6 - Großraum  pp. 126-155

<i>Großraum</i>

By William Hooker

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… according to Schmitt, the only politics is international politics.

If one is to identify one pre-eminent theme in Schmitt's entire effort as a political theorist it would undoubtedly be to uncover the specifically political failings of liberalism (both internally and externally), and to trace the consequences of those failings. Schmitt consistently piques interest as the ‘foremost critic’ of liberalism. He is frequently taken as a ‘challenge’ in the renewal and repair of democratic forms of governance, and in the remedying of liberalism's most evident failings. Such a characterisation is by no means unfair. Schmitt was constantly preoccupied with the dangers, as he saw them, of liberal abstraction, legal formalism, potestas indirecta and the multiple Ent-Entungen of modern ‘politics’. In this account, Schmitt occupies a double negative position that mirrors the liberal ‘de-deings’ he attacks – he is anti-anti-politics.

So far this work has argued for a deeper understanding of the historical-theoretical aspects of that critique. Both in his detailed account of the origins of the liberal ‘problem’ and in his ideas of the irrepressible tide of liberal historicism, Schmitt displayed a complex pessimism about the prospects of the modern state and, hence, the prospect of politics in form (or, at least, in the form that we have known). The infusion of liberalism into the state is written as part tragedy, part farce, and sways between dismayed fatalism and bitter criticism of those who have blindly accelerated the process.

6

Reference Title: Works by Carl Schmitt

Reference Type: bibliography

‘The Age of Neutralizations and Depoliticizations’ [1929] (trans. M. Konzett and J. P. McCormick), Telos 96 (Summer 1993), 130–42
Antworten in Nürnberg (ed. H. Quaritsch). Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (2000)
‘Appropriation/Distribution/Production: Towards a Proper Formulation of the Basic Questions of any Social or Economic Order’ [1953] (trans. G. Ulmen), Telos 95 (Spring 1993), 52–64
‘Beschleuniger wider Willen, oder: Die Problematik der westlichen Hemisphäre’ [1942], in Staat, Großraum, Nomos, pp. 431–40
‘Clausewitz als politischer Denker: Bemerkungen und Hinweise’, Der Staat 6:4 (1967), 479–502
The Concept of the Political [1927] (trans. G. Schwab). Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1996) [1932 edition]
The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy [1923] (trans. E. Kennedy). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1985) [1926 edn]
Die Diktatur. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (1921)
Donoso Cortes in gesamteuropäischer Interpretation. Cologne: Greven Verlag (1950)
‘Drei Möglichkeiten eines christlichen Geschichtsbildes’, Universitas 5:8 (August 1950), 927–31
‘Die Einheit der Welt’ [1952], in Staat, Großraum, Nomos, pp. 496–512
Ex captivitate salus. Cologne: Greven Verlag (1950)
Frieden oder Pazifismus? Arbeiten zum Völkerrecht und zur internationalen Politik 1924–1978 (Berlin: Duncker and Humblot, 2005)
‘Der Führer schützt das Recht’, Deutschen Juristenzeitung 39:15 (1934), 945–50
‘Gespräch über den Partisanen: Carl Schmitt und Joachim Schickel’ [1969], in Staat, Großraum, Nomos, pp. 619–42
Glossarium: Aufzeichnungen der Jahre 1947–1951. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (1991)
Das internationalrechtliche Verbrechen des Angriffskrieges und der Grundsatz Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (1994)
Land und Meer. Stuttgart: Klett–Cotta (1954)
Legality and Legitimacy [1932] (trans. J. Seitzer). Durham NC: Duke University Press (2004)
The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes: Meaning and Failure of a Political Symbol [1938] (trans. G. Schwab). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1996)
‘Nationalsozialismus und Völkerrecht’ [1938], in Frieden oder Pazifismus?: Arbeiten zum Völkerrecht und zur internationalen Politik 1924–1978 (ed. G. Maschke), Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (2005), pp. 391–421
The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum (trans. G. Ulmen). New York: Telos Press (2004)
‘Die Ordnung der Welt nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg’ [1962], in Staat, Großraum, Nomos, pp. 592–618
Political Romanticism [1919] (trans. G. Oakes). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1986) [1925 edn]
Political Theology [1922] (trans. G. Schwab). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (2005) [1934 edn]
Politische Theologie II: Die Legende der Erledigung jeder politischen Theologie. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (1970)
Positionen und Begriffe im Kampf mit Weimar–Genf–Versailles, 1923–1939. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (1994)
‘Die Rheinlande als Objekt internationaler Politik’ [1925], in Positionen und Begriffe, pp. 29–37
Römischer Katholizismus und politische Form [1923] (2nd edn). Cologne: Klett–Cotta (1925)
‘Der Staat als Mechanismus bei Hobbes und Descartes’ [1937], in Staat, Großraum, Nomos, pp. 139–51
Staat, Bewegung, Volk: Dreigliederung der politischen Einheit. Hamburg: HAVA (1933)
Staat, Großraum, Nomos: Arbeiten aus den Jahren 1916–1969 (ed. G. Maschke). Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (1995)
‘The State as Mechanism in Hobbes und Descartes’, in The Leviathan, pp. 91–104 (pp. 99–100)
‘Strong State and Sound Economy’ [1932] (trans. R. Cristi), in R. Cristi, Carl Schmitt and Authoritarian Liberalism. Cardiff: University of Wales Press (1998), pp. 212–32
Theorie des Partisanen: Zwischenbemerkung zum Begriff des Politischen. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (1963)
‘The Theory of the Partisan: A Commentary/Remark on the Concept of the Political’ [1963] (trans. A. C. Goodson), The New Centennial Review 4:3 (2004), 1–78
‘Theory of the Partisan’ [1963] (trans. G. Ulmen), Telos 127 (Spring 2004), 11–78
Theory of the Partisan [1963] (trans. G. Ulmen). New York: Telos Press (2007)
Über die drei Arten des rechtswissenschaftlichen Denkens. Hamburg: HAVA (1934)
Unpublished review of Norberto Bobbio's Elementi filosofici sul cittadino di Thomas Hobbes. Torino (1948). HStAD RW265 19000
‘Völkerrechtliche Formen des Modernen Imperialismus’ [1932], in Positionen und Begriffe, pp. 184–203
‘Völkerrechtliche Großraumordnung mit Interventionsverbot für raumfremde Mächte’ [1941], in Staat, Großraum, Nomos, pp. 269–371
‘Völkerrechtliche Probleme im Rheingebiet’ [1928], in Positionen und Begriffe, pp. 111–23
Die Wendung zum diskriminierenden Kriegsbegriff. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot (1938)
‘Die Wendung zum totalen Staat’ [1931], in Positionen und Begriffe, pp. 166–78
Der Wert des Staates und die Bedeutung des Einzelnen. Tübingen: Paul Siebeck (1914)
‘Zu Friedrich Meineckes Idee der Staatsräson’ [1926], in Positionen und Begriffe, pp. 51–9

Reference Title: Other works

Reference Type: bibliography

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Balakrishnan, G. The Enemy: An Intellectual Portrait of Carl Schmitt. London: Verso (2000)
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Behnke, A. ‘Terrorising the Political: 9/11 within the Context of the Globalisation of Violence’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies 33:2 (2004), 279–312
Bendersky, J. Carl Schmitt: Theorist for the Reich. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1983)
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Bendersky, J. ‘Carl Schmitt's Path to Nuremberg: A Sixty Year Reassessment’, Telos 139 (Summer 2007), 6–34
Bendersky, J. ‘The Expendable Kronjurist: Carl Schmitt and National Socialism, 1933–1936’, Journal of Contemporary History 14:2 (1979), 309–28
Bendersky, J. (transcr.). ‘Interrogation of Carl Schmitt by Robert Kempner’, Telos 72 (Summer 1987), 97–107
Bendersky, J. (transcr.). ‘The “Fourth” (Second) Interrogation of Carl Schmitt at Nuremberg’, Telos 139 (Summer 2007), 35–43
Bodin, J. On Sovereignty (trans. J. H. Franklin). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1992)
Bolsinger, E. The Autonomy of the Political: Carl Schmitt's and Lenin's Political Realism. London: Greenwood Press (2001)
Boyd, B. ‘Carl Schmitt: Dick Cheney's Eminence Grise’, Executive Intelligence Review (6 January 2006), 35–7
Brown, C. Sovereignty, Rights and Justice. Cambridge: Polity (2002)
Brown, C. ‘The Twilight of International Morality: Hans J. Morgenthau and Carl Schmitt on the End of the Jus Publicum Europaeum’, in M. C. Williams (ed.), Realism Reconsidered, pp. 42–61
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Caldwell, P. C. ‘Controversies over Carl Schmitt: A Review of Recent Literature’, The Journal of Modern History 77 (June, 2005), 357–87
Caldwell, P. C. Popular Sovereignty and the Crisis of German Constitutional Law: The Theory and Practice of Weimar Constitutionalism. London: Duke University Press (1997)
Carty, A. ‘Carl Schmitt's Critique of Liberal International Legal Order between 1933 and 1945’, Leiden Journal of International Law 14 (2001), 25–76
Colombo, A. ‘Challenging the State: Carl Schmitt and “Realist Institutionalism”’. Paper presented to the 5th Pan-European International Relations Conference, The Hague, September 2004
Colombo, A. ‘L'Europa e la società internazionale: gli aspetti culturali e istituzionale della convivenza internazionale in Raymond Aron, Martin Wight e Carl Schmitt’, Quaderni di scienza politica 2 (1999), 251–302
Cristi, R. Carl Schmitt and Authoritarian Liberalism: Strong State, Free Economy. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press (1998)
de Benoist, A. ‘Qu'est-ce que la souveraineté?’, Elements 96 (November 1999), 24–35
Derrida, J. The Politics of Friendship (trans. G. Collins). London: Verso (1997)
Dostoyevsky, F. The Brothers Karamazov (trans. D. McDuff). London: Penguin (2003)
Dyzenhaus, D. Legality and Legitimacy: Carl Schmitt, Hans Kelsen and Herman Heller in Weimar. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1999)
Ellul, J. The Technological Society. London: Jonathan Cape (1965)
Fasching, D. J. The Thought of Jacques Ellul: A Systematic Exposition. New York: Edward Mellen Press (1981)
Frei, C. Hans J. Morgenthau: An Intellectual Biography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press (2001)
Freund, J. ‘Schmitt's Political Thought’, Telos 102 (Winter 1995), 11–42
Gasché, R. ‘The Partisan and the Philosopher’, The New Centennial Review 4:3 (2004), 9–34
Goodson, A. C. ‘About Schmitt: Partisans and Theory’, The New Centennial Review 4:3 (2004), 1–7
Goodson, A. C. ‘Pro aris et focis: Schmitt's Partisans in Münkler's Theory of War’, The New Centennial Review 4:3 (2004), 145–59
Gottfried, P. After Liberalism: Mass Democracy in the Managerial State. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1999)
Gottfried, P. Carl Schmitt. London: The Claridge Press (1990)
Gottfried, P. ‘Forgotten but Not Gone’, American Outlook Magazine (Autumn 2001)
Habermas, J. The New Conservatism (trans. S. W. Nicholson). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1990)
Habermas, J. ‘Verrufener Fortschritt – verkanntes Jahrhundert: zur Kritik der Geschichtsphilosophie’, Merkur 14 (1960), 112–21
Hardt, M. and Negri, A. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (2000)
Harste, G. ‘Jean Bodin on Sovereignty, State and Central Administration: Unity or Complexity?’, Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory 2 (2001), 35–52
Herf, J. Reactionary Modernism: Technology, Culture, and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1986)
Herwig, H. H. ‘The Influence of A. T. Mahan upon German Sea Power’, in J. B. Hattendorf (ed.). The Influence of History upon Mahan: The Proceedings of a Conference Marking the Centenary of Alfred Thayer Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power upon History. Newport, RI: Diane Publishing (1991), pp. 67–80
Heuser, B. Reading Clausewitz. London: Pimlico (2002)
Hobbes, T. A Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England (ed. J. Cropsey). Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1997)
Hobbes, T. Leviathan. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics (1998)
Hobbes, T. Man and Citizen: De homine and De cive (ed. B. Gert). Indianapolis: Hackett (1991)
Holmes, S. The Anatomy of Antiliberalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (1994)
Horn, E. ‘Waldgänger, Traitor, Partisan: Figures of Political Irregularity in West German Postwar Thought’, The New Centennial Review 4:3 (2004), 125–43
Horne, A. A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962. New York: New York Review of Books Press (2006)
Howse, R. ‘Europe and the New World Order: Lessons from Alexandre Kojève's Engagement with Schmitt's Nomos of the Earth’, Leiden Journal of International Law 19:1 (2006), 93–103
Ignatieff, M. ‘It's War – but It Doesn't Have to Be Dirty’, Guardian (1 October 2001)
Joerges, C. and Ghaleigh, N. S. (eds.). Darker Legacies of Law in Europe: The Shadow of National Socialism and Fascism over Europe and Its Legal Traditions. Oxford: Hart (2003)
Jünger, E ‘Der Waldgang’, in Werke, 22 vols., Vol. V: Essays I. Stuttgart: Klett–Cotta (1960), pp. 291–388
Kant, I. The Philosophy of Law: An Exposition of the Fundamental Principles of Jurisprudence as the Science of Right (trans. W. Hastie). Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark (1887)
Kateb, G. ‘Aestheticism and Morality: Their Cooperation and Hostility’, Political Theory 28:1 (2000), 5–37
Kelly, D. The State of the Political: Conceptions of Politics and the State in the Thought of Max Weber, Carl Schmitt and Franz Neumann. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2003)
Kennedy, E. ‘Carl Schmitt and the Frankfurt School’, Telos 71 (Spring 1987), 37–66
Kennedy, E. Constitutional Failure: Carl Schmitt in Weimar. Princeton: Princeton University Press (2005)
Kershaw, I. The Hitler Myth: Image and Reality in The Third Reich. Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks (2001)
Kervégan, J.-F. ‘Carl Schmitt and “World Unity”’, in C. Mouffe (ed.), The Challenge of Carl Schmitt. London: Verso (1999), pp. 54–74
Kiesel, H. (ed.). Ernst Jünger–Carl Schmitt Briefe, 1930–1983. Stuttgart: Klett–Cotta (1999)
Kissinger, H. Diplomacy. New York: Simon and Schuster (1994)
Klein, J. ‘Adolf Grabowsky: ein vergessener Politikwissenschaftler’, in B. Hafeneger and W. Schäfer (eds.), Aufbruch zwischen Mangel und Verweigerung. Marburg: Marburg Rathaus Verlag (2000), pp. 393–410
Koenen, A. Der Fall Carl Schmitt: Sein Aufstieg zum ‘Kronjuristen des Dritten Reiches’. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft (1995)
Köllreuter, O. Das politische Geschicht Japans. Berlin: Heymann (1940)
Kojève, A. ‘L'Empire latin’, La regle du jeu 1:1 (1990), 89–123
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Koselleck, R. Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time (trans. K. Tribe). New York: Columbia University Press (2004)
Langhans-Ratzeburg, M. Begriff und Aufgaben der Geographischen Rechtswissenschaft (Geojurisprudenz). Berlin: Vowinckel (1928)
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Lewis, M. W. and Wigen, K. E. The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press (1997)
Lilla, M. The Reckless Mind: Intellectuals in Politics. New York: New York Times Books (2001)
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Löwith, K. Meaning in History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1949)
Löwith, K. ‘Der okkasionelle Dezisionismus von Carl Schmitt’, in Saemtliche Schriften, 9 vols., Vol. VIII (ed. K. Stichweh and M. B. de Launay). Stuttgart: Metzler Verlag (1984), pp. 93–127
McCormick, J. E. ‘Dilemmas of Dictatorship: Carl Schmitt and Constitutional Emergency Powers’, The Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 10:1 (1997), 163–87
McCormick, J. E. ‘Introduction to Carl Schmitt's “The Age of Neutralizations and Depoliticizations”’, Telos 96 (1993), 19–30
Mahan, A. T. The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660–1783. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co. (1890)
Majer, D. Nationalsozialismus im Lichte der juristischen Zeitgeschichte. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft (2002)
Malcolm, N. Aspects of Hobbes. Oxford: Clarendon Press (2002)
Marcuse, H. Negations. Boston, MA: Beacon (1968)
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Marx, K. and Engels, F. The Communist Manifesto (trans. S. Moore). London: Penguin Classics (2002)
März, J. Landmächte und Seemächte. Berlin: Zentral Verlag (1928)
Maschke, G. Der Tod Carl Schmitts. Vienna: Karolinger (1987)
Meier, H. Carl Schmitt and Leo Strauss: The Hidden Dialogue (trans. J. H. Lomax). Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1995)
Meier, H. The Lesson of Carl Schmitt: Four Chapters on the Distinction between Political Theology and Political Philosophy (trans. M. Brainard). Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1998)
Mommsen, W. J. Max Weber and German Politics, 1890–1920 (trans. M. S. Steinberg). Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1990)
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Mouffe, C. ‘Schmitt's Vision of a Multipolar World Order’, The South Atlantic Quarterly 104:2 (Spring 2005), 245–51
Müller, J.-W. ‘Carl Schmitt's Method: Between Ideology, Demonology and Myth’, Journal of Political Ideologies 4:1 (1999), 61–85
Müller, J.-W. A Dangerous Mind: Carl Schmitt in Post-War European Thought. New Haven: Yale University Press (2003)
Münkler, H. Gewalt und Ordnung: Das Bild des Krieges im politischen Denken. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag (1992)
Murphy, D. T. The Heroic Earth: Geopolitical Thought in Weimar Germany 1918–1933. London: Kent State University Press (1997)
Norris, A. ‘A Mine that Explodes Silently: Carl Schmitt in Weimar and After’, Political Theory 33:6 (December 2005), 887–98
Norris, A. ‘Sovereignty, Exception, and Norm’, Journal of Law and Society 34:1 (March 2007), 31–45
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Ojakangas, M. A Philosophy of Concrete Life: Carl Schmitt and the Political Thought of Late Modernity. Bern: Peter Lang (2006)
Ortino, S. ‘Space Revolution and Legal Order’. Paper presented to the 5th Pan-European International Relations Conference, The Hague, September 2004
Osiander, A. The States System of Europe, 1640–1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1994)
Pan, D. ‘Political Aesthetics: Carl Schmitt on Hamlet’, Telos 72 (Summer 1987), 153–9
Pourciau, S. ‘Bodily Negation: Carl Schmitt on the Meaning of Meaning’, Modern Language Notes 120:5 (December 2005), 1066–90
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Shklar, J. After Utopia: The Decline of Political Faith. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1969)
Slomp, G. ‘Carl Schmitt's Five Arguments against Just War’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19:3 (2006), 435–47
Slomp, G. ‘The Theory of the Partisan: Carl Schmitt's Neglected Legacy’, History of Political Thought 26:3 (2005), 502–19
Söllner, A. ‘German Conservatism in America: Morgenthau's Political Realism’, Telos 72 (Summer 1987), 161–72
Sombart, N. Jugend in Berlin. Munich: Carl Hanser (1984)
Specter, M. ‘Perpetual War or Perpetual Peace? Schmitt, Habermas and Theories of American Empire’. Unpublished lecture given to the Internationales Forschungszentrum Kulkturwissenschaften, Vienna, 26 April 2004
Stirk, P. ‘Schmitt's “Völkerrechtliche Großraumordnung”’, History of Political Thought 20:2 (1999), 357–74
Strauss, L. ‘Notes on Carl Schmitt: The Concept of the Political’, in H. Meier (ed.), Carl Schmitt and Leo Strauss: The Hidden Dialogue (trans. J. H. Lomax). Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1995), pp. 83–4
Strong, T. B. ‘Foreword’ to C. Schmitt, The Concept of the Political (trans. G. Schwab). Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1996), pp. ix–xxviii
Taubes, J. The Political Theology of Paul (trans. D. Hollander). Stanford: Stanford University Press (2004)
Toulmin, S. Cosmopolis: The Hidden Agenda of Modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1990)
Ulmen, G. ‘Introduction’ to C. Schmitt, The Nomos of the Earth. New York: Telos Press (2005), pp. 9–34
Ulmen, G.‘Just Wars or Just Enemies?’, Telos 109 (Autumn 1996), 99–113
Ulmen, G.‘Toward a New World Order: Introduction to Schmitt's The Land Appropriation of a New World’, Telos 109 (Autumn 1996), 3–27
Vad, E. Strategie und Sicherheitspolitik: Perspektiven im Werk Carl Schmitt. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag (1996)
Vagts, D. ‘International Law in the Third Reich’, The American Journal of International Law 84:3 (1990), 661–704
van Laak, D. and Villinger, I. Nachlaß Carl Schmitt: Verzeichnis des Bestandes im Nordrhein-Westfälischen Hauptstaatsarchiv. Siegburg: Republica-Verlag (1993)
Vogel, W. Das neue Europa, und seine historisch-geographischen Grundlagen. Bonn: Schroeder (1925)
Vogel, W. ‘Rhein und Donau als Staatenbilder’, Zeitschrift für Geopolitik 1 (1924), 63–78
Wight, M. International Theory: The Three Traditions. London: Leicester University Press (1991)
Wight, M. ‘Western Values in International Relations’, in H. Butterfield and M. Wight (eds.), Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Relations. London: George Allen and Unwin (1966), pp. 89–131
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Williams, M. C. ‘Why Ideas Matter in International Relations: Hans Morgenthau, Classical Realism and the Moral Construction of Power Politics’, International Organization 58 (2004), 633–65
Wolin, R. ‘Carl Schmitt: The Conservative Revolutionary Habitus and the Aesthetics of Horror’, Political Theory 20:3 (1992), 424–47
Zarmanian, T. ‘Carl Schmitt and the Problem of Legal Order: From Domestic to International’, Leiden Journal of International Law 19 (2006), 41–67
Žižek, S. ‘Carl Schmitt in the Age of Post-Politics’, in C. Mouffe (ed.), The Challenge of Carl Schmitt, pp. 18–37
Žižek, S. The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Centre of Political Ontology. London: Verso (1999)
Zolo, D. Invoking Humanity: War, Law and Global Order (trans. F. Poole and G. Poole). London: Continuum (2002)