of Ecology 53: 747–758.
Clymo, R. S. (1973) The growth of Sphagnum: some effects of environment. Journal of Ecology 61: 849–869.
Clymo, R. S. (1984) The limits to peat bog growth. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 303: 605–654.
Clymo, R. S. & Hayward, P. M. (1982) The ecology of Sphagnum. In: Bryophyte Ecology, ed. A. J. E. Smith , pp. 229–289. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.
Clymo, R. S. & Pearce, D. M. E. (1995) Methane and carbon dioxide production in, transport through, and efflux from a peatland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 350: 249–259.
Clymo, R. S. , Turunen, J. & Tolonen, K. (1998) Carbon accumulation in peatland. Oikos 81: 368–388.
Coale, K. H. , Johnson, K. S. , Fitzwater, S. E. , et al. (1996) A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 383: 495–501.
Cobb, K. M. , Charles, C. D. , Cheng, H. & Edwards, R. L. (2003) El Niño/Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific climate during the last millennium. Nature 424: 271–276.
Cognetti, G. (2001) Marine eutrophication: the need for a new indicator system. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42: 163–164.
Cohen, A. N. & Carlton, J. T. (1998) Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science 279: 555–562.
Cohen, J. E. (1995) How Many People Can the Earth Support? New York, USA: W.W. Norton.
Cohen, J. E. (1997) Estimates of coastal population. Science 278: 1209.
Cohen, J. E. (2003) Human population @ the next half century. Science 302: 1172–1176.
Cohen, J. E. , Small, C. , Mellinger, A. , Gallup, J. & Sachs, J. (1997) Estimates of coastal populations. Science 287: 1211–1212.
COHMAP Members (1988) Climatic changes over the last 18 000 years: observations and model simulations. Science 241: 1043–1052.
Colborn, T. , Davidson, A. , Green, S. , et al. (1990) Great Lakes, Great Legacy? Washington, DC, USA and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: The Conservation Foundation and the Institute for Research on Public Policy.
Cole, J. , Dunbar, R. , McClanahan, T. & Muthiga, N. (2000) Tropical Pacific forcing of decadal variability in SST in the western Indian Ocean. Science 287: 617–619.
Cole, J. J. , Peierls, B. L. , Caraco, N. F. & Pace, M. L. (1993) Nitrogen loading of rivers as a human-driven process. In: Humans as Components of Ecosystems, ed. M. J. McDonnell & S. T. A. Pickett , pp. 141–157. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Cole, R. G. & Babcock, R. C. (1996) Mass mortality of a dominant kelp (Laminariales) at Goat Island, North-eastern New Zealand. Marine Freshwater Resource 47: 907–911.
Cole, R. G. & Syms, C. (1999) Using spatial pattern analysis to distinguish causes of mortality: an example from kelp in north-eastern New Zealand. Journal of Ecology 87: 963–972.
Coleman, R. A. , Goss-Custard, J. D. , LeV. dit Durell, S. E. A. & Hawkins, S. J. (1999) Limpet Patella spp. consumption by oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus: a preference for solitary prey items. Marine Ecology Progress Series 183: 253–261.
Coles, R. G. (1996) Coastal Management and Community Coastal Resource Planning in the Asia Pacific Region. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Winston Churchill Memorial Trust.
Coles, R. G. & Fortes, M. (2001) Protecting seagrass: approach and methods. In: Global Seagrass Research Methods, ed. F. T. Short & R. G. Coles , pp. 445–464. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Coles, R. G. , McKenzie, L. & Campbell, S. (2003 a) The seagrasses of Eastern Australia. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 131–147. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Coles, R. G. , McKenzie, L. , Campbell, S. , Fortes, M. & Short, F. (2003b) The seagrasses of the Western Pacific Islands. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 177–186. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Coles, S. L. & Al-Rayami, K. A. (1996) Beach tar concentrations on the Muscat coastline, Gulf of Oman, Indian Ocean, 1993–1995. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32: 609–614.
Coles, S. L. & Brown, B. E. (2003) Coral bleaching: capacity for acclimatization and adaptation. Advances in Marine Biology 46: 183–223.
Coles, S. M. (1979) Benthic microalgal populations on intertidal sediments and their role as precursors to salt marsh development. In: Ecological Processes in Coastal Environments, ed. R. L. Jefferies & A. J. Davy , pp. 25–42. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Collie, J. S. & DeLong, A. K. (1999) Multispecies interactions in the Georges Bank fish community. In: Alaska Sea Grant College Program, Ecosystem Approaches for Fisheries Management, Publication No. AK-SG-99-01, pp. 187–210. Alaska, USA: Alaska Sea Grant.
Collie, J. S. , Escanero, G. A. & Valentine, P. C. (1997) Effects of bottom fishing on the benthic megafauna of Georges Bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series 155: 159–172.
Collie, J. S. , Hall, S. J. , Kaiser, M. J. & Poiner, I. R. (2000) A quantitative analysis of fishing impacts on shelf-sea benthos. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 785–798.
Collier, L. M. & Pinn, E. H. (1998) An assessment of the acute impact of sea lice treatment with ivermectin on a benthic community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 23: 131–147.
Collingham, Y. C. & Huntley, B. (2000) Impacts of habitat fragmentation and patch size upon migration rates. Ecological Applications 10: 131–144.
Collins, M. A. , Belchier, M. & Everson, I. (2003) Why the fuss about toothfish? Biologist 50: 116–119.
Congressional Natural Hazards Caucus Work Group (2001) Discussion paper for the Congressional Natural Hazards Caucus [www document]. URL http://www.agiweb.org/workgroup/discussion_paper0101.html
Conlan, K. , White, K. N. & Hawkins, S. J. (1992) The hydrography and ecology of a redeveloped brackish-water dock. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 35: 435–452.
Conley, D. J. , Stalnacke, P. , Pitkanen, H. & Wilander, A. (2000) The transport and retention of dissolved silicate by rivers in Sweden and Finland. Limnology and Oceanography 45: 1850–1853.
Connell, J. H. (1961) The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42: 710–723.
Connell, J. H. (1972) Community interactions on marine rocky intertidal shores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 3: 169–192.
Connell, J. H. (1997) Disturbance and recovery of coral assemblages. Coral Reefs 16: S101–S113.
Connolly, R. M. (1999) Saltmarshes as habitat for fish and nektonic crustaceans: challenges in sampling designs and wetlands. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 422–430.
Connolly, R. M. , Dalton, A. & Bass, D. A. (1997) Fish use of an inundated flat in a temperate Australian estuary. Australian Journal of Ecology 22: 222–226.
Connolly, S. R. & Roughgarden, J. (1998) A latitudinal gradient in Northeast Pacific intertidal community structure: evidence for an oceanographically based synthesis of marine community theory. American Naturalist 151: 311–326.
Conover, R. J. & Huntley, M. (1991) Copepods in ice covered seas: distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas. Journal of Marine Systems 2: 1–41.
Conserve Africa Foundation (2005) Poverty and environment in Africa: an overview [www document]. URL http://www.conserveafrica.org.uk/poverty.html
Constable, A. J. , de La Mare, W. K. , Agnew, D. J. , Everson, I. & Miller, D. (2000) Managing fisheries to conserve the Antarctic marine ecosystem: practical implementation of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 778–791.
Contreras-Balderas, S. & Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (1994) Water, endangered fishes, and development perspectives in arid lands of Mexico. Conservation Biology 8: 379–387.
Convey, P. , Scott, D. & Fraser, W. R. (2003) Biophysical and habitat changes in response to climate alteration in the Arctic and Antarctic. Advances in Applied Biodiversity Science 4: 79–84.
Cook, P. , Robbins, J. , Endicott, D. , et al. (2003) Effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated early life stage toxicity on lake trout populations in Lake Ontario during the 20th century. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 3864–3877.
Correa, J. A. , Castilla, J. C. , Ramirez, M. , et al. (1999) Copper, copper mine tailings and their effect on marine algae in northern Chile. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 57–67.
Corredor, J. E. , Howarth, R. W. , Twilley, R. R. & Morell, J. M. (1999) Nitrogen cycling and anthropogenic impact in the tropical interamerican seas. Biogeochemistry 46: 163–178.
Corredor, J. E. , Morrell, J. M. & Del Castillo, C. E. (1990) Persistence of spilled crude oil in a tropical marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 385–388.
Cortes, J. (1993) Comparison between Caribbean and eastern Pacific coral reefs. Revistade Biologica Tropicale 41 (Suppl. 1): 19–21.
Cortes, J. , Macintyre, I. G. & Glynn, P. W. (1994) Holocene growth history of an eastern Pacific fringing reef, Punta Islotes, Costa Rica. Coral Reefs 13: 65–73.
Cosgrove, W. J. & Rijsberman, F. R. (2000) World Water Vision: Making Water Everybody's Business. London, UK: Earthscan Publications.
Costa, L. T. , Farinha, J. C. , Hecker, N. & Tomàs Vives, P. ,eds. (1996) Mediterranean Wetland Inventory, vol. 1, A Reference Manual [www document]. URL http://www.wetlands.org/RSDB/Default.htm
Costanza, R. , d'Arge, R. , de Groot, R. , et al. (1997) The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387: 253–260.
Costello, M. J. & Read, P. (1994) Toxicity of sewage sludge to marine organisms: a review. Marine Environmental Research 37: 23–42.
Coulson, J. C. & Butterfield, J. (1978) An investigation of the biotic factors determining the rates of plant decomposition on blanket bog. Journal of Ecology 66: 631–650.
Coulter, G. & Mubamba, R. (1993) Conservation in Lake Tanganyika, with special reference to underwater parks. Conservation Biology 7: 678–685.
Coutant, C. C. (1981) Foreseeable effects of CO2-induced climate change. Fresh-water concerns. Environmental Conservation 8: 285–297.
Covich, A. P. (1996) Stream biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Bulletin of the North American Benthological Society 13: 294–303.
Covich, A. P. , Austen, M. , Bärlocher, F. , et al. (2004) The role of biodiversity in the functioning of freshwater and marine benthic ecosystems. BioScience 54: 767–775.
Covich, A. P. , Fritz, S. C. , Lamb, P. J. , et al. (1997) Potential effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems of the great plains of North America. Hydrological Processes 11: 993–1021.
Covich, A. P. , Palmer, M. A. & Crowl, T. A. (1999) Role of benthic invertebrate species in freshwater ecosystems. BioScience 49: 119–127.
Cowardin, L. M. , Carter, V. , Golet, F.C & LaRoe, E. T. (1979) Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States, Biological Services Program No. FWS/OBS-79/31. Washington, DC, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Department of the Interior.
Cowen, R. K. (1983) The effect of sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) predation on red sea urchin populations: an experimental analysis. Oecologia 58: 249–255.
Cowen, R. K. , Lwiza, K. M. M. , Sponaugle, S. , Paris, C. B. & Olson, D. B. (2000) Connectivity of marine populations: open or closed? Science 287: 857–859.
Craft, C. B. & Casey, W. P. (2000) Sediment and nutrient accumulation in floodplain and depressional freshwater wetlands of Georgia, USA. Wetlands 20: 323–332.
Crain, A. D. , Bolten, A. B. & Bjorndal, K. A. (1995) Effects of beach nourishment on sea turtles: review and research initiatives. Restoration Ecology 3: 95–104.
Crane, R. G. & Barry, R. G. (1984) The influence of clouds on climate with a focus on high latitude interactions. Journal of Climatology 4: 71–93.
Crawford, R. E. (2002) Secondary wake turbidity from small boat operation in a shallow sandy bay. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 37: 49–64.
Creasey, S. S. & Rogers, A. D. (1999) Population genetics of bathyal and abyssal organisms. Advances in Marine Biology 35: 1–151.
Creed, J. C. (2003) Seagrasses of South America: Brazil, Argentina and Chile. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 263–270. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Creed, J. C. , Phillips, R. C. & Van Tussenbroek, B. I. (2003) The seagrasses of the Caribbean. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 254–262. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Cresser, M. S. (2000) The critical loads concept: milestone or millstone for the new millennium? Science of the Total Environment 249: 51–62.
Cronin, M. , Davies, I. M. , Newton, A. , et al. (1998) Trace metal concentrations in deep sea fish from the North Atlantic. Marine Environmental Research 45: 225–238.
Crooks, S. , Schutten, J. , Sheern, G. D. , Pye, K. & Davy, A. J. (2002) Drainage and elevation as factors in the restoration of salt marsh in Britain. Restoration Ecology 10: 591–602.
Crow, G. E. (1993) Species diversity in aquatic angiosperms: latitudinal patterns. Aquatic Botany 44: 229–258.
Crowe, T. P. , Thompson, R. C. , Bray, S. & Hawkins, S. J. (2000) Impacts of anthropogenic stress on rocky intertidal communities. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 7: 273–297.
Croxall, J. P. & Nicol, S. (2004) Management of Southern Ocean fisheries global forces and future sustainability. Antarctic Science 16: 568–584.
Croxall, J. P. , Prince, P. A. , Rothery, P. & Wood, A. G. (1997) Population changes in albatrosses at South Georgia. In: Albatross Biology and Conservation, ed. G. Robertson & R. Gales , pp. 69–83. Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia: Surrey Beatty.
Croxall, J. P. , Trathan, P. N. & Murphy, E. J. (2002) Environmental change and Antarctic seabird populations. Science 297: 1510–1514.
Crunkilton, R. (1985) Subterranean contamination of Meramec Spring by ammonium nitrate and urea fertilizer and its implication on rare biota. In: Proceedings of the 1984 National Cave Management Symposium, 25, pp. 151–158. Columbia, MO, USA: Missouri Speleological Survey.
Crutzen, P. (2006) Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulphur injections: a contribution to resolve a policy dilemma? Climatic Change 77: 211–220.
Cryer, M. , Hartill, B. & Oshea, S. (2002) Modification of marine benthos by trawling: toward a generalization for the deep ocean. Ecological Applications 12: 1824–1839.
Cullen, P. (2003) Salinity. In: Ecology: An Australian Perspective, ed. P. Attiwill & B. Wilson , pp. 474–488. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press.
Culver, D. C. & Holsinger, J. R. (1992) How many species of troglobites are there? National Speleological Society Bulletin 54: 79–80.
Culver, D. C. , Jones, W. K. & Holsinger, J. R. (1992) Biological and hydrological investigation of the Cedars, Lee County, Virginia: an ecologically significant and threatened karst area. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Groundwater Ecology, ed. J. A. Stanford & J. J. Simons , pp. 281–290. Bethesda, MD, USA: American Water Research Association.
Curran, M. A. J. , van Ommen, T. D. , Morgan, V. I. , Phillips, K. L. & Palmer, A. S. (2003) Ice core evidence for Antarctic sea ice decline since the 1950s. Science 302: 1203–1206.
Curry, J. A. & Webster, P. J. (1999) Thermodynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
Curry, J. A. , Schramm, J. L. , Serreze, M. C. & Ebert, E. E. (1995) Water vapor feedback over the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 14 223–14 229.
Curtis, P. S. & Wang, X. (1998) A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113: 299–313.
Curtis, P. S. , Balduman, L. M. , Drake, B. G. & Whigham, D. F. (1990) Elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on belowground processes in C3 and C4 estuarine marsh communities. Ecology 71: 2001–2006.
Curtis, P. S. , Drake, B. G. , Leadley, P. W. , Arp, W. J. & Whigham, D. F. (1989 a) Growth and senescence in plant communities exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations on an estuarine marsh. Oecologia 78: 20–26.
Curtis, P. S. , Drake, B. G. & Whigham, D. F. (1989 b) Nitrogen and carbon dynamics in C3 and C4 estuarine plants grown under elevated CO2 in situ . Oecologia 78: 297–301.
Cutshall, N. H. , Naidu, J. R. & Pearcy, W. G. (1978) Mercury concentrations in Pacific hake, Merluccius productus (Ayres), as a function of length and latitude. Science 200: 1489–1491.
Cwynar, L. C. & Spear, R. W. (1991) Reversion of forest to tundra in the central Yukon. Ecology 72: 202–212.
Czaya, E. (1981) Rivers of the World. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Daan, R. & Mulder, M. (1996) On the short-term and long-term impact of drilling activities in the Dutch sector of the North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 53: 1036–1044.
Dacey, J. W. H. , Drake, B. G. & Klug, M. J. (1994) Stimulation of methane emission by carbon dioxide enrichment of marsh vegetation. Nature 370: 47–49.
Dadnadji, K. K. & van Wetten, J. C. J. (1993) Traditional management systems and irrigation of small scale interventions in the Lagone floodplains of Chad. In: Towards the Wise Use of Wetlands, ed. T. J. Davis , pp. 74–81. Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar Convention Bureau.
Dadswell, M. (1974) Distribution, Ecology, and Postglacial Dispersal of Certain Crustaceans and Fishes in Eastern North America, Publications in Zoology No. 11. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: National Museums of Canada.
Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2002) The use of remote sensing and GIS in the sustainable management of tropical coastal ecosystems. Environment, Development and Sustainability 4: 93–112.
Dahl, T. E. (1990) Wetlands: Losses in the United States 1780s to 1980s. Washington, DC, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Dahl, T. E. & Zoltai, S. C. (1997) Forested northern wetlands of North America. In: Northern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management, ed. C. C. Trettin , M. F. Jurgensen , D. F. Grigal , M. R. Gale & J. K. Jeglum , pp. 3–18. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Dahm, C. N. & Molles Jr, M. C. (1991) Streams in semi-arid regions as sensitive indicators of global climate change. In: Global Climate Change and Freshwater Ecosystems, ed. P. Firth & S. G. Fisher , pp. 250–260. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Dahm, C. N. , Cleverly, J. R. , Allred Coonroyd, J. E. , et al. (2002) Evapotranspiration at the land/water interface in a semi-arid drainage basin. Freshwater Biology 47: 831–843.
Daily, G. C. & Ehrlich, P. (1996) Socioeconomic equity, sustainability, and Earth's carrying capacity. Ecological Applications 6: 991–1001.
Daka, E. R. & Hawkins, S. J. (2004) Tolerance to heavy metals in Littorina saxatilis from a metal-contaminated estuary in the Isle of Man. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84: 393–400.
Daka, E. R. , Allen, J. R. & Hawkins, S. J. (2003) Heavy metal contamination in sediment and biomonitors from sites around the Isle of Man. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46: 784–791.
Dale, P. E. R. (1994) An Australian perspective on coastal wetland management and vector control. In: Global Wetlands: Old World and New, ed. W. J. Mitsch , pp. 771–780. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Daly, H. E. (1991) Elements of environmental macroeconomics. In: Ecological Economics: The Science and Management of Sustainability, ed. R. Constanza , pp. 32–46. New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
Daly, M. A. & Mathieson, A. C. (1977) The effects of sand movement on intertidal seaweeds and selected invertebrates at Bound Rock, New Hampshire, USA. Marine Biology 43: 45–55.
Dando, P. R. , Southward, A. J. , Southward, E. C. , et al. (1992) Shipwrecked tube worms. Nature 356: 667.
Dangles, O. & Malmqvist, B. (2004) Species richness–decomposition relationships depend on species dominance. Ecology Letters 7: 395–402.
Danielopol, D. L. , Griebler, C. , Gunatilaka, A. & Notenboom, J. (2003) Present state and future prospects for groundwater ecosystems. Environmental Conservation 30: 104–130.
Danielopol, D. L. , Pospisil, P. , Dreher, J. , et al. (2000) A groundwater ecosystem in the wetlands of the Danube at Vienna (Austria). In: Ecosystems of the World, vol. 30, Subterranean Ecosystems, ed. H. Wilkens , D. C. Culver & W. F. Humphreys , pp. 581–602. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Darrigan, G. & Ezcurra de Drago, I. (2000) Limnosperma fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Mytilidae) distribution in the Plata Basin. Medio Ambiente 13: 75–79.
Dasgupta, P. (2000) Population and resources: an exploration of reproductive and environmental externalities. Population and Development Review 26: 643–689.
Dasgupta, P. (2001) Human Well-Being and the Natural Environment. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
da Silva, C. J. , Wantzen, K. M. , Nunes da Cunha, C. & Machado, F. de A. (2001) Biodiversity in the Pantanal Wetland, Brazil. In: Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, vol. 2, ed. B. Gopal , W. J. Junk & J. A. Davis , pp. 187–215. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Daskalakis, K. D. & O'Connor, T. P. (1995) Distribution of chemical contaminants in US coastal and estuarine sediment. Marine Environmental Research 40: 381–398.
Dauer, D. M. , Rodi Jr, A. J. & Ranasinghe, J. A. (1992) Effects of low dissolved oxygen events on the macrobenthos of the lower Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 15: 384–391.
Daughton, C. G. & Ternes, T. A. (1999) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change? Environmental Health Perspectives 107: 907–938.
Dauterive, L. (2000) Rigs-to-Reefs Policy, Progress, and Perspective, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region Report. New Orleans, LA, USA: US Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service.
D'Avanzo, C. D. & Kremer, J. N. (1994) Diel oxygen dynamics and anoxic events in an eutrophic estuary of Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. Estuaries 17: 131–139.
Davidson, I. , Vanderkam, R. & Padilla, M. (1999) Review of wetland inventory information in the Neotropics. In: Global Review of Wetland Resources and Priorities for Wetland Inventory, Supervising Scientist Report No. 144 / Wetlands International Publication No. 53, ed. C. M. Finlayson & A. G. Spiers , pp. 419–455. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Supervising Scientist.
Davis, J. (2000) Changes in a tidepool fish assemblage on two scales of environmental variation: seasonal and El Niño Southern Oscillation. Limnology and Oceanography 45: 1368–1379.
Davis, R. & Short, F. T. (1997) Restoring eelgrass, Zostera marina L., habitat using a new transplanting technique: the horizontal rhizome method. Aquatic Botany 59: 1–15.
Day, D. (1990) Noah's Choice: True Stories of Extinction and Survival. London, UK: Penguin Books.
Day, E. & Branch, G. M. (2002) Effects of sea urchins (Parechinus angulosus) on recruits and juveniles of abalone (Haliotis midae). Ecological Monographs 72: 133–149.
Day Jr, J. W. , Hall, C. A. S. , Kemp, W. M. & Yáñez-Arancibia, A. , eds. (1989) Estuarine Ecology. New York, USA: John Wiley.
Dayton, P. K. (1975) Experimental studies of algal–canopy interactions in a sea otter dominated kelp community at Amchitka Island, Alaska. Fishery Bulletin, United States 73: 230–237.
Dayton, P. K. (1985 a) Ecology of kelp communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 215–245.
Dayton, P. K. (1985 b) The structure and regulation of some South American kelp communities. Ecological Monographs 55: 447–468.
Dayton, P. K. , Currie, V. , Gerrodete, T. , et al. (1984) Patch dynamics and stability of some California kelp communities. Ecological Monographs 54: 253–289.
Dayton, P. K. , Tegner, M. J. , Edwards, P. B. & Riser, K. L. (1998) Sliding baselines, ghosts, and reduced expectations in kelp forest communities. Ecological Applications 8: 309–322.
Dayton, P. K. , Tegner, M. J. , Edwards, P. B. & Riser, K. L. (1999) Temporal and spatial scales of kelp demography: the role of oceanography climate. Ecological Monographs 69: 219–250.
Dayton, P. K. , Tegner, M. J. , Parnell, P. E. & Edwards, P. B. (1992) Temporal and spatial patterns of disturbance and recovery in a kelp forest community. Ecological Monographs 62: 421–445.
Dayton, P. K. , Thrush, S. F. , Agardy, T. M. & Hofman, R. J. (1995) Environmental effects of fishing. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 5: 205–232.
Dean, J. M. (1996) A crisis and opportunity in coastal oceans: coastal fisheries as a case study. In: Sustainable Development in the Southeastern Coastal Zone, ed. F. J. Vernberg , W. B. Vernberg & T. Siewicki , pp. 81–88. Columbia, SC, USA: University of South Carolina Press.
Dean, T. A. & Jewett, S. C. (2001) Habitat-specific recovery of shallow subtidal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Ecological Applications 11: 1456–1471.
De Casabianca, M. L. , Laugier, T. & Collart, D. (1997) Impact of shellfish farming eutrophication on benthic macrophyte communities in the Thau lagoon, France. Aquaculture International 5: 301–314.
Dederen, L. H. T. (1992) Marine eutrophication in Europe: similarities and regional differences in appearance. In: Marine Coastal Eutrophication, ed. R. A. Vollenweider , R. Marchetti & R. Viviani , pp. 673–682. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
de Forges, R. , Koslow, J. A. & Poore, G. C. B. (2000) Diversity and endemism of the benthic seamount fauna in the southwest Pacific. Nature 405: 944–947.
Degens, E. T. & Ross, D. A. , eds. (1969) Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea: A Geochemical and Geophysical Account. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
De Groot, A. J. (1995) Metals and sediments: a global perspective. In: Metal Contaminated Aquatic Sediments, ed. H. E. Allen , pp. 1–20. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: Ann Arbor Press.
de Groot, R. S. , Wilson, M. A. & Boumans, R. M. J. (2002) A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological Economics 41: 393–408.
Deichmann, U. , Balk, D. & Yetman, G. (2001) Transforming population data for interdisciplinary usages: from census to grid [www document]. URL http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/docs/gpw3_documentation_final.pdf
Deimling, E. A. & Liss, W. J. (1994) Fishery development in the eastern North Pacific: a natural–cultural system perspective, 1888–1976. Fisheries Oceanography 3: 60–77.
De Jonge, V. N. & De Jong, D. J. (1992) Role of tide, light and fisheries in the decline of Zostera marina L. in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Netherlands Institute for Sea Research Publication Series 20: 161–176.
De Jonge, V. N. (1990) Response of the Dutch Wadden Sea ecosystem to phosphorus discharges from the River Rhine. Hydrobiologia 195: 49–62.
de la Mare, W. K. (1997) Abrupt mid-twentieth-century decline in Antarctic sea-ice extent from whaling records. Nature 389: 57–59.
DeLaune, R. D. & Pezeshki, S. R. (1994) The influence of subsidence and saltwater intrusion on coastal marsh stability: Louisiana Gulf coast, USA. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 12: 77–89.
Delgado, C. L. , Wada, N. , Rosegrant, M. W. , Meijer, S. & Ahmed, M. (2003) Fish to 2020: Supply and Demand in Changing Global Markets. Manila, Philippines: International Food Policy Research Institute and World Fish Centre.
Delgado, O. & Lapointe, B. E. (1994) Nutrient-limited productivity of calcareous versus fleshy macroalgae in a eutrophic, carbonate-rich tropical marine environment. Coral Reefs 13: 151–159.
Delgado, O. , Ruiz, J. , Perez, M. , Romero, R. & Ballesteros, E. (1999) Effects of fish farming on seagrass in a Mediterranean Bay: seagrass decline after organic loading cessation. Oceanologica Acta 22: 109–117.
De Marsily, G. (1992) Creation of ‘hydrological nature reserves’, a plea for the defence of ground water. Ground Water 30: 658.
Denevan, W. M. , ed. (1966) The Aboriginal Cultural Geography of the Llanos de Mojos of Bolivia. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Denevan, W. M. (1976) The aboriginal population of Amazonia. In: The Native Population of the Americas, ed. W. M. Denevan , pp. 205–234. Madison, WI, USA: University of Wisconsin Press.
den Hartog, C. (1970) The Seagrasses of the World. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: North Holland.
Denney, N. H. , Jennings, S. & Reynolds, J. D. (2002) Life history correlates of maximum population growth rate in marine fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 2229–2237.
Dennis, K. C. , Niang-Diop, I. & Nicholls, R. J. (1995) Sea-level rise and Senegal: potential impacts and consequences. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 14: 243–261.
Denny, M. & Paine, R. (1998) Celestial mechanics, sea-level changes, and intertidal ecology. Biological Bulletin 194: 108–115.
Denny, P. (1992) Africa. In: Wetlands, ed. M. Finlayson & M. Moser , pp. 115–148. Oxford, UK: Facts on File.
Denny, P. (1993) Wetlands of Africa. In: Wetlands of the World, vol. 1, Inventory, Ecology and Management, ed. D. F. Whigham , D. Dykyjová & S. Hejný , pp. 1–128. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Department of Land and Water Conservation (2002) Compensatory Wetlands, a discussion paper under the NSW Wetlands Management Policy. Sydney, NSW, Australia: Department of Land and Water Conservation.
Depledge, M. H. & Billinghurst, Z. (1998) Ecological significance of endocrine disruption in marine invertebrates. Marine Pollution Bulletin 39: 32–38.
Dermott, R. & Kerec, D. (1997) Changes in the deepwater benthos of eastern Lake Erie since the invasion of Dreissena: 1979–1993. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 922–930.
Derraik, J. G. B. (2002) The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44: 842–852.
Desai, U. , ed. (1998) Ecological Policy and Politics in Developing Countries: Economic Growth, Democracy, and Environment. Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press.
Deser, C. , Walsh, J. E. & Timlin, M. S. (2000) Arctic sea ice variability in the context of recent atmospheric circulation trends. Journal of Climate 13: 617–633.
Desmond, J. , Zedler, J. B. & Williams, G. D. (2000) Fish use of tidal creek habitats in two southern California salt marshes. Ecological Engineering 14: 233–252.
Detenbeck, N. E. , Galatowitsch, S. M. , Atkinson, J. & Ball, H. (1999) Evaluating perturbations and developing restoration strategies for inland wetlands in the Great Lakes Basin. Wetlands 19: 789–820.
Dette, H.-H. & Raudkivi, A. J. (1994) Beach nourishment and dune protection. In: Coastal Engineering: Proceedings of the 24th Coastal Engineering Conference, pp. 1934–1945. New York, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Deuser, W. G. & Ross, E. H. (1980) Seasonal change in the flux of organic carbon to the deep Sargasso Sea. Nature 283: 364–365.
Devine, J. A. , Baker, K. D. & Haedrich, R. L. (2006) Deep-sea fishes qualify as endangered. Nature 439: 29.
DFID/EC/UNDP/World Bank (2002) Linking Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management: Policy Challenges and Opportunities, World Bank Working Paper. Washington, DC, USA: The World Bank.
DHI Water and Environment (2001) Yellow River flood management sector project, China (2000). Unpublished report. Horsholm, Denmark: DHI Water and Environment.
Diaz, R. J. & Rosenberg, R. (1995) Marine benthic hypoxia: a review of its ecological effects and the behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 33: 245–303.
Dickhut, R. M. & Gustafson, K. E. (1995) Atmospheric inputs of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls to southern Chesapeake Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30: 385–396.
Dijkema, K. S. (1987) Geography of salt marshes in Europe. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 31: 489–499.
Dionne, J.-C. (1989) An estimate of shore ice action in a Spartina tidal marsh, St Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada. Journal of Coastal Research 5: 281–293.
Diop, E. S. (1990) La Côte Ouest-Africaine: du Saloum (Sénégal) à la Mellacorée (Rép. de Guinée), Collection Etudes et Thèses. Paris, France: ORSTOM.
Diop, E. S. , Soumare, A. , Diallo, N. & Guisse, A. (1997) Recent changes of the mangroves of the Saloum River estuary, Senegal. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1: 163–172.
Dobson, A. P. , Bradshaw, A. D. & Baker, A. J. M. (1997) Hopes for the future: restoration ecology and conservation biology. Science 277: 515–522.
Dobson, J. E. , Bright, E. A. , Ferguson, R. L. , et al. (1995) NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP): Guidance for Regional Implementation, NOAA Technical Report No. NFFS 123. Washington, DC, USA: US Department of Commerce.
Dodd, R. S. & Afzal-Rafii, Z. (2002) Evolutionary genetics of mangroves: continental drift to recent climate change. Trees 16: 80–86.
Dodd, R. S. , Afzal-Rafii, Z. , Kashani, N. & Budrick J. (2002) Land barriers and open oceans: effects on gene diversity and population structure in Avicennia germinans L. (Avicenniaceae). Molecular Ecology 11: 1327–1338.
Dodd, R. S. , Blasco, F. , Afzal-Rafii, Z. & Torquebiau, E. (1999) Mangroves of the United Arab Emirates: diversity at the bioclimatic extreme. Aquatic Botany 63: 291–304.
Donahue, D. L. (1999) The Western Range Revisited: Removing Livestock from Public Lands to Conserve Native Biodiversity. Norman, OK, USA: University of Oklahoma Press.
Done, T. (1992) Constancy and change in some Great Barrier Reef coral communities: 1980–1990. American Zoologist 32: 655–662.
Done, T. J. (1987) Simulation of the effects of Acanthaster planci on the population structure of massive corals in the genus Porites: evidence of population resilience? Coral Reefs 6: 75–90.
Donnelly, J. & Bertness, M. D. (2001) Rapid shoreward encroachment of salt marsh vegetation in response to sea-level rise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98: 14 218–14 223.
Doody, P. (1989) Conservation and development of the coastal dunes in Great Britain. In: Perspectives in Coastal Dune Management, ed. F. van der Meulen , P. D. Jungerius & J. H. Visser , pp. 53–67, The Hague, the Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing.
Dosdat, A. , Gaumet, F. & Chartois, H. (1995) Marine aquaculture effluent monitoring: methodological approach to the evaluation of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion by fish. Aquacultural Engineering 14: 59–84.
Douglas, B. C. (1991) Global sea level rise. Journal of Geophysical Research 96: 6981–6992.
Douglas, B. C. & Peltier, W. C. (2002) The puzzle of global sea level rise. Physics Today March 2002: 35–40.
Douglas, M. , Finlayson, C. M. & Storrs, M. J. (1998) Weed management in tropical wetlands of the Northern Territory, Australia. In: Wetlands in a Dry Land: Understanding for Management, ed. W. D. Williams , pp. 239–251. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Environment Australia.
Douglas–Westwood (2002) Into the deep [www document]. URL http://www.dw-1.com
Dove, S. (2004) Scleractinian coral with photoprotective host pigments are hypersensitive to thermal bleaching. Marine Ecology Progress Series 272: 99–116.
Dove, S. , Hoegh-Guldberg, O. & Ranganathan, S. (2001) Major colour patterns in reef-building corals are due to a family of GFP-like proteins. Coral Reefs 19: 197–204.
Downing, J. A. , McClain, M. , Twilley, R. , et al. (1999) The impact of accelerating land-use change on the N-cycle of tropical aquatic ecosystems: current conditions and projected changes. Biogeochemistry 46: 109–148.
Drake, B. G. (1992) A field study of the effects of elevated CO2 on ecosystem processes in a Chesapeake Bay wetland. Australian Journal of Botany 40: 579–595.
Drake, B. G. , Muehe, G. , Peresta, M. A. , González-Meler & Matamala, R. (1996 a) Acclimation of photosynthesis, respiration and ecosystem carbon flux of a wetland on Chesapeake Bay, Maryland to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Plant and Soil 187: 111–118.
Drake, B. G. , Peresta, G. , Beugeling, F. & Matamala, R. (1996 b) Long-term elevated CO2 exposure in a Chesapeake Bay wetland: ecosystem gas exchange, primary production, and tissue nitrogen. In: Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems, ed. G. W. Koch & H. A. Mooney , pp. 197–214. New York, USA: Academic Press.
Drake, P. , Baldó, F. , Sáenz, V. & Arias, A. M. (1999) Macrobenthic community structure in estuarine pollution assessment on the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain): is the phylum-level meta-analysis approach applicable? Marine Pollution Bulletin 38: 1038–1047.
Dreher, J. & Gunatilaka, A. (2001) Management of urban groundwater. I. Quantitative aspects. In: Groundwater Ecology: A Tool For Management of Water Resources, ed. C. Griebler , D. L. Danielopol , J. Gibert , H. P. Nachtnebel & J. Notenboom , pp. 197–212. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Dreyer, G. D. & Niering, W. A. (1995) Tidal marshes of Long Island Sound: ecology, history and restoration. Connecticut College Arboretum Bulletin 34: 1–72.
Driscoll, C. T. , Lawrence, G. B. , Bulger, A. J. , et al. (2001) Acidic deposition in the Northeastern United States: sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies. BioScience 51: 180–198.
Du Rietz, G. E. & Nannfeldt, J. A. (1925) Ryggmossen und Stigsbo Rödmosse: Die letzten lebenden Hochmoore der Gegend von Uppsala, Svenska Växtsociologiska Sällskapets Handlingar No. 3. Uppsala, Sweden: Amqvist & Wiksell.
Duarte, C. M. (1995) Submerged aquatic vegetation in relation to different nutrient regimes. Ophelia 41: 87–112.
Duarte, C. M. (2001) Seagrass ecosystems. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, vol. 5, ed. S. L. Levin , pp. 255–268. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
Duarte, C. M. (2002) The future of seagrass meadows. Environmental Conservation 29: 192–206.
Duarte, C. M. & Chiscano, C. L. (1999) Seagrass biomass and production: a reassessment. Aquatic Botany 65: 159–174.
Duarte, C. M. , Martínez, R. & Barrón, C. (2002) Biomass, production and rhizome growth near the northern limit of seagrass (Zostera marina) distribution. Aquatic Botany 72: 183–189.
Duarte, C. M. , Terrados, J. , Agawin, N. S. W. , et al. (1997) Response of a mixed Philippine seagrass meadow to experimental burial. Marine Ecology Progress Series 147: 285–294.
Dubinsky, Z. & Stambler, N. (1996) Marine pollution and coral reefs. Global Change Biology 2: 511–526.
Duda, A. M. & El-Ashry, M. T. (2000) Addressing the global water and environment crises through integrated approaches to the management of land, water and ecological resources. Water International 25: 115–126.
Dudgeon, D. (1999) Tropical Asian Streams: Zoobenthos, Ecology and Conservation. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Dudgeon, D. (2000 a) The ecology of tropical Asian rivers and streams in relation to biodiversity conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 239–263.
Dudgeon, D. (2000 b) Large-scale hydrological changes in tropical Asia: prospects for riverine biodiversity. BioScience 50: 793–806.
Dudgeon, D. (2002) An inventory of riverine biodiversity in monsoonal Asia: present status and conservation challenges. Water Science and Technology 11: 11–19.
Dudgeon, D. , Arthington, A. H. , Gessner, M. O. , et al. (2006) Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81: 163–182.
Dudley, N. (1990) Nitrates: The Threat to Food and Water. London, UK: Green Print.
Dugan, P. J. , ed. (1990) Wetland Conservation: A Review of Current Issues and Required Action. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Dugan, P. J. (1993) Wetlands in Danger. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Duggins, D. O. (1980) Kelp beds and sea otters: an experimental approach. Ecology 61: 447–453.
Duggins, D. O. (1983) Starfish predation and the creation of mosaic patterns in a kelp dominated community. Ecology 64: 1610–1619.
Duggins, D. O. , Eckman, J. E. & Sewell, A. T. (1990) Ecology of understory kelp environments. II. Effects of kelps on recruitment of benthic invertebrates. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 143: 27–45.
Duggins, D. O. , Simenstad, C. A. & Estes, J. A. (1989) Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science 245: 170–173.
Duke, N. C. (1995) Genetic diversity, distributional barriers and rafting continents: more thoughts on the evolution of mangroves. Hydrobiologia 295: 167–181.
Duke, N. C. , Benzie, J. A. H. , Goodall, J. A. & Ballment, E. R. (1998) Genetic structure and evolution of species in the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in the Indo-West Pacific. Evolution 52: 1612–1626.
Duke, N. C. , Pinzón, Z. S. & Prada, M. C. (1997) Large-scale damage to mangrove forests following two large oil spills in Panama. Biotropica 29: 2–14.
Dulvy, N. K. , Freckleton, R. P. & Polunin N. V. C. (2004) Coral reef cascades and the indirect effects of predator removal by exploitation. Ecology Letters 7: 410–416.
Dulvy, N. K. , Metcalfe, J. D. , Glanville, J. , Pawson, M. G. & Reynolds, J. D. (2000) Fishery stability, local extinctions, and shifts in community structure in skates. Conservation Biology 14: 283–293.
Dulvy, N. K. , Sadovy, Y. & Reynolds, J. D. (2003) Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish and Fisheries 4: 25–64.
Dumont, H. (1995) Ecocide in the Caspian Sea. Nature 377: 673–674.
Dumortier, M. , Verlinden, A. , Beeckman, H. & van der Mijnsbrugge, K. (1996) Effects of harvesting dates and frequencies on above and below-ground dynamics in Belgian wet grasslands. Ecoscience 3: 190–198.
Dunton, K. H. (1990) Growth and production in Laminaria solidungula: relation to continuous underwater light levels in the Alaskan High Arctic. Marine Biology 106: 297–304.
Dunton, K. H. & Dayton, P. K. (1995) The biology of high latitude kelp. In: Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters: Proceedings of the Mare Nor Symposium on the Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters, Tromsø, Norway, 5–9 December 1994, ed. H. R. Skjoldal , C. Hopkins , K. E. Erikstad & H. P. Leinass , pp. 499–507. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Dunton, K. H. & Schell, D. M. (1987) Dependence of consumers on macroalgal (Laminaria solidungula) carbon in an Arctic kelp community: delta-carbon-13 evidence. Marine Biology 93: 615–626.
Dunton, K. H. & Schonberg, S. V. (2002) Assessment of propeller scarring in seagrass beds of the South Texas Coast. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 37: 99–109.
Duplisea, D. E. , Jennings, S. , Malcolm, S. J. , Parker, R. & Sivyer, D. (2001) Modelling the potential impacts of bottom trawl fisheries on soft sediment biochemistry of the North Sea. Geochemical Transactions 14: 1–6.
Dupont, L. M. , Jahns, S. , Marret, F. & Ning, S. (2000) Vegetation change in equatorial West Africa: time slices for the last 150 ka. Paleogeography Paleoclimatology Paleoecology 155: 95–122.
Durako, M. J. & Moffler, M. D. (1987) Factors affecting the reproductive ecology of Thalassia testudinum Hydrocharitacea. Aquatic Botany 27: 79–96.
Duran, L. R. & Castilla, J. C. (1989) Variation and persistence of the middle rocky intertidal community of central Chile, with and without human harvesting. Marine Biology 103: 555–562.
Durgaprasad, M. K. & Anjaneyulu, Y. , eds. (2003) Lake Kolleru: Environmental Status (Past and Present). Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: B.S. Publications.
DWR (2003) Construction of the West Desert Pumping Project. Division of Water Resources, State of Utah [www document]. URL http://www.water.utah.gov/construction/gsl/construction.htm.
Dynesius, M. & Nilsson, C. (1994) Fragmentation and flow regulation of river systems in the northern third of the world. Science 266: 753–762.
Eakin, C. M. (1996) Where have all the carbonates gone? A model comparison of calcium carbonate budgets before and after the 1982–1983 EI Niño at Uva Island in the eastern Pacific. Coral Reefs 15: 109–119.
Ebeling, A. W. , Laur, D. R. & Rowley, R. J. (1985) Severe storm disturbance and reversal of community structure in a southern California kelp forest. Marine Biology 84: 287–294.
Ebling, F. S. , Hawkins, A. D. , Kitching, J. A. , Muntz, P. & Pratt, V. M. (1966) The ecology of Lough Ine. XVI. Predation and diurnal migrations in Paracentrotus community. Journal of Animal Ecology 35: 559–566.
EC (2002) Towards a Strategy to Protect and Conserve the Marine Environment, Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.
EC (2005) Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the field of Marine Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Directive), SEC (2005) 1290. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.
Edelstein, T. , Craigie, J. S. & McLachlan, J. (1969) Preliminary survey of the sublittoral flora of Halifax county. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26: 2703–2713.
Edgar, G. J. & Barrett, N. S. (2002) Effects of catchment activities on macrofaunal assemblages in Tasmanian estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 50: 639–654.
Edinger, E. N. (1998) Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in Indonesia: effects of land-based pollution, destructive fishing practices and changes over time. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36: 617–630.
Edmondson, W. T. (1991) The Uses of Ecology: Lake Washington and Beyond. Seattle, WA, USA: University of Washington Press.
Edmunds, P. J. & Carpenter, R. C. (2001) Recovery of Diadema antillarum reduces macroalgal cover and increases abundance of juvenile corals on a Caribbean reef. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98: 5067–5071.
Edwards, A. C. & Davis, D. E. (1974) Effects of herbicides on the Spartina salt marsh. In: Ecology of Halophytes, ed. R. J. Reimold & W. H. Queen , pp. 531–545. New York, USA: Academic Press.
Edyvane, K. (2003) Conservation, Monitoring and Recovery of Threatened Giant Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Beds in Tasmania, Report for Environment Australia. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia: Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment. Available online at www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Publications/HMUY-5TT2P6?open
Eganhouse, R. P. & Sherblom, P. M. (2001) Anthropogenic organic contaminants in the effluent of a combined sewer overflow: impact on Boston Harbor. Marine Environmental Research 51: 51–74.
Ehrenfeld, J. G. (1990) Dynamics and processes of barrier island vegetation. Aquatic Science 2: 437–480.
Eiane, K. , Aksnes, D. L. , Bagoien, E. & Kaartvedt, S. (1999) Fish or jellies: a question of visibility? Limnology and Oceanography 44: 1352–1357.
Eisenreich, S. , Emmling, P. & Beeton, A. (1977) Atmospheric loading of phosphorus and other chemicals to Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 3: 291–304.
Eisler, R. (1987) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review, Biological Report No. 85(1.11). Washington, DC, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Eisler, R. (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Handbook of Chemical Risk Assessment, vol. 2, pp. 1343–1411. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publishers.
Eisma, D. (1998) Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Eliot, I. , Finlayson, C. M. & Waterman, P. (1999) Predicted climate change, sea-level rise and wetland management in the Australian wet–dry tropics. Wetlands Ecology and Management 7: 63–81.
Ellenbroek, G. A. , ed. (1987) Ecology and Productivity of an African Wetland System: The Kafue Flats, Zambia. The Hague, the Netherlands: Dr W. Junk.
Ellery, W. N. & McCarthy, T. S. (1998) Environmental change over two decades since dredging and excavation of the lower Boro River, Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Biogeography 25: 361–378.
Ellingsen, K. E. (2002) Soft-sediment benthic biodiversity on the continental shelf in relation to environmental variability. Marine Ecology Progress Series 232: 15–27.
Elliott, W. R. (2000) Conservation of the North American cave and karst biota. In: Ecosystems of the World, vol. 30, Subterranean Ecosystems, ed. H. Wilkens , D. C. Culver & W. F. Humphreys , pp. 664–689. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Ellis, C. J. & Tallis, J. H. (2000) Climatic control of blanket mire development at Kentra Moss, north-west Scotland. Journal of Ecology 88: 869–889.
Ellis, D. V. & Pattisina, L. A. (1990) Widespread neogastropod imposex: a biological indicator of global TBT pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 248–253.
Ellis, J. , Cummings, V. , Hewitt, J. , Thrush, S. & Norkko, A. (2002) Determining effects of suspended sediment on condition of a suspension feeding bivalve (Atrina zelandica): results of a survey, a laboratory experiment and a field transplant experiment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 267: 147–174.
Ellis, L. M. , Crawford, C. S. & Molles Jr, M. C. (2002) The role of the flood pulse in ecosystem-level process in southwestern riparian forests: a case study from the Middle Rio Grande. In: Flood Pulsing and Wetlands: Restoring the Natural Balance, ed. B. A. Middleton , pp. 51–108. New York, USA: John Wiley.
Ellis, R. (2003) The Empty Ocean. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Ellison, A. M. & Farnsworth, E. J. (1996) Anthropogenic disturbance of Caribbean mangrove ecosystems: past impacts, present trends, and future predictions. Biotropica 28: 549–565.
Ellison, A. M. & Farnsworth, E. J. (2001) Mangrove communities. In: Marine Community Ecology, ed. M. D. Bertness , S. D. Gaines & M. E. Hay , pp. 423–442. Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer Associates.
Ellison, A. M. , Farnsworth, E. J. & Merkt, R. E. (1999) Origins of mangrove ecosystems and the mangrove biodiversity anomaly. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 8: 95–115.
Ellison, J. C. & Stoddart, D. R. (1991) Mangrove ecosystem collapse during predicted sea-level rise: Holocene analogues and implications. Journal of Coastal Research 7: 151–165.
El-Raey, M. , Nasr, S. , Frihy, O. , Desouki, S. & Dewidar, K. (1995) Potential impacts of accelerated sea-level rise on Alexandria Governate, Egypt. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 14: 190–204.
El-Sayed, S. , Van Dijken, G. & Gonzalez-Rodas, G. (1996) Effects of ultraviolet radiation on marine ecosystems. International Journal of Environmental Studies 51: 199–216.
Elster, C. , Perdomo, L. & Schnetter, M.-L. (1999) Impact of ecological factors on the regeneration of mangroves in the Cíenaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia. Hydrobiologia 413: 35–46.
EM-DAT (2004) The OFDA/CRED Emergency Disaster Database. Brussels, Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain [www document]. URL http://www.em-dat.net/disasters/list.php.
Emerson, S. (1985) Organic carbon preservation in marine sediments. In: The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present, ed. E. T. Sundquist & W. Broecker , pp. 711–717. Washington, DC, USA: American Geophysical Union.
Emmerson, M. C. , Solan, M. , Emes, C. , Paterson, D. M. & Raffaelli, D. (2001) Consistent patterns and the idiosyncratic effects of biodiversity in marine ecosystems. Nature 411: 73–77.
Enfield, D. B. (1988) Is El Niño becoming more common? Oceanography 59: 123–127.
Engelman, R. & LeRoy, P. (1993) Sustaining Water: Population and the Future of Fresh Water Supplies. Washington, DC, USA: Population Action International.
Engelman, R. , Cincotta, R. P. , Dye, B. , Gardner-Outlaw, T. & Wisnewski, J. (2000) People in the Balance: Population and Natural Resources at the Turn of the Millennium. Washington, DC, USA: Population Action International.
Environment Canada (2002) Risk management strategy for road salts [www document]. URL http://www.ec.gc.ca/nopp/roadsalt/en/rms.htm
Epp, D. & Smoot, N. C. (1989) Distribution of seamounts in the North Atlantic. Nature 337: 254–257.
Erlandson, J. M. (2002) Anatomically modern humans, maritime voyaging, and the Pleistocene colonization of the Americas. In: The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, ed. N. G. Jablonski , pp. 1–19. San Francisco, CA, USA: California Academy of Sciences.
Erlandson, J. M. , Kennett, D. J. , Ingram, B. L. , et al. (1996) An archaeological and paleontological chronology for Daisy Cave (CA-SMI-261), San Miguel Island, California. Radiocarbon 38: 355–373.
Erlandson, J. M. , Rick, T. C. & Vellanoweth, R. L. (2004) Human impacts on ancient environments: a case study from the Northern Channel Islands. In: Voyages of Discovery: The Archaeology of Islands, ed. S. M. Fitzpatrick , pp. 51–83. New York, USA: Praeger.
Esselink, J. (2000) Nature Management of Coastal Salt Marshes: Interactions between Anthropogenic Influences and Natural Dynamics. Haren, the Netherlands: Koeman en Bijkerk.
Esselink, P. , Helder, G. J. F. , Aerts, B. A. & Gerdes, K. (1997) The impact of grubbing by greylag geese (Anser anser) on the vegetation dynamics on a tidal marsh. Aquatic Botany 55: 261–279.
Esteban Morales, G. (2003) Methane hydrates in the Chilean continental margin. Journal of Biotechnology 6: 1–5.
Estes, J. A. & Duggins, D. O. (1995) Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecological Monographs 65: 75–100.
Estes, J. A. & Steinberg, P. D. (1988) Predation, herbivory, and kelp evolution. Paleobiology 14: 19–36.
Estes, J. A. , Duggins, D. O. & Rathbun, G. B. (1989) The ecology of extinctions in kelp forest communities. Conservation Biology 3: 252–264.
Estes, J. A. , Tinker, M. T. , Williams, T. M. & Doak, D. F. (1998) Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282: 473–476.
EU (2001) Common strategy on the implementation of the Water Framework Directive [www document]. URL http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/water/water-framework
Evans, A. S. , Webb, K. L. & Penhale, P. A. (1986) Photosynthetic temperature acclimation in two coexisting seagrasses Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima . Aquatic Botany 24: 185–198.
Evans, C. D. , Cullen, J. M. , Alewell, C. , et al. (2001) Recovery from acidification in European surface waters. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 5: 283–297.
Evans, N. T. & Short, F. T. (2005) Functional trajectory models for assessment of transplant development of seagrass, Zostera marina L., beds in the Great Bay Estuary, NH, USA. Estuaries 28: 936–947.
Evans, R. S. (1989) Saline water disposal options in the Murray Basin. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11: 167–185.
Everard, M. (1997) Development of a British wetland strategy. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 7: 223–238.
Everson, I. (2002) Consideration of major issues in ecosystem monitoring and management. CCAMLR Science 9: 213–232.
Everson, I. , ed. (2000) Krill: Biology, Ecology and Fisheries. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.
Ewel, K. C. & Odum, H. T. , eds. (1984) Cypress Swamps. Gainesville, FL, USA: University of Florida Press.
Ewel, K. C. , Twilley, R. R. & Ong, J. E. (1998) Different kinds of mangrove forests provide different goods and services. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 83–94.
Fach, B. A. , Hofmann, E. E. & Murphy, E. J. (2002) Modeling studies of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba survival during transport across the Scotia Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 231: 187–203.
Fagan, W. F. , Lewis, M. A. , Neubert, M. G. & van den Driessche, N. P. (2002) Invasion theory and biological control. Ecology Letters 5: 148–157.
Fagbami, A. A. , Udo, E. J. & Odu, C. T. I. (1988) Vegetation damage in an oil field in the Niger delta of Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Ecology 4: 61–75.
Falkenmark, M. & Widstrand, C. (1992) Population and water resources: a delicate balance. Population Bulletin 47(3): 1–36.
FAO (1990) Fertilizer Yearbook. New York, USA: United Nations.
FAO (1994) FAO Yearbook: Fishery Statistics, Catches and Landings 1992, vol. 74. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (1996) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 1996, Technical Report. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (1998) Wetland Characterization and Classification for Sustainable Agricultural Development. Harare, Zimbabwe: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Sub-Regional Office for East and Southern Africa (SAFR).
FAO (1999) Review of the State of World Fishery Resources: Inland Fisheries, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 942. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2001 a) Asia-Pacific conference on early warning, prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters in food and agriculture. Unpublished report. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2001 b) What Is the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries? Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2002) World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030 – An FAO Perspective. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2003 a) International Year of Rice, 2004. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online at www.fao.org/rice2004/index_en.htm
FAO (2003 b) Status and Trends in Mangrove Area Extent Worldwide, Forest Resources Assessment Working Paper No. 63, ed. M.L. Wilkie & S. Fortuna . Rome, Italy: Forest Resources Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2004) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online at www.fao.org
FAO (2006) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online at www.fao.org
Farina, J. M. & Castilla, J. C. (2001) Temporal variation in the diversity and cover of sessile species in rocky intertidal communities affected by copper mine tailings in northern Chile. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42: 554–568.
Farman, J. C. , Gardiner, B. G. & Shanklin, J. D. (1985) Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOX/NOX interaction. Nature 315: 207–210.
Farnsworth, E. J. , Ellison, A. M. & Gong, W. K. (1996) Elevated CO2 alters anatomy, physiology, growth and reproduction of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.). Oecologia 108: 599–609.
Farrier, D. & Tucker, L. (2000) Wise use of wetlands under the Ramsar Convention: a challenge for meaningful implementation of international law. Journal of Environmental Law 12: 21–32.
Feldt, W. G. , Kanisch, G. , Kanisch, M. & Vobach, M. (1985) Radioecological studies of sites in the northeast Atlantic used for dumping low-level radioactive wastes: results of the research cruises of FRV Walter Herwig . Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft 35: 91–195.
Fellows, M. Q. & Zedler, J. B. (1999) Effects of the non-native grass, Parapholis incurva (Poaceae) on the rare and endangered hemiparasite, Cordylanthus maritimus subsp. maritimus (Scrophulariaceae). Madroño 52: 91–98.
Felzer, B. & Heard, P. (1999) Precipitation differences amongst GCMs used for the US National Assessment. Journal of American Water Works Association 35: 1327–1339.
Feminella, J. W. (1996) Comparison of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in small streams along a gradient of flow permanence. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15: 651–669.
Fenchel, T. & Blackburn, T. H. (1979) Bacteria and Mineral Cycling. London, UK: Academic Press.
Ferguson, N. P. & Lee, J. A. (1979) Some effects of bisulphite and sulphate on the growth of Sphagnum species in the field. Environmental Pollution Series A 21: 59–71.
Fernandes, M. B. , Sicre, M.-A. , Boireau, A. & Tronczynski, J. (1997) Polycyclic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions in the Seine River and its estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34: 857–862.
Ferreira, L. V. & Stohlgren, T. J. (1999) Effects of river level fluctuation on plant species richness, diversity, and distribution in a floodplain forest in Central Amazonia. Oecologia 120: 582–587.
Ferrier-Pagès, C. , Gattuso, J.-P. , Dallot, S. & Jaubert, J. (2000) Effect of nutrient enrichment on growth and photosynthesis of the zooxanthellate coral Stylophora pistillata . Coral Reefs 19: 103–113.
Field, C. D. (1995) Impact of expected climate change on mangroves. Hydrobiologia 295: 75–81.
Field, C. D. , ed. (1996) Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. Okinawa, Japan: International Society of Mangrove Ecosystems.
Field, C. D. (1998) Rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: an overview. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37: 383–392.
Field, C. D. (1999) Mangrove rehabilitation: choice and necessity. Hydrobiologia 413: 47–52.
Field, J. G. , Griffiths, C. L. , Griffiths, R. J. , et al. (1980) Variation in structure and biomass of kelp communities along the south-west Cape coast. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 44: 145–203.
Field, J. G. , Griffiths, C. L. , Linley, E.A , Carter R. A. & Zoutendyk, P. (1977) Upwelling in the nearshore marine ecosystem and its biological implications. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 11: 133–150.
Field, J. G. , Hempel, G. & Summerhayes, C. P. (2002) Oceans 2020: Science, Trends, and the Challenge of Sustainability. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Fielding, A. H. & Russell, G. (1976) The effect of copper on competition between marine algae. Journal of Applied Ecology 13: 871–876.
Fields, P. , Graham, J. , Rosenblatt, R. & Somero, G. (1993) Effects of expected global climate change on marine faunas. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 361–367.
Figueras, M. J. , Polo, F. , Inza, I. & Guarro, J. (1997) Past, present and future perspectives of the EU bathing water directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34: 148–156.
Figueroa, M. E. , Castillo, J. M. , Redondo, S. , et al. (2003) Facilitated invasion by hybridization of Sarcocornia species in a salt-marsh succession. Journal of Ecology 91: 616–626.
Findlay, R. H. , Watling, L. & Mayer, L. M. (1995) Environmental impact of salmon net-pen culture on marine benthic communities in Maine: a case study. Estuaries 18: 145–179.
Finlayson, C. M. (1996) Information required for wetland management in the South Pacific. In: Wetland Conservation in the Pacific Islands Region: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Wetland Protection and Sustainable use in Oceania, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, 6–10 June 1994, ed. R. Jaensch , pp. 185–201. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Wetlands International–Asia/Pacific.
Finlayson, C. M. & Davidson, N. C. (1999) Global review of wetland resources and priorities for wetland inventory: summary report. Unpublished report. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wetlands International and Jabiru.
Finlayson, C. M. & Eliot, I. (2001) Ecological assessment and monitoring of coastal wetlands in Australia's wet-dry tropics: a paradigm for elsewhere? Coastal Management 29: 105–115.
Finlayson, C. M. & Moser, M. , eds. (1992) Wetlands. Oxford, UK: Facts on File.
Finlayson, C. M. & Rea, N. (1998) Reasons for the loss and degradation of Australian wetlands. Wetlands Ecology and Management 7: 1–11.
Finlayson, C. M. & Spiers, A. G. , eds. (1999) Global Review of Wetland Resources and Priorities for Wetland Inventory, Supervising Scientist Report No. 144/Wetlands International Publication No. 53. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Supervising Scientist.
Finlayson, C. M. & von Oertzen, I. (1993) Wetlands in Australia: Northern (tropical) Australia. In: Wetlands of the World, vol.1, Inventory, Ecology and Management, ed. D. F. Whigham , D. Dykyjová & S. Hejný , pp. 195–243. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Finlayson, C. M. & von Oertzen, I. , eds. (1996) Landscape and Vegetation Ecology of the Kakadu Region, Northern Australia. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Finlayson, C. M. , Begg, G. W. , Howes, J. , et al. (2002) A Manual for an Inventory of Asian Wetlands: Version 1.0. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Wetlands International.
Finlayson, C. M. , Davidson, N. C. , Spiers, A. G. & Stevenson, N. J. (1999) Global wetland inventory: status and priorities. Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 717–727.
Finlayson, C. M. , D'Cruz, R. & Davidson, N. , Synthesis Team Co-Chairs (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis, a report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Washington, DC, USA: World Resources Institute.
Finlayson, C. M. , Hall, R. & Bayliss, B. (1998) Regional Review of Wetlands Management Issues: Wet–Dry Tropics of Northern Australia, LWRRDC Occasional Paper No. 03/97. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Supervising Scientist.
Firth, P. & Fisher, S. G. , eds. (1992) Global Climate Change and Freshwater Ecosystems. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Fischer, G. & Heilig, G. K. (1997) Population momentum and the demand on land and water resources. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 352: 869–889.
Fish, C. (1960) Limnological Survey of Eastern and Central Lake Erie, 1928–29 US Fish and Wildlife Service Special Science Report, Fisheries No. 334. Washington, DC, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Fishelson, L. (1983) Population ecology and biology of Dotilla sulcata (Crustacea, Ocypodidae) on sandy beaches of the Red Sea. In: Sandy Beaches as Ecosystems, ed. A. McLachlan & T. Erasmus , pp. 643–654. The Hague, the Netherlands: Dr W. Junk.
Fisher, C. R. , Urcuyo, I. A. , Simpkins, M. A. & Nix, E. (1997) Life in the slow lane: growth and longevity of cold-seep vestimentiferans. Marine Ecology – Publicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 18: 83–94.
Fitt, W. K. , Brown, B. E. , Warner, M. E. & Dunne, R. P. (2001) Coral bleaching: interpretation of thermal tolerance limits and thermal thresholds in tropical corals. Coral Reefs 20: 51–65.
Fletcher, H. & Frid, C. (1996) Impact and management of visitor pressure on rocky intertidal algal communities. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 6: 287–297.
Flower, R. (1994) A review of current biological and recent environmental research on Lake Baikal from a British perspective. Freshwater Forum 4: 8–22.
Flower, R. (1998) Paleolimnology and recent environmental change in Lake Baikal: an introduction and overview of interrelated concurrent studies. Journal of Paleolimnology 20: 107–117.
Fojt, W. J. (1994) Dehydration and the threat to East Anglian fens, England. Biological Conservation 69: 163–175.
Foley, J. A. , Kutzbach, J. E. , Coe, M. T. & Levis, S. (1994) Feedbacks between climate and boreal forests during the Holocene epoch. Nature 371: 52–54.
Folke, C. & Kaaberger, T. , eds. (1991) Ecology, Economy and Environment, vol. 1, Linking the Natural Environment and the Economy: Essays from the Eco-Eco Group, Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Folt, C. L. , Chen, C. Y. , Moore, M. V. & Burnaford, J. (1999) Synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors. Limnology and Oceanography 44: 864–877.
Fong, P. & Glynn, P. W. (1998) A dynamic size-structured population model: does disturbance control size structure of a population of the massive coral Gardineroseris panulata in the Eastern Pacific? Marine Biology 130: 663–674.
Fong, P. & Glynn, P. W. (2000) A regional model to predict coral population dynamics in response to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Ecological Applications 10: 842–854.
Fonseca, M. S. , Kenworthy, W. J. & Thayer, G. W. (1998) Guidelines for the Conservation and Restoration of Seagrasses in the United States and Adjacent Waters, NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 12. Silver Spring, MD, USA: NOAA Coastal Ocean Office.
Fonseca, M. S. , Thayer, G. W. & Chester, A. J. (1984) Impact of scallop harvesting on eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows: implications for management. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 4: 286–293.
Fortes, M. D. (1988) Mangrove and seagrasses of East Asia: habitats under stress. Ambio 17: 207–213.
Forum Biodiversität Schweiz (2004) Biodiversität in der Schweiz: Zustand, Erhalt, Perspektiven. Bern, Switzerland: Haupt-Verlag.
Fosberg, F. R. (1971) Mangroves versus tidal waves. Biological Conservation 4: 38–39.
Fossa, J. H. , Mortensen, P. B. & Furevik, D. M. (2002) The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters: distribution and fishery impacts. Hydrobiologia 471: 1–12.
Foster, D. R. , King, G. A. , Glaser, P. H. & Wright, H. E. (1983) Origin of string patterns in boreal peatlands. Nature 306: 256–258.
Foster, G. & Carter, L. (1997) Mud sedimentation on the continental shelf at an accretionary margin: Poverty Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 40: 157–173.
Foster, I. D. L. & Charlesworth, S. M. (1996) Heavy metals in the hydrological cycle: trends and explanation. Hydrological Processes 10: 227–261.
Foster, M. & Schiel, D. R. (1985) The Ecology of Giant Kelp Forests in California: A Community Profile, Biological Report No. 85. Washington, DC, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Foster, M. S. (1990) Organization of macroalgal assemblages in the Northeast Pacific: the assumption of homogeneity and the illusion of generality. Hydrobiologia 192: 21–33.
Foster, M. S. , Tarpley, J. A. & Dern, S. L. (1990) To clean or not to clean: the rationale, methods, and consequences of removing oil from temperate shores. Northwest Environmental Journal 6: 105–120.
Fowler, A. M. & Hennessey, K. J. (1995) Potential impacts of global warming on the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation. Natural Hazards 11: 283–303.
Fox, J. J. (1998) Shoals and reefs in Australia–Indonesia relations: traditional Indonesian fishermen. In: Australia in Asia: Episodes, ed. A. Milner & M. Quilty , pp. 111–139. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press.
Francour, P. , Ganteaume, A. & Poulain, M. (1999) Effects of boat anchoring in Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds in the Port-Cros National Park (north-western Mediterranean Sea). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9: 391–400.
Frankl, R. & Schmeidl, H. (2000) Vegetation change in a south German raised bog: ecosystem engineering by plant species, vegetation switch or ecosystem level feedback mechanisms? Flora 195: 265–276.
Fraser, W. R. , Trivelpiece, W. Z. , Ainley, G. G. & Trivelpiece, S. G. (1992) Increases in Antarctic penguin populations: reduced competition with whales or loss of sea ice due to environmental warming. Polar Biology 11: 525–531.
Freestone, A. L. & Nordstrom, K. F. (2001) Early development of vegetation in restored dune plant microhabitats on a nourished beach at Ocean City, New Jersey. Journal of Coastal Conservation 7: 105–116.
Frei, C. , Schär, C. , Lüthi, D. & Davies, H. C. (1998) Heavy precipitation processes in a warmer climate. Geophysical Research Letters 25: 1431–1434.
Fremlin, G. , ed. (1974) The National Atlas of Canada, 4th edn. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Macmillan.
French, G. T. , Awisoka, L. F. & Ibe, C. E. (1995) Sea-level rise and Nigeria: potential impacts and consequences. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 14: 224–242.
Frenken, K. , & Mharapara, I. , eds. (2002) Wetland Development and Management in SADC Countries, Proceedings of a sub-regional workshop, 19–23 November 2001. Harare, Zimbabwe: Sub-regional Office for Southern and East Africa of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Friday, A. & Ingram, D. S. , eds. (1985) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Friedlander, A. M. & Parrish, J. D. (1998) Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 224: 1–30.
Friedman, J. M. & Auble, G. T. (2000) Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation. In: Inland Flood Hazards: Human, Riparian, and Aquatic Communities, ed. E. Wohl , pp. 219–237. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Friedrich, R. & Reis, S. (2000) Tropospheric Ozone Abatement. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Frissell, C. A. , Liss, W. J. , Warren, C. E. & Hurley, M. D. (1986) A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: viewing streams in a watershed context. Environmental Management 10: 199–214.
Froese, R. & Binohlan, C. (2000) Empirical relationships to estimate asymptotic length, length at first maturity, and length at maximum yield per recruit in fishes, with a simple method to evaluate length–frequency data. Journal of Fish Biology 56: 758–773.
Fryer, G. & Iles, T. D. (1972) The Cichlid Fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa. Edinburgh, UK: Oliver & Boyd.
Fujimoto, K. , Miyagi, T. , Kikuchi, T. & Kawana, T. (1996) Mangrove habitat formation and response to Holocene sea-level changes on Kosrae Island, Micronesia. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1: 47–57.
Fujita, D. (1987) The report of interviews with fishermen on Isoyake in Taisei-cho, Hokkaido. Suisanzoshoku 35: 135–138.
Fujita, D. (1998) Strongylocentrotid sea urchin-dominated barren grounds on the Sea of Japan coast of northern Japan. In: Echinoderms, ed. R. Mooi & M. Telford , pp. 659–664. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: A.A. Balkema.
Fukami, T. & Morin, P. J. (2003) Productivity–biodiversity relationships depend on the history of community assembly. Nature 424: 423–426.
Funnell, B. F. & Boomer, I. (1998) Microbiofacies, tidal level and age deduction in Holocene saltmarsh on the North Norfolk Coast. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Norfolk 46: 31–55.
Funnell, B. F. & Pearson, I. (1989) Holocene sedimentation on the North Norfolk barrier coast in relation to relative sea-level. Journal of Quaternary Science 4: 25–36.
Gacia, E. & Duarte, C. M. (2001) Elucidating sediment retention by seagrasses: sediment deposition and resuspension in a Mediterranean (Posidonia oceanica) meadow. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 52: 505–514.
Gacia, E. , Duarte, C. M. , Marbà, N. , et al. (2003) Sediment deposition and production in SE-Asia seagrass meadows. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56: 909–919.
Gaden, M. (1998) Phosphorus targets achieved in Lake Erie [www document]. URL http://www.enviro-mich@great-lakes.net
Gage, J. D. & Tyler, P. A. (1991) Deep-Sea Biology: A Natural History of Organisms at the Deep-Sea Floor. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gagne, J. A. , Mann, K. H. & Chapman, A. R. O. (1982) Seasonal patterns of growth and storage in Laminaria longicruris in relation to differing patterns of availability of nitrogen in the water. Marine Biology 69: 91–101.
Gaines, S. D. & Roughgarden, J. (1985) Larval settlement rate, a leading determinant of structure in sessile marine species. Nature 360: 579–580.
Gaines, S. D. & Roughgarden, J. (1987) Fish in offshore kelp forests affect recruitment to intertidal barnacle populations. Science 235: 479–481.
Galatowitsch, S. M. , Anderson, N. O. & Ascher, P. D. (1999) Invasiveness in wetland plants in temperate North America. Wetlands 19: 733–755.
Gales, R. (1997) Albatross populations: status and threats. In: Albatross Biology and Conservation, ed. G. Robertson & R. Gales , pp. 20–45. Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia: Surrey Beatty.
Galloway, J. (1995) Acid deposition: perspectives in time and space. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 85: 15–24.
Galloway, J. N. , Levy II, H. & Kasibhatia, P. S. (1994) Year 2020: consequences of population growth and development on deposition of oxidized nitrogen. Ambio 23: 123–132.
Gan, B. K. (1995) A Working Plan for the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, 4th revision. Ipoh, Malaysia: State Forestry Department of Perak Darul Ridzuan.
Garcia, S. & Grainger, R. (1996) Fisheries management and sustainability: a new perspective on an old problem. In: Developing and Sustaining World Fisheries Resources: The State of Science and Management, 2nd World Fisheries Congress Proceedings, ed. D. A. Hancock , D. C. Smith , A. Grant & J. P. Beumer , pp. 631–645. Collingwood, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO.
Garcia-Charton, J. A. & Pérez-Ruzafa, Á . (2001) Spatial pattern and habitat structure of a Mediterranean rocky reef fish local assemblage. Marine Biology 138: 917–934.
Gardner, T. A. , Cote, I. M. , Gill, J. A. , Grant, A. & Watkinson, A. R. (2003) Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science 301: 958–960.
Garg, J. K. , Singh, T. S. & Murthy, T. V. R. , eds. (1998) Wetlands of India. Ahmedabad, Gujurat, India: Space Applications Centre (ISRO).
Gattuso, J. P. , Frankignoulle, M. & Wollast, R. (1998) Carbon and carbonate metabolism in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29, 405–434.
Gawler, M. , ed. (2002) Strategies for Wise Use of Wetlands: Best Practices in Participatory Management, proceedings of a workshop held at the 2nd International Conference on Wetlands and Development, November 1998, Dakar, Senegal, WWF Publication No. 56. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wetlands International and IUCN.
Geddes, M. C. & Williams, W. D. (1987) Comments on Artemia introductions and the need for conservation. In: Artemia Research and its Applications, vol. 3, ed. P. Sorgeloos , D. A. Bengston , W. Decleir & E. Jaspers , pp. 19–26. Wetteren, Belgium: Universa Press.
Geelen, L. H. W. , Cousin, E. F. H. & Schoon, C. F. (1995) Regeneration of dune slacks in the Amsterdam Waterworks dunes. In: Directions in European Coastal Management, ed. M. G. Healy & P. J. Doody , pp. 525–532. Cardigan, UK: Samara Publishing.
George, D. G. (2002) Regional-scale influences on the long-term dynamics of lake plankton. In: Phytoplankton Production, ed. P. J. Le B. Williams , D. N. Thomas & C. S. Reynolds , pp. 265–290. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
George, D. G. & Taylor, A. H. (1995) UK lake plankton and the Gulf Stream. Nature 378: 139.
George, D. G. , Talling, J. F. & Rigg, E. (2000) Factors influencing the temporal coherence of five lakes in the English Lake District. Freshwater Biology 43: 449–461.
Gerard, V. A. (1982) Growth and utilization of internal nitrogen reserves by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in a low nitrogen environment. Marine Biology 66: 27–35.
Gerard, V. A. (1997) The role of nitrogen nutrition in high-temperature tolerance of kelp, Laminaria saccharina . Journal of Phycology 33: 800–810.
GESAMP (1982) Scientific Criteria for the Selection of Waste Disposal Sites at Sea, Reports and Studies No. 16, Joint Group of Experts in the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection. London, UK: Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization.
GESAMP (1990) The State of the Marine Environment, Reports and Studies No. 39, Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection. London, UK: IMP.
GESAMP (2001) Planning and Management for Sustainable Coastal Aquaculture Development, Report and Studies No. 68, Joint Group of Experts in the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Getter, C. D. , Ballou, T. G. & Koons, C. B. (1985) Effects of dispersed oil on mangroves, synthesis of a seven year study. Marine Pollution Bulletin 16: 318–324.
Ghassemi, F. , Jakeman, A. J. & Nix, H. A. , eds. (1995) Salinization of Land and Water Resources: Human Causes, Extent, Management and Case Studies. Sydney, NSW, Australia: University of New South Wales Press.
Ghiorse, W. C. (1997) Subterranean life. Science 275: 789–790.
Ghosh, A. K. & Mukhopadhyay, R. (2000) Mineral Wealth of the Ocean. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: A.A. Balkema.
Gibbs, P. E. & Bryan, G. W. (1987) TBT paints and the demise of the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus (Gastropoda). In: Oceans '87, Proceedings of the International Organotin Symposium, vol. 4, pp. 1482–1487. New York, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
Gibert, J. (2001 a) Basic attributes of groundwater ecosystems. In: Groundwater Ecology: A Tool for Management of Water Resources, ed. C. Griebler , D. L. Danielopol , J. Gibert , H. P. Nachtnebel & J. Notenboom , pp. 39–54. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Gibert, J. (2001 b) Protocols for the assessment and conservation of aquatic life in the subsurface (PASCALIS): a European project. In: Mapping Subterranean Biodiversity, Special Publications No. 6, ed. D. C. Culver , L. Deharveng , J. Gibert & I. D. Sasowsky , pp. 19–21. Charles Town, WV, USA: Karst Waters Institute.
Gibert, J. , Danielopol, D. L. & Stanford, J. A. , eds. (1994) Groundwater Ecology. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
Gibert, J. , Malard, F. , Turquin, M.-J. & Laurent, R. (2000) Karst ecosystems in the Rhône River basin. In: Ecosystems of the World, vol. 30 Subterranean Ecosystems, ed. H. Wilkens , D. C. Culver & W. F. Humphreys , pp. 533–558. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Gibson, D. J. & Looney, P. B. (1994) Vegetation colonization of dredge spoil on Perdido Key, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research 10: 133–143.
Gibson, D. J. , Ely, J. S. & Looney, P. B. (1997) A Markovian approach to modeling succession on a coastal barrier island following beach nourishment. Journal of Coastal Research 13: 831–841.
Gichuki, C. M. (2000) Community participation in the protection of Kenya's wetlands. Ostrich 71: 122–125.
Gido, K. B. & Brown, J. H. (1999) Invasion of North American drainages by alien fish species. Freshwater Biology 42: 387–399.
Giesen, W. , Baltzer, M. & Baruadi, R. , eds. (1991) Integrating Conservation with Land-Use Development in Wetlands of South Sulawesi. Bogor, Indonesia: PHPA and Asian Wetland Bureau.
Gilding, P. , Hogarth, M. & Reed, D. (2002) Single bottom line sustainability: how a value centred approach to corporate sustainability can pay off for shareholders and society [www document]. ECOS Corporation, Sydney, Australia: 28 pp. URL http://www.ecoscorporation.com/think/essen/SingleBottomLine.htm
Gill, A. M. , Ryan, P. G. , Moore, P. H. R. & Gibson, M. (2000) Fire regimes of World Heritage National Park, Australia. Austral Ecology 25: 616–625.
Ginsburg, R. N. C. (1994) Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History. Miami, FL, USA: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami.
Gitay, H. , Brown, S. , Easterling, W. & Jallow, B. (2001) Ecosystems and their goods and services. In: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptations, and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. J. J. McCarthy , O. F. Canziani , N. A. Leary , D. J. Dokken & K. S. White , pp. 235–342. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gitay, H. , Suárez, A. , Watson, R. T. & Dokken, D. J. (2002) Climate Change and Biodiversity, IPCC Technical Paper No. 92-9169-104-7. Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Glasby, G. P. (2000) Lessons learned from deep-sea mining. Science 289: 551–553.
Glasby, T. & Connell, S. (1999) Urban structures as marine habitats. Ambio 28: 595–598.
Glaser, P. H. & Janssens, J. A. (1986) Raised bogs in eastern North America: transitions in landforms and stratigraphy. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 395–415.
Glaser, P. H. , Hansen, B. C. S. , Siegel, D. I. , Reeve, A. S. & Morin, P. J. (2004 a) Rates, pathways and drivers for peatland development in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, northern Ontario, Canada. Journal of Ecology 92: 1036–1053.
Glaser, P. H. , Siegel, D. I. , Reeve, A. S. , Janssens, J. A. & Janecky, D. R. (2004 b) Tectonic drivers for vegetation patterning and landscape evolution in the Albany River region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands. Journal of Ecology 92: 1054–1070.
Gleick, P. H. , ed. (1993 a) Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Gleick, P. H. (1993 b) Water in the 21st century. In: Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, ed. P. H. Gleick , pp. 105–116. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Gleick, P. H. (1996) Basic water requirements for human activities: meeting basic needs. Water International 21: 83–122.
Gleick, P. H. (1999) The human right to water. Water Policy 1: 487–503.
Gleick, P. , Cohen, M. & Mann, A. S. (2002) The World's Water 2002–2003: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Gleick, P. H. , Singh, A. & Shi, H. (2001) Threats to the World's Freshwater Resources. Oakland, CA, USA: Pacific Institute; and Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environmental Programme.
Glenn, E. P. , Brown, J. B. & O'Leary, J. W. (1998) Irrigating crops with seawater. Scientific American 279: 76–81.
Glenn, E. P. , O'Leary, J. W. , Watson, M. C. , Thompson, T. L. & Kuehl, R. O. (1991) Salicornia bigelovii Torr.: an oilseed halophyte for seawater irrigation. Science 251: 1065–1067.
Gliwicz, Z. M. (2002) On the different nature of top-down and bottom-up effects in pelagic food webs. Freshwater Biology 47: 2296–2312.
GLOBEC (2004) Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics [www document]. URL http://www.globec.org
Gloersen, P. & Campbell, W. J. (1988) Variations in the Arctic, Antarctic and global sea ice covers during 1978–1987 as observed with the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer. Journal of Geophysical Research 93: 10666–10674.
Gloersen, P. , Campbell, W. J. , Cavalieri, D. J. , et al. (1992) Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978–1987: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations and analysis, NASA Special Publication No. 511. Pasadena, CA: NASA.
Gloersen, P. , Parkinson, C. L. , Cavalieri, D. J. , Comiso, J. C. & Zwally, H. J. (1999) Spatial distribution of trends and seasonality in the hemispheric sea ice covers: 1978–1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 20 827–20 835.
Glover, A. G. & Smith, C. R. (2003) The deep-sea floor ecosystem: current status and prospects for anthropogenic change by the year 2025. Environmental Conservation 30: 219–242.
Glover, A. G. , Paterson, G. , Bett, B. , et al. (2001) Patterns in polychaete abundance and diversity from the Madeira Abyssal Plain, northeast Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research I 48: 217–236.
Glover, A. G. , Smith, C. R. , Paterson, G. L. J. , et al. (2002) Polychaete species diversity in the central Pacific abyss: local and regional patterns, and relationships with productivity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 240: 157–170.
Glynn, P. W. (1994) State of coral reefs in the Galapagos Islands: natural vs. anthropogenic impacts. Marine Pollution Bulletin 29: 131–140.
Glynn, P. W. (2000) El Niño–Southern Oscillation mass mortalities of reef corals: a model of high temperature marine extinctions? In: Carbonate Platform Systems: Components and Interactions, ed. E. Insalaco , P. W. Skelton & T. J. Palmer , pp. 117–133. London, UK: Geological Society of London.
Glynn, P. W. & Ault, J. S. (2000) A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19: 1–23.
Glynn, P. W. , Mate, J. L. , Baker, A. C. & Calderon, M. O. (2001) Coral bleaching and mortality in Panama and Ecuador during the 1997–1998 El Niño–Southern Oscillation event: spatial/temporal patterns and comparisons with the 1982–1983 event. Bulletin of Marine Science 69: 79–109.
Godcharles, M. F. (1971) A Study of the Effects of a Commercial Hydraulic Clam Dredge on Benthic Communities in Estuarine Areas, Technical Series No. 64. Tallahassee, FL, USA: Florida Department of Natural Resources.
Godwin, H. (1981) The Archives of the Peat Bog. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Godwin, K. S. , Shallenberger, J. , Leopold, D. J. & Bedford, B. L. (2002) Linking landscape properties to local hydrogeologic gradients and plant species occurrence in New York fens: a hydrogeologic setting (HGS) framework. Wetlands 22: 722–737.
Gold, T. (1999) The Deep Hot Biosphere. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Goldberg, E. D. (1994) Diamonds and plastics are forever? Marine Pollution Bulletin 25: 1–4.
Goldberg, E. D. (1995) Emerging problems in the coastal zone for the twenty-first century. Marine Pollution Bulletin 31: 152–158.
Goldberg, E. D. (1998) Marine pollution: an alternative view. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36: 112–113.
Goldschmidt, T. (1996) Darwin's Dreampond. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
Gong, W. K. , Ong, J. E. & Wong, C. H. (1984) Demographic studies on Rhizophora apiculata Bl. in the Matang Mangrove Forest, Malaysia. In: Ecological Effects of Increasing Human Activities on Tropical and Subtropical Forest Ecosystems, pp. 64–67. Technical Report of the Malaysian National MAB Committee. Penang, Malaysia: Man and the Biosphere.
González Bernáldez, F. , Pérez Pérez, C. & Sterling Carmona, A. (1985) Areas of evaporative discharge from aquifers: little known Spanish ecosystems deserving protection. Journal of Environmental Management 21: 321–330.
González, E. (1991) El manglar de la Cíenaga Grande de Santa Marta, ecosistema en peligro de extinción: Colombia, sus gentes y regiones. Instituto Geográfico ‘Agustín Codazzi’ 21: 2–21.
Goodall, D. W. , ed. (1977–2000) Ecosystems of the World, vol. 1–30. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Gooday, A. J. (2002) Biological responses to seasonally varying fluxes of organic matter at the ocean floor: a review. Journal of Oceanography 58: 305–332.
Goodland, R. (1991) The environment as capital. In: Ecological Economics: The Science and Management of Sustainability, ed. R. Costanza , pp. 168–175. New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
Goolsby, D. A. , Battalin, W. A. , Lawrence, G. B. , et al. (1999) Flux and Sources of Nutrients in the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River Basin, Topic 3, Report for the Integrated Assessment on Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 17. Silver Spring, MD, USA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Gopal, B. (1987) Water Hyacinth. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Gopal, B. (1991) Wetland (mis)management by keeping people out: two examples from India. Landscape and Urban Planning 20: 53–59.
Gopal, B. (1999) Natural and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: potentials and problems. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 27–35.
Gopal, B. (2002) Management issues of aquatic resources including wetlands. In: Institutionalizing Common Pool Resources, ed. D. K. Marothia , pp. 674–688. New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing.
Gopal, B. (2003) Aquatic biodiversity in arid and semi-arid zones of Asia and water management. In: Conserving Biodiversity in Arid Regions: Best Practices in Developing Nations, ed. J. Lemons , R. Victor and D. Schaeffer , pp. 199–215. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Gopal, B. (2005) Does inland aquatic biodiversity have a future in Asian developing countries? Hydrobiologia 542: 69–75.
Gopal, B. & Chauhan, M. (2001) South Asian wetlands and their biodiversity: the role of monsoons. In: Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, vol. 2, ed. B. Gopal , W. J. Junk & J. A. Davis , pp. 257–276. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Gopal, B. & Junk, W. J. (2001) Assessment, determinants, function and conservation of biodiversity in wetlands: present status and future needs. In: Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, vol. 2, ed. B. Gopal , W. J. Junk & J. A. Davis , pp. 277–302. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Gopal, B. & Krishnamurthy, K. (1993) Wetlands of South Asia. In: Wetlands of the World, vol. 1, Inventory, Ecology and Management, ed. D. F. Whigham , D. Dykyjová & S. Hejný , pp. 345–414. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Gopal, B. , Junk, W. J. & Davis, J. A. , eds. (2000) Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, vol. 1. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Gopal, B. , Junk, W. J. & Davis, J. A. , eds. (2001) Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, vol. 2. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Gopal, B. , Kvet, J. , Löffler, H. , Masing, V. & Patten, B. C. (1990) Definition and classification. In: Wetlands and Shallow Continental Water Bodies. vol. 1, Natural and Human Relationships, ed. B. C. Patten et al., pp. 9–16. The Hague, the Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing.
Gopal, B. , Zutshi, D. P. & Van Duzer, C. (2003) Floating islands in India: control or conserve? International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 29: 157–169.
Gordon, C. (1992) Sacred groves and conservation in Ghana. Newsletter of the IUCN SSC African Reptile and Amphibian Specialist Group 1: 3–4.
Gordon, C. (2003) Aquatic resource management and freshwater ecosystems of West Africa. In: Conservation, Ecology and Management of African Freshwaters, ed. T. L. Crisman , L. J. Chapman , C. A. Chapman & L. S. Kaufman , pp. 62–78. Gainesville, FL, USA: University of Florida Press.
Gore, A. J. P. , ed. (1983) Ecosystems of the World, vol. 4, Mires, Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Goreau, T. , McClanahan, T. , Hayes, R. & Strong, A. (2000) Conservation of coral reefs after the 1998 global bleaching event. Conservation Biology 14: 5–15.
Gorham, E. (1991) Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climate warming. Ecological Applications 1: 182–195.
Gorke, M. (2003) The Death of our Planet's Species. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Goss-Custard, J. D. & Moser, M. E. (1988) Rates of change in the numbers of dunlin Calidris alpina wintering in British estuaries in relation to the spread of Spartina anglica . Journal of Applied Ecology 25: 95–109.
Gosselink, J. G. & Maltby, E. (1990) Wetland gains and losses. In: Wetlands: A Threatened Landscape, ed. M. Williams , pp. 296–322. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Gottgens, J. F. , Perry, J. E. , Fortney, R. , et al. (2001) The Paraguay–Paraná Hidrovia: protecting the Pantanal with lessons from the past. BioScience 51: 301–308.
Goulet, T. L. (2006) Most corals may not change their symbionts. Marine Ecology Progress Series 321: 1–7.
Gowan, R. J. , Mills, D. K. , Trimmer, M. & Nedwell, D. B. (2000) Production and its fate in two coastal regions of the Irish Sea: the influence of anthropogenic nutrients. Marine Ecology Progress Series 208: 51–64.
Grachev, M. (1991) On the present state of the ecological system of Lake Baikal. Unpublished report. Irkutsk, USSR: Limnological Institute, Siberian Division, USSR Academy of Sciences.
Graham, M. H. (1996) Effect of high irradiance on recruitment of the giant kelp Macrocystis (Phaeophyta) in shallow water. Journal of Phycology 32: 903–906.
Graham, M. H. (1997) Factors determining the upper limit of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, along the Monterey Peninsula, central California, USA. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 218: 127–149.
Graham, M. H. , Dayton, P. K. & Erlandson, J. M. (2003) Ice ages and ecological transitions on temperate coasts. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 33–40.
Graham, M. H. , Harrold, C. , Lisin, S. , Light, K. , Watanabe, J. M. & Foster, M. S. (1997) Population dynamics of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera along a wave exposure gradient. Marine Ecology Progress Series 148: 269–279.
Graham, N. E. (1995) Simulation of recent global temperature trends. Science 267: 666–671.
Graham, N. E. & Diaz, H. F. (2001) Evidence for intensification of North Pacific winter cyclones since 1948. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82: 1869–1893.
Granger, S. L. , Traver, M. S. & Nixon, S. W. (2000) Propagation of Zostera marina L. from seed. In: Seas at the Millennium: An Environmental Evaluation, vol. 3, Global Issues and Processes, ed. C. R. C. Sheppard , pp. 4–5. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Pergamon.
Granina, L. (1997) The chemical budget of Lake Baikal: a review. Limnology and Oceanography 42: 373–378.
Grant, A. & Briggs, A. D. (2002) Toxicity of sediments from around a North Sea oil platform: are metals or hydrocarbons responsible for ecological impacts? Marine Environmental Research 53: 95–116.
Grant, A. , Hateley, J. G. & Jones, N. V. (1989) Mapping the ecological impact of heavy metals on the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor using inherited metal tolerance. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20: 235–238.
Grant, J. , Hatcher, A. , Scott, D. B. , et al. (1995) A multidisciplinary approach to evaluating impacts of shellfish aquaculture on benthic communities. Estuaries 18: 124–144.
Grassle, J. F. (1991) Effects of sewage sludge on deep-sea communities. Eos 72: 84 (abstract).
Grassle, J. F. (2000) The ocean biogeographic system (OBIS): an on-line, worldwide atlas for accessing, modeling and mapping marine biological data in a multidimensional geographic context. Oceanography 13: 5–7.
Gray, A. J. (1977) Reclaimed land. In: The Coastline, ed. R. S. K. Barnes , pp. 253–270. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Great Lakes Commission (2003) Toward a water resources management decision support system for the Great Lakes–St Lawrence River Basin. Unpublished report on CD-ROM. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: Great Lakes Commission.
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (2002) Great Lakes fish community impacted by Diporeia disappearance. Unpublished fact sheet. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.
Great Lakes Fishery Commission (2001 a) TFM and sea lamprey control. Unpublished fact sheet no. 4. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
Great Lakes Fishery Commission (2001 b) Sea lamprey barriers. Unpublished fact sheet no. 5. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
Green, E. P. & Short, F. T. , eds. (2003) World Atlas of Seagrasses. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Green, M. O. , Vincent, C. E. , McCave, I. N. , et al. (1995) Storm sediment transport: observations from the British North sea shelf. Continental Shelf Research 15: 889–912.
Greene, K. (2002) Beach Nourishment: A Review of the Biological and Physical Impacts, ASMFC Habitat Management Series No.7. Washington, DC, USA: Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission.
Greenstein, B. J. , Curran, H. A. & Pondolfi, J. M. (1998) Shifting ecological baselines and the demise of Acropora cervicornis in the western North Atlantic and Caribbean Province: a Pleistocene perspective. Coral Reefs 17: 249–261.
Gregory, J. M. , Stott, P. A. , Cresswell, D. J. , et al. (2002) Recent and future changes in Arctic sea ice simulated by the HadCM3 AOGCM. Geophysical Research Letters 29: art. no. 2175.
Gregory, S. V. , Swanson, F. J. , McKee, W. A. & Cummins, K. W. (1991) An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones. BioScience 41: 540–551.
Grevemeyer, I. , Herber, R. & Essen, H. H. (2000) Microseismological evidence for changing wave climate in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Nature 408: 349–352.
Grevstad, F. S. , Strong, D. R. , Garcia-Rossi, M., Switzer, R. W. & Wecker, M. S. (2003) Biological control of Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington using the planthopper Prokelisia marginata: agent specificity and early results. Biological Control 27: 32–42.
Griebler, C. , Danielopol, D. L. , Gibert, J. , Nachtnebel, H. P. & Notenboom, J. , eds. (2001) Groundwater Ecology: A Tool for Management of Water Resources. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Griebler, C. , Mindl, B. , Slezak, D. & Geiger-Kaiser, M. (2002) Distribution patterns of attached and suspended bacteria in pristine and contaminated shallow aquifers studied with an in situ sediment exposure microcosm. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 28: 117–129.
Griffing, S. (2003) The wild world of West Nile. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Newsletter Spring Edition 1: 4–5.
Griffiths, C. , Hockey, P. , van Erkom Schurink, C. & le Roux, P. (1992) Marine invasive aliens on South African shores: implications for community structure and trophic functioning. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 713–722.
Grigal, D. F. , Buttleman, C. G. & Kernick, L. K. (1985) Biomass and productivity of the woody strata of forested bogs in northern Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 2416–2424.
Grigg, R. W. (1993) Precious coral fisheries of Hawaii and the US Pacific Islands. Marine Fisheries Review 55: 50–60.
Grigg, R. W. (1997) Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the Hawaiian–Emperor Chain revisited. Coral Reefs 16: S33–S38.
Grimm, N. B. & Fisher, S. G. (1992) Response of arid land streams to changing climate. In: Global Climate Change and Freshwater Ecosystems, ed. P. Firth & S. G. Fisher , pp. 211–233. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Grimm, N. B. , Chacon, A. , Dahm, C. , et al. (1997) Sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to climatic and anthropogenic changes: the basin and range, American southwest and Mexico. Hydrological Processes 11: 1023–1041.
Grizzle, R. E. , Short, F. T. , Hoven, H. , Kindbloom, L. & Newell, C. R. (1996) Hydrodynamically induced synchronous waving of seagrasses: ‘monami’ and its possible effects on larval mussel settlement. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 206: 165–177.
Groombridge, B. (1992) Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living Resources. London, UK: World Conservation Monitoring Centre and Chapman & Hall.
Groombridge, B. & Jenkins, M. (1998) Freshwater Biodiversity: A Preliminary Global Assessment, WCMC Biodiversity Series No. 8. Cambridge, UK: World Conservation Monitoring Centre, World Conservation Press.
Grootjans, A. P. , Everts, H. , Bruin, K. & Fresco, L. (2001) Restoration of wet dune slacks on the Dutch Wadden Sea Islands: recolonization after large-scale sod cutting. Restoration Ecology 9: 137–146.
Grosholz, E. (2002) Ecological and evolutionary consequences of coastal invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 22–27.
Grosholz, E. D. , Ruiz, G. M. , Dean, C. A. , et al. (2000) The impacts of a non-indigenous marine predator in a California bay. Ecology 81: 1206–1224.
Grunawalt, R. J. , King, J. E. & McClain, R. S. , eds. (1996) Protection of the Environment during Armed Conflict, International Law Studies No. 69 Newport, RI, USA: Naval War College.
Guilford, S. & Hecky, R. (2000) Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and nutrient limitation in lakes and oceans: is there a common relationship? Limnology and Oceanography 45: 1213–1223.
Guillén, J. E. , Ramos, A. A. , Martinez, L. & Sanchez Lizaso, J. L. (1994) Anti-trawling reefs and the protection of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in the western Mediterranean Sea: demand and aims. Bulletin of Marine Science 55: 645–650.
Gunatilaka, A. & Dreher, J. (2001) Management of urban groundwater. II. Qualitative aspects. In: Groundwater Ecology: A Tool for Management of Water Resources, ed. C. Griebler , D. L. Danielopol , J. Gibert , H. P. Nachtnebel & J. Notenboom , pp. 213–230. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Gunn, J. & Keller, W. (1990) Biological recovery of an acidified lake after reductions in industrial emissions of sulphur. Nature 345: 431–433.
Gunnarsson, U. & Rydin, H. (2000) Nitrogen fertilization reduces Sphagnum production in bog communities. New Phytologist 147: 527–537.
Gunnarsson, U. , Malmer, N. & Rydin, H. (2002) Dynamics or constancy in Sphagnum dominated mire ecosystems: a 40-year study. Ecography 25: 685–704.
Gunnarsson, U. , Rydin, H. & Sjörs, H. (2000) Diversity and pH changes after 50 years on the boreal mire Skattlösbergs Stormosse, central Sweden. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 277–286.
Gustavson, K. , Garde, K. , Wangberg, S.-A. & Selmer, J.-S. (2000) Influence of UV-B radiation on bacterial activity in coastal waters. Journal of Plankton Research 22: 1501–1511.
Gutleb, A. C. , Kranz., A , Nechay, G. & Toman, A. (1998) Heavy metal concentrations in livers and kidneys of the otter (Lutra lutra) from central Europe. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 60: 273–279.
Hacker, S. D. , Heimer, C. E. , Hellquist, C. E. , et al. (2001) A marine plant (Spartina anglica) invades widely varying habitats: potential mechanisms of invasion and control. Biological Invasions 3: 211–217.
Hader, D. P. (1997) Effects of UV radiation on phytoplankton. In: Advances in Microbial Ecology, ed. J. G. Jones , pp. 1–26. New York, USA: Plenum Press.
Hader, D. P. , Kumar, H. D. , Smith, R. C. & Worrest, R. C. (2003) Aquatic ecosystems: effects of solar ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other climatic change factors. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 2: 39–50.
Haedrich, R. L. (1995) Structure over time of an exploited deep-water fish assemblage. In Deep-Water Fisheries of the North Atlantic Oceanic Slope, ed. A. G. Hopper , pp. 27–50. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Hagen, N. T. (1983) Destructive grazing of kelp beds by sea urchins in Vestfjorden, northern Norway. Sarsia 68: 177–190.
Hahn, H. J. (2002) Distribution of the aquatic meiofauna of the Marbling Brook catchment (Western Australia) with reference to land-use and hydrological features. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 139 (Suppl.): 237–263.
Hakenkamp, C. C. & Morin, A. (2000) The importance of meiofauna to lotic ecosystem functioning. Freshwater Biology 44: 165–176.
Hall, A. & Visbeck, M. (2002) Synchronous variability in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean resulting from the Annular Mode. Journal of Climate 15: 3043–3057.
Hall, C. M. (2001) Trends in ocean and coastal tourism: the end of the last frontier? Ocean and Coastal Management 44: 601–618.
Hall, M. J. & Pilkey, O. H. (1991) Effects of hard stabilization on dry beach width for New Jersey. Journal of Coastal Research 7: 771–785.
Hall, S. & Mills, E. (2000) Exotic species in large lakes of the world. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 3: 105–135.
Hall, S. J. (1999) The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems and Communities. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.
Hall, S. J. (2001) Is offshore exploration good for benthic conservation? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 601–618.
Hall, S. J. (2002) The soft-sediment continental shelf benthic ecosystem: current status, agents for change and future prospects. Environmental Conservation 29: 350–374.
Hallegraeff, G. M. (1998) Transport of toxic dinoflagellates via ships' ballast water: bioeconomic risk assessment and efficacy of possible ballast water management strategies. Marine Ecology Progress Series 168: 297–309.
Hallerman, E. M. & Kapuscinski, A. R. (1995) Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish. Aquaculture 137: 9–17.
Halling-Sørensen, B. , Nors Nielsen, S ., Lanzky, P. F. , et al. (1998) Occurrence, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment: a review. Chemosphere 36: 357–393.
Halsey, L. A. , Vitt, D. H. & Bauer, I. E. (1998) Peatland initiation during the Holocene in continental western Canada. Climatic Change 40: 315–342.
Hameedi, M. J. (1997) Strategy for monitoring the environment in the coastal zone. In: Coastal Zone Management Imperative for Maritime Developing Nations, ed. B. U. Haq , pp. 111–142. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Hamelink, J. L. , Landrum, P. F. , Bergman, H. L. & Benson, W. H. , eds. (1994) Bioavailability: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Interactions. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publishers.
Hamilton, L. S. & Snedaker, S. C. (1984) Handbook for Mangrove Area Management. Honolulu, HI, USA: East–West Centre, IUCN and United Nations Environmental Programme.
Hamilton, S. K. (1999) Potential effects of a major navigation project (Paraguay–Paraná–Hidrovia) on inundation in the Pantanal floodplains. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 15: 289–299.
Hamilton, S. K. & Lewis Jr, W. M. (1990) Physical characteristics of the fringing floodplain of the Orinoco River, Venezuela. Intersciencia 15: 491–500.
Hamilton, S. K. , Sippel, S. J. & Melack, J. M. (1996) Inundation patterns in the Pantanal wetland of South America determined by passive microwave sensing. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 137: 1–23.
Hamm, L. , Capobianco, M. , Dette, H. H. , et al. (2002) A summary of European experience with shore nourishment. Coastal Engineering 47: 237–264.
Hammer, U. T. (1986) Saline Lake Ecosystems of the World. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Hammer, U. T. (1990) The effects of climate change on the salinity, water levels and biota of Canadian prairie saline lakes. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie 24: 321–326.
Hammerstrom, K. K. , Kenworthy, W. J. , Fonseca, M. S. & Whitfield, P. E. (2006) Seed bank, biomass, and productivity of Halophila decipiens, a deep water seagrass on the west Florida continental shelf. Aquatic Botany 84: 110–120.
Hammerton, D. (1972) The Nile river: a case study. In: River Ecology and Man, ed. R. T. Oglesby , C. A. Carlson & M. J. McCann , pp. 171–214. New York, USA: Academic Press.
Handa, I. T. , Harmsen, R. & Jefferies, R. L. (2002) Patterns of vegetation change and the recovery potential of degraded areas in a coastal marsh system of the Hudson Bay lowlands. Journal of Ecology 90: 86–99.
Hannides, A. K. & Smith, C. R. (2003) The Northeastern Pacific abyssal plain. In: Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems, ed. K. D. Black & G. B. Shimmield , pp. 208–237. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press.
Hansen, M. (1999) Lake trout in the Great Lakes: basinwide stock collapse and binational restoration. In: Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management, ed. W. W. Taylor & C. P. Ferreri , pp. 417–453. East Lansing, MI, USA: Michigan State University Press.
Hansen, P. J. , Bjornsen, P. K. & Hansen, B. W. (1997) Zooplankton grazing and growth scaling within the 2–2000 μm body size range. Limnology and Oceanography 42: 687–704.
Hanski, I. (1998) Metapopulation dynamics. Nature 396: 41–49.
Hansson, L.-A. , Annadotter, H. , Bergman, E. , et al. (1998) Biomanipulation as an application of food chain theory: constraints, synthesis and recommendations for temperate lakes. Ecosystems 1: 558–574.
Haque, C. E. & Zaman, M. Q. (1993) Human responses to riverine hazards in Bangladesh: a proposal for sustainable development. World Development 21: 93–107.
Haraszthy, L. (2001) The floodplain forests in Hungary. In: The Floodplain Forests in Europe, ed. E. Klimo & H. Hager , pp. 17–24. Leiden, the Netherlands: E. J. Brill.
Hardin, G. (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243–1248.
Hardy, A. (1967) Great Waters. London, UK: Collins.
Harley, C. D. G. , Hughes, A. R. , Hultgren, K. M. , et al. (2006) The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecology Letters 9: 228–241.
Harmelin-Vivien, M. , Francour, P. & Harmelin, J. G. (1999) Impact of Caulerpa taxifolia on Mediterranean fish assemblages: a six-year study. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Invasive Caulerpa in the Mediterranean, MAP Technical Reports Series No. 125, pp. 127–138. Athens, Greece: United Nations Environmental Programme.
Harner, M. J. & Stanford, J. A. (2003) Differences in cottonwood growth between a losing and a gaining reach of an alluvial floodplain. Ecology 84: 1453–1458.
Harper, D. M. , Mavuti, K. M. & Muchiri, S. M. (1990) Ecology and management of Lake Naivasha, Kenya, in relation to climatic change, alien species introductions, and agricultural development. Environmental Conservation 17: 328–336.
Harris, J. M. , Branch, G. M. , Sibiya, C. & Bill, C. (2003) The Sokhulu subsistence mussel-harvesting project: co-management in action. In: Waves of Change: Co-Management of Fisheries and Coastal Resources in South Africa, pp. 61–98. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town Press.
Harrison, I. J. & Stiassny, M. L. J. (1999) The quiet crisis: a preliminary listing of the freshwater fishes of the world that are extinct or ‘missing in action’. In: Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts and Consequences, ed. R. D. E. MacPhee , pp. 271–331. New York, USA: Plenum Press.
Harrold, C. & Lisin, S. (1989) Radio-tracking rafts of giant kelp: local production and regional transport. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 30: 237–252.
Harrold, C. & Reed, D. C. (1985) Food availability, sea urchin grazing, and kelp forest community structure. Ecology 66: 1160–1169.
Harrold, C. , Light, K. & Lisin, S. (1998) Organic enrichment of submarine-canyon and continental-shelf benthic communities by macroalgal drift imported from nearshore kelp forests. Limnology and Oceanography 43: 669–678.
Hart, J. (1996) Storm over Mono: The Mono Lake Battle and the California Water Future. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Hartney, K. I. & Grorud, K. I. (2002) The effect of sea urchins as biogenic structures on the local abundance of a temperate reef fish. Oecologia 131: 506–513.
Hartnoll, R. G. & Hawkins, S. J. (1985) Patchiness and fluctuations on moderately exposed rocky shores. Ophelia 24: 53–63.
Harvell, C. D. , Kim, K. , Burkholder, J. M. , et al. (1999) Emerging marine diseases: climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285: 1505–1510.
Harvell, C. D. , Mitchell, C. E. , Ward, J. R. , et al. (2002) Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296: 2158–2162.
Harvey, G. R. , Miklas, H. P. , Bowen, V. T. & Steinhauer, W. G. (1974 a) Observations on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbons in Atlantic Ocean organisms. Journal of Marine Research 32: 103–118.
Harvey, G. R. , Steinhauer, W. G. & Miklas, H. P. (1974 b) Decline of PCB concentrations in North Atlantic surface water. Nature 252: 387–388.
Harwell, M. C. & Orth, R. J. (1999) Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) seed protection for field experiments and implications for large-scale restoration. Aquatic Botany 64: 54–61.
Hassan, F. A. , Reuss, M. , Trottier, J. , et al. (2003) History and Future of Shared Water Resources, UNESCO-IHP Technical Documents in Hydrology, PCCP Series No. 6. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Hässelholms Vatten (2007) Home page [www document]. URL http://www.hasselholmsvatten.se (in Swedish).
Hatcher, B. G. (1983) Grazing in coral reef ecosystems. In: Perspectives on Coral Reefs, ed. D. J. Barnes , pp. 164–179. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Brian Clouster.
Hatcher, B. G. , Kirkman, H. & Wood, W. F. (1987) Growth of the kelp Ecklonia radiata near the northern limit of its range in Western Australia. Marine Biology 95: 63–73.
Hateley, J. G. , Grant, A. , Taylor, S. M. & Jones, N. V. (1992) Morphological and other evidence on the degree of genetic differentiation between populations of Nereis diversicolor . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 72: 365–381.
Hatton, H. (1938) Essais de bionomie explicative sur quelques espèces intercotidals d'algues et d'animaux. Annales de l'Institut Océanographique de Monaco 17: 241–348.
Hatton, T. & Salama, R. (1999) Is it feasible to restore the salinity affected rivers of the Western Australian wheatbelt? In: Proceedings of the 2nd Australian Stream Management Conference, vol. 1, ed. I. R. Rutherfurd & R. Bartley , pp. 313–317. Adelaide, SA, Australia: Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology.
Hawkins, J. P. & Roberts, C. M. (1992) Effects of recreational SCUBA diving on fore-reef slope communities of coral reefs. Biological Conservation 62: 171–178.
Hawkins, S. J. (1999) Experimental ecology and coastal conservation: conflicts on rocky shores. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9: 565–572.
Hawkins, S. J. & Hartnoll, R. G. (1985) Factors determining the upper limits of intertidal canopy forming algae. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20: 265–271.
Hawkins, S. J. & Southward, A. J. (1992) The Torrey Canyon oil spill: recovery of rocky shore communities. In: Restoring the Nation's Environment, ed. G. W. Thayer, pp. 583–631. College Park, MD, USA: Maryland Sea Grant College.
Hawkins, S. J. , Allen, J. R. , Fielding, N. J. , Wilkinson, S. B. & Wallace, I. D. (1999) Liverpool Bay and the estuaries: human impact, recent recovery and restoration. In: Ecology and Landscape Development: A History of the Mersey Basin, Conference Proceedings, ed. E. F. Greenwood , pp. 155–165. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press.
Hawkins, S. J. , Allen, J. R. , Ross, P. M. & Genner, M. J. (2002 a) Marine and coastal ecosystems. In Handbook of Ecological Restoration, vol. 2, Restoration in Practice, ed. M. R. Perrow & A. J. Davy , pp. 121–148. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, S. J. , Corte-Real, H. B. S. M. , Pannacciulli, F. G. , Weber, L. C. & Bishop, J. D. D. (2000) Thoughts on the ecology and evolution of the intertidal biota of the Azores and other Atlantic Islands. Hydrobiologia 440: 3–17.
Hawkins, S. J. , Gibbs, P. E. , Pope, N. D. , et al. (2002 b) Recovery of polluted coastal ecosystems: the case for long-term studies. Marine Environmental Research 54: 215–222.
Hawkins, S. J. , Proud, S. V. , Spence, S. K. & Southward, A. J. (1994) From the individual to the community and beyond: water quality, stress indicators and key species in coastal ecosystems. In: Water Quality and Stress Indicators in Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems: Linking Levels of Organisation (Individuals, Populations, Communities), ed. D. W. Sutcliffe , pp. 35–62. Ambleside, UK: Freshwater Biological Association.
Hawkins, S. J. , Southward, A. J. & Barrett, R. L. (1983) Population structure of Patella vulgata during succession on rocky shores in southwest England. Oceanologica Acta Special Issue: 103–107.
Haworth, E. Y. (1969) The diatoms of a sediment core from Blea Tarn, Langdale. Journal of Ecology 57: 429–439.
Haworth, E. Y. (1972) Diatom succession in a core from Pickerel Lake, north-eastern South Dakota. Geological Society of America Bulletin 83: 157–172.
Hay, M. E. (1984) Patterns of fish and urchin grazing on Caribbean coral reefs: are previous results typical? Ecology 65: 446–454.
Hay, M. E. , Colburn, T. & Downing, D. (1983) Spatial and temporal patterns in herbivory on a Caribbean fringing reef: the effects on plant distribution. Oecologia 58: 299–308.
Haycock, N. E. , Burt, T. , Goulding, K. & Pinay, G. (1997) Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection. Hertford, UK: Quest Environmental.
Hazen, T. C. (1997) Bioremediation. In: The Microbiology of the Deep Subsurface, ed. P. S. Amy & D. L. Haldeman , pp. 247–266. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publishers.
Headland, R. (1984) The Island of South Georgia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hearn, C. J. , Atkinson, M. J. & Falter, J. L. (2001) A physical derivation of nutrient-uptake rates in coral reefs: effects of roughness and waves. Coral Reefs 20: 347–356.
Heathwaite, A. L. , Johnes, P. J. & Peters, N. (1996) Trends in nutrients. Hydrological Processes 10: 263–293.
Heck, K. L. & Valentine, J. F. (1995) Sea urchin herbivory: evidence for long-lasting effects in subtropical seagrass meadows. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 189: 205–217.
Hecky, R. (1993) The eutrophication of Lake Victoria. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie 25: 39–48.
Hecky, R. & Bugenyi, F. (1992) Hydrology and chemistry of the African Great Lakes and water quality issues: problems and solutions. Mitteilungen Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie 23: 45–54.
Hecky, R. , Botsma, H. , Mugidde, R. & Bugenyi, F. (1996) Phosphorus pumps, nitrogen sinks, silicon drains: plumbing nutrients in the African Great Lakes. In: The Limnology, Climatology, and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, ed. T. C. Johnson & E. Odada , pp. 205–224. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Gordon & Breach.
Hecky, R. , Bugenyi, F. , Ochumba, P. , et al. (1994) Deoxygenation of the deep water of Lake Victoria. Limnology and Oceanography 39: 1476–1480.
Hecky, R. , Smith, R. , Barton, D. , et al. (2004) The near shore phosphorus shunt: a consequence of ecosystem engineering by dreissenids in the Lawrentian Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61: 1285–1293.
Hector, A. , Schmid, B. , Beierkuhnlein, C. , et al. (1999) Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science 286: 1123–1127.
Heeg, J. & Breen, C. M. , eds. (1982) Man and the Pongolo Floodplain, South African National Scientific Programs Report No. 56. CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa:
Heemsbergen, D. A. , Berg, M. P. , Loreau, M. , et al. (2004) Biodiversity effects on soil processes explained by interspecific functional dissimilarity. Science 306: 1019–1020.
Heidelbaugh, W. S. & Nelson, W. G. (1996) A power analysis of methods for assessing change in seagrass cover. Aquatic Botany 53: 227–233.
Hein, M. & Sand-Jensen, K. (1997) CO2 increases oceanic primary production. Nature 388: 526–527.
Heinz Center (2002) Dam Removal: Science and Decision Making. Washington, DC, USA: The Heinz Center.
Hellberg, M. E. , Balch, D. P. & Roy, K. (2001) Climate-driven range expansion and morphological evolution in a marine gastropod. Science 292: 1707–1710.
Hellström, C. , Chen, D. L. , Archberger, C. & Räisänen, J. (2001) Comparison of climate change scenarios for Sweden based on statistical and dynamical downscaling of monthly precipitation. Climate Research 19: 45–55.
Helms, M. , Buchele, B. , Merkel, U. & Ihringer, J. (2002) Statistical analysis of the flood situation and assessment of the impact of diking measures along the Elbe (Labe) river. Journal of Hydrology 267: 94–114.
Helmuth, B. , Mieszkowska, N. , Moore, P. , Hawkins, S. J. (2006) Living on the edge of two changing worlds: forecasting responses of rocky intertidal ecosystems to climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 37: 373–404.
Hemminga, M. A. & Duarte, C. M. (2000) Seagrass Ecology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hemond, H. F. & Benoit, J. (1988) Cumulative impacts on water quality functions of wetlands. Environmental Management 12: 639–653.
Henley, W. J. & Dunton, K. H. (1997) Effects of nitrogen supply and continuous darkness on growth and photosynthesis of the arctic kelp Laminaria solidungula . Limnology and Oceanography 42: 209–216.
Hensen, V. (1887) Über die Bestimmung des Planktons oder des im Meere treibenden Materials an Pflanzen und Thieren. Kommission zur wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen der deutschen Meere in Kiel, 1882–1886. V. Bericht, Jahrgang 12–16.
Herbert, R. J. H. , Hawkins, S. J. , Sheader, M. & Southward, A. J. (2003) Range extension and reproduction of the barnacle Balanus perforatus in the Eastern English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 83: 73–82.
Herdendorf, C. (1982) Large lakes of the world. Journal of Great Lakes Research 8: 379–412.
Herdendorf, C. E. (1990) Distribution of the world's large lakes. In: Large Lakes: Ecological Structure and Function, ed. M. M. Tilzer & C. Serruya , pp. 3–38. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Herman, J. S. , Culver, D. C. & Salzman, J. (2001) Groundwater ecosystems and the service of water purification. Stanford Environmental Law Journal 20: 479–498.
Hermsen, J. M. , Collie, J. S. & Valentine, P. C. (2003) Mobile fishing gear reduces benthic megafaunal production on Georges Bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series 260: 97–108
Hershey, A. (1985) Effects of predatory sculpin on the chironomid communities in an Arctic lake. Ecology 66: 1131–1138.
Herut, B. , Krom, M. , Pan, G. & Mortimer, R. (1999) Atmospheric input of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Southeast Mediterranean: sources, fluxes, and possible impact. Limnology and Oceanography 44: 1683–1692.
Hessen, D. O. , Hindar, A. & Holtan, G. (1997) The significance of nitrogen runoff for eutrophication of freshwater and marine recipients. Ambio 26: 312–320.
Heuveline, P. (1999) The global impact of mortality and fertility transitions, 1950–2000. Population Development Review December: 681–702.
Hewes, L. & Frandson, P. E. (1952) Occupying the wet prairie: the role of artificial drainage in Story County, Iowa. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 42: 24–50.
Hiaasen, C. (1990) Double Whammy. London, UK: Pan Books.
Hickel, W. , Mangelsdorf, P. & Berg, J. (1993) The human impact in the German Bight: eutrophication during 3 decades (1962–1991). Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 47: 243–263.
Highsmith, R. C. (1980) Geographic patterns of coral bioerosion: a productivity hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 46: 55–67.
Hildrew, A. G. & Giller, P. S. (1994) Patchiness, species interactions and disturbance in the stream benthos. In: Aquatic Ecology: Scale, Pattern and Process, ed. P. S. Giller , A. G. Hildrew & D. G. Raffaelli , pp. 21–62. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Hildrew, A. G. & Ormerod, S. J. (1995) Acidification: causes, consequences and solutions. In: The Ecological Basis for River Management, ed. D. M. Harper & A. Ferguson , pp. 147–160. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Hill, B. J. (1977) The effect of heated effluent on egg production in the estuarine prawn Upogebia africana (Ortmann). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 29: 291–302.
Hilton-Taylor, C. , compiler (2000) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN.
Hily, C. (1991) Is the activity of benthic suspension feeders a factor controlling water quality in the Bay of Brest? Marine Ecology Progress Series 69: 179–188.
Hily, C. , van Katwijk, M. M. & den Hartog, C. (2003) The seagrasses of western Europe. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 46–55. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Himmelman, J. H. (1980) The role of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in the rocky subtidal region of Newfoundland. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Relationship between Sea Urchin Grazing and Commercial Plant/Animal Harvesting, ed. J. D. Pringle , G. J. Sharp & J. F. Caddy , pp. 92–119. Halifax, NS, Canada: Resource Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
Hiscock, K. , Southward, A. , Tittley, I. , Hawkins, S. (2004) Effects of changing temperature on benthic marine life in Britain and Ireland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 14: 333–362.
Hjorleifsson, E. , Kassa, O. & Gunnarsson, K. (1995) Grazing of kelp by green sea urchins in Eyyjafjordu, North Iceland. In: Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters: Proceedings of the Mare Nor Symposium on the Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters, Tromso, Norway, 5–9 December 1994, ed. H. R. Skjoldal , C. Hopkins , K. E. Erikstad & H. P. Leinass , pp. 593–597. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Hobday, A. J. (2000) Abundance and dispersal of drifting kelp Macrocystis pyrifera rafts in the Southern California Bight. Marine Ecology Progress Series 195: 101–116.
Hockey, P. A. R. & Bosman, A. L. (1986) Man as an intertidal predator in Transkei: disturbance, community convergence and management of a natural food resource. Oikos 46: 3–14.
Hockey, P. A. R. & van Erkom Schurink, C. (1992) The invasive biology of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on the southern African Coast. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 48: 123–139.
Hodgkin, E. P. & Hamilton, B. (1998) Changing estuarine wetlands: a long-term perspective for management. In: Wetlands for the Future, ed. A. J. McComb & J. A. Davis , pp. 243–255. Adelaide, SA, Australia: Gleneagles Publishing.
Hodgson, G. & Dixon, J. A. (1992) Sedimentation damage to marine resources: environmental and economic analysis. In: Resources and Environment in Asia Marine Sector, ed. J. B. March , pp. 421–426. Washington, DC, USA: Taylor & Francis.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (1999) Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 839–866.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. , Jones, R. J. , Ward, S. & Loh, W. K. (2002) Is coral bleaching really adaptive? Nature 415: 601–602.
Hoekstra, A. Y. & Hung, P. Q. (2002) Virtual Water Trade: a Quantification of Virtual Water Flows between Nations in Relation to International Crop Trade, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 11. Delft, the Netherlands: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (IHE).
Hofmann, E. E. , Klinck, J. M. , Locarnini, R. A. , Fach, B. & Murphy, E. J. (1998) Krill transport in the Scotia Sea and environs. Antarctic Science 10: 406–415.
Hogarth, P. J. (1999) The Biology of Mangroves. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Holbrook, S. J. , Schmitt, R. J. & Ambrose, R. F. (1990) Biogenic habitat structure and characteristics of temperate reef fish assemblages. Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 489–503.
Holbrook, S. J. , Swarbrick, S. L. , Schmitt, R. J. & Ambrose, R. F. (1993) Reef architecture and reef fish: correlations of population densities with attributes of subtidal rocky environments. In: The Ecology of Temperate Reefs: Proceedings of the 2nd International Temperate Reef Symposium, Auckland, pp. 99–106. Wellington, New Zealand: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research.
Holdridge, L. R. , Grenke, W. C. , Hatheway, W. H. , Liang, T. & Tosi Jr, J. A. (1971) Forest Environments in Tropical Life Zones. New York, USA: Pergamon Press.
Holland, R. (1993) Changes in planktonic diatoms and water transparency in Hatchery Bay, Bass Island area, western Lake Erie since the establishment of the zebra mussel. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19: 617–624.
Holland, R. & Beeton, A. (1972) Significance to eutrophication of spatial differences in nutrients and diatoms in Lake Michigan. Limnology and Oceanography 17: 88–96.
Holland, R. , Johengen, T. & Beeton, A. (1995) Trends in nutrient concentrations in Hatchery Bay, Western Lake Erie, before and after Dreissena polymorpha . Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52: 1202–1209.
Hollis, G. E. (1998) Future wetlands in a world short of water. In: Wetlands for the Future, ed. A. J. McComb & J. A. Davis , pp. 5–18. Adelaide, SA, Australia: Gleneagles Publishing.
Holloway, G. & Sou, T. (2002) Has Arctic sea ice rapidly thinned? Journal of the American Meteorological Society 15: 1691–1701.
Holmer, M. (1999) The effect of oxygen depletion on anaerobic organic matter degradation in marine sediments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 48: 383–390.
Holmer, M. , Andersen, F. O. , Nielsen, S. L. & Boschker, H. T. S. (2001) The importance of mineralization based on sulfate reduction for nutrient regeneration in tropical seagrass sediments. Aquatic Botany 71: 1–17.
Holmes, K. E. , Edinger, E. N. , Limmon, H. G. V. & Risk, M. J. (2000) Bioerosion of live massive corals and branching coral rubble on Indonesian coral reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40: 606–617.
Holmes, N. T. H. (1999) Recovery of headwater stream flora following the 1989–1992 groundwater drought. Hydrological Processes 13: 341–354.
Holm-Hansen, O. , Helbling, E. W. & Lubin, D. (1993) Ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica: inhibition of primary production. Photochemistry and Photobiology 58: 567–570.
Holmquist, C. (1959) Problems on marine-glacial relicts on account of investigations on the genus Mysis. Unpublished report. Lund, Sweden: Berlindska.
Hood, G. W. & Naiman, R. J. (2000) Vulnerability of riparian zones to invasion by exotic vascular plants. Plant Ecology 148: 105–114.
Hooper, R. (1980) Observations on algal–grazer interactions in Newfoundland and Labrador. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Relationship between Sea Urchin Grazing and Commercial Plant/Animal Harvesting, ed. J. D. Pringle , G. J. Sharp & J. F. Caddy , pp. 120–124. Halifax, NS, Canada: Resource Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
Hopkins, J. S. , Sandifer, P. A. , DeVoe, M. R. , et al. (1995) Environmental impacts of shrimp farming with special reference to the situation in the continental United States. Estuaries 18: 25–42.
Hopkinson, C. (1992) A comparison of ecosystem dynamics in fresh-water wetlands. Estuaries 15: 549–562.
Horner, R. , Ackley, S. F. , Dieckmann, G. S. , et al. (1992) Ecology of sea ice biota. I. Habitat, terminology and methodlogy. Polar Biology 12: 417–427.
Hornung, H. , Krom, M. D. , Cohen, Y. & Bernhard, M. (1993) Trace metal content in deep-water sharks from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology 115: 331–338.
Houde, E. , Coleman, F. , Dayton, P. , et al. (2001) Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press.
Houghton, J. (1999) Global Warming: The Complete Briefing, 2nd edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Houghton, J. T. , Jenkins, G. J. & Ephrauns, J. J. , eds. (1990) Scientific Assessment of Climate Change: Report of Working Group 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Houghton, J. T. , Meira Filho, L. G. , Bruce, J. , et al. (1996) Climate Change 1995: World Meteorological Organization/Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Houlahan, J. E. , Findlay, C. S. , Schmidt, B. R. , Meyer, A. H. & Kuzmin, S. L. (2000) Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature 404: 752–755.
Houston, J. R. (2002) The economic value of beaches: a 2002 update. Shore and Beach 70: 9–12.
Howard-Williams, C. & Thompson, K. (1985) The conservation and management of African wetlands. In: The Ecology and Management of African Wetland Vegetation, ed. P. Denny , pp. 203–230. The Hague, the Netherlands: Dr W. Junk.
Howarth, R. W. , Anderson, D. M. , Church, T. M. , (2000 a) Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution. Washington, DC, USA: Ocean Studies Board and Water Science and Technology Board, National Academy Press.
Howarth, R. W. , Anderson, D. , Cloern, J. , et al. (2000 b) Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas. Issues in Ecology 7: 1–15.
Howarth, R. W. , Sharpley, A. & Walker, D. (2002) Sources of nutrient pollution to coastal waters in the United States: implications for achieving coastal water quality goals. Estuaries 25: 656–676.
Hu, S. , Chapin, F. S. , Firestone, M. K. , Field, C. B. & Chlariello, N. R. (2001) Nitrogen limitation of microbial decomposition in a grassland under elevated CO2 . Nature 409: 188–191.
Hudson, P. F. & Colditz, R. R. (2003) Flood delineation in a large and complex alluvial valley, lower Pánuco basin, Mexico. Journal of Hydrology 280: 229–245.
Hughes, F. M. R. (1990) The influence of flooding regimes on forest distribution and composition in the Tana River floodplain, Kenya. Journal of Applied Ecology 27: 475–491.
Hughes, F. M. R. , ed. (2003) The Flooded Forest: Guidance for Policy Makers and River Managers in Europe on the Restoration of Floodplain Forests, FLOBAR2. Cambridge, UK: European Union and Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
Hughes, F. M. R. & Rood, S. B. (2003) The allocation of river flows for the restoration of floodplain forest ecosystems: a review of approaches and their applicability in Europe. Environmental Management 32: 12–33.
Hughes, P. D. M. & Barber, K. E. (2003) Mire development across the fen-bog transition on the Teifi floodplain at Tregaron Bog, Ceredigion, Wales, and a comparison with 13 other raised bogs. Journal of Ecology 91: 253–264.
Hughes, T. P. (1994) Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 265: 1547–1551.
Hughes, T. P. & Tanner, J. E. (2000) Recruitment failure, life histories, and long-term decline of Caribbean corals. Ecology 81: 2250–2263.
Hughes, T. P. , Baird, A. H. , Bellwood, D. R. , et al. (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301: 929–933.
Hughes, T. P. , Bellwood, D. R. & Connolly, S. R. (2002) Biodiversity hotspots, centres of endemicity, and the conservation of coral reefs. Ecology Letters 5: 775–784.
Hukkinen, J. (1998) Institutions, environmental management and long-term ecological sustenance. Ambio 27: 112–117.
Hulme, M. , Jenkins, G. J. , Lu, X. , et al. (2002) Climate Change Scenarios for the United Kingdom: The UKCIP02 Scientific Report. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia.
Hultén, E. (1968) Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories: A Manual of Vascular Plants. Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University Press.
Humborg, C. , Ittekkot, V. , Cociasu, A. & VonBodungen, B. (1997) Effect of Danube River dam on Black Sea biogeochemistry and ecosystem structure. Nature 386: 385–388.
Humphries, P. & Baldwin, D. S. (2003) Drought and aquatic ecosystems: an introduction. Freshwater Biology 48: 1141–1146.
Humphries, S. E. , Groves, R. H. & Mitchell, D. S. (1991) Plant invasions of Australian ecosystems: a status review and management directions. Unpublished report, Kowari 2. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Hunt, R. J. & Wilcox, D. A. (2003) Ecohydrology: why hydrologists should care. Ground Water 41: 289.
Huntington, H. P. (2000) Sustainable fisheries management. WWF Arctic Bulletin 1: 1–18.
Hurem, A. K. 1979. Rubble-mound structures as artificial reefs. In: Coastal Structures 79, pp. 1042–1051. New York, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Hurrell, J. W. (1995) Decadal trends in the North Atlantic oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science 269: 676–679.
Huszar, P. , Petermann, P. , Leite, A. , et al. (1999) Fact or Fiction: A Review of the Hidrovia Paraguay–Paraná Official Studies. Toronto, Ontanio, Canada: WWF.
Hutchin, P. R. , Press, M. C. , Lee, J. A. & Ashenden, T. W. (1995) Elevated concentrations of CO2 may double methane emissions from mires. Global Change Biology 1: 125–128.
Hutchings, J. A. (2000) Collapse and recovery of marine fishes. Nature 406: 882–885.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1957) A Treatise on Limnology, vol. 1. New York, USA: John Wiley.
Hwang, Y. H. & Morris, J. T. (1994) Whole plant gas exchange responses of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) to a range of constant and transient salinities. American Journal of Botany 81: 659–665.
Ingole, B. , Ansari, Z. A. , Rathod, V. & Rodrigues, N. (2001) Response of deep-sea macrobenthos to a small-scale environmental disturbance. Deep-Sea Research II 48: 3401–3410.
Ingram, H. A. P. (1978) Soil layers in mires: function and terminology. Journal of Soil Science 29: 224–227.
Ingrid, G. , Andersen, T. & Vadstein, O. (1996) Pelagic food webs and eutrophication of coastal waters: impact of grazers on algal communities. Marine Pollution Bulletin 33: 22–35.
Inman, D. J. , Masters, P. M. & Stone, K. E. (1991) Induced subsidence: environmental and legal implications. In: Coastal Zone 91, pp. 16–27. New York, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Innocenti, L. & Pranzini, E. (1993) Geomorphological evolution and sedimentology of the Ombrone River delta, Italy. Journal of Coastal Research 9: 481–493.
International Board of Inquiry for the Great Lakes Fisheries (1943) Report and Supplement. Unpublished report. Washington, DC, USA: US Government Printing Office.
International Joint Commission (1989) Revised Great Lakes water quality agreement of 1978. Unpublished report. Washington, DC, USA and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: International Joint Commission, United States and Canada.
International Joint Commission (2000) Tenth biennial report on Great Lakes water quality. Unpublished report. Washington, DC, USA and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: International Joint Commission, United States and Canada.
International Organization for Migration (2000) World Migration Report. New York, USA: IOM.
International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited (2000) Historical data [www document]. URL http://www.itopf.com/stats.html
Invers, O. , Zimmerman, R. C. , Alberte, R. S. , Pérez, M. & Romero, J. (2001) Inorganic carbon sources for seagrass photosynthesis: an experimental evaluation of bicarbonate use in species inhabiting temperate waters. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 265: 203–217.
IPCC (1995): Climate Change 1995: The IPCC Second Assessment Synthesis of Scientific–Technical Information Relevant to Interpreting Article 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC.
IPCC (1996) Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change – Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. R. T. Watson , M. C. Zinoyowera & R. H. Moss . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2001 a) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis – Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. J. T. Houghton , Y. Ding , D. J. Griggs , M. Noguer , P. J. van der Linden , X. Dai , K. Maskell & C. A. Johnson . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2001 b) Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. J. J. McCarthy , O. F. Canziani , N. A. Leary , D. J. Dokken & K. S. White . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2001 c) Climate Change 2001: Mitigation – Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. B. Metz , O. Davidson , R. Swart & J. Pan . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2001 d) Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report – A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. R. T. Watson and the Core Writing Team. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2001 e) IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2002) Climate Change and Biodiversity, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Technical Paper No. V, ed. H. Gitay , A. Suárez , R. T. Watson & D. J. Dokken . Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC. Available online at www.ipcc.ch/pub/tpbiodiv.pdf
ISSLR (2007) International Society for Salt Lake Research: home page [www document]. URL http://www.isslr.org.
Ittekkot, V. , Jilan, S. , Miles, E. , et al. (1996) Oceans. In: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change – Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. R. T. Watson , M. C. Zinoyowera & R. H. Moss , pp. 267–288. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IUCN (1996) IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN (World Conservation Union).
IUCN (2000) Vision for Water and Nature: A World Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Management of Water Resources in the Twenty-First Century. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN (World Conservation Union).
Ivanov, K. E. (1981) Water Movement in Mirelands. London, UK: Academic Press.
Ivanov, V. P. , Kamakin, A. M. , Ushintzev, V. B. , et al. (2000) Invasion of the Caspian Sea by the comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora). Biological Invasions 2: 255–258.
Ivanov, V. P. , Vlasenko, A. , Dkhodorevskaya, R. P. & Raspopov, V. M. (1999) Contemporary status of Caspian sturgeon (Acipenseridae) stock and its conservation. Journal of Applied Ichthyology – Zeitschrift für Angewandte Ichthyologie 15: 103–105.
Iversen, T. M. , Grant, R. & Nielsen, K. (1998) Nitrogen enrichment of European inland and marine waters with special attention to Danish policy measures. Environmental Pollution 102: 771–780.
Iverson, R. L. (1990) Control of marine fish production. Limnology and Oceanography 35: 1593–1604.
Iwata, H. , Shinsuke, T. , Ueda, K. & Tatsukawa, R. (1995) Persistent organochlorine residues in air, water, sediments, and soils from the Lake Baikal region, Russia. Environmental Science and Technology 29: 792–801.
Jackson, G. (1998) Currents in the high drag environment of a coastal kelp stand off California. Continental Shelf Research 17: 1913–1928.
Jackson, J. B. C. (1997) Reefs since Columbus. Coral Reefs 16: S23–S32.
Jackson, J. B. C. , Kirby, M. X. , Berger, W. H. , et al. (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629–637.
Jackson, N. L. & Nordstrom, K. F. (1993) Depth of sediment activation by plunging waves on a steep sand beach. Marine Geology 115: 143–151.
Jackson, N. L. , Nordstrom, K. F. & Smith, D. R. (2002) Geomorphic–biotic interactions on sandy estuarine beaches. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 36: 414–424.
Jacobs, S. S. & Comiso, J. C. (1993) A recent sea-ice retreat west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Geophysical Research Letters 20: 1171–1174.
Jagtap, T. G. , Komarpant, D. S. & Rodrigues, R. (2003) The seagrasses of India. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 113–120. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Jaksic, F. M. (1998) The multiple facets of El Niño Southern Oscillation in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 71: 121–131.
Jaramillo, C. & Bayona, G. (2000) Mangrove distribution during the Holocene in Tribugá Gulf, Colombia. Biotropica 32: 14–22.
Jefferies, R. L. (1997) Long-term damage to sub-arctic coastal ecosystems by geese: ecological indicators and measures of ecosystem dysfunction. In: Disturbance and Recovery in Arctic Lands: An Ecological Perspective, ed. R. M. M. Crawford , pp. 151–166. Boston, MA, USA: Kluwer.
Jefferies, R. L. & Perkins, N. (1977) The effects on the vegetation of the additions of inorganic nutrients to salt marsh soils at Stiffkey, Norfolk. Journal of Ecology 65: 847–865.
Jefferies, R. L. , Henry, H. & Abraham, K. F. (2002) Agricultural nutrient subsidies to migratory geese and ecological change to Arctic coastal habitats. In: Food Webs at the Landscape Level, ed. G. A. Polis , M. E. Power & G. R. Huxel , pp. 268–283. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
Jeglum, J. K. (1990) Peatland forestry in Canada: an overview. In: Biomass Production and Element Fluxes in Forested Peatland Ecosystems, ed. B. Hanell , pp. 19–28. Umeå, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
Jellison, R. & Melack, J. M. (1993) Algal photosynthetic activity and its response to meromixis in hypersaline Mono Lake, California. Limnology and Oceanography 38: 818–837.
Jenkins, M. , Green, R. E. & Madden, J. (2003) The challenge of measuring global change in wild nature: are things getting better or worse? Conservation Biology 17: 20–23.
Jenkins, S. R. , Arenas, F. , Arrontes, J. , et al. (2001) European-scale analysis of seasonal variability in limpet grazing activity and microalgal abundance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 211: 193–203.
Jennings, S. & Kaiser, M. J. (1998) The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. In Advances in Marine Biology, vol. 34, ed. J. Blaxter , A. J. Southward & P. A. Tyler , pp. 201–352. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
Jennings, S. & Lock, J. M. (1996) Population and ecosystem effects of fishing. In: Reef Fisheries, ed. N. V. C. Polunin & C. M. Roberts , pp. 193–218. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.
Jennings, S. , Dinmore, T. A. , Duplisea, D. E. , Warr, K. J. & Lancaster, J. E. (2001) Trawling disturbance can modify benthic production processes. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 459–475.
Jennings, S. , Greenstreet, S. P. R. & Reynolds, J. D. (1999) Structural change in an exploited fish community: a consequence of differential fishing effects on species with contrasting life histories. Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 617–627.
Jennings, S. , Reynolds, J. D. & Mills, S. C. (1998) Life history correlates of responses to fisheries exploitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265: 333–339.
Jeppesen, E. & Sammalkorpi, I. (2002) Lakes. In: Handbook of Restoration Ecology, vol. 2, ed. Restoration in Practice, ed. M. Perrow & T. Davy , pp. 297–324. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jeppesen, E. , Christoffersen, K. , Landkildehus, F. , Lauridsen, T. & Amsinck, S. (2001) Fish and crustaceans in northeast Greenland lakes with special emphasis on interactions between Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Lepidurus arcticus and benthic chydorids. Hydrobiologia 442: 329–337.
Jeppesen, E. , Jensen, J. P. , Jensen, C. , et al. (2003) The impact of nutrient state and lake depth on top-down control in the pelagic zone of lakes: study of 466 lakes from the temperate zone to the Arctic. Ecosystems 6: 313–325.
Jeremiason, J. , Hornbuckle, K. & Eisenreich, S. (1994) PCBs in Lake Superior, 1978–1992: decreases in water concentrations reflect loss by volatilization. Environmental Science and Technology 28: 903–914.
JGOFS (2008) Joint Global Ocean Flux Study: home page [www document]. URL http://ijgofs.whoi.edu
Ji, C. Y. , Liu, Q. , Sun, D. , et al. (2001) Monitoring urban expansion with remote sensing in China. International Journal of Remote Sensing 22: 1441–1455.
Jickells, T. D. (1998) Nutrient biogeochemistry of the coastal zone. Science 281: 217–222.
Joabsson, A. & Christensen, T. R. (2001) Methane emissions from wetlands and their relationship with vascular plants: an Arctic example. Global Change Biology 7: 919–932.
Joabsson, A. , Christensen, T. R. & Wallén, B. (1999) Vascular plant controls on methane emissions from northern peat forming wetlands. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 385–388.
Johannesburg Summit (2002) World summit on sustainable development, Johannesburg, 26 August–4 September 2002. UN News Service [www document]. URL http://www.un.org/events/wssd/
Johannessen, O. M. , Miles, M. & Bjørgo, E. (1995) The Arctic's shrinking sea ice. Nature 376: 126–127.
Johannessen, O. M. , Shalina, E. & Miles, M. W. (1999) Satellite evidence for and Arctic sea ice cover in transition. Science 286: 1937–1939.
Johannesson, K. & Warmoes, T. (1990) Rapid colonisation of Belgian breakwaters by the direct developer Littorina saxatilis (Olivi) (Prosobranchia, Mollusca). Hydrobiologia 193: 99–108.
Johns Hopkins (1998) Solutions for a Water-Short World, Population Report Vol. XXVI, No. 1. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins Population Information Program. Available online at www.infoforhealth.org/pr/m14edsum.shtml
Johnson, L. C. & Damman, A. W. H. (1993) Decay and its regulation in Sphagnum peatlands. Advances in Bryology 5: 249–296.
Johnson, L. C. , Damman, A. W. H. & Malmer, N. (1990) Sphagnum macrostructure as an indicator of decay and compaction in peat cores from an ombrotrophic South Swedish peat bog. Journal of Ecology 78: 633–647.
Johnson, M. P. , Burrows, M. T. & Hawkins, S. J. (1998) Individual based simulations of the direct and indirect effects of limpets on a rocky shore Fucus mosaic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 169: 179–188.
Johnson, N. , Revenga, C. & Echeverria, J. (2001) Managing water for people and nature. Science 292: 1071–1072.
Johnson, T. , Scholz, C. , Talbot, M. , et al. (1996) Late Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria and rapid evolution of cichlid fishes. Science 273: 1091–1093.
Johnston, E. L. & Keough, M. J. (2003) Competition modifies the response of organisms to toxic disturbance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 215: 15–26.
Jokiel, P. L. , Hunter, C. L. , Taguchi, S. & Watarai, L. (1993) Ecological impact of a fresh-water ‘reef kill’ in Kaneohe bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Coral Reefs 12: 177–184.
Jolly, I. D. (1996) The effects of river management on the hydrology and hydroecology of arid and semi-arid floodplains. In: Floodplain Processes, ed. M. G. Anderson , D. E. Walling & P. D. Bates , pp. 577–609. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Jonasson, S. & Chapin III, F. S. (1985) Significance of sequential leaf development for nutrient balance of the cotton sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum L. Oecologia 67: 511–518.
Jones, C. G. , Lawton, J. H. & Shachak, M. (1994) Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69: 373–386.
Jones, D. , Cocklin, C. & Cutting, M. (1995) Institutional and landowner perspectives on wetland management in New Zealand. Journal of Environmental Management 45: 143–161.
Jones, D. A. , Watt, I. , Woodhouse, T. D. & Richmond, M. D. (1994) Intertidal recovery in the Dawhat ad Dafi and Dawhat al Mussallamiya region (Saudi Arabia) after the Gulf War oil spill. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 166: 27–33.
Jones, D. K. C. (1993) Global warming and geomorphology. Geographical Journal 159: 124–130.
Jones, G. (1994) Global warming, sea level change and the impact on estuaries. Marine Pollution Bulletin 28: 7–14.
Jones, G. P. & Andrew, N. L. (1990) Herbivory and patch dynamics on rocky reefs in temperate Australasia: the roles of fish and sea urchins. Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 505–520.
Jones, G. P. & Andrew, N. L. (1993) Temperate reefs and the scope of seascape ecology. In: The Ecology of Temperate Reefs, Proceedings of the 2nd International Temperate Reef Symposium, Auckland, pp. 63–76. Wellington, New Zealand: NIWA Publications.
Jones, G. P. (1988) Ecology of rocky reef fish of north-eastern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 22: 445–462.
Jones, N. S. (1946) Browsing of Patella . Nature 158: 557.
Jones, N. S. & Kain, J. M. (1967) Subtidal algal colonization following the removal of Echinus. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 15: 160–166.
Jonsson, M. & Malmqvist, B. (2000) Ecosystem process rate increases with animal species richness: evidence from leaf-eating, aquatic insects. Oikos 89: 519–523.
Jonsson, M. (2003 a) Mechanisms behind diversity effects on ecosystem functioning: testing the facilitation and interference hypotheses. Oecologia 134: 554–559.
Jonsson, M. (2003 b) Importance of species identity and number for process rates within different functional feeding groups. Journal of Animal Ecology 72: 453–459.
Jonsson, M. , Dangles, O. , Malmqvist, B. & Guérold, F. (2002) Simulating species loss following disturbance: assessing the effects on process rates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 1047–1052.
Jonsson, M. , Malmqvist, B. & Hoffsten, P. O. (2001) Leaf litter breakdown rates in boreal streams: does shredder species richness matter? Freshwater Biology 46: 161–172.
Jorgensen, S. , Riccardo, B. , Ballatore, T. & Muhandiki, V. (2003) Lake Watch 2003: the changing state of the world's lakes. Unpublished report. Kusatsu, Japan: International Environment Committee Foundation.
Jumars, P. A. (1981) Limits in predicting and detecting benthic community responses to manganese nodule mining. Marine Mining 3: 213–229.
Junk, W. J. & da Silva, V. M. F. (1997) Mammals, reptiles and amphibians. In: The Central Amazon Floodplain: Ecology of a Pulsing System, ed. W. J. Junk , pp. 409–417. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Junk, W. J. & Wantzen, K. M. (2004) The flood pulse concept: new aspects, approaches, and applications – an update. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Large River Symposium (LARS), ed. R. Welcomme & C. Barow , pp. 117–149. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Mekong River Commission and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Junk, W. J. (1993) Wetlands of tropical South America. In: Wetlands of the World, vol. 1, Inventory, Ecology and Management, ed. D. F. Whigham , D. Dykyjová & S. Hejný , pp. 679–739. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Junk, W. J. (1995) Human impact on neotropical wetlands: historical evidence, actual status and perspectives. Scientia Guianae 5: 299–311.
Junk, W. J. , ed. (1997) The Central Amazon Floodplain: Ecology of a Pulsing System. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Junk, W. J. (2000) Mechanisms for development and maintenance of biodiversity in neotropical floodplains. In: Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, vol. 1, ed. B. Gopal , W. J. Junk & J. A. Davis , pp. 119–139. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Junk, W. J. (2002) Long-term environmental trends and the future of tropical wetlands. Environmental Conservation 29: 414–435.
Junk, W. J. & Welcomme, R. L. (1990). Floodplains. In: Wetlands and Shallow Continental Water Bodies, ed. B. C. Patten et al. pp. 491–524. The Hague, the Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing.
Junk, W. J. , Bayley, P. B. & Sparks, R. E. (1989) The flood pulse concept in river–floodplain systems. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 106: 110–127.
Junk, W. J. , Brown, M. , Campbell, I. S. , et al. (2006) Comparative biodiversity of large wetlands: a synthesis. Aquatic Sciences 68: 254–277.
Junk, W. J. , Ohly, J. J. , Piedade, M. T. F. & Soares, M. G. M. , eds. (2000) The Central Amazon Floodplain: Actual Use and Options for a Sustainable Management. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.
Jutila, H. M. (1997) Vascular plant species richness in grazed and ungrazed coastal meadows, SW Finland. Annales Botanici Fennici 34: 245–263.
Kabat, P. , Schulze, R. E. , Hellmuth, M. E. & Veraart, J. A. , eds. (2002) Coping with impacts of climate variability and climate change in water management: a scoping paper. Unpublished report. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Dialogue on Water and Climate.
Kaczmarek, Z. , Arnell, N. W. , Stakhiv, E. Z. , et al. (1996) Water resources management. In: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change – Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. R. T. Watson , M. C. Zinoyowera & R. H. Moss , pp. 469–486. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kaczynski, V. M. & Fluharty, D. L. (2002) European policies in West Africa: who benefits from fisheries agreements? Marine Policy 26: 75–93.
Kadiog˘lu, M. , Şen, Z. & Batur, E. (1997) The greatest soda-water lake in the world and how it is influenced by climatic change. Annales Geophysicae: Atmospheres, Hydrospheres and Space Sciences 15: 1489–1497.
Kain, J. M. (1975) Algal recolonization of some cleared subtidal areas. Journal of Ecology 63: 739–765.
Kaiser, M. J. & de Groot, S. J. , eds. (2000) The Effects of Fishing on Non-Target Species and Habitats. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.
Kaiser, M. J. , Ramsay, K. , Richardson, C. A. , Spence, F. E. & Brand, A. R. (2000) Chronic fishing disturbance has changed shelf sea benthic community structure. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 494–503.
Kania, H. J. & O'Hara, J. (1974) Behavioral alterations in a simple predator–prey system due to sub-lethal exposure to mercury. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 103: 134–136.
Kannan, K. , Smith Jr, R. G. , Lee, R. F. , et al. (1998) Distribution of total mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and fish from South Florida estuaries. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 34: 109–118.
Kapuscinski, A. M. & Hallerman, E. R. (1991) Implications of introduction of transgenic fish into natural ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48: 99–107.
Karl, D. M. (1999) A sea of change: biogeochemical variability in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Ecosystems 2: 181–214.
Karl, D. M. , Bidigare, R. R. & Letelier, R. M. (2001) Long-term changes in plankton community structure and productivity in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: the domain shift hypothesis. Deep-Sea Research II 48: 1449–1470.
Karlson, K. , Rosenberg, R. & Bonsdorff, E. (2002) Temporal and spatial large-scale effects of eutrophication and oxygen deficiency on benthic fauna in Scandinavian and Baltic waters: a review. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 40: 427–489.
Karlsson, H. , Muir, D. , Teixiera, C. , et al. (2000) Persistent chlorinated pesticides in air, water, and precipitation from the Lake Malawi area, Southern Africa. Environmental Science and Technology 34: 4490–4495.
Karoly, D. , Risbey, J. & Reynolds, A. (2003) Global warming contributes to Australia's worst drought. WWF Australia [www document]. URL http://www.wwf.org.au/News_and_information/Publications/PDF/Report/drought_report.pdf.
Karr, J. R. (1991) Biological integrity: a long-neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecological Applications 1: 66–84.
Karr, J. R. , Fausch, K. D. , Angermeier, P. L. , Yant, P. R. & Schlosser, I. J. (1986) Assessing the Biological Integrity of Running Waters: A Method and Its Rationale. Champaign, IL, USA: Illinois Natural History Survey.
Kathiresan, K. & Bingham, B. L. (2001) Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology 40: 81–251.
Katunin, D. N. (2000) Trans-boundary diagnostic analysis of relevantly important commercial bioresources. Caspian Environment Programme [www document]. URL http://www. caspianenvironment.org/report_miscell3.htm.
Kaufman, L. (1992) Catastrophic change in species-rich freshwater ecosystems. BioScience 42: 846–858.
Kautsky, N. , Kautsky, H. , Kautsky, U. & Waern, M. (1986) Decreased depth penetration of Fucus vesiculosus (L.) since the 1940s indicates eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 28: 1–8.
Kawall, H. G. , Torres, J. J. & Geiger, S. P. (2001) Effects of the ice-edge bloom and season on the metabolism of copepods in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Hydrobiologia 453: 67–77.
Keddy, P. A. (1981) Experimental demography of a dune annual: Cakile edentula growing along an environmental gradient in Nova Scotia. Journal of Ecology 69: 615–630.
Keddy, P. A. (2000) Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Keddy, P. A. & Wisheu, I. C. (1989) Ecology, biogeography, and conservation of coastal plain plants: some general principles from the study of Nova Scotian wetlands. Rhodora 91: 72–94.
Keefer, D. K. , Defrance, S. D. , Moseley, M. E. , et al. (1998) Early maritime economy and El Niño Events at Quebrada Tacahuay, Peru. Science 281: 1833–1835.
Keenan, C. P. (1994) Recent evolution of population structure in Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch): an example of isolation by distance in one dimension. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45: 1123–1148.
Kelleher, G. , Bleakley, C. & Wells, S. (1995) A Global Representative System of Marine Protected Areas, vol. 1. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank.
Kelly, L. C. , Rundle, S. D. & Bilton, D. T. (2002) Genetic population structure and dispersal in Atlantic Island caddisflies. Freshwater Biology 47: 1642–1650.
Kelsey, K. A. & West, S. D. (1998) Riparian wildlife. In: River Ecology and Management: Lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion, ed. R. J. Naiman & R. E. Bilby , pp. 235–258. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Kendall, M. A. , Bowman, R. S. , Williamson, P. & Lewis, J. R. (1985) Annual variation in recruitment of Semibalanus balanoides on the North Yorkshire coast 1969–1981. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 65: 1009–1030.
Kendrick, G. A. , Eckersley, J. & Walker, D. I. (1999) Landscape scale changes in seagrass distribution over time: a case study from Success Bank, Western Australia. Aquatic Botany 65: 293–309.
Kennish, M. J. (1986) Ecology of Estuaries: Physical and Chemical Aspects. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Kennish, M. J. (1992) Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Kennish, M. J. ed. (1997) Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Kennish, M. J. (1998 a) Pollution Impacts on Marine Biotic Communities. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Kennish, M. J. (1998 b) Trace metal–sediment dynamics in estuaries: pollution assessment. Reviews in Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 155: 69–110.
Kennish, M. J. ed. (2000) Estuary Restoration and Maintenance: The National Estuary Programme. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Kennish, M. J. ed. (2001 a) Practical Handbook of Marine Science, 3rd edn. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Kennish, M. J. (2001 b) Coastal salt marsh systems: a review of anthropogenic impacts. Journal of Coastal Research 17: 731–748.
Kennish, M. J. ed. (2001 c) Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey: estuary and watershed assessment. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 32.
Kennish, M. J. ed. (2002 a) Impacts of motorized watercraft on shallow estuarine and coastal marine environments. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 37.
Kennish, M. J. (2002 b) Sediment contaminant concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine environments: potential for remobilization by boats and personal watercraft. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 37: 150–177.
Kennish, M. J. (2002 c) Environmental threats and environmental future of estuaries. Environmental Conservation 29: 78–107.
Kennish, M. J. & Lutz, R. A. , eds. (1984) Ecology of Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Kentula, M. E. (2000) Perspectives on setting success criteria for wetland restoration. Ecological Engineering 15: 199–209.
Kenworthy, W. J. , Fonseca, M. S. , Whitfield, P. E. & Hammerstrom, K. K. (2002) Analysis of seagrass recovery in experimental excavations and propeller-scar disturbances in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 37: 150–177.
Kerr, R. A. (2002) A warmer Arctic means change for all. Science 297: 1490–1492.
Kestner, F. J. T. (1962) The old coastline of the Wash: a contribution to the understanding of loose boundary processes. Geographical Journal 128: 457–487.
Kickert, R. N. , Tonella, G. , Simonov, A. & Krupa, S. V. (1999) Predictive modeling of effects under global change. Environmental Pollution 100: 87–132.
Kidd, K. , Bootsma, H. , Hesslein, R. , Muir, D. & Hecky, R. (2001) Biomagnification of DDT through the benthic and pelagic food webs of Lake Malawi, East Africa: importance of trophic level and carbon source. Environmental Science and Technology 39: 14–25.
Kiehl, K. , Esselink, P. & Bakker, J. P. (1997) Nutrient limitation and plant species composition in temperate salt marshes. Oecologia 111: 325–330.
Kimura, M. & Weiss, G. H. (1964) The stepping stone model of population structure and the decrease of genetic correlation with distance. Genetics 49: 561–574.
King, J. C. (1994) Recent climate variability in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula. International Journal of Climatology 14: 357–369.
King, J. C. & Harangozo, S. A. (1998) Climate change in the western Antarctic Peninsula since 1945: observations and possible causes. Annals of Glaciology 27: 571–575.
King, J. M. & Louw, D. (1998) Instream flow assessment for regulated rivers in South Africa using the building block methodology. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 1: 109–124.
Kingett, P. D. & Choat, J. H. (1981) Analysis of density and distribution patterns in Chrysophrys auratus (Pisces: Sparidae) within a reef environment: an experimental approach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 5: 283–290.
Kingsford, M. J. , Underwood, A. J. & Kennelly, S. J. (1991) Humans as predators on rocky reefs in New South Wales, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 72: 1–2.
Kingsford, R. T. (2000) Ecological impacts of dams, water diversions and river management on floodplain wetlands in Australia. Austral Ecology 25: 109–127.
Kingsford, R. T. & Thomas, R. F. (1995) The Macquarie Marshes in arid Australia and their waterbirds: a 50-year history of decline. Environmental Management 19: 867–878.
Kingsford, R. T. , Boulton, A. J. & Puckridge, J. T. (1998) Challenges in managing dryland rivers crossing political boundaries: lessons from Cooper Creek and the Paroo River, central Australia. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 8: 361–378.
Kingsley, C. (1890) Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Shore. London, UK: Macmillan.
Kinner, N. E. , Harvey, R. W. , Blakeslee, K. , Novarino, G. & Meeker, L. D. (1998) Size-selective predation on groundwater bacteria by nanoflagellates in an organic-contaminated aquifer. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64: 618–625.
Kirby, A. (2002) Lake level fuels climate concern. BBC News World Edition, 28 October 2002 [www document]. URL http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2369333.stm
Kirkby, J. & O'Keefe, P. (1998) Conservation of inland deltas: a case study of the Gash Delta, Sudan. In: The Sustainable Management of Tropical Catchments, ed. D. Harper & A. G. Brown , pp. 209–223. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Kitching, J. A. & Ebling, F. J. (1961) The ecology of Lough Ine. XI. The control of algae by Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoidea). Journal of Animal Ecology 30: 373–383.
Kitching, J. A. & Thain, V. M. (1983) The ecological impact of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) in Lough Ine, Ireland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 300: 513–552.
Kivinen, E. & Pakarinen, P. (1981) Geographical distribution of peat resources and major peatland complex types in the world. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Series A, III, Geologica–Geographica 132: 1–28.
Kjerfve, B. (1989) Estuarine geomorphology and physical oceanography. In: Estuarine Ecology, ed. J. W. Day Jr , C. A. S. Hall , W. M. Kemp & A. Yañez-Arancibia , pp. 47–78. New York, USA: John Wiley.
Klarquist, M. , Bohlin, E. & Nilsson, M. (2001) Long-term decline in apparent peat carbon accumulation in boreal mires in northern Sweden. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Suediae Silvestria 203(3): 1–22.
Klein, R. J. T. , Smit, M. J. , Goosen, H. & Hulsbergen, C. H. (1998) Resilience and vulnerability: coastal dynamics or Dutch dikes? Geographical Journal 164: 259–268.
Kleypas, J. A. , Buddemeier, R. W. , Archer, D. , et al. (1999 a) Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284: 118–120.
Kleypas, J. A. , McManus, J. W. & Menez, L. A. B. (1999 b) Environmental limits to coral reef development: where do we draw the line? American Zoologist 39: 146–159.
Klijn, F. & Witte, J.-P. M. (1999) Eco-hydrology: groundwater flow and site factors in plant ecology. Hydrogeology Journal 7: 65–77.
Klimo, E. & Hager, H. , eds. (2001) The Floodplain Forests in Europe. Leiden, the Netherlands: E. J. Brill.
Knapp, R. , Matthews, K. R. & Sarnelle, O. (2001) Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecological Monographs 71: 401–421.
Knopf, F. L. & Samson, F. B. (1994) Scale perspectives on avian diversity in western riparian ecosystems. Conservation Biology 8: 669–676.
Knowlton, N. (1993) Sibling species in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24: 189–216.
Knowlton, N. (2000) Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea. Hydrobiologia 420: 73–90.
Knowlton, N. , Lang, J. C. & Keller, B. D. (1988) Fates of staghorn coral fragments on hurricane-damaged reefs in Jamaica: the role of predators. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium, Townsville, Australia, 8–12 August 1988, vol. 2, ed. J. H. Choat , D. Barnes , M. A. Borowitzka , et al., pp. 83–88. Townsville, Queensland, Australia: 6th International Coral Reef Symposium Executive Committee.
Knutson, T. R. , Tuleya, R. E. & Kurihara, Y. (1998) Simulated increase of hurricane intensities in a CO2-warmed climate. Science 279: 1018–1020.
Koch, E. W. & Orth, R. J. (2003) The seagrasses of the Mid-Atlantic Coast of the United States. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 234–243. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Kock, K.-H. (1992) Antarctic Fish and Fisheries. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kock, K.-H. (2001) The direct influence of fishing and fishery-related activities on non-target species in the Southern Ocean with particular emphasis on longline fishing and its impact on albatrosses and petrels: a review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 31–56.
Koike, K. (1993) The countermeasures against coastal hazards in Japan. Geojournal 38: 301–312.
Kolar, C. S. & Lodge, D. M. (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 199–204.
Kolpin, D. W. , Furlong, E. T. , Meyer, M. T. , et al. (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US streams, 1999–2000: a national reconnaissance. Environmental Science and Technology 36: 1202–1211.
Kooijman, A. M. & de Haan, M. W. A. (1995) Grazing as a measure against grass encroachment in Dutch dry dune grassland: effects on vegetation and soil. Journal of Coastal Conservation 1: 127–134.
Koop, K. , Booth, D. , Broadbent, A. D. , et al. (2001) ENCORE: the effect of nutrient enrichment on coral reefs – synthesis of results and conclusions. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42: 91–120.
Kosarev, A. N. & Yablonskaya, E. A. (1994) The Caspian Sea. The Hague, the Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing.
Koslow, J. A. (1997) Seamounts and the ecology of deep-sea fisheries. American Scientist 85: 168–176.
Koslow, J. A. , Bell, J. , Virtue, P. & Smith, D. C. (1995) Fecundity and its variability in orange roughy: effects of population density, condition, egg size, and senescence. Journal of Fish Biology 47: 1063–1080.
Koslow, J. A. , Boehlert, G. W. , Gordon, J. D. M. , et al. (2000) Continental slope and deep-sea fisheries: implications for a fragile ecosystem. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 458–557.
Koslow, J. A. , Gowlett-Holmes, K. , Lowry, J. K. , et al. (2001) Seamount benthic macrofauna off southern Tasmania: community structure and impacts of trawling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 213: 111–125.
Kota, S. , Borden, R. C. & Barlaz, M. A. (1999) Influence of protozoan grazing on contaminant biodegradation. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 29: 179–189.
Kothari, A. , Pande, P. , Singh, S. & Variava, D. (1989) Management of National Parks and Sanctuaries in India: A Status Report. New Delhi, India: Ministry of Environment and Forests.
Kotze, D. C. & Breen, C. M. (1994) Agricultural Land-Use Impacts on Wetland Functional Values, WRC Report No. 501/3/94. Pretoria, South Africa: Water Research Commission.
Kotze, D. C. & Breen, C. M. (2000) WETLAND-USE: A Wetland Management Decision Support System for South African Freshwater Palustrine Wetlands. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Available online at www.ccwr.ac.za/wetlands/
Kozhov, M. (1963) Lake Baikal and its Life. The Hague, the Netherlands: Dr W. Junk.
Kozhova, O. & Silow, E. (1998) The current problems of Lake Baikal ecosystem. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 3: 19–33.
Kraus, N. C. & Rankin, K. L. , eds. (2004) Functioning and design of coastal groins: the interaction of groins and the beach-process and planning. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 33.
Krieger, K. J. (2001) Coral (Primnoa) impacted by fishing gear in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals, ed. J. Willison , J. Hall , S. Gass , et al., pp. 106–116. Halifax, NS, Canada: Ecology Action Centre.
Kroes, D. & Brinson, M. M. (2004) Occurrence of riverine wetlands on floodplains along a climatic gradient. Wetlands 24: 167–177.
Kroeze, C. & Seitzinger, S. P. (1998) Nitrogen inputs to rivers, estuaries and continental shelves and related nitrous oxide emissions in 1990 and 2050: a global model. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52: 195–212.
Kucklick, J. R. & Bidleman, T. F. (1994) Organic contaminants in Winyah Bay, South Carolina. I. Pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subsurface and microlayer waters. Marine Environmental Research 37: 63–78.
Kucklick, J. , Bidleman, T. , McConnell, L. , Walla, M. & Ivanov, G. (1994) Organochlorines in water and biota of Lake Baikal, Siberia. Environmental Science and Technology 28: 31–37.
Kuffner, I. B. (2001) Effects of ultraviolet radiation and water motion on the reef coral Porites compressa Dana: a flume experiment. Marine Biology 138: 467–476.
Kuhn, G. G. & Shepard, F. P. (1980) Coastal erosion in San Diego County, California. In: Coastal Zone 80, pp. 1899–1918. New York, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Kuhnert, H. , Patzold, J. , Hatcher, B. G. , et al. (1999) A 200-year coral stable oxygen isotope record from a high-latitude reef off Western Australia. Coral Reef 18: 1–12.
Kumar, K. K. , Rajagopalan, B. & Cane, M. A. (1999) On the weakening relationship between the Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science 284: 2156–2159.
Kuriandewa, T. E. , Kiswara, W. , Hutomo, M. , Soemodihardjo, S. & Hermana, I. (2003) The seagrasses of Indonesia. In: World Atlas of Seagrasses, ed. E. P. Green & F. T. Short , pp. 187–198. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Kurlansky, M. (1997) Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the World. New York, USA: Walker & Co.
Kusler, J. & Larson, L. (1993) Beyond the ark: a new approach to US floodplain management. Environment 35: 7–35.
Kwok, R. & Comiso, J. C. (2002) Southern ocean climate and sea ice anomalies associated with the Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate 15: 487–501.
Kyle, R. , Pearson, B. , Fielding, P. J. , Robertson, W. D. & Birnie, S. L. (1997) Subsistence shellfish harvesting in the Maputaland Marine Reserve in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: rocky shore organisms. Biological Conservation 82: 183–192.
La Peyre, M. K. , Mendelssohn, I. A. , Reams, M. A. , Templet, P. H. & Grace, J. B. (2001) Identifying determinants of nations' wetland management programs using structural equation modeling: an exploratory analysis. Environmental Management 27: 859–868.
Lacambra, C. , Cutts, N. , Allen, J. , Burd, F. & Elliott, M. (2004) Spartina anglica: A Review of its Status, Dynamics and Management., English Nature Research Report No.527. Peterborough, UK: English Nature.
Lack, M. & Sant, G. (2001) Patagonian toothfish: are conservation and trade measures working? TRAFFIC Bulletin 19: 1–18.
Lae, R. (1994) Effects of drought, dams, and fishing pressure on the fisheries of the central delta of the Niger River. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 20: 119–128.
Lamb, M. & Zimmerman, M. H. (1964) Marine vegetation of Cape Ann, Essex County, Massachusetts. Rhodora 66: 217–254.
Lambert, G. & Steinke, T. D. (1986) Effects of destroying juxtaposed mussel-dominated and coralline algal communities at Umdoni Park, Natal South coast. South African Journal of Marine Science 4: 203–217.
Lambert, R. A. , Hotchkiss, P. F. , Roberts, N. , et al. (1990) The use of wetlands (dambos) for micro-scale irrigation in Zimbabwe. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 4: 17–28.
Lambert, W. J. , Levin, P. S. & Berman, J. (1992) Changes in the structure of a New England (USA) kelp bed: the effects of an introduced species? Marine Ecology Progress Series 88: 303–307.
Lambs, L. & Muller, E. (2002) Sap flow and water transfer in the Garonne River riparian woodland, France: first results on poplar and willow. Annals of Forest Science 59: 301–315.
Lamers, L. P. M. , Smolders, A. J. P. & Roelofs, J. G. M. (2002) The restoration of fens in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 478: 107–130.
Lamers, L. P. M. , Tomassen, H. B. M. & Roelofs, J. G. M. (1998) Sulfate-induced eutrophication and phytotoxicity in freshwater wetlands. Environmental Science and Technology 32: 199–205.
Lamparelli, C. C. , Rodrigues, F. O. & de Moura, D. O. (1997) Long-term assessment of an oil spill in a mangrove forest in São Paulo, Brazil. In: Mangrove Ecosystem Studies in Latin America and Africa, ed. B. Kjerfve , L. D. Lacerda & E. H. S. Diop , pp. 191–203. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Lancaster, J. , Real, M. , Juggins, S. , et al. (1996) Monitoring temporal changes in the biology of acid waters. Freshwater Biology 36: 179–201.
Landesman, L. (1994) Negative impacts of coastal tropical aquaculture developments. World Aquaculture 25(2): 12–17.
Lane, R. R. , Day Jr, J. W. & Thibodeaux, B. (1999) Water quality analysis of a freshwater diversion at Caernarvon, Louisiana. Estuaries 22: 327–336.
Langdon, C. (2002) Overview of experimental evidence for effects of CO2 on calcification of reef builders. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, 23–27 October 2000, vol. 2, ed. K. M. Moosa , S. Soemodihardjo , A. Soegiarto , et al., pp. 1091–1098. Bali, Indonesia: Ministry of Environment, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, International Society for Reef Studies.
Langdon, C. , Takahashi, T. , Sweeney, C. , Chapman, D. & Goddard, J. (2000) Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochemical Cycle 14: 639–654.
Langis, R. , Zalejko, M. & Zedler, J. B. (1991) Nitrogen assessments in a constructed and a natural salt marsh of San Diego Bay, California. Ecological Applications 1: 40–51.
Lanier-Graham, S. D. (1993) The Ecology of War: Environmental Impacts of Weaponry and Warfare. New York, USA: Walker & Co.
Lant, C. L. , Kraft, S. E. & Gillman, K. R. (1995) The 1990 farm bill and water quality in Corn Belt watersheds: conserving remaining wetlands and restoring farmed wetlands. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 50: 201–205.
Lanyon, J. M. , Limpus, C. J. & Marsh, H. (1989) Dugongs and turtles: grazers in seagrass systems. In: Seagrasses: A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region, ed. A. W. D. Larkum , A. J. McComb & S. A. Shepherd , pp. 182–210. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier/North Holland.
Lapointe, B. E. (1999) Simultaneous top-down and bottom-up forces control macroalgal blooms on coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography 44: 1586–1592.
Larkum, A. W. D. & West, R. J. (1990) Long-term changes of seagrass meadows in Botany Bay, Australia. Aquatic Botany 37: 55–70.
Larned, S. T. , Kinzie, R. A. , Covich, A. P. & Chong, C. T. (2003) Detritus processing by endemic and non-native Hawaiian stream invertebrates: a microcosm study of species-specific effects. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 156: 241–254.
Larson, J. S. (1992) North America. In: Wetlands, ed. M. Finlayson & M. Moser , pp. 57–84. Oxford, UK: Facts on File.
Laurance, W. F. , Cochrane, M. A. , Bergen, S. , et al. (2001) The future of the Brazilian Amazon. Science 291: 438–439.
Lawrence, G. B. , David, M. B. , Lovett, G. M. , et al. (1999) Soil calcium status and the response of stream chemistry to changing acidic deposition rates. Ecological Applications 9: 1059–1072.
Lawrence, J. M. (1975) On the relationships between marine plants and sea urchins. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 13: 213–286.
Lawton, J. H. (2000) Community Ecology in a Changing World. Oldendorf/Kuhe, Germany: Ecology Institute.
Le Maitre, D. L. , Scott, D. F. & Colvin, C. (1999) A review of information on interactions between vegetation and groundwater. Water SA 25: 137–152.
Leach, J. , Mills, E. & Dochoda, M. (1999) Non-indigenous species in the Great Lakes: ecosystem impacts, binational policies, and management. In: Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management, ed. W. W. Taylor & C. P. Ferreri , pp. 185–207. East Lansing, MI, USA: Michigan State University Press.
Leach, S. J. (1988) Rediscovery of Halimione pedunculata (L.) Aellen in Britain. Watsonia 17: 170–171.
Leadbitter, D. , Lee Long, W. & Dalmazzo, P. (1999) Seagrasses and their management implications for research. In: Seagrass in Australia, ed. A. Butler & P. Jernakoff , pp. 140–171. Canberra, ACT, Australia: CSIRO.