Foreword  pp. xiii-xiv

Foreword

By Shepard Forman

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



When I started the Center on International Cooperation (CIC) at New York University in 1996, I was seized by the problem of institutional, financial, and political impasses that precluded more effective multilateral cooperation in the post–Cold War world. From my perch as Director of International Affairs at the Ford Foundation, I had witnessed the failure of many donor governments to meet their international obligations, whether to international aid or to global peace and security. Time and again, the UN, the international humanitarian organizations, the International Court of Justice, and even the U.S. Department of State turned to private philanthropy (and increasingly, to the corporate sector) to seek funding for programs that were not only in the international public realm but basic to it. These programs ranged from humanitarian relief and resettlement efforts in the proliferating civil wars in Africa to clerkships, fact finding and translation at the World Court, and stabilization programs in the former Soviet bloc.

In those promising years between the end of the Cold War and the emergence of the preemptive “take the fight anywhere” Bush doctrine, the possibilities seemed ripe for improved multilateral cooperation to address the issues of poverty reduction, global health, cooperative security, environmental management, the expansion of human rights, and a comprehensive system of international justice. The premise was never a simple “all multilateralism is good,” but an effort to examine deeply the political, financial, institutional, and legal underpinnings of multilateral cooperation to address critical transnational and global problems that no single nation or small grouping of nations could address on their own.

Reference Type: notes

Craig R. Whitney, “France Presses for a Power Independent of the U.S.,” New York Times, November 7, 1999, Section 1, p. 9
Andrew Bacevich, American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002)
Niall Ferguson, Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 2004)
Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 2004)
Condoleezza Rice, “Promoting the National Interest,” Foreign Affairs 79, no. 1 (January/February 2000), pp. 45–62
John Bolton, Surrender is Not an Option: Defending America at the United Nations and Abroad (New York, NY: Threshold Editions, 2007), p. 85
George Soros, “The Bubble of American Supremacy,” Atlantic Monthly (December 2003), pp. 63–66
Glenn Kessler and Colum Lynch, “U.S. Calls Killings in Sudan Genocide,” Washington Post, September 10, 2004, p. A1
Stephen John Stedman, “UN Transformation in an Era of Soft-Balancing,” International Affairs 83 no. 5 (2007), pp. 933–44
Michael Brown, ed., International Dimensions of Internal Conflict (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996)
Stephen Stedman, Don Rothschild, and Elizabeth Cousens, eds., Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner 2002)
William Durch, UN Peacekeeping, American Policy and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)
Joseph Cirincione et al. Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005)
Helga Haftendorn, Robert Keohane, and Celeste Wallander, eds., Imperfect Unions: Security Institutions over Time and Space (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1999)
James M. Goldgeier and Michael McFaul, “A Tale of Two Worlds: Core and Periphery in the Post-Cold War Era,” International Organization 46 no. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 467–92
Power and Responsibility: Building International Order in an Era of Transnational Threats. (Washington, DC: Brookings, 2009)

Reference Type: notes

Stewart Patrick and Shepard Forman, eds., Multilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: Ambivalent Engagement (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2002)
Edward Luck, Mixed Messages: American Politics and International Organization, 1919–1999 (New York: Century Foundation, 1999)
Stewart Patrick, The Best Laid Plans: The Origins of American Multilateralism and the Dawn of the Cold War (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009)
John Gerard Ruggie, “Multilateralism: The Anatomy of an Institution,” in Ruggie, Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Praxis of an Institutional Form (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 3–47
Stewart Patrick and Shepard Forman, eds., Multilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: Ambivalent Engagement (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2002), pp. 1–44
John Milton Cooper, Jr., Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)
Charles Krauthammer, “The Unipolar Moment,” Foreign Affairs 70, No. 1 (Winter 1990/Spring 1991)
Larry Korb, “Force Is the Issue,” Govexec.com (January 1, 2000)
Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword, new edition (New York: Norton, 1997)
Peter Spiro, “The New Sovereigntists,” Foreign Affairs 79, No. 6 (November/December 2000)
Barbara Crossette, “Helms, in Visit to UN, Offers a Harsh Message,” New York Times, January 21, 2000
Stanley R. Sloan, The U.S. Role in a New World Order: Prospects for George Bush's Global Vision (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, March 29, 1991)
Douglas Brinkley, “The Clinton Doctrine,” Foreign Policy 106 (Spring 1997) pp. 111–27
Henry Kissinger, “Foreign Policy is About the National Interest,” International Herald Tribune, October 25, 1993
Eric Schmitt, “Senate Kills Test Ban Treaty in Crushing Loss for Clinton: Evokes Versailles Defeat,” New York Times, October 14, 1999
Stewart Patrick, “Don't Fence Me In: The Perils of Going It Alone,” World Policy Journal 18, No. 3 (Fall 2001), pp. 2–14
Patrick E. Tyler, “U.S. Strategy Calls for Insuring No Rivals Develop,” New York Times (March 8, 1992)
Condoleezza Rice, “Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest,” Foreign Affairs 79, No. 1 (January/February 2000), pp. 45–62
Robert Zoellick, “Campaign 2000 – A Republican Foreign Policy,” Foreign Affairs 79, No. 1 (January/February 2000), pp. 63–78
Robert Dole, “Shaping America's Global Future,” Foreign Policy No. 98 (Spring 1995), 29–43, p. 36
Jeremy Rabkin, “Is EU Policy Eroding the Sovereignty of Non Member States?”, Chicago Journal of International Law 1, No. 2 (Fall 2000)
Thom Shanker, “White House Says the U.S. Is Not a Loner, Just Choosy,” New York Times, July 31, 2001
Charles Krauthammer, “The Unipolar Moment,” Foreign Affairs (1990–1)
Adam Garfinkle, “Alone in a Crowd,” The American Interest 1, No. 3 (Spring 2006), pp. 132–40
Ivo H. Daalder and James M. Lindsay, America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003)
Walter Russell Mead, “The Jacksonian Tradition,” The National Interest (Winter 1999/2000)
Colin Powell, “A Strategy of Partnerships,” Foreign Affairs 83, No. 1 (January/February 2004)
William Drozdiak, “Crisis Forces Shift in Policy as Bush Assembles Coalition,” Washington Post, September 17, 2001, p. A9
Guy Dinmore, “U.S. Sees Coalitions of the Willing as Best Ally,” Financial Times, January 4, 2006
Steven Erlanger, “Europe Seethes as the U.S. Flies Solo in World Affairs,” New York Times, February 22, 2002
Norman Pohdoretz, “In Praise of the Bush Doctrine,” Commentary, September 2002
Michael J. Glennon, “Why the Security Council Failed,” Foreign Affairs 82, No. 3 (May/June 2003)
George Bush and Brent Scowcroft, A World Transformed (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), p. 491
Elizabeth Becker, “U.S. Plans to Run Iraq Itself,” New York Times, March 25, 2003
Larry Diamond, “What Went Wrong in Iraq,” Foreign Affairs 83, No. 5 (September/October 2004), 34–56
Warren Hoge, “Official of UN Says Americans Undermine It with Criticism,” New York Times, June 7, 2006
George Percovich, “The End of the Nonproliferation Regime?” Current History 105 (November 2006)
John Bolton, “An All-Out War on Proliferation,” Financial Times, September 7, 2004
Francis Fukuyama, “The Paradox of International Action,” The American Interest 1, No. 3 (Spring 2006), p. 10
James Traub, The Best of Intentions: Kofi Annan and the UN in the Era of American World Power (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2006), pp. 403–4

Reference Type: notes

A more secure world: our shared responsibility (New York: United Nations, 2003)
Kofi A. Annan, In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all (New York: United Nations, 2005)
Edward C. Luck, ‘How not to reform the United Nations’, Global Governance 11: 4, Oct.–Dec. 2005, pp. 407–14
Mats Berdal, ‘The UN's unnecessary crisis’, Survival 47: 3, Autumn 2005, pp. 7–32
James Traub, Best Intentions: Kofi Annan and the UN in the Era of American World Power (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2006)
United Nations, American Interests and UN reform (Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2005)

Reference Type: notes

The Procedure of the UN Security Council, 3rd ed., by Sydney D. Bailey and Sam Daws (Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1998)
The UN Security Council: From Cold War to Twenty-First Century, David M. Malone, ed. (Boulder, CO/London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2004)
The UN Security Council (A Primer) by Edward C. Luck (London: Routledge, 2006)
Chinmaya Gharekhan's interesting The Horseshoe Table: An Inside View of the Security Council (Delhi: Longman, 2006)
Cameron R. Hume, The United Nations, Iran and Iraq: How Peacemaking Changed (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1994)
C. S. R Murphy, “Change and Continuity in the Functioning of the Security Council since the End of the Cold War,” International Studies 32, No. 4 (1995), p. 423
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Unvanquished: A U.S.-U.N. Saga (New York: Random House, 1999)
Madeleine Albright, Madam Secretary (New York: Miramax Books, 2003), pp. 127–215
David M. Malone, “Goodbye UNSCOM: A Tale in UN-US Relations,” Security Dialogue 30, No. 4 (December 1999), pp. 393–411
Thomas M. Franck, Recourse to Force: State Action against Threats and Armed Attacks (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002), particularly pp. 5–9
Professor Franck, Simon Chesterman, and I revisit this view in The Law and Practice of the United Nations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)
Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2006, Ian Johnstone, ed. (Boulder, CO/London: Lynne Rienner, 2006)
Thomas G. Weiss, David P. Forsythe, and Roger A. Coate, The United Nations in a Changing World, 2nd ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004)
Michael C. Williams, Civil-Military Relations and Peacekeeping (London/New York: Oxford University Press, 1998)
Steven R. Ratner, The New UN Peacekeeping: Building Peace in Lands of Conflict after the Cold War (New York: St. Martins Press with the Council on Foreign Relations, 1996)
Adam Roberts, “Communal Conflict as a Challenge to International Organization: The Case of Former Yugoslavia,” Review of International Studies 21 (1995), pp. 389–410
John L. Hirsch and Robert Oakley, Somalia and Operation Restore Hope: Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping (Washington DC: United States Institute for Peace Press, 1995)
David M. Malone, Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The Case of Haiti (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998)
Bruce D. Jones, Peacemaking in Rwanda: The Dynamics of Failure (Boulder, CO/London: Lynne Rienner, 2001)
Michael Barnett, “The UN Security Council, Indifference and Genocide in Rwanda,” Cultural Anthropology 12 No. 4 (1997), p. 551
UN Department of Political Affairs, “A Brief Overview of Security Council Applied Sanctions,” Interlaken 2, 1998
Oliver Ramsbotham and Tom Woodhouse, Encyclopedia of International Peacekeeping Operations (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999)
David Cortright and George Lopez, The Sanctions Decade (Boulder, CO/London: Lynne Rienner, 2000)
Sanctions and the Search for Security: Challenges to UN Action (Boulder CO/London: Lynne Rienner, 2002)
Elizabeth M. Cousens and Charles K. Cater, Towards Peace in Bosnia: Implementing the Dayton Accords (Boulder, CO/London: Lynne Rienner, 2001)
Simon Chesterman, You, the People: The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Francis Kofi Abiew, The Evolution of the Doctrine and Practice of Humanitarian Intervention (The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1999)
Stephen A. Garrett, Doing Good and Doing Well: An Examination of Humanitarian Intervention (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999)
Andrew S. Faiola, “Refugee Policy: The 1994 Crisis,” in Georges Fauriol, ed., Haitian Frustration: Dilemmas for US Foreign Policy (Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1995), pp. 83–98
James Cockayne and David M. Malone, “Creeping Unilateralism: How Operation Provide Comfort and the No-Fly Zones in 1991 and 1992 Paved the Way for the Iraq Crisis of 2003,” Security Dialogue 37, No. 1 (March 2006), pp. 123–41
Jonathan Moore, ed., Hard Choices: Moral Dilemmas in Humanitarian Intervention (Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1998)
James Traub's excellent The Best Intentions: Kofi Annan and the UN in the Era of American World Power (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006), pp. 91–109
David M. Malone, The International Struggle over Iraq: Politics in the UN Security Council, 1980–2005 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 296–9
Gareth Evans and Mohamed Sahnoun, “Responsibility to Protect,” Foreign Affairs 81, No. 6 (Nov/Dec 2002), pp. 1–8
Michael W. Doyle, Ian Johnstone, and Robert C. Orr, eds., Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)
Krishna Kumar, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization and International Assistance (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998)
Ian Martin, Self-Determination in East Timor: The United Nations, the Ballot, and International Intervention (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001)
James Cockayne, Evolving Challenges to Human and International Security: Global Organized Crime, Coping with Crisis Working Paper Series, International Peace Academy, New York, 2007
Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, “The UN and Terrorism: The Role of the UN Security Council,” in Jane Boulden and Thomas G. Weiss, eds., Terrorism and the UN: Before and after September 11th (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004)
Dapo Akande, “The International Court of Justice and the Security Council: Is There Room for Judicial Control of Decisions of the Political Organs of the United Nations?”, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 46, No. 2 (1997), p. 309
Mohammed Bedjaoui, Nouvel order mondial et contrôle de la légalité des actes du Conseil de sécurité (Brussels: Bruylant, 1994)
Hans-Peter Gasser, “Acts of Terror, ‘Terrorism’ and International Humanitarian Law,” International Review of the Red Cross 84 No. 847 (2002), pp. 547–70
James Cockayne and David M. Malone, “The UN Security Council: 10 Lessons from Iraq on Regulation and Accountability,” Journal of International Law and International Relations 2, No. 2 (Fall 2006), pp. 1–24
Nicolas Angelet, “Criminal Liability for the Violation of UN Economic Sanctions,” European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justice 7, No. 2 (1999), pp. 89–102
Phil Williams and John T. Picarelli, “Combating Organized Crime in Armed Conflict,” in Karen Ballentine and Heiko Nitzschke, eds., Profiting from Peace: Managing the Resource Dimensions of Civil War (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2005), pp. 123–52
Sebastian von Einsiedel and David M. Malone, “Peace and Democracy for Haiti: A UN Mission Impossible?”, International Relations 20, No. 2 (Spring 2006), pp. 153–74
Simon Chesterman's interesting monograph Shared Secrets: Intelligence and Collective Security (Sydney, Australia: Lowy Institute for International Policy, 2006)
Madeleine Albright, Madam Secretary (New York: Miramax Books, 2003), particularly pp. 182–3
John L. Hirsch, “Peace and Justice: Mozambique and Sierra Leone Compared,” Peace versus Justice? Truth Commissions and War Crimes Tribunals in Africa, Chandra Sriram and Suren Pillay, eds. (Scottsville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2007)
Mauro Politi and Giuseppe Nesi, eds., The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Challenge to Impunity (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2001)
Marc Weller, “Undoing the Global Constitution: UN Security Council Action on the International Criminal Court,” International Affairs [London], 78, No. 4 (October 2002), pp. 693–712
David Wippman, “Exaggerating the ICC,” in Joanna Harrington, Michael Milde, and Richard Vernon, eds., Bringing Power to Justice? The Prospects of the International Criminal Court (Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2006), pp. 99–140
Darryl Robinson, “Serving the Interests of Justice: Amnesties, Truth Commissions and the International Criminal Court,” Bringing Power to Justice, pp. 210–43
Nick Grono, “What Comes First, Peace or Justice? Uganda's Dilemma,” International Herald Tribune, 27, October 2006

Reference Type: notes

Judy Dempsey, “Russian Proposal Calls for Broader Security Pact,” International Herald Tribune, July 28, 2008
Ian Traynor, “Sarkozy Backs Russian Call for Pan-European Security Pact,” The Guardian, November 15, 2008
Nicu Popescu, Mark Leonard, and Andrew Wilson, Can the EU Win the Peace in Georgia? (European Council on Foreign Relations, August 2008)
Tomas Valasek, What Does the War in Georgia Mean for EU Foreign Policy? (Center on European Reform, August 2008)
Robert Kagan, Of Paradise and Power (New York: Knopf, 2003)
Robert Kagan, “Putin Makes His Move,” The Washington Post, August 11, 2008
Stanley Hoffmann, Primacy or World Order: American Foreign Policy since the Cold War (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978)
“The Uses of American Power,” Foreign Affairs 56, No. 1 (1977)
“The Power and Peril of International Regime Complexity,” Perspectives on Politics, No. 7 (2009), pp. 65–70
Robert Cooper, The Breaking of Nations (Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003), pp. 27–29
Fraser Cameron, “The European Union and the OSCE: Future Roles and Challenges,” Helsinki Monitor, 6, No. 2, (1995), p. 25
Paul Cornish, “The End of Architecture and the New NATO,” International Affairs, 72, No. 4, p. 752
Susan Woodward, “The Security Council and the Wars in the Former Yugoslavia,” in Vaughan Lowe, Adam Roberts, Jennifer Welsh, and Dominik Zaum, eds., The United Nations Security Council and War (Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 406–41
Center on International Cooperation, Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2008 (Lynne Rienner, 2008), pp. 50–51
Michael Mihalka, “A Marriage of Convenience: The OSCE in Nagorny-Karabakh and Chechnya,” Helsinki Monitor, 7 No. 2 (1996), p. 13
Pál Dunay, The OSCE in Crisis (EU Institute for Security Studies, Chaillot Paper No. 88, 2006), p. 70
Ronald D. Asmus, Opening NATO's Door: How the Alliance Remade Itself for a New Era (Columbia University Press, 2002)
David Gowan, How the EU Can Help Russia (Center for European Reform, 2000), p. 10
Laetitia Spetchinshsky, “Russia and the EU: The Challenge Ahead,” Studia Diplomatica, LX, No. 1 (2007), p. 157
Elizabeth Pond, Friendly Fire: The Near-Death of the Transatlantic Alliance (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003)
Richard Youngs, Europe and Iraq: From Stand-off to Engagement? (London: Foreign Policy Centre, 2004)
A Secure Europe in a Better World (adopted by European Council, Brussels, December 12, 2003), p. 9
European Council Secretariat, Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy: Providing Security in a Changing World (Brussels, December 11, 2008), p. 11
Center on International Cooperation, Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2007 (Lynne Rienner, 2007), p. 9
Sven Biscop and Jan Joel Andersson, The EU and the European Security Strategy: Forging a Global Europe (Routledge, 2008), pp. 55–57

Reference Type: notes

International Council on Security and Development, Struggle for Kabul: The Taliban Advance (London: MF Publishing Ltd, December 2008), pp. 5–6
Antonio Giustozzi, Koran, Kalashnikov and Laptop – The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan (London: Hurst, 2007)
Dekter Filkins, “Pakistan Says 1.3 Million Flee Fight with Taliban,” New York Times, 12 May 2009
“Afghanistan Conflict – Military Challenges,” Strategic Comments 13, Issue 8, October 2007
Anatol Lieven, “Afghanistan: An Unsuitable Candidate for State Building,” Conflict, Security and Development 7, No. 3 (2007), pp. 483–9
Jamie Shea, “A NATO for the 21st Century: Toward a New Strategic Concept,” The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 31, no. 2 (Summer 2007), p. 49
Gustav Schmidt, ed., A History of NATO: The First Fifty Years, Vols. 1–3 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001)
Philip Windsor, Strategic Thinking: An Introduction and Farewell (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002), p. 95
Mats Berdal, “From Operation ‘Maritime Monitor’ to ‘Allied Force’: Reflections on Relations between NATO and UN in the 1990s,” in Gustav Schmidt, ed., A History of NATO: The First Fifty Years 1 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001), pp. 57–71
Nicola Butler, “NATO: From Collective Defence to Peace Enforcement,” in Schnabel and Thakur, eds. Kosovo and the Challenge of Collective Intervention (Tokyo: UNU Press, 2000), pp. 273–90
Philip Windsor, “NATO's Twenty-Five Years,” in Mats Berdal, ed., Studies in International Relations – Essays by Philip Windsor (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2004), p. 94
John R. Deni, Alliance Management and Maintenance: Restructuring NATO for the 21st Century (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), p. 86
Renée de Nevers, “NATO's International Security Role in the Terrorist Era,” International Security, 31, No. 4, (Spring 2007), p. 57
White House, The National Security Strategy of the US of America (Washington, DC: White House, 2006), p. 46
Craig Whitlock, “Afghanistan Appeal May Temper European Allies' Ardor for Obama,” Washington Post, February 6, 2009
Martin Butcher, “NATO, Riga and Beyond,” Disarmament Diplomacy, no. 84 (Spring 2007)
Julianne Smith, et al., Transforming NATO (…again): A Primer for the NATO Summit in Riga 2006 (Washington DC: Center for Strategic International Studies, 2006), p. 16
Aisha Labi, “Have Skills, Will Travel,” Time Magazine, January 27, 2003
Philip Gordon, “Europeanization of NATO: A Convenient Myth,” International Herald Tribute, June 7, 1996
Robert Bell, “Transformation Scorecard,” NATO Review, no. 1 (Spring 2005), p. 22
Frank Boland, “NATO's Defence Capabilities Initiative: Preparing for Future Challenges,” NATO Review, no. 2 (Summer 1999), pp. 26–28
Hans Binnendijk and Richard Kugler, “Transforming European Forces,” Survival, 44, no. 3 (January 2002), p. 126
Jeffrey P. Bialos and Stuart L. Koehl, The NATO Response Force: Coalition Warfare through Technology Transfer and Information Sharing (Washington DC: Center for Technology and National Security Policy, NDU, 2005), p. v
Carl Ek, “NATO's Prague Capabilities Commitment,” CRS Report for Congress, RS21659 (Washington DC: CRS, July 22, 2008), p. 3
Marco Overhaus, “Transatlantic Co-Operation and the Future of NATO,” Foreign Policy in Dialogue, vol. 8, no. 25 (2008), pp. 22–23
European Military Capabilities: Building Armed Forces for Modern Operations (London, IISS, June 2008), p. 93
Tim Bird, “The European Union and Counter-Insurgency: Capability, Credibility, and Political Will,” Contemporary Security Policy, vol. 28, no. 1 (2007), p. 192
Peter Spiegel, “War game at NATO talks highlights the need for quick deployment,” Financial Times, October 10, 2003
Michael Mihalka, “NATO Response Force: Rapid? Responsive? A Force?,” Connections: The Quarterly Journal, vol. 4, no. 2 (2005), p. 79
John R. Schmidt, “Last Alliance Standing? NATO after 9/11,” The Washington Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 1 (Winter 2007), pp. 97–98, 103–104
Frederick W. Kagan, Finding the Target: The Transformation of American Military Policy (New York: Encounter Books, 2006)
Henning-A. Frantzen, NATO and Peace Support Operations, 1991–1999: Policies and Doctrines (New York: Routledge, 2005), pp. 2–3, 5, 78–81
David Ucko, The New Counterinsurgency Era: Transforming the U.S. Military for Modern Wars (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2009)
Hans Binnendijk and Richard Kugler, “Needed – A NATO Stabilization and Reconstruction Force,” Defense Horizons, no. 45 (September 2004), p. 3
NATO, NATO Transformed (Brussels: NATO, June 2004), p. 10
David Brunnstrom and David Morgan, “NATO Allies Offer Limp Response to U.S. Afghan Call,” Reuters, February 19, 2009
C. Richard Nelson, How Should NATO Handle Stabilisation Operations and Reconstruction Efforts? Policy Paper (Washington DC: Atlantic Council, September 2006)
Daniel Korski and Michael Williams, “Creating a NATO Military Advisory Force,” World Defence Systems, no. 17, November 2008, pp. 148–151
Judy Dempsey, “German General Giving up on Afghan Mission,” International Herald Tribune, 12 September 2007

Reference Type: notes

Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen, “Global Nuclear Stockpiles, 1945–2006,” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists (July/August 2006), 64–66
Christine Wing, Nuclear Weapons: The Challenges Ahead (New York: International Peace Academy, 2008), pp. 2–4
Leon V. Sigal, Disarming Strangers: Nuclear Diplomacy with North Korea (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998)
Joel Wit, Going Critical: The First North Korean Nuclear Crisis (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004)
Bruce W. Jentleson and Christopher A. Whytock, “Who ‘Won’ Libya?: The Force-Diplomacy Debate and Its Implications for Theory and Policy,” International Security 30, No. 3 (Winter 2005/06), pp. 47–86

Reference Type: notes

Edward C. Luck, “The US, Counter-terrorism, and the Prospects for a Multilateral Alternative,” in J. Boulden and T. Weiss, eds., Terrorism and the UN (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004), pp. 74–101
Timothy O'Brien, “Threats and Responses; U.N. Group Finds No Hussein-Al-Qaeda Link,” New York Times, June 27, 2003
“UN Probe Finds No Al-Qaida Links to Iraq,” Gazette (Montreal, June 27, 2003)
American Interests on UN Reform: Report of the Task Force on the United Nations (Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace, 2005), p. 76
Anne C. Richard, “Fighting Terrorist Financing: Transatlantic Cooperation and International Institutions,” Center for Transatlantic Relations (2005), p. 53
Peter Grier and Mark Rice Oxley, “Five Years after 9/11: A Shifted View of the World,” The Christian Science Monitor, September 11, 2006
Philip Shishkin, “Europol's Antiterror Role Muted by Limited Powers,” The Wall Street Journal, April 7, 2004
Sarah Laitner, “Counter-terrorism Post Still Vacant,” Financial Times, May 8, 2007
Sarah Laitner, “EU Plan to Fight Terror in Tatters,” Financial Times, September 23, 2006
Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, The Next Attack: The Failure of the War on Terror and a Strategy for Getting It Right (New York: Times Books, 2005)
Louise Richardson, What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Enemy, Containing the Threat (New York: Random House, 2006)
Robert Axelrod and Silvia Borzutzky, “NATO and the War on Terror: The Organizational Challenges of the Post–9/11 World,” The Review of International Organizations 1, No. 3 (September 2006), pp. 293–307
Nicholas Burns, “The War on Terror Is NATO's New Focus,” International Herald Tribune, October 6, 2004
Richard J. Goldstone and Janine Simpson, “Evaluating the Role of the International Criminal Court as a Legal Response to Terrorism,” in Harvard Human Rights Journal 16 (Spring 2003)
Ed Vulliamy, “US Dilemmas over Trials of Bin Laden,” The Guardian, November 4, 2001
Nicole Winfield, “UN Urges International Trial for Bin Laden,” The Record, December 20, 2001
Anne-Marie Slaughter, “Luncheon Address: Rogue Regimes and the Individualization of International Law,” New England Law Review, No. 36, p. 820
Anne-Marie Slaughter, “Use Courts, Not Combat, to Get the Bad Guys: Pre-emptive Justice,” International Herald Tribune November 20, 2003
Paul Williams and Michael Scharf, “Prosecute Terrorists on a World Stage,” Los Angeles Times, November 18, 2001

Reference Type: notes

Jozef. Goldblat, Arms Control: A Guide to Negotiations and Agreements. (Oslo: PRIO, 1996), p. 93
Jez Littlewood, The Biological Weapons Convention: A Failed Revolution (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005), p. 56
Malcolm Dando, “Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention: Moving Towards the Endgame.” Disarmament Diplomacy, no. 21 (December 1997)
Henrietta Wilson, “The BTWC Protocol: The Debate about Visits.” Disarmament Diplomacy, issue no. 40 (September–October 1999)
J. P. Perry, “Origins of the Chemical Weapons Convention,” In Benoit Morel and Kyle Olson, eds., Shadow and Substance: The Chemical Weapons Convention (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993), pp. 37–54
Christopher Walker, “Russia Lifts Veil on Chemical Weapons Arsenal,” The Times, October 5, 1987
Gareth Evans, “Making Australian Foreign Policy,” in Australian Fabian Society Pamphlet 50 (Canberra, 1989)
SIPRI Yearbook 1991: World Armaments and Disarmament. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991)
Jonathan Tucker, “Strengthening the BWC: Moving towards a Compliance Protocol.” Arms Control Today (January/February 1998)

Reference Type: notes

Ian Johnstone, “US-UN Relations after Iraq: The End of the World (Order) as We Know It?” European Journal of International Law 15, No. 4 (2004), pp. 813–38
Peter Katzenstein, “Introduction: Alternative Perspectives on National Security,” in Peter Katzenstein, ed., The Culture of National Security (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), p. 5
Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change,” International Organization 52 (1998), pp. 887–917
Audi Klotz, Norms in International Relations: The Struggle against Apartheid (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995)
Martha Finnemore, National Interests in International Society (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996)
Ann Florini, “The Evolution of International Norms,” International Studies Quarterly 40 (1996), pp. 363–89
Jeffrey Checkel, “The Constructivist Turn in International Relations Theory,” World Politics 50 (1998), p. 340
Harold Koh, “Why Do Nations Obey International Law,” The Yale Law Journal 106 (1997), p. 2659
John Ruggie, Constructing the World Polity (New York: Routledge, 1998), p. 201
Ivo Daalder and James Lindsay, America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution Press, 2003)
Paul Kahn, “American Hegemony and International Law: Speaking Law to Power: Popular Sovereignty, Human Rights, and the New International Order,” Chicago Journal of International Law 1, No. 1 (Spring 2000)
Stewart Patrick, “Multilateralism and its Discontents,” in Stewart Patrick and Shepard Forman, eds., Multilateralism and US Foreign Policy: Ambivalent Engagement (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002), p. 7
Nico Krisch, “Weak as Constraint, Strong as Tool: The Place of International Law in US Foreign Policy,” in David Malone and Yuen Foong Khong, eds., Multilateralism and US Foreign Policy: International Perspectives (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003), pp. 45–53
“Present at the Creation: A Survey of America's World Role,” The Economist, June 29, 2002, Special Survey, p. 20
Harold Koh, “On American Exceptionalism,” Stanford Law Review 55, No. 5 (2003), p. 1486
Anne-Marie Burley, “Regulating the World: Multilateralism, International Law and the Projection of the New Deal Regulatory State,” in John Ruggie, ed., Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Practice of an Institutional Form (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 125–6
Rosemary Foot, S. Neil MacFarlane, and Michael Mastanduno, eds., US Hegemony and International Organizations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Michael Byers and George Nolte, eds., United States Hegemony and the Foundations of International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Charles William Maynes and Richard Williamson, eds., US Foreign Policy and the United Nations System (New York: Norton, 1996)
Margaret Karns and Karen Mingst, eds., The United States and Multilateral Institutions: Patterns of Changing Instrumentality and Influence (New York: Routledge, 1990)
Edward Luck, Mixed Messages: American Politics and International Organization, 1919–1999 (Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999)
John Ikenberry, After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint and the Rebuilding of Order after Major War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001)
Stephen Brooks and William Wohlforth, “American Primacy in Perspective,” Foreign Affairs 81, No. 4 (July/August 2002), p. 20
“Security Council Deliberations: The Power of the Better Argument,” European Journal of International Law 14, No. 3 (2003), pp. 464–6
Ian Johnstone. “The Plea of ‘Necessity’ in International Legal Discourse: Humanitarian Intervention and Counter-terrorism,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 43, No. 2 (2005), pp. 337–88
Gareth Evans and Mohamed Sahnoun, “Intervention and State Sovereignty: Breaking New Ground,” Global Governance 7, No. 2 (April/June 2001), pp. 119–25
Ian Johnstone, “Dilemmas of Robust Peacekeeping,” in Annual Review of Global Peace Operations (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006)
Victoria Holt and Tobias Berkman, The Impossible Mandate? Military Preparedness, the Responsibility to Protect and Modern Peace Operations (Washington, DC: Henry L. Stimson Center, 2006)
Alex Bellamy, “Responsibility to Protect or Trojan Horse? The Crisis in Darfur and Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq,” Ethics and International Affairs 19, No. 2 (2005), pp. 31–54
Jim Terrie, “The Use of Force in UN Peacekeeping: The Experience of MONUC,” African Security Review 18, No. 1 (2008)
Walter Kalin, “The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement as International Minimum Standard and Protection Tool,” Refugee Survey Quarterly 24, No. 3 (2005), pp. 27–36
Roberta Cohen, “The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement: An Innovation in International Standard Setting,” Global Governance 10 (2004), pp. 459–80
Simon Bagshaw, Developing a Normative Framework for the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons (Washington, DC: Bridge Street Books, 2005), p. 12
Patrick Schmidt, “The Process and Prospects for the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement to Become Customary Law,” Georgetown Journal of International Law 35 (Spring 2004)
Ian Johnstone, “Law-making through the Operational Activities of International Organizations,” George Washington International Law Review 40 (2008)
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda for Democratization (New York: United Nations Department of Public Information, 1996), para. 28
Gregory Fox, “The Right to Political Participation in International Law,” in Democratic Governance and International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 48–90
Thomas Zweifel, International Organizations and Democracy (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006)
Daniele Archibugi, David Held, and Martin Kohler, eds., Reimagining Political Community: Studies in Cosmopolitan Democracy (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1998)
Richard Burchill, ed., Democracy and International Law (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2006)
Thomas Carothers, Critical Mission: Essays on Democracy Promotion (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2004)
Ivo Daalder and James Lindsay, “Democracies of the World Unite,” The American Interest, Vol. 2(3), Jan–Feb, 2007
Charles Kupchan, “Minor League, Major Problems: The Case against a League of Democracies,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 87(6), Nov–Dec, 2008
Theodore Piccone, “International Mechanisms for Protecting Democracy,” in Morton Halperin and Mirna Galic, eds., Protecting Democracies: International Responses (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2005)
Terrence Lyons, “Transforming the Institutions of War: Post-Conflict Elections and the Reconstruction of Failed States,” in Robert Rotberg, ed., When States Fail: Causes and Consequences (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003)
Michael Doyle and Nicholas Sambanis, Making War and Building Peace (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006), pp. 18–19
Roland Paris, At War's End (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)
Oliver Richmond, The Transformation of Peace (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
Thomas Weiss, “Governance, Good Governance and Global Governance: Conceptual and Actual Challenges,” Third World Quarterly 21, Issue 5 (2000), p. 795ff
Mark Malloch Brown, “Democratic Governance: toward a Framework for Sustainable Peace,” Global Governance Vol. 9, No. 2 (April-June 2003), pp. 141–6
Alistair Millar and Eric Rosand, Allied against Terrorism (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2006)
Ian Johnstone, Benjamin Cary Tortolani, and Richard Gowan, “The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Unfinished Business,” Die Friedens-Warte 80 (2006)
Peter van Ham and Olivia Bosch, “Global Non-Proliferation and Counter-Terrorism: The Role of Resolution 1540 and Its Implications,” in Olivia Bosch and Peter van Ham, eds., Global Non-Proliferation and Counter-Terrorism: The Impact of UNSCR 1540 (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2007), pp. 7–9
John Prendergast and Colin Thomas-Jensen, “Blowing the Horn,” Foreign Affairs 86, No. 2 (2007), p. 60
S. Sarjoh Bah and Kwesi Aning, “US Peace Operations Policy in Africa: From ACRI to AFRICOM,” International Peacekeeping 15 No. 1 (2008)
Marina Ottaway, “Who Wins in Iraq? Arab Dictators,” Foreign Policy (March/April 2007), pp. 46–47
Thomas Carothers, “The Backlash against Democracy Promotion,” Foreign Affairs 85, No. 2 (Mar/Apr 2007)
William Taft and Todd Buchwald, “Pre-emption, Iraq and International Law.” American Journal of International Law 97 (July 2003), pp. 557ff
Ian Johnstone, “Legislation and Adjudication in the UN Security Council: Bringing down the Deliberative Deficit,” American Journal of International Law 108 (2008)
Michael Barnett, “Building a Republican Peace: Stabilizing States after War,” International Security 30, No. 4 (2006), pp. 87–112
Joseph Nye argues that “soft power will help the US endure as the dominant state by turning its power into international consensus and U.S. principles into international norms,” in The Paradox of American Power (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 69
Mats Berdal, “The UN Security Council: Ineffective but Indispensable,” Survival 45, No. 2 (2003), pp. 10–14
Audrey Ruth Cronin, “How Al-Qaida Ends: The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups,” International Security 31, No. 1 (Summer 2006), pp. 7–48
Robert Art and Louise Richardson, Democracy and Counter-terrorism: Lessons from the Past (Washington DC: USIP, 2007)

Reference Type: notes

A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, A/59/565 (New York: United Nations, 2004)
Robert Jackson and Carl G. Rosberg, “Why Africa's Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood,” World Politics 35, no. 1 (1982), pp. 1–24
Michael Barnett, “The New United Nations Politics of Peace: From Juridical Sovereignty to Empirical Sovereignty,” Global Governance 1, no. 1 (winter 1995), pp. 79–97
Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1992 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992)
Ghassan Salamé, Appels d'Empire. Ingérences et Résistances à l'âge de la mondialisation (Paris: Fayard, 1996)
Anthony Giddens, The Nation State and Violence (Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987)
Barbara F. Walter and Jack Snyder, eds., Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999)
Leonard Wantchekon, “The Paradox of ‘Warlord’ Democracy: A Theoretical Investigation,” American Political Science Review 98, no. 1 (2004), pp. 17–33
Mark Duffield, “Reprising Durable Disorder: Network War and the Securitisation of Aid,” in Bjorn Hettne and Bertil Oden, eds., Global Governance in the 21st Century: Alternative Perspectives on World Order (Stockholm: Expert Group on Development Initiatives, Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 2002)

Reference Type: notes

Teresa Whitfield for Friends Indeed? The United Nations, Groups of Friends and the Resolution of Conflict (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2007)
Human Security Centre, Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century (New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)
Alvaro de Soto, “Ending Violent Conflict in El Salvador,” in Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World, eds., Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson and Pamela Aall (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999), pp. 345–85
Michael W. Doyle, Ian Johnstone, Robert C. Orr, eds., Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN operations in Cambodia and El Salvador (Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997)
Chester A. Crocker, “Peacemaking and Mediation: Dynamics of a Changing Field,” Coping with Crisis Working Paper Series (International Peace Academy, New York, March 2007), pp. 5–6
Charles King, “Power, Social Violence and Civil Wars,” in Leashing the Dogs of War: Conflict Management in a Divided World, eds., Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, Pamela Aall (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2006), p. 126
Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999)
Stathis N. Kalyvas, “‘New’ and ‘Old’ Civil Wars: A Valid Distinction?” World Politics 54 (October 2001), pp. 99–118
John Mueller, The Remnants of War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004), p. 86
Mikael Eriksson and Peter Wallensteen, “Armed Conflict, 1989–2003,” Journal of Peace Research 41, no. 5 (2004), pp. 625–36
Monty G. Marshall and Ted Robert Gurr, Peace and Conflict 2003: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self Determination Movements and Democracy (College Park: University of Maryland Center for International Development and Conflict Management, 2003)
A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility (New York: United Nations, December 2004)
Paul Collier et al., Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy (Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 7
Michael Gilligan and Stephen John Stedman, “Where Do the Peacekeepers Go?” International Studies Review 5, no. 4 (2003), pp. 37–54
Stephen John Stedman, introduction to Ending Civil Wars: the Implementation of Peace Agreements, eds., Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002), p. 16
Teresa Whitfield, “Groups of Friends,” in David M. Malone, ed., The UN Security Council: From the Cold War to the 21st Century (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2004), pp. 311–24
“some of our moderate Arab friends understandably began to refer to the ‘Quartet, sans trois.’” Not Quite the Diplomat (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 2005), p. 111
J. Stephen Morrison and Alex de Waal, “Can Sudan Escape Its Intractability?”, in Grasping the Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict, eds., Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, Pamela Aall (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2005), pp. 161–82
Mark Simmons and Peter Dixon, eds., “Peace by Piece: Addressing Sudan's Conflicts,” Accord Issue 18 (London: Conciliation Resources, 2006)
Laurie Nathan and Alex de Waal to Alex de Waal, ed., War in Darfur and the Search for Peace (Harvard, MA/London: Global Equity Initiative and Justice Africa, 2007)
Robert Ricgliano, ed., “Choosing to Engage: Armed Groups and Peace Processes,” Accord Issue 16 (London: Conciliation Resources, 2005)

Reference Type: notes

The Responsibility to Protect (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, December 2001)
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, The United States: Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Peer Review (OECD, 2006), pp. 12, 13
Abby Stoddard, “Too Good to be True? US Engagement in the GHD Initiative,” Humanitarian Exchange, No. 29 (March 2005)
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, The United Kingdom: Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Peer Review (OECD, 2006), p. 10
Adele Harmer, Lin Cotterell, Abby Stoddard, “From Stockholm to Ottawa: A Progress Review of the Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative,” HPG Research Briefing No. 18 (Overseas Development Institute, London, October 2004)

Reference Type: notes

Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era, 2nd edition (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1991)
Alhaji M. S. Bah, “West Africa: From a Security Complex to a Security Community,” African Security Review 4, No 2 (2005)
John Authers, “The Short View: African Oil,” Financial Times (April 24, 2007)
Robert H. Jackson, “Negative Sovereignty in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Review of International Studies 12, (October 1986), p. 253
Zdenek Cervenka and Colin Legum, “The Organization of African Unity in 1979,” in Colin Legum, ed., Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents, 1979–1980 (New York: Africana, 1981), p. A62
Ayodele Aderinwale, “The Conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa – Framework and the Role of Regional Institutions,” in Moufids Goucha and Jakkie Cilliers, eds., Peace, Human Security and Conflict Prevention in Africa (Paris/Pretoria: ISS/UNESCO, 2000)
“New Dimensions of Human Security,” UNDP Human Development Report (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994)
Eric G. Berman and Katie E. Sams, Peacekeeping in Africa: Capabilities and Culpabilities (Geneva/Pretoria: UNIDIR/ISS, 2000), p. 81
Naison Ngoma, “SADC: Towards a Security Community?” African Security Review 12(3) (2003)
Alhaji M. S. Bah, “Toward a Regional Approach to Human Security in Southern Africa,” Martello Paper Series 26
Ivo H. Daalder, “Knowing When to Say No: The Development of US Policy for Peacekeeping,” in Bill Durch, UN Peacekeeping, American Politics, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996)
Herman J. Cohen, “US-Africa Policy as Conflict Management,” SAIS Review XXI, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2001), pp. 240–1
Intervening in Africa: Superpower Peacemaking in a Troubled Continent (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000)
Ingrid A. Lehmann, Peacekeeping and Public Information – Caught in the Crossfire (London: Frank Cass, 1999), p. 90
Samantha Powers, “Bystanders to Genocide,” The Atlantic Monthly (September 2001)
Powers, A Problem from Hell: America in the Age of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 2002)
Brian J. Hesse, The United States, South Africa and Africa: Of Grand Foreign Policy Aims and Modest Means (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001)
Russell J. Hardy, “Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance: Developing Training Partnerships for the Future of Africa,” Air & Space Power Journal (Fall 2003)
Victoria K. Holt, hearing on “African Organizations and Institutions: Positive Cross-Continental Progress,” Subcommittee on African Affairs, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, US Senate, Washington DC, November 17, 2005

Reference Type: notes

José E. Alvarez, “The New Dispute Settlers: (Half) Truths and Consequences,” Texas International Law Journal 38 (2003)
Cesare P. R. Romano, “The Proliferation of International Judicial Bodies: The Pieces of the Puzzle,” NYU Journal of International Law and Politics 31 (1999), pp. 709, 715–9
William W. Burke-White, “Double-Edged Tribunals: Domestic Politics and the Relationships among National and International Courts,” in International Institutional Reform: Proceedings of the Seventh Hague Joint Conference Held in The Hague, the Netherlands, June 30–July 2, 2005, (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2006), pp. 203–12
Nick Grono, “What Comes First, Peace or Justice? Uganda's Dilemma,” International Herald Tribune (27 October 2006)
C. Romano, “International Justice and Developing Countries (cont.): A Qualitative Analysis,” Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 1 (2002), pp. 539–611
“International Justice and Developing Countries: A Quantitative Analysis,” Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 1, (2002), pp. 367–99
Murphy, S., “The U.S. and the International Court of Justice: Coping with Antinomies,” in C. Romano, ed., The Sword and the Scales: The US and International Courts and Tribunals (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
Alastair Mowbray, “Proposals for Reform of the European Court of Human Rights,” in Public Law 2 (2002), pp. 252–64
András B. Baka, “The Problems of the European Court of Human Rights and its Reform,” in L'état actuel des droits de l'homme dans le monde: défis et perspectives (Paris: Pedone, 2006)
Paul Lemmens, Wouter Vandenhole, eds., Protocol no. 14 and the Reform of the European Court of Human Rights (Antwerpen: Intersentia, 2005)
Michael Goldhaber, A People's History of The European Court of Human Rights (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007)
Tarik Abdel-Monem, “Chechens Win First Claims in the European Court of Human Rights in Khashiyev & Akayeva v. Russia,” Cornell International Law Journal 39 (2006) p. 171
Erika Niedowski, “Russians Find Justice Scarce,” The Baltimore Sun, August 27, 2006, p. 21A
Joshua Pantesco, “Europe Rights Court Holds Russia liable for Death of Chechen,” Jurist Legal News & Research (July 27, 2006)
Morse Tan, “Member State Compliance with the Judgments of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights,” International Journal of Legal Information 33 (2005) pp. 319–44
Mónica Pinto, “NGOs and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights,” in Tullio Treves (ed.), Civil Society, International Courts and Compliance Bodies (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2005), pp. 47–56
Frans Viljoen and Lirrete Louw, “State Compliance with the Recommendations of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights – 1994–2004,” American Journal of International Law 101 (2007), pp. 1–34
Marlies Glasius, The International Criminal Court: A Global Civil Society Achievement (New York: Routledge, 2006)
C. Romano, “The Price of International Justice,” The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 4 (2005), pp. 281–328
C. Etchenson, “The Politics of Genocide Justice in Cambodia,” in C. Romano, A. Nollkaemper, and J. Kleffner, eds., Internationalized Criminal Courts and Tribunals: Sierra Leone, East Timor, Kosovo and Cambodia (Oxford: OUP, 2004), pp. 181–206

Reference Type: notes

Stephen Jay Gould and Richard C. Lewontin, “The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 205, No. 1161 (1979), pp. 581–2
Tim Flannery, “A New Darwinism?”, New York Review of Books 49, No. 9 (May 23, 2003)
Helga Haftendorn, Robert O. Keohane, and Celeste A. Wallander, Imperfect Unions: Security Institutions over Time and Space (Oxford, 1999), p. 12
Richard Gowan and Franziska Brantner, A Global Force for Human Rights? An Audit of European Power at the UN (European Council on Foreign Relations, 2008), pp. 37–46
Edward C. Luck, “How Not to Reform the United Nations,” Global Governance 11 (2005)
Mats Berdal, “The UN's Unnecessary Crisis,” Survival 47, No. 3 (2005)
Bruce D. Jones, Carlos Pascual, and Stephen John Stedman, Power and Responsibility (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2009), p. 14