1 - Introduction  pp. 1-20

Introduction

By Thomas Dixon

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John Hedley Brooke is well known to students of science and religion as the slayer of the ‘conflict thesis’ – the hackneyed but popular idea that, ever since the Scientific Revolution, ‘science’ and ‘religion’ have been locked in a deadly battle in which science emerges triumphant. In his Science and religion: Some historical perspectives (1991) and other writings, Brooke has used historical scholarship to show how wrong this picture is.

The systematic dismantling of received ideas about the nature of the scientific enterprise was one of the starting points for this reappraisal of scientific and religious relations. In the 1950s and 1960s historians and philosophers of science began to criticize the ‘Whig’ view of history, according to which science in the past should be seen as slowly but surely approaching the truths put forward by science in the present. The new anti-Whig conception of science underpinned Thomas Kuhn's The structure of scientific revolutions, first published in 1962, which helped set the agenda for future generations of scholars. In Kuhn's picture, the history of science was a discontinuous series of traditions or paradigms dedicated to solving particular puzzles with greater empirical accuracy, but not necessarily approaching some unseen objective reality in the process. This shift in the history of science also inaugurated a new ideal of the historian of science as an observer of the science of past ages, rather than an advocate for modern science.

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Reference Title: PRINCIPAL PUBLICATIONS BY JOHN HEDLEY BROOKE

Reference Type: bibliography

John Hedley Brooke 1977 ‘Natural theology and the plurality of worlds: Observations on the Brewster–Whewell debate’, Annals of Science 34, 221–86.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Richard Owen, William Whewell and the Vestiges’, British Journal for the History of Science 10, 132–45.
John Hedley Brooke 1979 ‘The natural theology of the geologists: Some theological strata’, in L. Jordanova and R. Porter (eds.), Images of the earth, Chalfont St Giles: British Society for the History of Science monograph no. 1, 1979, pp. 39–64. 2nd rev. edn, 1997, pp. 53–74.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Nebular contraction and the expansion of naturalism’, British Journal for the History of Science 12, 200–11.
John Hedley Brooke 1985 ‘The relations between Darwin's science and his religion’, in John R. Durant (ed.), Darwinism and divinity: Essays on evolution and religious belief, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 40–75.
John Hedley Brooke 1987 ‘Joseph Priestley and William Whewell, apologists and historians of science: A tale of two stereotypes’, in R. Anderson and C. Lawrence (eds.), Science, medicine and dissent: Joseph Priestley, London: Wellcome Foundation and Science Museum, pp. 11–27.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Why did the English mix their science and their religion?’, in S. Rossi (ed.), Science and imagination in 18th-century British culture, Milan: Edizioni Unicopli, pp. 57–78.
John Hedley Brooke 1988 ‘The God of Isaac Newton’, in J. Fauvel, R. Flood, M. Shortland, and R. Wilson (eds.), Let Newton be!, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 169–83.
John Hedley Brooke 1989 ‘Science and the fortunes of natural theology: Some historical perspectives’, Zygon 24, 3–22.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Science and the secularisation of knowledge: Perspectives on some 18th-century transformations’, Nuncius: Annali di Storia della Scienza 4, 43–65.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Scientific thought and its meaning for religion: The impact of French science on British natural theology, 1827–1859’, Revue de Synthèse 4, 33–59.
John Hedley Brooke 1990 ‘Between science and theology: The defence of teleology in the interpretation of nature, 1820–1876’, Proceedings of the 19th-century Working Group of the American Academy of Religion 16, 80–94. Republished in the Journal for the History of Modern Theology 1 (1994), 47–65.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Science and religion’, in G. Cantor, J. Christie, J. Hodge, and R. Olby (eds.), A companion to the history of modern science, London: Routledge, pp. 763–82.
John Hedley Brooke ‘“A sower went forth”: Joseph Priestley and the ministry of reform’, in A. Truman Schwarz and J. G. McEvoy (eds.), Motion toward perfection: The achievement of Joseph Priestley, Boston, MA: Skinner House, pp. 21–56.
John Hedley Brooke 1991 ‘Indications of a creator: Whewell as apologist and priest’, in M. Fisch and S. Schaffer (eds.), William Whewell: A composite portrait, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 149–73.
John Hedley Brooke Science and religion: Some historical perspectives, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Foreign language editions include Chinese, Greek, Portuguese, Romanian, and Russian translations.)
John Hedley Brooke 1992 ‘Natural law in the natural sciences: The origins of modern atheism?’, Science and Christian Belief 4, 83–103.
John Hedley Brooke 1995 Thinking about matter: Studies in the history of chemical philosophy, Aldershot: Ashgate.
John Hedley Brooke 1996 ‘Like minds: The god of Hugh Miller’, in Michael Shortland (ed.), Hugh Miller and the controversies of Victorian science, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 171–86.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Religious apologetics and the transmutation of knowledge: Was a chemico-theology possible in 18th- and early-19th century Britain?’, in van der Meer (ed.), Facets of faith and science, vol. IV, pp. 215–29.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Religious belief and the natural sciences: Mapping the historical landscape’, in van der Meer (ed.), Facets of faith and science, vol. I, pp. 1–26.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Science and theology in the enlightenment’, in Richardson and Wildman (eds.), Religion and science, pp. 7–27.
John Hedley Brooke 1997 ‘L'essor d'une culture scientifique’, in H. McLeod, S. Mews, and C. d'Haussy (eds.), Histoire religieuse de la Grande-Bretagne, Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, pp. 261–85.
John Hedley Brooke 1998 Reconstructing Nature: The engagement of science and religion. The 1995–6 Gifford Lectures at Glasgow, Edinburgh: T & T Clark. Jointly authored with Geoffrey Cantor.
John Hedley Brooke 1999 ‘The history of science and religion: Some evangelical dimensions’, in Hart, Livingstone, and Noll (eds.), Evangelicals and science, pp. 17–40.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Presidential address: Does the history of science have a future?’, British Journal for the History of Science 32, 1–20.
John Hedley Brooke 2000 ‘“Wise men nowadays think otherwise”: John Ray, natural theology and the meanings of anthropocentrism’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society 54, 199–213.
John Hedley Brooke 2001 ‘Religious belief and the content of the sciences’, in Brooke, Osler, and van der Meer (eds.), Science in theistic contexts pp. 3–28.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Science and secularization’, in L. Woodhead (ed.), Reinventing Christianity, Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 229–38.
John Hedley Brooke ‘The Wilberforce–Huxley debate: Why did it happen?’, Science and Christian Belief 13, 127–41.
John Hedley Brooke 2002 ‘The changing relations between science and religion’, in H. Reagan and M. Worthing (eds.), Interdisciplinary perspectives on cosmology and biological evolution, Adelaide: Australian Theological Forum, pp. 3–18.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Darwin and Victorian Christianity’, in Gregory Radick and Jonathan Hodge (eds.), The Cambridge companion to Darwin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 192–213.
John Hedley Brooke 2003 ‘Detracting from divine power? Religious belief and the appraisal of new technologies’, in Celia Deane-Drummond and Bronislaw Szerszynski (eds.), Reordering nature: Theology, society and the new genetics, London: T & T Clark, pp. 43–64.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Improvable nature?’, in Willem Drees (ed.), Is nature ever evil?: Religion, science and value, London: Routledge, pp. 149–69.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Science and religion’, in Roy Porter (ed.), The Cambridge history of science: Vol. IV Eighteenth-century science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 741–61.
John Hedley Brooke 2004 ‘Science and dissent: Some historiographical issues’, in Wood (ed.), Science and dissent, pp. 19–37.
John Hedley Brooke 2005 ‘Darwin, design, and the unification of nature’, in Proctor (ed.), Science, religion, and the human experience, pp. 165–83.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Joining natural philosophy to Christianity: The case of Joseph Priestley’, in Brooke and Maclean (eds.), Heterodoxy, pp. 319–36.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Learning from the past’, in Christopher Southgate (ed.), God, humanity and the cosmos, London: T & T Clark, pp. 63–81.
John Hedley Brooke 2006 ‘Contributions from the history of science and religion’, in Clayton and Simpson (eds.), Oxford handbook pp. 293–310.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Darwin and God: Then and now’, Harvard Divinity Bulletin, Autumn 2006, 76–85.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Friends and enemies: Breaking down the dichotomies’, Modern Believing 47 (no. 4), 5–16.
John Hedley Brooke ‘“If I were God”: Einstein and Religion’, Zygon 41, 941–54.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Science and the self: What difference did Darwin make?’, in F. Leron Shults (ed.), The evolution of rationality: Interdisciplinary essays in Honor of J. Wentzel Van Huyssteen, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, pp. 253–73.
John Hedley Brooke ‘The search for extra-terrestrial life: Historical and theological perspectives’, Omega: Indian Journal of Science and Religion 5 (no. 1), 6–22.
John Hedley Brooke 2007 ‘La ciencia en los Unitarios’, in José Montesinos and Sergio Toledo (eds.), Ciencia y religion en la edad moderna, La Orotava: Fundación Canaria Orotava de Historia de la Ciencia, pp. 253–71.
John Hedley Brooke ‘Overtaking nature? The changing scope of organic chemistry in the nineteenth century’, in Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent and William R. Newman (eds.), The artificial and the natural: An evolving polarity, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 275–92.
John Hedley Brooke 2009 ‘“Laws impressed on matter by the deity”? The Origin and the question of religion’, in Michael Ruse and Robert J. Richards (eds.), The Cambridge companion to the ‘Origin of Species’, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 256–74.
John Hedley Brooke (forthcoming) ‘Science and secularization’, in P.Harrison (ed.), The Cambridge companion to science and religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reference Title: EDITED COLLECTIONS AND ENCYCLOPAEDIAS

Reference Type: bibliography

Brooke, John H., and E. Ihsanoglu (eds.), Religious values and the rise of science in Europe, Istanbul: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture, 2005.
Brooke, John H. M. J. Osler, and J. van der Meer and Ian Maclean (eds.), Heterodoxy in early modern science and religion, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Brooke, John H., M. J. Osler, and J. van der Meer (eds.), Science in theistic contexts: Cognitive dimensions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Brooke, John H. M. J. Osler, and J. van der Meer and Ronald L. Numbers (eds.), Science and religion around the world, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Clayton, Philip, and Zachary Simpson (eds.), The Oxford handbook of religion and science, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Ferngren, Gary B. (ed.), Science and religion: A historical introduction, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
Ferngren, Gary B. et al. (eds.), The history of science and religion in the western tradition: An encyclopedia, New York and London: Garland, 2000.
Harrison, Peter (ed.), The Cambridge companion to science and religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (forthcoming).
Hart, D., D. Livingstone, and M. Noll (eds.), Evangelicals and science in historical perspective, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Killeen, Kevin, and Peter Forshaw (eds.), The Word and the world: Biblical exegesis and early modern science, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Knight, David, and Matthew Eddy (eds.), Science and beliefs: From natural philosophy to natural science, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.
Lindberg, David C., and Ronald L. Numbers (eds.), God and nature: Historical essays on the encounter between Christianity and science, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1986.
Lindberg, David C., and Ronald L. Numbers When science and Christianity meet, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Numbers, Ronald L. (ed.), Galileo goes to jail and other myths about science and religion, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Proctor, James D. (ed.), Science, religion, and the human experience, New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Richardson, W. Mark, and Wesley J. Wildman (eds.), Religion and science: History, method and dialogue, London: Routledge, 1996.
van der Meer, Jitse (ed.), Facets of faith and science, 4 vols., New York: University Press of America, 1996.
van Huyssteen, J. Wentzel (ed.), Encyclopedia of science and religion, 2 vols., New York: Macmillan, 2003.
Wood, Paul (ed.), Science and dissent in England 1688–1945, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.

Reference Title: OVERVIEWS AND GENERAL WORKS

Reference Type: bibliography

Dixon, Thomas, Science and religion: A very short introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Livingstone, David N., Adam's ancestors: Race, religion, and the politics of human origins, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.
McGrath, Alister E., Science and religion: An introduction, Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.
Numbers, Ronald L., Science and Christianity in pulpit and pew, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Olson, Richard, Science and religion, 1450–1900: From Copernicus to Darwin, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Russell, Colin A., Cross-currents: Interactions between science and faith, Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
Taylor, Charles, A secular age, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007.

Reference Title: PARTICULAR (NON-PROTESTANT) RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS

Reference Type: bibliography

Bayly, C. A., Empire and information: Intelligence gathering and social communication in India, 1780–1870, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Dodson, Michael, ‘Re-presented for the Pandits: James Ballantyne, “useful knowledge”, and Sanskrit scholarship in Benares College during the nineteenth century’, Modern Asian Studies 36 (2002), 257–98.
Dodson, Michael Orientalism, empire and national culture: India, 1770–1880, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Killingley, Dermot, ‘Hinduism, Darwinism and evolution in late nineteenth-century India’, in David Amigoni and Jeff Wallace (eds.), Charles Darwin's The origin of species: New interdisciplinary essays, Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1995, pp. 174–202.
Lopez, Donald S., Buddhism and science: A guide for the perplexed, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
Sivasundaram, Sujit, ‘“A Christian Benares”: Orientalism and science in the Serampore Mission of Bengal’, Indian Economic and Social History Review 44 (2007), 111–45.
Young, Richard Fox, Resistant Hinduism: Sanskrit sources on anti-Christian apologetics in early nineteenth-century India, Vienna: Institut für Indologie der Universität Wien, 1991.
Young, Richard Fox ‘Receding from antiquity: Hindu responses to science and Christianity on the margins of Empire, 1800–1850’, in Robert Frykenberg (ed.), Christians and missionaries in India: Cross-cultural communication since 1500, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003, pp. 183–222.
Young, Richard Fox and G. P. V. Somaratna, Vain debates: The Buddhist–Christian controversies of nineteenth-century Ceylon, Vienna: De Nobili Research Library, 1996.
Ben-Zaken, Avner, ‘Heavens of the sky and the heavens of the heart: The Ottoman cultural context for the introduction of post-Copernican astronomy’, British Journal for the History of Science 37 (2004), 1–28.
Daiber, Hans, ‘Science and technology versus Islam: A controversy from Renan and Afghani to Nasr and Needham and its historical background’, Annals of Japan Association for Middle East Studies 8 (1993), 169–80.
Edis, Taner, An illusion of harmony: Science and religion in Islam, New York: Prometheus Books, 2007.
Gutas, Dimitri, ‘The study of Arabic philosophy in the twentieth century: An essay on the historiography of Arabic philosophy’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 29 (2002), 5–25.
Huff, Toby E., The rise of early modern science: Islam, China, and the West, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Ragep, F. J., ‘Duhem, the Arabs and the history of cosmology’, Revue de Synthèse 83 (1990), 201–14.
Sabra, A. I., ‘The appropriation and subsequent naturalisation of Greek science in medieval Islam’, History of Science 25 (1987), 223–43.
Saliba, George, Islamic science and the making of the European Renaissance, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.
Tibi, Bassa, ‘The worldview of Sunni Arab fundamentalists: Attitudes towards modern science and technology’, in M. E. Marty and R. S. Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalisms and society: Reclaiming the sciences, the family, and education, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, pp. 73–102.
Cantor, Geoffrey, Quakers, Jews, and science: Religious responses to modernity and the sciences in Britain, 1650–1900, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Cantor, Geoffrey and Marc Swetlitz (eds.), Jewish tradition and the challenge of Darwinism, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Charpa, Ulrich, and Ute Deichmann (eds.), Jews and sciences in German contexts: Case studies from the 19th and 20th centuries, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2007.
Efron, Noah J., Judaism and science: A historical introduction, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007.
Fisch, Menachem, Rational rabbis: Science and Talmudic culture, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997.
Hollinger, David A., Science, Jews, and secular culture: Studies in mid-twentieth-century American intellectual history, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Ruderman, David B., Jewish thought and scientific discovery in early modern Europe, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.
Artigas, Mariano, Thomas F. Glick, and Rafael A. Martinez, Negotiating Darwin: The Vatican confronts evolution, 1877–1902, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Finocchiaro, Maurice A., Retrying Galileo, 1633–1992, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007.
Harris, Ruth, Lourdes: Body and spirit in a secular age, London: Allen Lane, 1999.
Heilbron, J. L., The sun in the church: Cathedrals as solar observatories, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Hess, Peter M. J., and Paul L. Allen, Catholicism and science, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008.
McMullin, Ernan (ed.), The Church and Galileo, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005.
Mullin, Robert B., Miracles and the modern religious imagination, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.
O'Leary, Don, Roman Catholicism and modern science: A history, New York: Continuum, 2006.
Turner, Frank, John Henry Newman: The challenge to evangelical religion, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

Reference Title: THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD

Reference Type: bibliography

Barker, Peter, and Bernard R. Goldstein, ‘Theological foundations of Kepler's astronomy’, Osiris 16 (2001), 88–113.
Cohen, I. Bernard (ed.), Puritanism and the rise of modern science: The Merton thesis, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990.
Dear, Peter, Revolutionizing the sciences: European knowledge and its ambitions, 1500–1700, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001.
Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (ed. and trans.), The Galileo affair: A documentary history, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989.
Force, James E., and Richard H. Popkin, Essays on the context, nature, and influence of Isaac Newton's theology, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1990.
Funkenstein, Amos, Theology and the scientific imagination, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Harrison, Peter, The Bible, Protestantism, and the rise of natural science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Harrison, Peter ‘Physico-theology and the mixed sciences: Theology and early modern natural philosophy’, in Peter Anstey and John Schuster (eds.), The science of nature in the seventeenth century, Dordrecht: Springer, 2005, pp. 165–83.
Harrison, Peter The fall of man and the foundations of science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Heilbron, J. L., The sun in the church: Cathedrals as solar observatories, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Hooykaas, R., Religion and the rise of science, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1972.
Howell, Kenneth J., God's two books: Copernican cosmology and biblical interpretation in early modern science, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002.
Iliffe, Rob, Newton: A very short introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Israel, Jonathan I., Radical enlightenment: Philosophy and the making of modernity, 1650–1750, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Israel, Jonathan I., Enlightenment contested: Philosophy, modernity, and the emancipation of man 1670–1752, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Lindberg, David C., ‘Galileo, the Church, and the cosmos’, in Lindberg and Numbers (eds.), When science and Christianity meet, pp. 33–60.
McMullin, Ernan (ed.), The Church and Galileo, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005.
Oakley, Francis, Omnipotence, covenant, and order: An excursion in the history of ideas from Abelard to Leibniz, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984.
Osler, Margaret J., Divine will and the mechanical philosophy: Gassendi and Descartes on contingency and necessity in the created world, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Osler, Margaret J. ‘Mixing metaphors: Science and religion or natural philosophy and theology in early modern Europe’, History of Science 3 (1998), 91–113.
Osler, Margaret J.(ed.), Rethinking the scientific revolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Shapin, Steven, The scientific revolution, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Snobelen, Stephen, ‘Isaac Newton, heretic: The strategies of a Nicodemite’, British Journal for the History of Science 32 (1999), 381–419.
Snobelen, Stephen ‘“God of Gods and Lord of Lords”: The theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia’, Osiris 16 (2001), 169–208.
Snobelen, Stephen ‘To discourse of God: Isaac Newton's heterodox theology and his natural theology’, in Wood (ed.), Science and dissent, pp. 39–62.
Westfall, Richard S., Science and religion in seventeenth-century England, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1958.

Reference Title: THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

Reference Type: bibliography

Astore, William J., Observing God: Thomas Dick, evangelicalism, and popular science in Victorian Britain and America, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.
Barton, Ruth, ‘John Tyndall, pantheist: A rereading of the Belfast Address’, Osiris 3 (1987), 111–34.
Cantor, Geoffrey, Michael Faraday: Sandemanian and scientist, London: Macmillan, 1991.
Dixon, Thomas, From passions to emotions: The creation of a secular psychological category, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Dixon, Thomas ‘Looking beyond “The Rumpus about Moses and Monkeys”: Religion and the sciences in the nineteenth century’, Nineteenth Century Studies 17 (2003), 25–33.
Dixon, Thomas The invention of altruism: Making moral meanings in Victorian Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Fichman, Martin, An elusive Victorian: The evolution of Alfred Russel Wallace, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Fyfe, Aileen, ‘The reception of William Paley's Natural theology in the University of Cambridge’, British Journal for the History of Science 30 (1997), 321–35.
Fyfe, Aileen ‘Publishing and the classics: Paley's Natural theology and the nineteenth-century scientific canon’, Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 33 (2002), 433–55.
Fyfe, Aileen Science and salvation: Evangelical popular science publishing in Victorian Britain, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Fyfe, Aileen ‘Science and religion in popular publishing in nineteenth-century Britain’, in Peter Meusburger et al. (eds.), Clashes of knowledge: Orthodoxies and heterodoxies in science and religion, Dordrecht: Springer Science, 2008, pp. 121–32.
Gregory, Frederick, Scientific materialism in nineteenth-century Germany, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1977.
Gregory, Frederick Nature lost?: Natural science and the German theological traditions of the nineteenth century, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.
Lightman, Bernard, The origins of agnosticism: Victorian unbelief and the limits of knowledge, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.
Lightman, Bernard ‘Victorian sciences and religions: Discordant harmonies’, Osiris 16 (2001), 343–66.
Lightman, Bernard ‘Scientists as materialists in the periodical press: Tyndall's Belfast Address’, in Geoffrey Cantor and Sally Shuttleworth (eds.), Science serialized: Representations of the sciences in nineteenth-century periodicals, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004, 199–238.
Lightman, Bernard Victorian popularizers of science: Designing nature for new audiences, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Moore, James, ‘Herbert Spencer's henchmen: The evolution of Protestant liberals in late nineteenth-century America’, in John Durant (ed.), Darwinism and divinity: Essays on evolution and religious belief, Oxford: Blackwell, 1985, pp. 76–100.
O'Connor, Ralph, ‘Young-earth creationists in early nineteenth-century Britain? Towards a reassessment of “scriptural geology”’, History of Science 45 (2007), 357–403.
Roberts, Jon H., and James Turner, The sacred and the secular university, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Sivasundaram, Sujit, Nature and the godly empire: Science and evangelical mission in the Pacific, 1795–1850, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Topham, Jonathan R., ‘Science and popular education in the 1830s: The role of the Bridgewater treatises’, British Journal for the History of Science 25 (1992), 397–430.
Topham, Jonathan R. ‘Beyond the “common context”: The production and reading of the Bridgewater treatises’, Isis 89 (1998), 233–62.
Topham, Jonathan R. ‘Science, natural theology, and the practice of Christian piety in early nineteenth-century religious magazines’, in Geoffrey Cantor and Sally Shuttleworth (eds.), Science serialized: Representations of the sciences in nineteenth-century periodicals, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004, pp. 37–66.
Turner, Frank M., Between science and religion: The reaction to scientific naturalism in late Victorian England, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1974.
Turner, Frank M. ‘The Victorian conflict between science and religion: A professional dimension’, Isis 49 (1978), 356–76.
Turner, Frank M. Contesting cultural authority: Essays in Victorian intellectual life, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Turner, Frank M. John Henry Newman: The challenge to evangelical religion, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.
Welch, Claude, ‘Dispelling some myths about the split between theology and science in the nineteenth century’, in Richardson and Wildman (eds.), Religion and science, pp. 29–40.
Wilson, David, ‘Victorian science and religion’, History of Science 15 (1977), 52–67.
Yeo, Richard, ‘The principle of plenitude and natural theology in nineteenth-century Britain’, British Journal for the History of Science 19 (1986), 273–81.
Young, Robert M., ‘Natural theology, Victorian periodicals, and the fragmentation of a common context’, in Young, Darwin's metaphor: Nature's place in Victorian culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 126–63.

Reference Title: THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

Reference Type: bibliography

Bowler, Peter J., Reconciling science and religion: The debate in early twentieth-century Britain, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Dillistone, F. W., Charles Raven: Naturalist, historian, theologian, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975.
Gilbert, James, Redeeming culture: American religion in an age of science, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Hayward, Rhodri, Resisting history: Popular religion and the invention of the unconscious, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007.
Hollinger, David A., Science, Jews, and secular culture: Studies in mid-twentieth-century American intellectual history, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Jammer, Max, Einstein and religion: Physics and theology, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Moore, James R., ‘R. A. Fisher: A faith fit for eugenics’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (2007), 110–35.
Richards, Graham, ‘Psychology and the Churches in Britain, 1919–1939’, History of the Human Sciences 13 (2000), 57–84.
Roberts, Jon H., ‘Psychoanalysis and American Christianity, 1900–1945’, in Lindberg and Numbers (eds.), When science and Christianity meet, pp. 225–44.
Rupke, Nicolaas A. (ed.), Eminent lives in twentieth-century science and religion, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2007.
Stanley, Matthew, Practical mystic: Religion, science, and A. S. Eddington, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Reference Title: DARWINISM, EVOLUTION, AND CREATIONISM

Reference Type: bibliography

Artigas, Mariano, Thomas F. Glick, and Rafael A. Martinez, Negotiating Darwin: The Vatican confronts evolution, 1877–1902, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Bowler, Peter J., Monkey trials and gorilla sermons: Evolution and Christianity from Darwin to intelligent design, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Brown, Andrew, The Darwin wars, London: Simon and Schuster, 1999.
Cantor, Geoffrey, and Marc Swetlitz (eds.), Jewish tradition and the challenge of Darwinism, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Clark, Constance A., God or gorilla: Images of evolution in the Jazz Age, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.
Desmond, Adrian, and James R. Moore, Darwin's sacred cause: Race, slavery and the quest for human origins, London: Allen Lane, 2009.
Durant, John R. (ed.), Darwinism and divinity: Essays on evolution and religious belief, Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.
Ellegård, Alvar, Darwin and the general reader: The reception of Darwin's theory of evolution in the British periodical press, 1859–72, 2nd edn, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1990.
James, Frank, ‘An “open clash between science and the Church”? Wilberforce, Huxley, and Hooker on Darwin at the British Association, Oxford, 1860’, in Knight and Eddy (eds.), Science and beliefs, pp. 171–93.
Killingley, Dermot, ‘Hinduism, Darwinism and evolution in late nineteenth-century India’, in David Amigoni and Jeff Wallace (eds.), Charles Darwin's The origin of species: New interdisciplinary essays, Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1995, pp. 174–202.
Larson, Edward J., Summer for the gods: The Scopes trial and America's continuing debate over science and religion, New York: Basic Books, 1997.
Larson, Edward J. Trial and error: The American controversy over creation and evolution, 3rd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Livingstone, David N., Darwin's forgotten defenders: The encounter between evangelical theology and evolutionary thought, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987.
Livingstone, David N. Adam's ancestors: Race, religion, and the politics of human origins, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.
Moore, James R., The post-Darwinian controversies: A study of the Protestant struggle to come to terms with Darwin in Great Britain and America, 1870–1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Moore, James R. The Darwin legend, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1994.
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