2 - Why we are here  pp. 41-96

Why we are here

By Janet Dine

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter

‘Imagine some visionary statesman, in 1830 say, posing the question of how the advanced states of Europe and North America can preserve and, if possible, expand their economic dominance over the rest of the world even while bringing themselves into compliance with the core norms of Enlightenment morality. Find the best solution to this task you can think of and then compare it to the world today. Could the West have done any better?’. This question is posed by Thomas Pogge explaining the ability of rational humans to shape their thinking to suit their interests. Pogge does not believe that any such grand plan existed or exists but nevertheless believes that the prevalence of extreme poverty and the reasons given for not tackling the issue are a prime example of avoidance techniques by the rich: ‘moral norms, designed to protect the livelihood and dignity of the vulnerable, place burdens on the strong. If such norms are compelling enough, the strong make an effort to comply. But they also, consciously or unconsciously, try to get around the norms by arranging their social world so as to minimise their burdens of compliance’. In this chapter I examine some of the most important devices for achieving this effect. One of the most important is the limited liability company and the demands made on its managers to maximise the profits of shareholders.


Reference Type: bibliography

Adams, B., ‘Running Out of Time’ in T. Benton and M. Redclift (eds), Social Theory and the Global Environment (Routledge, 1994)
Adams, W. M., Green Development (Routledge, London, 1990)
Addo, M., ‘Justiciability Re-examined’ in R. Beddard and D. Hill (eds), Economic Social and Cultural Rights: Progress and Achievements (Macmillan, 1992)
Addo, M., ‘Human Rights and Transnational Corporations: An Introduction’ in M. Addo (ed.), Human Rights and Transnational Corporations (Kluwer, The Hague, 1999), pp. 3–14
Alston, P., ‘US Ratification of the Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights: The Need for an Entirely New Strategy’ (1990) 84 Am. J International Law 365
Alston, P., ‘The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ in P. Alston (ed.), The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal (Clarendon, Oxford, 1992)
Alston, P., ‘Resisting the Merger and Acquisition of Human Rights by Trade Law: A Reply to Petersmann’ (2002) 13 EJIL 815
Alston, P. and Quinn, G., ‘The Nature and Scope of States Parties’ Obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights' (1987) HRQ 9
Anderman, S., EC Competition Law and Intellectual Property Rights (Clarendon, Oxford, 1998)
Anderman, S., Management Decisions and Workers' Rights (4th edn, Butterworths, London, 2000)
Anderson, S. and Cavanaugh, J., The Rise of Global Corporate Power (Institute for Policy Studies, Washington DC, 1996)
Arambulo, K., Strengthening the Supervision of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Theoretical and Procedural Aspects (Intersentia, Antwerpen, 1999)
Arup, C., The New World Trade Organisation Agreements: Globalising Law through Services and Intellectual Property (CUP, 2000)
Ashworth, A., Principles of Criminal Law (3rd edn, OUP, 1999)
Athukorala, P., Crisis and Recovery in Asia: The Role of Capital Controls (E. Elgar, Cheltenham, 2003)
Ayres, I. and Braithwaite, J., Responsive Regulation (OUP, 1992)
Bal, S., ‘International Free Trade Agreements and Human Rights: Reinterpreting Article XX of the Gatt’ (2001) 10 Minn. J Global Trade 62
Baldwin, R., ‘Introduction – Risk: The Legal Contribution’ in R. Baldwin (ed.), Law and Uncertainty: Risks and the Legal Processes (Kluwer, Berlin, 1997)
Beetham, D., ‘What Future for Economic and Social Rights?’ (1995) Political Studies Association 43
Belcher, A., ‘The Boundaries of the Firm: The Theories of Coase, Knight and Weitzman’ (1997) 17(1) Legal Studies 22
Benton, T. and Redclift, M., Social Theory and the Global Environment (Routledge, 1994)
Berle, A., ‘For Whom are Corporate Managers Trustees’ (1932) Harvard Law Review 1365
Berle, A. and Means, G., Modern Corporation and Private Property (Macmillan, New York, reprint, 1962)
Bernard, N., Multilevel Governance in the European Union (Kluwer International, The Hague, 2002)
Bernstein, A., Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk (Wiley, London, 1996)
Betten, L. and Grief, N., EU Law and Human Rights (Longman, 1998)
Bingham, T., ‘The Law Favours Liberty: Slavery and the English Common Law’, Essex Law Lecture, 2003
Black, J., ‘Perspectives on Derivatives Regulation’ in A. Hudson (ed.), Modern Financial Techniques, Derivatives and Law (Kluwer, London, 2000)
Blecher, M., ‘Environmental Officer: Management in an Ecological Quality Organisation’ in G. Teubner (ed.), Environmental Law and Ecological Responsibility: The Concept and Practice of Ecological Self-Organisation (Wiley, London, 1994)
Blumberg, P., ‘The American Law of Corporate Groups’ in J. McCaherty, S. Picciotto and C. Scott (eds), Corporate Control and Accountability (Clarendon, Oxford, 1993)
Borensztein, E., de Gregorio, J. and Lee, J., ‘How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth?’ (2002) Journal of International Economics 45
Bottomley, S., ‘Taking Corporations Seriously: Some Considerations for Corporate Regulation’ (1990) 19 Federal Law Review 203
Bottomley, S. and Kinley, D., Commercial Law and Human Rights (Ashgate, Dartmouth, Aldershot, 2002)
Brenton, P., Integrating the Least Developed Countries into the World Trading System: The Current Impact of EU Preferences under Everything But Arms (World Bank, Washington, 27 February 2003)
Briton, W. Jnr, ‘The New Economic Theory of the Firm: Critical Perspectives from History’ (1989) Stanford Law Review 1471
Brown, P., ‘Food as National Property’ in H. Shue (ed.), Food Policy: The Responsibility of the United States in Life and Death Choices (Free Press, Macmillan, London 1977)
Brundtland, H., Our Common Future (OUP, 1987)
Bueno de Mesquita, J., ‘International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: International Co-operation and Assistance’ (forthcoming)
Butler, A., ‘Funke v France and the Right Against Self-incrimination: A Critical Analysis’ (2001) Criminal Law Forum 461
Cahn, J., ‘Challenging the New Imperial Authority: The World Bank and the Democratization of Development’ (1993) 6 Harvard Human Rights Journal 160
Campbell, D., ‘Why Regulate the Modern Corporation? The Failure of Market Failure’ in J. McCahery, S. Picciotto and C. Scott (eds), Corporate Control and Accountability (Clarendon, Oxford, 1993)
Campbell, D., ‘Reflexivity and Welfarism in the Modern Law of Contract’ (2000) Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 477
Cateau, H. and Carrington, S. (eds), Capitalism and Slavery Fifty Years Later (Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2000)
Chambers, R., Whose Reality Counts (Intermediate Technology, 1997)
Chatterjee, C., ‘The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises: An Analysis’ (2002) Amicus Curiae 18
Cheffins, B., Company Law: Theory, Structure and Operation (Clarendon, Oxford, 1997)
Chomsky, N., Profit Over People (Seven Stories Press, New York, 1999)
Chossudovsky, M., The Globalisation of Poverty (Pluto, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1998)
Cockburn, A., ‘21st Century Slaves’, National Geographic, September 2003
Cohen, G., If You're an Egalitarian How Come You're so Rich? (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2000)
Coleman, J., ‘Responsibility in Corporate Action: A Sociologist's View’ in K. Hopt and G. Teubner (eds), Corporate Governance and Directors' Liabilities (de Gruyter, 1985)
Collapse (CCH Australia, 2001)
Colling, T., Employee Relations in the Public Services (Routledge, 1999)
Cooter, R., ‘Law and Unified Social Theory’ (1995) 22 Journal of Law and Society 50
Craven, M., The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on its Development (OUP, New York, 1995)
Cruver, B., Anatomy of Greed (Arrow, 2003)
Cullett, P., ‘Patents and Medicines: The Relationship between Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property and the Human Right to Health’ (2003) International Affairs 79
Czinkota, M., I. Ronksinen and M. Moffett, International Business (4th edn, Dryden, 1996)
Darity, W., ‘British Industry and the West Indies Plantations’ in J. Inikori, S. Engerman (eds), The Atlantic Slave Trade (Duke University Press, 1992)
Deakin, S. and Hughes, A. (eds), Enterprise and Community: New Directions in Corporate Governance (Blackwell, Oxford, 1997)
Deakin, S. and Morris, G., Labour Law (3rd edn, Butterworths, London, 2001)
Dennis, I., ‘Instrumental Protection, Human Right or Functional Necessity? Reassessing the Privilege Against Self-Incrimination’ (1995) Cambridge Law Journal 342
Department of Trade and Industry, Business and Society: Corporate Social Responsibility Report (DTI, 2001)
Dennis, I., White Paper on Competitiveness (1998)
Dine, J., Criminal Law in the Company Context (Dartmouth, 1995)
Dine, J., The Governance of Corporate Groups (CUP, 2000)
Dine, J., ‘Risks and Systems: A New Approach to Corporate Governance and the European Employee Consultation Stuctures?’ (2001) 3(2) International and Comparative Corporate Law Journal 299
Dine, J. and Watt, B., ‘Sexual Harassment: Hardening the Soft Law’ (1994) ELR 104
Dine, J. and Hughes, P., EC Company Law (Jordans, looseleaf)
Dodd, E., ‘For Whom are Corporate Managers Trustees’ (1931) Harvard Law Review 1049
Dommen, C., ‘Raising Human Rights Concerns in the World Trade Organisation: Actors, Processes and Possible Strategies’ (2001) Human Rights Quarterly 30
Drahos, P., ‘Bilateralism in Intellectual Property’, paper prepared for Oxfam, 2003
Drahos, P. and Braithwaite, J., Global Business Regulation (CUP, 2000)
Drzewicki, K. ‘The Right to Work and Rights at Work’ in A. Eide, C. Krause and A. Rosas (eds), Economic Social and Cultural Rights (2nd edn, Martinus Nijhoff, 2001)
Du Plessis, J.-J., ‘Corporate Governance: Reflections on the German Two-Tier System’ (1996) Journal of South African Law 315
Dunn, R., Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624–1713 (University of North Carolina Press, 1972, 2000)
Dunning, J. (ed.), Making Globalisation Work (OUP, 2003)
Dworkin, R., ‘Is Wealth a Value?’ (1980) Journal of Legal Studies 191
Easterbrook, F. and Fischel, D., The Economic Structure of Corporate Law (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1991)
Easterbrook, F. and Fischel, D., Economic Analysis of Law (2nd edn, Little Brown, Boston, 1977)
Eatwell, J., ‘International Capital Liberalisation: The Impact on World Development’, Working Paper Series III, Center for Economic Policy Analysis (New York, 1996)
Eatwell, J. and Taylor, L., Global Finance at Risk (New Press, New York, 2000)
Ehrenreich, B., Nickel and Dimed (Granta, London, 2002)
Eichengreen, B. and Ruhl, C., ‘The Bail-in Problem: Systematic Goals, Ad Hoc Means’ (http:://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/eichengr/)
Eide, A. Krause, C. and Rosas, A. (eds), Economic Social and Cultural Rights (2nd edn, Martinus Nijhoff, 2001)
Erikson, E. and Fritzell, K., ‘The Effects of the Social Welfare System on the Well-being of Children and the Elderly’ in A. Palmer, T. Smeeding and E. Torrey (eds), The Vulnerable (University of Chicago Press, 1988)
European Commission Green Paper, Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility (COM (2001) 366 final, Brussels, 18 July 2001)
European Commission Staff Working Paper, ‘Reforming the European Union's Sugar Policy’ (Brussels, SEC (2003))
Ewing, K., ‘Britain and the International Labour Organization’ in K. Ewing, C. Gearty and B. Hepple (eds), Human Rights and Labour Law: Essays for Paul O'Higgins (Mansell, London, 1994)
Fairclough, N., New Labour, New Language (Routledge, London, 2000)
J. Farrah and B. Hannigan, Farrar's Company Law (Butterworths, London, 1998)
Findlay, R., ‘Trade and Growth in the Industrial Revolution’ in C. Kindleberger and G. di Tella (eds), Essays in Honour of W. W. Rostow, vol. I, Models and Methodology (New York University Press, 1982)
Finger, J., ‘The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades as International Discipline over Trade Restrictions: A Public Interest Approach’ in R. Vaubel and T. Willett (eds), The Political Economy of International Organisations: A Public Choice Approach (Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1991)
Flickling, D., ‘Misery of Rag-Trade Slaves in America's Pacific Outpost’, Guardian, 1 March 2003
Forrester, D., Christian Justice and Public Policy (CUP, 1997)
Francioni, F. (ed), Environment, Human Rights and International Trade (Hart, Oxford, 2001)
Frankel, J. and Roubini, N., ‘The Role of Industrial Policies in Emerging Market Crises’, US National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 8634 (2000)
French, D., ‘Reappraising Sovereignty in Light of Global Environmental Concerns’ (2001) Legal Studies 1
Friedman, M., ‘Greed is Good’, New York Times Magazine, 13 September 1970
Friedman, M., ‘The Social Responsibility of Business is to Make Profits’ in G. Steiner and J. Steiner (eds), Issues in Business and Society (Random House, 1977)
Friedmann, W., Law in a Changing Society (2nd edn, Penguin Books, London, 1971)
Gaja, G., ‘How Flexible is Flexibility under the Amsterdam Treaty’ (1998) Common Market Law Review 975
Getzler, J., ‘Theories of Property and Economic Development’ in J. Harris (ed.), Property Problems: From Genes to Pension Funds (Kluwer, 1997)
Gladwell, M., ‘The Talent Myth’, The Times, 20 August 2002
Gless, S. and Zeitler, H., ‘Fair Trial Rights and the European Community's Fight Against Fraud’ (2001) European Law Journal 219
‘Global 500: The World's Largest Corporations’, Fortune, 7 August 1995
Global Witness, ‘Time for Transparency: Coming Clean on Oil, Mining and Gas Revenues’ (www.globalwitness.org) 24 March 2004
Gobert, J., ‘Corporate Killing at Home and Abroad – Reflections on the Government's Proposals’ (2002) LQR 72
Goodpaster, K., ‘The Concept of Corporate Responsibility’ (1983) 2 Journal of Business Ethics 1
Gower, Principles of Modern Company Law (6th edn, P. Davies, (ed.), Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1997)
Greenfield, K., ‘From Rights to Regulation’ in F. Patfield (ed.), Perspectives on Company Law I (Kluwer, 1997)
Habermas, J., Between Facts and Norms (W. Rehg (trans.), Polity Press, Cambridge, 1996)
Hadden, T., ‘An International Perspective on Groups’ in J. McCahery, S. Picciotto, and C. Scott (eds), Corporate Control and Accountability (Clarendon, Oxford, 1993)
Hale, B., ‘Power Giant Buys Town to Avoid Pollution Lawsuits’, The Times, 14 May 2002
Hanson, G., ‘Should Countries Promote Foreign Direct Investment?’, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development G-24 Discussion Paper Series 9 (Geneva, 2001)
Harris, J., Property and Justice (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996)
Harris, N., The New Untouchables: Immigration and the New World Worker (Tauris & Co. Ltd, New York, 1995)
Harris, N., Thinking the Unthinkable: The Immigration Myth Exposed (Tauris & Co. Ltd, London and New York, 2002)
Harrison, P., Inside the Third World (3rd edn, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1993)
Hayden, P., John Rawls: Towards a Just World Order (University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 2002)
Hayek, F., Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. II, The Mirage of Social Justice (2nd edn, Routledge, London, 1982)
Hayek, F., Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. III, The Political Order of a Free People (2nd edn, Routledge, London, 1982)
Hayter, T., Open Borders: The Case Against Immigration Controls (Pluto, London, 2000)
Hazeltine, H., Lapsley, G. and Winfield, P. (eds), Maitland Selected Essays (CUP, 1936)
Heerings, H. and Zeldenrust, I., Elusive Saviours (International Books, Utrecht, 1995)
Henderson, D., Misguided Virtue (IEA, London, 2001)
Henkin, L., International Law: Policies and Values (Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 1995)
Hertsgaard, M., Earth Odyssey (Abacus, London, 1999)
Hertz, N., The Silent Takeover (Heinemann, 2001)
Higgins, R., Problems and Process: International Law and How We Use It (Clarendon, Oxford, 1994)
Higgins, R., The Development of International Law through the Political Organs of the United Nations (OUP, London, 1963)
Hill, J., ‘Visions and Revisions of the Shareholder’ (2000) Am. J Comparative Law 39
Hindley, B., ‘What Subjects are Suitable for World Trade Organization Agreement?’ in D. Kennedy and J. Southwick, The Political Economy of World Trade (CUP, 2002)
Hirst, P. and Thompson, G., Globalisation in Question (2nd edn, Blackwell, Oxford, 1996)
Hoekman, B. and Kostecki, M., The Political Economy of the World Trading System (2nd edn, OUP, 2001)
Home Office, Reforming the Law on Involuntary Manslaughter (2000)
Hopkins, M., The Planetary Bargain (Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1999)
Horowitz, S., ‘Marxian Economics and Modern Economic Theory’ in S. Horowitz (ed.), Marx and Modern Economics (Macgibbon & Key, London, 1968)
Howse, R., ‘The Early Years of World Trade Organization Jurisprudence’ in J. Weiler (ed.), The EU, the World Trade Organization and NAFTA (Oxford, 2000)
Howse, R., ‘Human Rights in the World Trade Organization: Whose Rights, What Humanity? Comment on Petersmann’ (2002 13 EJIL) 651
Hunt, P., Reclaiming Social Rights (Ashgate, Aldershot, 1996)
Hunt, P., ‘Relations between the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and International Financial Institutions’ in W. Genugten, P. Hunt and S. Mathews, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Human Rights (Wolf Legal Publishers, Nijmegan, 2003)
Hutton, W., ‘Anthony Giddens and Will Hutton in Conversation’ in W. Hutton and A. Giddens (eds), On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism (Cape, London, 2000)
Hutton, W., The World We're In (Little Brown, London, 2002)
International Labour Organization, A Fair Globalisation: The Final Report of the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalisation (International Labour Organization, Geneva, 2004)
International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook (International Monetary Fund, Washington DC, 1998)
International Monetary Fund, (International Monetary Fund, Washington DC, 1998)
International Monetary Fund, ‘Conditionality: Fostering Sustained Policy Implementation’ in L. McQuillan and P. Montgomery (eds), The International Monetary Fund (Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, 1999)
Inikori, J., ‘Slavery and the Revolution in Cotton Textile Production in England’ in J. Inikori and S. Engerman (ed.), The Atlantic Slave Trade (Duke University Press, 1992)
Inikori, J., ‘Capitalism and Slavery, Fifty Years After: Eric Williams and the Changing Explanations of the Industrial Revolution’ in H. Cateau and S. Carrington (eds), Capitalism and Slavery Fifty Years Later (Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2000)
Inikori, J., Bailey, R., Darity, W. and Richardson, D., ‘Slavery, Trade and Economic Growth in Eighteenth Century New England’ in B. Solow (ed.), Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System (CUP, 1991)
International Council on Human Rights, Beyond Voluntarism (2002), (www.international-council.org)
Ireland, P., ‘Company Law and the Myth of Shareholder Ownership’ (1999) MLR 62
Ireland, P., ‘Property and Contract in Contemporary Corporate Theory’ (2004) Legal Studies 451
Irwin, D., Free Trade Under Fire (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 2002)
Jackson, J., The Jurisprudence of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades and the World Trade Organization: Insights on Treaty Law and Economic Relations (CUP, 2000)
Jacobs, D., ‘Reforming Economic, Governance in the Interests of the Poor’ (djacobs@oxfamamerica.org), paper presented at Conference on ‘Alternatives to Neo-liberalism’, 23–24 May 2002, Washington
Jacobs, M., ‘The Limits to Neoclassicism’ in T. Benton and M. Redclift (eds), Social Theory and the Global Environment (Routledge, 1994)
Jagers, N., ‘The Legal Status of Multinational Corporations under International Law’ in M. Addo (ed.), Human Rights Standards and the Responsibility of Transnational Corporations (Kluwer, 1999)
James, M., Social Problems and Policy during the Puritan Revolution, 1640–1660 (London, 1930)
Johnson, B. and Schaefer, B., ‘Why the International Monetary Fund is Ineffective’ in L. McQuillan and P. Montgomery (eds), The International Monetary Fund (Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, 1999)
Kahn-Freund, O., ‘Some Reflections on Company Law Reform’ (1944) 7 MLR 54
Karl, J., ‘The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises’ in M. Addo (ed.), Human Rights Standards and the Responsibility of Transnational Corporations', (Kluwer, 1999)
Karl, K., ‘Economic Partnership Agreements: Hopes, Fears and Challenges’ (2002) 195 Courier ACP-EU (November–December)
Karliner, J., The Corporate Planet (Sierra Club, San Fransisco, 1997)
Kenen, P., The International Economy (4th edn, CUP, 2000)
Kennedy, D. and Southwick, J. (eds), The Political Economy of the World Trading System (CUP, 2002)
Kerse, C., EC Antitrust Procedure (4th edn, Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1998)
Khan, M., ‘The Macroeconomic Effects of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs’ in L. McQuillan and P. Montgomery (eds), The International Monetary Fund (Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, 1999)
Klein, M. and Olivei, G., ‘Capital Account Liberalisation: Financial Depth and Economic Growth’, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 7384 (Cambridge, Mass, 1999)
Klein, N., No Logo (Picador, 1999)
Klein, N., Fences and Windows (Picador, 2002)
Korten, D., When Corporations Rule the World (Kumarian Press, 1995)
Kristol, I., ‘Human Rights: the Hidden Agenda’ (1986/7) 3 National Interest (winter)
Krugman, P., ‘Currency Crises’ in M. Feldstein (ed.), International Capital Flows (University of Chicago Press, 1999)
Kwa, A., ‘Power Politics in the World Trade Organization’, Focus on the Global South, January 2003 (www.focusweb.org)
Kwesi Johnson, L., ‘Jamacia Uncovered’, Guardian, 28 February 2003, reviewing ‘Life and Debt’, a film by Stephanie Black
Larsson, T., The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalisation (Cato Institute, Washington, 1999)
Lash, S., Szersynski, B. and Wynne, B., Risk, Environment and Modernity: Towards a New Ecology (Sage, 1996)
Law Commission, Legislating the Criminal Code: Involuntary Manslaughter (Report No. 237, 1996)
Leader, S., Freedom of Association (Yale University Press, 1992)
Locke, J., Two Treatises of Government (P. Laslett (ed.), CUP, 1988)
Lukes, S., Individualism (Blackwells, Oxford, 1979)
MacIntyre, A., Marxism and Christianity (Duckworth, London, 1969)
Macmillan, F., World Trade Organization and the Environment (Sweet and Maxwell, London, 2001)
Marceau, G., ‘A Call for Coherence in International Law: Praises for the Prohibition against “Clinical Isolation” in World Trade Organization Disputes’ (1999) Journal of World Trade 87
Marx, K., Capital Punishment, New York Daily Tribune, 18 February 1853
McCormack, G., ‘Self-Incrimination in the Corporate Context’ (1992) JBL 442
Mclean, B. and Elkind, P., The Smartest Guys in the Room (Viking, London, 2003)
McQuillan, L. and Montgomery, P. (eds), The International Monetary Fund: Financial Medic to the World? (Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, 1999)
Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J. and Behrens, W., The Limits to Growth (Universe Books, New York, 1972)
Mill, J. S., On Liberty (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1974)
Monbiot, G., Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain (Macmillan, 2000)
Monsod, S., ‘Human Rights and Human Development’ in Human Development and Human Rights (Human Development Report Office, 1998)
Moore, M., World Without Walls (CUP, 2002)
Moxham, R., The Great Hedge of India (Constable and Robinson, London, 2001)
Muchlinski, P., Multinational Enterprises and the Law (Blackwell, Oxford, 1995)
Muchlinski, P., ‘Corporations in International Litigation: Problems of Jurisdiction and the United Kingdom Asbestos Case’ (2001) ICLQ 1
Munk, D., ‘Lula's Dreams for Brazil are Delayed as the Realities of Power Hit Home’, Guardian, 31 December 2003
Murphy, J., ‘Marxism and Retribution’ in Marx, Justice and History (Princetown University Press, 1980)
Naismith, S., ‘Self-incrimination: Fairness or Freedom?’ (1997) European Human Rights Law Review 229
Narayan, D., Petesch, P., Shah, M. and Chambers, R., World Bank Development Report 2000–2001: Voices of the Poor – Can Anyone Hear Us? (OUP, New York, 2000)
Nash, G., ‘Foreward’ in R. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624–1713 (University of North Carolina Press, 1972, 2000)
New Rules for Global Finance Coalition, Debating the Tobin Tax (Washington DC, November 2003)
Novak, M., UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: CCPR Commentary (Engel, Kehl, 1993)
Nozic, R., Anarchy, State and Utopia (Harvard University Press, 1973)
O'Neill, O., ‘Agents of Justice’ in T. Pogge (ed.), Global Justice (Blackwell, Oxford, 2001)
Ogus, A., Regulation: Legal Form and Economic Theory (Clarendon, Oxford, 1994)
Oppenheim, L., International Law: A Treatise (2nd edn, David McKay & Co, New York, 1912)
Ostrey, S., ‘The Uruguay Round North-South Grand Bargain’ in D. Kennedy and J. Southwick, The Political Economy of The World Trading System (CUP, 2002)
Oxfam, ‘Tax Havens: Releasing the Hidden Billions for Poverty Eradication’ (Oxfam Policy Papers, Oxford, 2000)
Oxfam, America Oil, Gas and Mining: Poor Communities Pay the Price (Oxfam, Boston, 2001)
Oxfam, Global Finance Hurts the Poor (Oxfam America, 2002)
Page, S. and Hewitt, A., ‘The New European Trade Preferences: Does “Everything But Arms” (Everything But Arms Initiative) Help the Poor’ (2002) 20(1) Development Policy Review 91
Palast, G., The Best Democracy Money Can buy (Pluto, 2002)
Parker, C., The Open Corporation (CUP, 2002)
Parkinson, J., Corporate Power and Responsibility (Clarendon, Oxford, 1995)
Parkinson, J., ‘The Socially Responsible Company’ in M. Addo (ed.), Human Rights Standards and the Responsibility of Transnational Corporations (Kluwer, The Hague, 1999)
Paust, J., ‘Human Rights Responsibilities of Private Corporations’ (2002) Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 801
Peers, S., ‘Fundamental Right or Political Whim? World Trade Organization Law and the European Court of Justice’ in G. de Burca and J. Scott (eds), World Trade Organization and the European Court of Justice (Hart, Oxford, 2001)
Peritz, R., Competition Policy in American History, Rhetoric, Law (OUP, 2000)
Petersmann, E., ‘The EEC as a General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades Member: Legal Conflicts between General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades Law and European Community Law’ in M. Hilf, F. G. Jacobs and E. Petersmann (eds), The European Community and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades (Kluwer, Deventer, 1986)
Petersmann, E., ‘Constitutional Principles Governing the EEC's Commercial Policy’ in M. Maresceau (ed.), The European Community's Commercial Policy After 1992: The Legal Dimension (Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 1993)
Petersmann, E., ‘International Trade Law and International Environmental Law: Environmental Taxes and Border Tax Adjustment in World Trade Organization and EC Law’ in Revesz, Sands and Stewart (eds), Environmental Law, the Economy, and Sustainable Development (CUP, 2000)
Petersmann, E., ‘Time for a United Nations “Global Compact” for Integrating Human Rights into the Law of Worldwide Organisations: Lessons from European Integration’ (2002) 13 EJIL 621
Pettet, B., Company Law (Pearson Education, Edinburgh, 2001)
Pilger, J., The New Rulers of the World (Verso, London, 2002)
Pogge, T., Realising Rawls (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1989)
Pogge, T., ‘Rawls on International Justice’ (2001) 51 Philosophical Quarterly 246
Pogge, T., World Poverty and Human Rights (Polity Press, Oxford, 2002)
Pogge, T., ‘The First Millennium Development Goal’ (www.etikk.ne/globaljustice/)
Pogge, T. (ed.), Global Justice (Blackwell, Oxford, 2001)
Posner, R., Economic Analysis of Law (4th edn, Little Brown, Boston, 1992)
Prentice, D., ‘Some Comments on the Law of Groups’ in (J. McCahery, S. Picciotto and C. Scott (eds), Corporate Control and Accountability (Clarendon, Oxford, 1993)
Prentice, D., ‘Corporate Personality, Limited Liability, and the Protection of Creditors’ in R. Grantham and C. Rickett (eds), Corporate Personality in the 20th Century (Hart, Oxford, 1998)
Quereshi, A., International Economic Law (Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1999)
Quereshi, A., ‘The Cartagena Protocal on Biosafety and the World Trade Organization: Co-existence or Incoherence?’ (2000) ICLQ 835
Quinn, D., ‘The Correlates of Change in International Financial Regulation’ (1997) 91(3) American Political Science Reviewe 531
Rampersad, F., Critical Issues in Caribbean Development, No. 2 (Ian Randle Publishers, 1997)
Rawls, J., A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1971, revised edn 1999)
Rawls, J., Political Liberalism (Columbia University Press, New York, 1993)
Rawls, J., The Law of Peoples (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1999)
Rawls, J., ‘The Law of Peoples’ in S. Shute and S. Hurley (eds), On Human Rights (Basic Books, New York, 1993)
Reddy, S. and Pogge, T., ‘How Not to Count the Poor’ (www.socialanalysis.org)
Renucci, J., Droit européen des droits de l'homme (2nd edn, 2001)
Riley, A., ‘The European Convention on Human Rights Implications of the Investigative Provisions of the Draft Competition Regulation’ (2002) ICLQ 55
Riley, C., ‘Understanding and Regulating the Corporation’ (1995) 58 Modern Law Review 595
Rixon, F., ‘Lifting the Veil between Holding and Subsidiary Companies’ (1986) 102 LQR 415
Rodrik, D., Has Globalisation Gone too Far? (Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC, 1997)
Rodrik, D., ‘Who Needs Capital Account Convertibility?’ (1998) Princeton Essays in International Finance 55
Rolston, B., ‘“A Lying Old Scoundrel”: Waddell Cunningham and Belfast's Role in the Slave Trade’ (www.historyireland.com/magazine/features/11.1Feat.html, 8 October 2003)
Ross, A., ‘Tu-tu’ (1957) 70 Harvard Law Review 625
Rowell, A., Green Backlash: Global Subversion of the Environment Movement (Routledge, 1996)
Royal Society, Risk: Analysis, Perception and Management (Royal Society, 1992)
Sachdev, S., Contracting Culture: From CCT to PPPs (UNISON, 2001)
Sacks, D. and Thiel, P., ‘The International Monetary Fund's Big Wealth Transfer’ in L. McQuillan and P. Montgomery (eds), The International Monetary Fund (Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, 1999)
Sagoff, M., The Economy of the Earth (CUP, 1988)
Salter, M., ‘Hegel and the Social Dynamics of Property Law’ in J. Harris (ed.), Property Problems (Kluwer, 1997)
Schlosser, E., Fast Food Nation (Penguin, London, 2002)
Scott, J., ‘Corporate Groups and Network Structure’ in J. McCaherty, S. Picciotto and C. Scott (eds), Corporate Control and Accountability (Clarendon, Oxford, 1993)
Scott, J., ‘Trade and Environment in the EU and World Trade Organization’ in J. Weiler (ed.), The EU, the World Trade Organization and the NAFTA: Towards a Common Law of International Trade (OUP, 2000)
Sedley, ‘Wringing out the Fault: Self-Incrimination in the 21st Century’ (2001) Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly 115
Sen, A., Development as Freedom (OUP, 1999)
Sharma, S., The Asian Financial Crisis (Manchester University Press, 2003)
Shue, H., Basic Rights (2nd edn, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1996)
Singer, P., ‘Reconsidering the Famine Relief Argument’ in P. Brown and H. Shue (eds), Food Policy: The Responsibility of the United States in the Life and Death Choices (Free Press, New York, 1977)
Sklair, L., Global Sociology and Global Environmental Change in T. Benton and M. Redclift, Social Theory and the Global Environment (Routledge, 1994)
Skogly, S., The Human Rights Obligations of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (Cavendish Publishing, London, 2001)
Skogly, S. and Gibney, M., ‘Transnational Human Rights Obligations’ (2002) Human Rights Quarterly 781
Smith, A., The Wealth of Nations (J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1910)
Smith, A., ‘The Right to Silence in Cases of Serious Fraud’ in P. Birks (ed.), Pressing Problems in the Law, vol. 1, Criminal Justice and Human Rights (OUP, 1995)
Soros, G., The Crisis of Global Capitalism: Open Society Endangered (Public Affairs, New York, 1998)
Spielman, D., ‘Human Rights Case Law in the Strasbourg and Luxembourg Courts: Conflicts, Inconsistencies and Complementarities’ in P. Alston, M. Bustelo and J. Heenan (eds), The EU and Human Rights (OUP, 1999)
Stiglitz, J., ‘Capital Market Liberalisation, Economic Growth and Instability’ (2000) 28(6) World Development 1075
Stiglitz, J., Globalisation and its Discontents (Allen Lane, London, 2002)
Stiglitz, J., The Roaring Nineties (Allen Lane, London, 2003)
Stokes, M., ‘Company Law and Legal Theory’ in W. Twining (ed.), Legal Theory and Common Law (Blackwell, Oxford, 1986)
Stoljar, S. J., Groups and Entities: An Enquiry into Corporate Theory (ANU Press, Canberra, 1973)
Story, J., ‘Reform: What has been Written?’ in G. Underhill and X. Zhang (eds), International Financial Governance Under Stress (CUP, 2003)
Sugarman, D. and Rubin, G., Law, Economy and Society (Professional Books, Abingdon, 1984)
Sullivan, D. and Conlon, D., ‘Crisis and Transition in Corporate Governance Paradigms: The Role of the Chancery Court of Delaware’ (1997) Law and Society Review 713
Taylor, I. and Eatwell, J., Global Finance at Risk (New Press, New York, 2000)
Teubner, G., ‘Corporate Fiduciary Duties and their Beneficiaries: A Functional Approach to the Legal Institutionalization of Corporate Responsibility’ in G. Hopt and H. Teubner (eds), Corporate Governance and Directors' Liabilities (de Greuter, Berlin, 1987)
Teubner, G., ‘Enterprise Corporatism: New Industrial Policy and the “Essence of the Legal Person”’ (1988) 36 Am. J Comparative Law 130
Third World Network, ‘A World in Social Crisis: Basic Facts on Poverty, Unemployment and Social Disintegration’ (1994) 52 Third World Resurgence
Thomas, H., The Slave Trade (Papermac, London, 1997)
Toynbee, P., Hard Work (Bloomsbury, London, 2003)
Toynbee, P., ‘A Cringing Appeasement of the Rich and Powerful’, Guardian, 24 March 2004
Uchitelle, L., ‘A Bad Side of Bailouts: Some Go Unpenalized’ in L. McQuillan and P. Montgomery (eds), The International Monetary Fund (Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, 1999)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Trade and Investment Report 1997 (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva, 1997)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Transnational Corporations and Competitiveness (New York, 1999)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Trade and Development Report 2000: Global Economic Growth and Imbalances (UN, Geneva, 2000)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Least Developed Countries Report 2002 (UN, Geneva, 2002)
UN Development Programme, Human Development Report 1992 (OUP, 1992)
UN Development Programme, Human Development Report 1996 (OUP, New York, 1996)
UN Economic and Social Council, Work on the Formulation of the United Nations Code of Conduct on Transnational Corporations: Outstanding Issues in the Draft Code of Conduct on Transnational Corporations (E/C10/1985/5/2, 22 May 1985)
UN Executive Committee on Economic and Social Affairs, Towards a New International Financial Architecture (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, 1999)
Underhill, G. and Zhang, X., International Financial Governance Under Stress: Global Structures versus National Imperatives (CUP, 2003)
Underhill, G. and Zhang, X., ‘Global Structures and Political Imperatives: in Search of Normative Underpinnings for International Financial Order’ in G. Underhill and X. Zhang (eds), International Financial Governance Under Stress (CUP, 2003)
United Population Fund, The State of World Population 1992 (New York, 1992)
van Houtte, H., The Law of International Trade (2nd edn, Sweet and Maxwell, London, 2002)
van Leeuwen, A., Critique of Heaven (Lutterworth, London, 1972)
Vidal, J., ‘Hewit Joins Angels on Farm Visit, Agriculture Minister Blames International Monetary Fund for Problems in Honduras’, Guardian, 13 September 2003
Walsh, K. and Davis, H., Competition and Service: The Impact of the Local Government Act 1988 (HMSO, 1993)
Warren, L., ‘Inhuman Profit’, National Geographic, September 2003
Wateraid, The Education Drain (www.wateraid.org.uk)
Watson, A., Slave Law in the Americas (University of Georgia Press, 1989)
Weber, M., ‘The Meaning of “Ethical Neutrality” in Sociology and Economics’ (1917) in E. Shils and H. Finch (eds), Max Weber on the Methodology of the Social Sciences (Glencoe, 1949)
Weiler, J. (ed.), The EU, the World Trade Organization and the NAFTA: Towards a Common Law of International Trade (OUP, 2000)
Wells, C., Corporations and Criminal Responsibility (Clarendon, Oxford, 1993)
Wilder, L., ‘Local Futures: From Denunciation to Revalorisation of the Indigenous Other’ in G. Teubner (ed.), Global Law Without a State (Dartmouth, Aldershot, 1996)
Wilkinson, R., Mind the Gap: Hierarchies, Health and Human Evolution (Wiedenfield and Nicholson, London, 2000)
Williams E., Capitalism and Slavery (1944) (University of North Carolina Press, 1994)
Williams, F., ‘World Trade Organization Minnows Cry Foul on Mediation’, Financial Times, 24 October 2002
Williamson, J., ‘Costs and Benefits of Financial Globalisation’ in G. Underhill and X. Zhang, International Financial Governance Under Stress (CUP, 2003)
Williamson, O., ‘Contract Analysis: The Transaction Cost Approach’ in P. Burrows and C. G. Velanovski (eds), The Economic Approach to Law (Butterworths, London, 1981)
Williamson, O., ‘Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations’ (1994) 21 Journal of Law and Society 168
Wilson, I., The New Rules of Corporate Conduct: Rewriting the Social Charter (Quorum Books, Westport Connecticut, 2000)
Wolff, M., ‘On the Nature of Legal Persons’ (1938) Law Quarterly Review 494
Wood, D., ‘Corporate Social Performance Revisited’ (1991) 16 Academy of Management Journal 312
Woodroffe, S., ‘Regulating Multinational Corporations in a World of Nation States’ in M. Addo (ed.), Human Rights Standards and the Responsibility of Transnational Corporations (Kluwer, The Hague, 1999)
Woodward, D., The Next Crisis? Direct and Equity Investment in Developing Countries (Zed, London, 2001)
World Bank, Global Economic Prospects (World Bank, Washington DC, 1999)
World Bank, Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control (World Bank, Washington DC, 1999)
World Bank, Global Development Finance 2001 (World Bank, Washington DC, 2001)
World Health Organisation, The World Health Report 2001 (World Health Organization Publications, Geneva, 2001)
Yunus, M., Banker to the Poor: The Story of the Grameen Bank (Aurum Press, London, 1998, 2003)
Zarrilli, S., ‘International Trade in Genetically Modified Organisms and Multilateral Negotiations: A New Dilemma for Developing Countries’ in F. Francioni (ed.), Environment, Human Rights and International Trade (Hart, Oxford, 2001)
Zimmerman, M., Contesting Earth's Future (University of California Press, 1994)

Reference Title: Websites

Reference Type: bibliography

http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/csr/index.htm EU
http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/csr/official_doc.htm EU PAPERS AND CONSULTATIONS
http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/csr/forum.htm A FORUM ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY/MINUTES/IDEAS/OPINION OF NGOs
http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/soc-dial/csr/csr_index.htm EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS DG/DOCUMENTS – PAPERS
http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/trade/issues/global/csr/index_en.htm DG TRADE/LINKS
http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/eussd/index.htm DG ENVIRONMENT/SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
shtml spencer
http://www.bsdglobal.com/issues/sr_csrm.asp monitor – interesting
http://www.chibus.com/news/2001/11/05/Perspectives/A.Companys.Social.Responsibility-139790.shtml article
http://www.btplc.com/Thegroup/Companyprofile/Corporatesocialresponsibility/british telecom
http://www.btplc.com/Societyandenvironment/Betterworldreport/index.htmmore british telecom
http://www.societyandbusiness.gov.uk/ the opinion of dti
http://www.standardlife.com/page.php?sctn=76 standard life group
http://www.fordmotorcompany.co.za/corporatesocial/ ford motor company
http://society.guardian.co.uk/voluntary/story/0,7890,1128788,00.html … and the opinion of guardian
http://www.edf.fr/index.php4?coe_i_id=24058 edf group
http://www.bayer.com/about_bayer/social_responsibility/philosophy/objectives/page1179.htm bayer gropu
http://www.shell.com/home/Framework?siteId=nigeria shell
http://www.worldbank.org/privatesector/csr/ the world bank group and reports
http://www.levistrauss.com/responsibility/ levi strauss
http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id=2369912 the opinion of the Economist
http://www.unido.org/en/doc/5162 a view from the UN and the respective from the OECD
http://www.oecd.org/document/37/0,2340,en_2649_201185_2429925_1_1_1_1,00.html OECD again
http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/25246.htm the department of State
http://www.daimlerchrysler.com/dccom/0,,0-5-7167-1-57099-1-0-0-0-0-0-114-7167-0-0-0-0-0-0-0,00.html DaimlerChrysler
www.cmsproject.com/resources/PDF/CMS_CSR.pdf+company+social+responsibility&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 an article
http://www.volvo.com/group/global/en-gb/Volvo+Group/ourvalues/socialresponsibility/ VOLVO
http://www.rocheusa.com/about/responsibility.html Hofmann-La Roche
http://www.dhl.co.jp/eng/dhl/contribution.html DHL
http://www.usa.canon.com/templatedata/AboutCanon/ciwenprmsg.html Canon
http://www.vodafone.co.uk/cgi-bin/COUK/portal/ep/browse.do?channelPath=%2FVodafone+Portal%2FAbout+Vodafone%2FSocial+responsibility&BV_SessionID=@@@@1577734507.1079107485@@@%BV_EngineID=cccjadcklmlfdihcflgcegjdgnfdff n.0 Vodafone
http://www.vodafone.com/section_article/0,7765,CATEGORY_ID%253D304%2526LANGUAGE_ID%253D0%2526CONTENT_ID%253D203794,00.html Vodafone Reports on Corporate Social Responsibility
http://www.bp.com/genericsection.do?categoryId=39?contentId=2008106 BP