17 - Language in social and ethnic interaction  pp. 345-360


By Yamuna Kachru

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Introduction

All social and ethnic groups operate within a cultural context, and as such, culture becomes a relevant parameter in any discussion of social and ethnic interaction. Before discussing the role of language in interaction in South Asia, it is necessary to briefly examine what is meant by culture and what aspects of culture are relevant to this discussion.

As Halliday (1993: 11) observes, the relationship between language and culture is not deterministic. Rather, “culture and language co-evolve in the same relationship as that in which, within language, meaning and expression co-evolve.” What I attempt to do in this chapter is to look at the interaction of language and culture as it manifests itself in strategies of oral and written interaction in South Asia.

The chapter is organized as follows: the first section discusses the interface of the relevant aspects of culture and language in social interaction in the South Asian context, the second section focuses on the general conventions of verbal interaction, and the third section concentrates on the traditions and constraints that operate in academic discourse in South Asia. The conclusion presents a summary of the discussion and points to areas of research that need attention.

The cultural context of language

First, “culture” is not an easy concept to define. It has been defined in many different ways in the anthropological literature.

17

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Ferguson, Charles A. 1945. “A chart of the Bengali verb.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 65, 1, 54–5.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1992. “South Asia as a sociolinguistic area,” in Dimensions of Sociolinguistics in South Asian. Papers in Memory of Gerald Kelley, edited by Edward C. Dimock, Jr., Braj B. Kachru, and Bh. Krishnamurti New Delhi: Oxford and India Book House, pp. 25–36.
Ferguson, Charles A. and John J. Gumperz. 1960. Linguistic Diversity in South Asia (International Journal of American Linguistics 26, 3, 2). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Huebner, Thom (ed.) 1996. Sociolinguistic Perspectives: Papers on Language in Society, 1959–1994. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Krishnamurti, Bh. (ed.) 1986. South Asian Languages: Structural Convergence and Diglossia. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Abbi, Anvita. 1987. Reduplicative Structures in South Asian Languages: A Phenomenon of Linguistic Area. New Delhi: Jawahar Lal Nehru University, Centre of Linguistics and English.
Abbi, Anvita. 1992. Reduplication in South Asian Languages: An Areal, Typological and Historical Study. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Limited.
Abbi, Anvita. 1995a. “Language contact and language restructuring. A case study of tribal languages of Central India,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 116, 175–85.
Abbi, Anvita. 1995b. “Small languages and small language communities,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 116, 175–85.
Abbi, Anvita, R. S. Gupta, and Ravinder Gargesh. 2000. “Acceptance level of Hindi as a pan–Indian language, A pilot survey, ms. The ICSSR Project Report.
Abbott, Freeland. 1968. Islam and Pakistan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Abidi, S. A. H. 1960. “The influence of Hindi on Indo-Persian literature in the reign of Shah–Jahan (1628–1658),” Indo-Iranica, 13(2), 1–18.
Abidi, S. A. H. 1981. “A scientific study of Indo-Persian is necessary,” Indo-Iranica, 34(1–4), 88–93.
Abidi S. A. H. 1998. “Contribution of the Chishti order to devotional music in India,” in Indo-Persian Cultural Perspectives, edited by Mohammad A. Khan, Ravinder Gargesh, and Chander Shekhar. New Delhi: Saud Ahmad Dehlavi, pp. 33–53.
Abidi, S. A. H. 2000. “Ahade vusta meaccent Hindustani tamaddun ke irteqa meaccent faarsi adab ka hissaa” [Contribution of Persian Literature in the Evolution of Indian Culture in Medieval Period], Islam aur Asr–e–Jadid Quarterly, JMI 2000, 51–67.
Agesthialingom, S. and N. Kumaraswami Raja. 1975. Studies in Early Dravidian Grammars: Proceedings of the Seminar on Early Dravidican Grammars. Annamalainagar, India: Annamalai University, Department of Linguistics.
Agesthialingom, S. and S. Sakthivel. 1973. A Bibliography of Dravidian Linguistics. Annamalainagar, India: Annamalai University, Department of Linguistics.
Agnihotri, Rama Kant. 1992. “India: Multilingual perspectives,” in Democratically Speaking, edited by N. D. Crawhill. Capetown: National Language Project, pp. 46–55.
Agnihotri, Rama Kant. 1994. “Campaign-based literacy programmes: The case of the Ambedkar Nagar experiment in Delhi,” in Sustaining Local Literacies, edited by D. Barton. Special issue of Language and Education, 8, 47–56.
Agnihotri, Rama Kant. 1997. “Sustaining local literacies,” in Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 2, edited by V. Edwards and D. Corson. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 173–80.
Agnihotri, Rama Kant. 2001a. “English in Indian education,” in Language Education in Multilingual India, edited by C. J. Daswani. New Delhi: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, pp. 186–209.
Agnihotri, Rama Kant. 2001b. Half the Battle and a Quarter. CIIL Foundation Day Lectures. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Agnihotri, Rama Kant. 2002a. “A farce called literacy,” in Practice and Research in Literacy, edited by A. Mukherjee and D. Vasantha. New Delhi: Sage, pp. 29–48.
Agnihotri, Rama Kant. 2002b. “On a pre-partition partition: The question of Hindi–Urdu,” in Pangs of Partition: The Human Dimension, Vol. 2, edited by S. Settar and I. B. Gupta. New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 29–46.
Agnihotru, Rama Kant and A. L. Khanna. 1997. Problematizing English in India. Delhi: Sage India.
Agnihotri, Rama Kant and Anju Sahgal. 1986. “Is Indian English retroflexed and r-full?,” Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11, 97–108.
Ahmad, Imtiaz (ed.) 1978. Caste and Social Stratification among Muslims in India. New Delhi: Manohar.
Aiyar, L. V. Ramaswami. 1932. “Tulu prose texts in two dialects,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, 6, 897–931.
Aiyar, L. V. Ramaswami. 1934–1935. “Semantic divergencies in Indo-Aryan loan-words in South Dravidian,” Journal of Oriental Research (Madras), 8–9.
Aiyar, L. V. Ramaswami. 1973. “A South Indian (Malayalam) evaluation of Sanskrit t(d) and ṭ(ḍ),” International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 2(1), 119–26.
Aklujkar, Ashok. 1972. “Stylistics in the Sanskrit tradition,” in Current Trends in Linguistics (Papers in Linguistics, Monograph Series 2), edited by Braj B. Kachru and F. W. Herbert Stahlke. Edmonton, AB and Champaign, IL: Linguistic Research Inc., pp. 1–14.
Aklujkar, Ashok. 2001. “The word is the world: Nondualism in Indian philosophy of language,” Philosophy East & West, 51(4), 452–73.
Alam, M. M. 1983. “Persian influence on Assamese language and literature,” Indo-Iranica, 36(1–4), 160–73.
Alexander, G. P. 1990. “Asian Indians in the San Francisco valley,” unpublished PhD dissertation, San Francisco, CA: Fuller Theological Seminary.
Ali, Ahmed. 1996. English in South Asia: A historical perspective,” in South Asian English: Structure, Use and Users, edited by Robert J. Baumgardner. Urbana and Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp. 3–12.
Ali, H. M. T. 1985. “Persian studies in Bengal: Problems and prospects,” Indo-Iranica, 38(1–2), 52–8.
Allardyce, Alexander. 1877. “The Anglo-Indian tongue,” Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 121, 541–51.
Allen, Charles (ed.) 1975. Plain Tales from the Raj. London: Andre Deutsch and the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Allen, David O. 1854. “The state and the prospects of the English language in India,” Journal of the American Orientel Society, 4, 263–75. [Also in Church of Scotland Magazine, March–June 1836.]
Alleyne, Mervyn C. 1971. “Acculturation and the cultural matrix of creolization,” in Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell Hymes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 169–86.
Alper, H. P. 1989. Mantra. Albany, NY: The State University of New York Press.
Amin, S. 1995. Event, Metaphor, Memory: Chauri Chaura 1922–1992. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Anand, J. H. 1995. “Dalit literature is the literature of protest,” in Dalit Solidarity, edited by Bhagwan Das and James Massey. New Delhi: Indian Society for Promotion of Christian Knowledge, pp. 177–84.
Anand, Mulk Raj. 1948. The King Emperor's English; or, the Role of the English Language in Free India. Bombay, India: Hind Kitabs.
Anand, Mulk Raj and Eleanor Zelliot (eds.) 1992. An Anthology of Dalit Literature (Poems). New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House.
Ananthanarayana, H. S. 1975. “KannaDadalliruva samskruta pratyayagaLu” (Sanskrit affixes in Kannada), in Sri: kanthatirtha, edited by M. Chidanandamurti, T. S. Nagabhusana, and T. N. Shankaranarayana. Bangalore, India: Privately published.
Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Andronov, M. 1964. “On the typological similarity of New Indo-Aryan and Dravidian,” Indian Linguistics, 25, 119–26.
Andronov, M. 1966. Materials for a Bibliography of Dravidian Linguistics. Kuala Lumpur: University Malaya, Department of Indian Studies.
Annamalai, E. (ed.) 1979. Language Movements in India. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Annamalai, E. 1980. “The movement for linguistic purism: The case of Tamil,” in Language Movements of this Century in India, edited by E. Annamalai. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages, pp. 35–59.
Annamalai, E. 1997a. Adjectival Clauses in Tamil. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
Annamalai, E. 1997b. “Questions on the linguistic characteristics of the tribal languages of India,” in Tribal and Indigenous Languages of India: The Ethnic Space, edited by Abbi Anvita. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, pp. 15–36.
Annamalai, E. 1998. “Language choice in education: Conflict resolution in Indian courts,” Language Sciences, 20(1), 29–44.
Annamalai, E. 2001. Managing Multilingualism in India: Political and Linguistic Manifestations. New Delhi: Sage.
Ansal, Kusum. 1990. bas ek kraas. India Today. (Hindi edn.) Dec. 21, 1990, 96–99.
Anselmi, Dina L. and Anne L. Law (eds.) 1998. Questions of Gender. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Anwar, M. S. 1957. “Indo-Iranian philology,” Indo-Iranica, 10(4), 23–32.
Anwar, M. S. 1958. “India's contribution to Persian lexicography,” Indo-Iranica, 11(2), 1–8.
Anwar, Muhammad. 1998. Between Cultures: Continuity and Change in the Lives of Young Asians. London and New York: Routledge.
Appadurai, A. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimension of Globalization. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Apte, Mahadev L. 1974a. “Pidginization of a lingua franca: A linguistic analysis of Hindi–Urdu spoken in Bombay,” in Contact and Convergence in South Asian Languages, edited by Franklin C. Southworth and Mahadev L. Apte. Special issue of International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 3, 21–41.
Apte, Mahadev L. 1974b. “‘Thank you’ and South Asian languages: A comparative sociolinguistic study,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 3, 67–89.
Apte, Mahadev L. 1976. “Multilingualism in India and its sociopolitical implications: An overview,” in Language and Politics, edited by William M. O'Barr and Jean F. O'Barr. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 141–64.
Arjunavādakara, Kṛṣṇa Srinivāsa [Arjunwadkar, Krishna Shriniwas]. 1992. Marāthī Vyākaraṇācā Itihāsa (History of Marathi grammar tradition). Mumbai, India: Mumbaī Viśvavidyālaya/Marāthī Vibhāga, Pune, India: Jñānamudrā
Armstrong, J. C. and N. A. Worden. 1989. “The slaves, 1652–1834,” in The Shaping of South African Society 1652–1840, edited by R. Elphick and H. Giliomee. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman, pp. 109–83.
Aronoff, Mark and S. N. Sridhar. 1988. “Prefixation in Kannada,” in Theoretical Morphology, edited by Michael Hammond and Michael Noonan. New York: Academic Press, pp. 179–91.
Arora, H. 2004. Syntactic Convergence – The Case of Dakkhini Hindi-Urdu. Delhi; Publication Division, University of Delhi.
Asher, R. E. 2007. “Southern Asia: From Iran to Bangladesh,” in Atlas of the World's Languages (2nd edn), edited by R. E. Asher and Christopher Moseley. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 209–28.
Auroux, Sylvain, Konrad Koerner, Hans–Josef Niederehe, and Kees Versteegh (eds.) 2000. History of the Language Sciences. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Austin, Granville. 1999. The Constitution of India: Cornerstone of a Nation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Ayrookuzhiel, A. M. Abraham. 1990. “The ideological nature of the emerging Dalit consciousness,” Religion and Society, XXXCII(3), 20–1.
Backstrom, Peter C. and Carla F. Radloff. 1992. Languages of the Northern Areas, Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, Vol 2. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies; High Wycombe, Bucks: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Bailey, Thomas Grahame. 1956. Teach Yourself Urdu. London: English Universities Press.
Bailey, Thomas Grahame. 1982. Learn Urdu: For English Speakers. Brooklyn, NY: Saphrograph Corp.
Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Baldauf, Richard B. Jr. and Robert B. Kaplan (eds.) 2000. Language Planning in Nepal, Taiwan, and Sweden. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Ballard, Roger (ed.) 1994. Desh Pardesh: The South Asian Presence in Britain. Marcus Banks, London: Hurst.
Ballard, Roger. 1996. “The Pakistanis: Stability and introspection,” in Ethnicity in the 1991 Census, edited by Ceri Peach. London: In the Service of Her Majesty: National Statistics.
Bama, 2000. Karukku (Palmyra Leaves, Freshness). Translated by Lakshmi Holmstrom. Chennai, India: Macmillan.
Banerji, Sures Chandra. 1996. Historical Survey of Ancient Indian Grammars: Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit. New Delhi: Sharada Publication House.
Bannerjee, Brajendra Nath. 1997. Struggle for Justice to Dalit Christians. New Delhi: New Age International.
Barnes, Sir Edward. 1932. The History of Royal College (Colombo). (It was earlier called Colombo academy.)
Barnet, Richard J. and John Cavanagh. 1994. Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Barnouw, Eric and E. Krishnaswamy. 1963. Indian Films. New York: Columbia University Press.
Barton, D. (ed.) 1994. Sustaining Local Literacies, Special issue of Language and Education, 8.
Barz, R. K. 1980. “The cultural significance of Hindi in Mauritius,” Journal of South Asian Studies, new series, 3, 1–14.
Barz, R. K. and J. Siegel (eds.) 1988. Language Transplanted: The Development of Overseas Hindi. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Basdeo, S. 1999. “East Indians in Canada's Pacific coast 1900–1914: An encounter in race relations,” in Sojourners to Settlers: Indian Migrants in the Caribbean and the Americas, edited by M. Gosine and D. Narine. New York: Windsor Press, pp. 236–52.
Bashir, Elenab. 2006. “Pakistan: Research and developments in linguistics and language study,” in The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics, 2006, edited by Rajendra Singh. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 125–43.
Baumgardner, Robert J. 1992. “To Shariat or not to Shariat: Bilingual functional shifts in Pakistani England,” in The External Family: English in Global Bilingualism (Studies in Honor of Braj B. Kachru), World Englishes, 11, 2/3, special issue, edited by Larry E. Smith and S. N. Sridhar. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 129–40.
Baumgardner, Robert J. 1993. “The indigenisation of English in Pakistan,” in The English Language in Pakistan, edited by Robert J. Baumgardner. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, pp. 41–54.
Baumgardner, Robert J., Andrey A. H. Kennedy, and Fauzia Shamin. 1993. “The Urduization of English in Pakistan,” in The English Language in Pakistan, edited by Robert J. Baumgardner. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, pp. 83–203.
Bechert, H. (ed.) 1980. The Language of the Earliest Buddhist Tradition. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.
Benedict, Paul K. 1972. Sino-Tibetan. A Conspectus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berger, Hermann. 1998. Die Burushaski-Sprache von Hunza und Nager (3 Vols., Neuindische Studien, Band 13). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Bergsland, Knut and Hans Vogt. 1962. “On the validity of glottochronology,” Current Anthropology, 3, 115–53.
Bergvall, Victoria L., Janet M. Bing, and Alice F. Freed. 1996. Rethinking Language and Gender Research. New York: Longman.
Bhagat, Datta. 1994. “Routes and escape-routes,” Translated by Maya Pandit, in Yatra: Writings from the Indian Subcontinent, III edited by Satish Alekar. New Delhi: Indus.
Bhagat, Datta. 2000. “Whirlwind,” in Indian Drama since 1950, translated by Georg Naggies, Vimal Thorat, and Eleanor Zelliot, edited by G. P. Deshpande. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.
Bhagwat, Vidyut. 1995. “Bombay in Dalit literature,” in Bombay: Mosaic of Modern Culture, edited by Sujata Patel and Alice Thorner. Bombay, India: Oxford University Press, pp. 113–25.
Bhaskararao, Peri and Karumuri V. Subbarao (eds.) 2001. The Yearbook of South Asian Languages 2001. New Delhi: Thousand Oaks, London: Sage.
Bhaskararao, Peri and Karumuri V. Subbarao. 2004. Non-nominative Subjects, Vols. I and II. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Bhatia, Tej K. 1982. “English and the vernaculars of India: Contact and change,” Applied Linguistics, 3(3), 235–45.
Bhatia, Tej K. 1987. A History of Hindi (Hindustani) Grammatical Tradition. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Bhatia, Tej K. 1988. “English in advertising: Multiple mixing and media,” World Englishes, 6, 33–48.
Bhatia, Tej K. 1992. “Discourse functions and pragmatics of mixing: Advertising across cultures,” World Englishes, 11, 195–215.
Bhatia, Tej K. 1993. Punjabi: A Cognitive-Descriptive Grammar. London: Routledge.
Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London: Routledge.
Bhatia, Tej K. 2000. Advertising in India: Language, Marketing Communication, and Consumerism. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
Bhatia, Tej K. 2001a. “Grammatical traditions in contact: The case of India,” Ajia Afurika gengo bunka kenkyu (Journal of Asian and African Studies), 61, 303–31.
Bhatia, Tej K. 2001b. “Language mixing in global advertising,” in The Three Circles of English, edited by Edwin Thumboo. Singapore: UniPress, pp. 195–215.
Bhatia, Tej K. 2003. “The Gurmukhi script and other writing systems of Punjab: History, structure and identity,” in International Symposium on Indic Scripts: Past and Present, edited by Peri Bhaskararao. Tokyo: Research Institute for the Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, pp. 181–213.
Bhatia, Tej K. and Shakuntala Chandana. 2002. Colloquial Hindi. Syracuse, NY: Taylor and Francis.
Bhatia, Vijay K. 1993. Analyzing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. London: Longman.
Bhatt, Rakesh. 1989. “Language planning and language conflict: The case of Kashmiri,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 75, 73–86.
Bhatt, Rakesh. 1996. “On the grammar of code-switching,” World Englishes, 15(3), 369–76.
Bhatt, Rakesh. 1999. Verb Movement and the Syntax of Kashmiri. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.
Bhattacharya, Sudhibhusan. 1957. Ollari: A Dravidian Speech. Calcutta, India: Anthropological Survey of India.
Bhatti, Ghazala. 1999. Asian Children at Home and at School: An Ethnographic Study. London and New York: Routledge.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 1991a. “Monosyllabic English or disyllabic Hindi? Language acquisition in a bilingual child,” Indian Linguistics, 52, 1–4.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 1991b. “Pre-linguistic similarity and post-linguistic difference: Some observations on children's conceptualizations in a cross-cultural context,” in Child Language Development in Singapore and Malaysia, edited by Anna Kwan-Terry. Singapore: Singapore University Press, pp. 35–76.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 1992. “Gender, genre and generative grammar: Deconstructing the matrimonial column,” in Text and Context: Essays in Stylistics, edited by M. Toolan. London: Routledge, pp. 227–54.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 1997a. Technobrat: Culture in a Cybernetic Classroom. New Delhi: Harper Collins.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 1997b. “Acts of agency and acts of God: The discourse of disaster,” Economic & Political Weekly, March, pp. 535–42.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 1999. “The mind has no sex,” in Stree, special issue on Indian Women, pp. 6–10.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 2000. “Stealing fire from the Greeks,” in Memories of the Second Sex: Gender and Sexuality in Women‘s Writing, edited by Dominique S. Verma and T. V. Kunhi Krishnan. Delhi: Somaiya, pp. 33–66.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 2001a. “The testament of the tenth muse: A perspective on feminine sexuality and sensibility among Indian women poets in English,” in Indian Poetry: Modernism and After, edited by K. Satchidananadan. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, pp. 193–223.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 2001b. “Is astrology different for feminists?” Seminar, 71–9.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini. 2002a. Lying on the Postcolonial Couch: The Idea of Indifference. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Bhaya Nair, Rukmini (ed.) 2002b. Translation, Text and Theory: The Paradigm of India. New Delhi: Sage.
Bhoite, Uttam and Anuradha Bhoite. 1977. “The Dalit Sahitya Movement in Maharashtra: A sociological analysis,” Sociological Bulletin, 26(1), 60–75.
Bickerton, Derek. 1977. “Pidginization and creolization: Language acquisition and language universals,” in Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, edited by Albert Valdman. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 49–69.
Birdwood, George. 1887. “Colonel Yule's Anglo-Indian glossary,” Quarterly Review, 164, 144–66.
Biswas, Achintya. 1995. “Bengali Dalit poetry: Past and now,” in Dalit Solidarity, edited by Bhagwan Das and James Massey. New Delhi: Indian Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, pp. 190–200.
Bloch, Jules. 1934. Indo-Aryan: From the Vedas to Modern Times. Translated by Alfred Master. Paris: Librairie Adrien Maisonnneuve. (Original in French.)
Bloch, Jules. 1954. The Grammatical Structure of Dravidian Languages. Translated by R. G. Harshe. Poona, India: Deccan College, Post-graduate and Research Institute.
Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language. New York: Holt.
Bly, R. (ed.) 1971. The Kabir Book: Forty Four of the Ecstatic Poems of Kabir. Toronto, ON: Fitzhenry and Whiteside.
Bolton, Kingsley and Braj B. Kachru (eds.) 2006a. World Englishes: Critical Concepts in Linguistics. 6 vols. London and New York: Routledge.
Bolton, Kingsley and Braj B. Kachru (eds.) 2006b. Origin and Development of Asian Englishes. 5 vols. London and New York: Routledge.
Borua, B. K. 1993. Nagamese, the Language of Nagaland. New Delhi: Mittal.
Bourdieu, P. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power. edited by J. B. Thompson. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bradley, David. 1981. “Andaman and Nicobar Islands,” in Language Atlas of the Pacific Area, edited by Stephen A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
Bradley, David. 1997. “Tibeto-Burman languages and classification,” in Tibeto-Burman Languages of the Himalayas (Pacific Linguistics, Series A, 86; Papers in Southeast Asian Linguistics, no. 14), edited by David Bradley. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Australian National University, pp. 1–71.
Brah, A. 1996. Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities. London and New York: Routledge.
Brass, Paul R. 1974. Language, Religion, and Politics in North India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Breton, Ronald J. -L. 1997. Atlas of the Languages and Ethnic Communities of South Asia. New Delhi: Sage; Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Brians, Paul, Mary Gallwey, Douglas Huges, et al. (eds.) 1999. Reading About the World, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Harcourt Brace Custom Publishing.
Bright, William. 1960. “A study of caste and dialect in Mysore,” Indian Linguistics, 21, 45–50.
Bright, William. 1990. Language Variation in South Asia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bright, William. 1998. “The Dravidian scripts,” in The Dravidian Languages, edited by Sanford Steever. London: Routledge, pp. 40–71.
Bright, William. 2000. “A matter of typology: Alphasyllabaries and Abugidas,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 30, 3–71.
Bright, William and A. K. Ramanujan. 1964. “Sociolinguistic variation and language change,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguists, edited by H. G. Hunt. Cambridge, MA: The Massachussetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 1107–13.
Britto, Francis. 1986. Diglossia: A Study of the Theory with Application to Tamil. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Bronkhorst, Johannes. 2001. “Pānini and Euclid: Reflections on Indian geometry,” Journal of Indian Philosophy, 29, 43–80.
Brown, L. 1980. The Indian Christianity of St. Thomas, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Penelope. 1980. “How and why are women more polite: Some evidence from a Mayan community,” in Women and Language in Literature and Society, edited by Sally McConnell-Ginet, Ruth Borker, and Nelly Furman. New York: Praeger, pp. 111–36.
Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brueck, Laura. 2002. “Dalit writing: The works of Kusum Meghval,” Sagar: A South Asia Graduate Research Journal, 8, 74–99.
Bryant, Arthur. 1932. Macaulay. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Bühler, Georg. 1904. Indian Paleography [Reprinted in 1980, New Delhi: Oriental Books and Munshiram Manoharlal].
Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 1978, X(3), pp. 2–10.
Burke, A. K. 1982. “Persian literature in Kashmir in 18th C,” Indo-Iranica, 35(1–2), 57–63.
Burrow, Thomas. 1965. The Sanskrit Language. London: Faber and Faber.
Burrow, Thomas and S. Bhattacharya. 1962–1963. “Gadaba supplement,” Indo-Iranian Journal, 6, 45–51.
Burrow, Thomas and S. Bhattacharya. 1970. The Pengo Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Burton, A. M. 1998. At the Heart of the Empire: Indians and the Colonial Encounter in Late–Victorian Britain. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Butt, Miriam, Tracy Holloway King, and Gillian Ramchand. 1994. Theoretical Perspectives on Word Order in South Asian Languages. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.
Caldwell, Robert. 1903. A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages (3rd edn). New Delhi: Orient Publications. [Reprinted in 1947.]
Cameron, Deborah. 1992. Feminism and Linguistic Theory (2nd edn). London: Macmillan.
Cameron, Deborah and Jennifer Coates (eds.) 1988. Women in Their Speech Communities. New York: Longman.
Canagarajah, Suresh. 1999. Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Candan, A. 1986. Indians in Britain. New Delhi: Sterling.
Cardona, George. 1976. Pāṇini: A Survey of Research. The Hague and Paris: Mouton.
Cardona, George. 1983. Linguistic Analysis and Some Indian Traditions, Post-graduate and Research Department Series No. 20 (Pandit Shripad Shastri Deodhar Memorial Lectures). Poona, India: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.
Cardona, George. 1987. “Sanskrit,” in The World's Major Languages, edited by Bernard Comrie. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 448–69.
Cardona, George. 1997. Pāṇini: His Work and Its Traditions: Background and Introduction. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Cardona, George. 1999. Recent Researches in Paninian Studies. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Cardona, George, and Dhanesh Jain (eds.) 2003. The Indo-Aryan languages. London and New York: Routledge.
Carter, M. 1995. Servants, Sirdars and Settlers: Indians in Mauritius, 1834–1874. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Census of India. 1961 India, States and Union Territories. Registrar General & Census Commissioner. New Delhi.
Census of India. 1991. India, States and Union Territories. Registrar General & Census Commissioner. New Delhi.
Census of India 2004. Census of India: Language Atlas of India 1991. Technical direction R. P. Singh, General direction Jayant Kumar Banthia. Delhi: Controller of Publications.
Chaitanya, Krishna. 1977. A New History of Sanskrit Literature. New Delhi: Manohar Book Service.
Chaklader, Snehamoy. 1987. Minority Rights: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Group Conflicts in Eastern Region of India. Calcutta, India: K. P. Bagchi.
Chakrabarti, Sukla. 1996. A Critical Linguistic Study of the Prāti´śakhyas. Calcutta, India: Punthi–Pustak.
Challapalli, Swaroopa Rani. 1998. “Dalit women's writing in Telugu,” The Economic and Political Weekly, April 25, pp. 21–24.
Chandrasekhar, A. 1970. “Personal pronouns and pronominal forms in Malayalam,” Anthropological Linguistics, 12(7), 246–55.
Chari, V. K. 1990. Sanskrit Criticism. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Chatterjee, Kalyan K[umar]. 1976. English Education in India. Issues and Opinions. New Delhi: Macmillan.
Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. 1926. The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language (3 vols.). Calcutta, India: Calcutta University Press.
Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. 1931. Calcutta Hindustani: A Study of a Jargon Dialect. Lahore, Pakistan: G. D. Thukral [Reprinted in 1972, New Delhi: People's Publishing House, pp. 204–56].
Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. 1973. India, a Polyglot Nation and its Linguistic Problems vis-à-vis National Integration. Bombay, India: Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Research Centre.
Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. 1976. “The Persian language and Bengal,” Indo-Iranica, 29(1–4), 113–8.
Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. 1977. Some Aspects of Indo-Iranian Literary and Cultural Traditions. New Delhi: Ajanta.
Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. 1985. The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language. Calcutta, India: Rupa.
Chaturvedi, M. G. and B. V. Mohale. 1976. The Position of Languages in School Curriculum in India. New Delhi: National Council of Education Research and Training.
Chaturvedi, M. G. and S. Singh. 1981. Language and Medium of Instruction in India Schools: Third All India Survey 1981. New Delhi: National Council of Education Research and Training.
Chaudhry, Nazir Ahmad. 1977. Development of Urdu as Official Language in the Punjab, 1849–1974. Lahore, Pakistan: Punjab Government Record Office.
Chernyshev, V. A. 1971. “Nekotorye cherty Bombeiskogo govora khindustani” (na materiale sovremennoi prozy khindi), in diiskaia i Iranskaia filologiia (Voprosy Dialektologii), edited by N. A. Dvoriankov. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo “Nauka,” pp. 121–41.
Chidananda Murthy, M. 1984. “Modernization of Kannada in the news media,” in Modernization of Indian Languages in the News Media, edited by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti and Aditi Mukherji. Hyderabad, India: Department of Linguistics, Osmania University, pp. 54–63.
Chib, Som Nath. 1936. Language, Universities and Nationalism in India. London and Bombay, India: Milford and Oxford University Press.
Chion, Michel. 1999. The Voice in Cinema. New York: Columbia University Press.
Chitre, Dilip. 2001. Namdeo Dhasal: Poet of the Underworld. www.ambedkar.org/News/NamdeoDhasal.htm, accessed August 2005.
Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
Cicourel, Aaron V. 1972. “Basic and normative rules in the negotiation of status and role,” in Studies in Social Interaction, edited by David Sudnow. New York: Free Press, pp. 229–58.
Clarke, Hyde. 1890. “The English language in India and the East,” Asiatic Quarterly Review, 10, 149–62.
Clements, J. Clancy. 1988. The Genesis of a Language: The Formation and Development of Korlai Portuguese. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Cohn, Bernard S. 1985. “The command of language and the language of command,” in Subattern Studies IV: Writings on South Asian History and Society, edited by Ranjit Guha. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 276–329.
Collins, S. 2001. “Buddhism, Indian,” in Concise Encyclopedia of Language and Religion, edited by J. F. A. Sawyer and J. M. Y. Simpson. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 15–16.
Comrie, Bernard. 1978. “Ergativity,” in Syntactic Typology, edited by W. P. Lehmann. Brighton, Sussex: The Harvester Press, pp. 329–94.
Comrie, Bernard. 1981. Language Universals and Linguistic Typology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Comrie, Bernard (ed.) 1987. The World's Major Languages London and Sydney: Croom Helm.
Cook, Nilla Cram. 1958. The Way of the Swan. Bombay, India: Asia Publishing House.
Coulmas, Florian. 1996. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell.
Cowar, Nilmani. 1859. Can English Be the Language of India? An essay read at a bi-monthly meeting of students of the Presidency College in April 1859. Calcutta, India: Hurkabu Press, pp. 1–12.
Coward, Harold, John R. Hinnells, and Raymond B. Williams (eds.) 2000. The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Crawford, Mary. 1995. Talking Difference. London: Sage.
Crosby, Faye and Linda Nyquist. 1977. “The female register: An empirical study of Lakoff's hypothesis,” Language in Society, 6, 313–22.
Damsteegt, T. 1988. “Sarnami: A living language,” in Language Transplanted: The Development of Overseas Hindi, edited by R. K. Barz and J. Siegel. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, pp. 95–120.
Damsteegt, T. 1993. “Language maintenance among the East Indians in Suriname,” in Alternative Cultures in the Caribbean, edited by T. Bremer and U. Fleischmann. Frankfurt am Main: Vervuert, pp. 95–120.
Dangle, Arjun (ed.) 1992. Poisoned Bread: Translations from Modern Marathi Dalit Literature. Hyderabad, India: Orient Longmans.
Dani, Ahmed Hasan. 1963. Indian Paleography. Oxford: Clarendon. [2nd edn, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1986.]
Daniels, Peter T. 2002. “The study of writing in the twentieth century: Semitic studies interacting with non-semitic,” Israel Oriental Studies, 20, 85–118.
Daniels, Peter, T. and William Bright (eds.) 1996. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.
Das Gupta, Bhidu Bhusan. 1966. Assamese Self-taught. Calcutta, India: DasGupta Prakashan.
Das Gupta, Jyotirindra. 1970. Language Conflict and National Development. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Dasgupta, Probal. 1993. The Otherness of English: India's Auntie Tongue Syndrome. London and New Delhi: Sage.
Dasgupta, Probal. 2006. “Language policies and lesser-known language in India,” in The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics, 2006, edited by Rajendra Singh. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 193–205.
Das, Sisir Kumar. 1968. “Forms of address and terms of reference in Bengali,” Anthropological Linguistics, 4(10), 19–31.
Das, Sisir Kumar. 1991. A History of Indian Literature Volume VIII:1800–1910: Western Impact: Indian Response. New Delhi: Sahitya Academi.
Davidar, David. 2002. The House of Blue Mangoes. New York: Harper Collins.
Davison, Alice. 1999b “Lexical anaphors in Hindi/Urdu,” in Kashi Wali, K. V. Subbarao, B. Lust and J. Gair (eds.), Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Some South Asian Languages: a Principled Typology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 397–470.
de Silva, M. W. Sugathapala. 1972. The Vedda Language of Ceylon, Texts and Lexicon. Munich: R. Kitzinger.
Denny, J. Peter. 1991. “Rational thought in oral culture and literate decontextualization,” in Literacy and Orality, edited by D. R. Olson and N. Torrance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–89.
Deo, Veena. 1996. “Dalit literature in Marathi,” in Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literature of India, edited by Nalini Natarajan. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 363–81.
Deo, Veena and Eleanor Zelliot. 1994. “Dalit literature – Twenty-five years of protest? Of progress?,” Journal of South Asian Literature, XXIX(2), 41–67.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1978. “Pāṇinian grammarians on dialectal variation in Sanskrit,” Brahmavidyạ̄: Adyar Library Bulletin, 61–114.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1979a. “Genesis of Ṛgvedic retroflexion: A historical and socio-linguistic investigation,” in Aryan and Non-Aryan in India, edited by Madhav Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Michigan, pp. 235–315.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1979b. Sociolinguistic Attitudes in India: An Historical Reconstruction. Linguistica Extranea, Studia 5. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1985a. “Historical change and the theology of eternal Sanskrit,” Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung, 98, 122–49.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1985b. “Sanskrit grammarians on diglossia,” in South Asian Languages: Structure, Convergence and Diglossia, edited by Bh. Krishnamurti. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, pp. 312–21.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1991. “Diglossia in the writings of the Sanskrit grammarians,” Southwest Journal of Linguistics, Studies in Diglossia, 10(1), 23–40.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1992. “Sociolinguistic parameters of Pāṇini's Sanskrit,” in Vidyā-Vratin, Prof. A. M. Ghatage Felicitation Volume, edited by V. N. Jha. New Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, pp. 111–30.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1993. Sanskrit and Prakrit: Sociolinguistic Issues. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1994. “Brahmanism versus Buddhism: A perspective on language attitudes,” in Jainism and Prakrit in Ancient and Medieval India, Professor J. C. Jain Felicitation Volume, edited by N. N. Bhattacharya. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers, pp. 89–111.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1996. “Contextualizing the eternal language: Features of priestly Sanskrit,” in Ideology & Status of Sanskrit, Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit Language, edited by Jan Houben. Leiden: E. J. Brill, pp. 401–36.
Deshpande, Madhav M. 1999. “What to do with the Anāryas: Dharmic discourses of inclusion and exclusion,” in Aryan and Non–Aryan in South Asia (Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora, Vol. 3), edited by Madhav M. Deshpande and Jonannes Bronkhorst. Cambridge, MA: Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard University, pp. 107–27.
Deshpande, Madhav M. and Jonannes Bronkhorst (eds.) 1999. Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia (Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora, Vol. 3), Cambridge, MA: Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard University.
Deshpande, Madhav M. and Peter Edwin Hook (eds.) 1979. Aryan and Non-Aryan in India. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Michigan.
Dhadphale, M. G. 1975. Some Aspects of (Buddhist) Literary Criticism as Gleaned from Pāli Soures. Bombay, India: Adreesh Prakashan.
Dhammika, Ven S. 1993. The Edicts of King Ashoka, Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.
Dharmadasa, K. N. O. 1974. “The creolization of an aboriginal language: The case of Vedda in Sri Lanka (Ceylon),” Anthropological Linguistics, 16, 79–106.
Dharmadasa, K. N. O. 1977. “Nativism, diglossia and the Sinhalese identity in the language problem in Sri Lanka,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 13, 21–31.
Dharmadasa, K. N. O. 1990. “The Vedda language,” in The Vanishing Aborigines: Sri Lanka's Veddas in Transition, edited by K. N. O. Dharmadasa and S. W. R. de A. Samarasinghe. New Delhi: International Centre for Ethnic Studies, pp. 84–98.
Dharmadasa, K. N. O. 1992. Language, Religion, and Ethnic Assertiveness: The Growth of Sinhalese Nationalism in Sri Lanka. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Dharmadasa, K. N. O. (ed.) 1996. National Language Policy in Sri Lanka, 1956 to 1996: Three Studies in Its Implementation. Kandy, Sri Lanka: International Centre for Ethnic Studies.
Dharwadker, Vinay. 1994. “Dalit poetry in Marathi,” World Literature Today, 68(2), 319–24.
Dharwadkar, Vinay. 2003. “The historical formation of Indian-English literature,” in Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia, edited by Sheldon Pollock. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 199–267.
Dhayagude, Suresh. 1981. Western and Indian Poetics – A Comparative Study (Bhandarkar Oriental Series no. 16). Pune, India: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.
Dil, Anwar S. 1966. “The position of English in Pakistan,” Shahidullah Presentation Volume, special issue of Pakistani Linguistics, 185–242.
Dil, Anwar S. 1969. “Linguistic studies in Pakistan,” in Current Trends in Linguistics. Vol. 5. Linguistics in South Asia, edited by Thomas A. Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 679–735.
Diringer, David. 1948. The Alphabet: A Key to the History of Mankind. New York: Philosophical Library.
Dissanayake, Wimal. 1985. “Towards a decolonised English: South Asian creativity in fiction,” World Englishes, 4(2), 233–42.
Dissanayake, Wimal and Ashley Ratnavibhushana. 2000. Profiling Sri Lankan Cinema. Colombo: Asian Film Centre.
Dixon, David. 2006. Characteristics of the Asian Born in the United States. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
Dixon, Robert M. W. 1997. The Rise and Fall of Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Domingue, N. C. 1971. “Bhojpuri and Creole in Mauritius: A study of linguistic interference and its consequences in regard to synchronic variation and language change,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.
Doniger, Wendy. 1991. The Laws of Manu. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the Difference. Gender and Myth in Ancient Greece and India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dorian, Nancy. 1981. Language Death: The Life Cycle of Scottish Gaelic Dialect. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Dressler, Wolfgang U. 1991. “The sociolinguistic and patholoinguistic attrition of Breton phonology, morphology, and morphoponology,” in First Language Attrition, edited by H. W. Seliger and R. W. Vago. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 99–112.
Dryer, M. 1992. “The Greenbergian word order correlations,” Language, 69, 81–138.
D'souza, Jean. 1986. “Toward a typology of modernization for India as a sociolinguistic area,” paper presented at The South Asian Languages Analysis Round Table. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.
D'souza, Jean. 1987. “South Asia as a sociolinguistic area,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
D'souza, Jean. 1988. “Interactional strategies in South Asian languages: Their implications for teaching English internationally,” World Englishes, 7, 159–71.
D'souza, Jean. 2001. “Contextualizing range and depth in Indian English,” World Englishes, 20(2), 145–60.
Dua, Hans R. 1985. Language Planning in India. New Delhi: Harnam Publications.
Dua, Hans R. 1986. Language Use, Attitudes and Identity among Linguistic Minorities. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Dua, Hans R. and Shakuntala Sharma. 1977. “Language diversity, bilingualism and communication in India,” Indian Linguistics, 38(4), 210–20.
Dube, Leela. 1988. “On the construction of gender: Hindu girls in patrilinial India,” Economic and Political Weekly, April 30, pp. 11–19.
Dubey, V. S. 1991. “The lexical style of Indian English newspapers,” World Englishes, 10(1), 19–32.
Duff, Alexandra. 1837. New Era of the English Language and Literature in India; or, An Exposition of the Late Governor-General of India's Last Act. Edinburgh: Johastone.
Dulai, N. K. 1989. A Pedagogical Grammar of Punjabi. Patiala, India: Institute of Language Studies.
Dwivedi, Hazari Prasad. 1964. Hindi Sahitya udbhav aur vikas. New Delhi: Attarchand Kapoor and Sons.
Eade, John, Tim Vamplew, and Ceri Peach. 1996. “The Bangladeshis: The encapsulated community,” in Ethnicity in the 1991 Census, edited by Ceri Peach. London: In Her Majesty's Service: National Statistics.
Eagle, S. 2000. “The language situation in Nepal,” in Language Planning in Nepal, Taiwan and Sweden, edited by Richard Baldauf Jr. and Robert Kaplan. North York, ON: Multilingual Matters, pp. 272–327.
Eckert, Penelope and Sally McConnell-Ginet. 1992. “Communities of practice: Where language, gender and power all live,” in Locating Power: Proceedings of the Second Berkeley Woman and Language Conference, edited by Kira Hall, Mary Bucholtz, and Birch Moonwomon. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Women and Language Group, pp. 89–99.
Edwards, John. 1985. Language, Society and Identity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Edwards, Viv and Savita Katbamna. 1988. “The wedding songs of British Gujarati women,” in Women in their Speech Communities, edited by Deborah Cameron and Jennifer Coates. New York: Longman, pp. 158–74.
Ekka, Francis. 1979. “Language loyalty and maintenance among Kuruxs,” in Language Movements in India, edited by E. Annamalai. Mysore, India: CIIL Publications, pp. 99–105.
Ekvall, R. B. 1964. Religious Observances in Tibet. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Emeneau, Murray B. 1951. Studies in Vietnamese (Annamese) Grammar University of California Publications in Linguistics, Vol. 8. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Emeneau, Murray B. 1955. “India and linguistics,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 75, 145–53.
Emeneau, Murray B. 1956. “India as a linguistic area,” Language, 32, 3–16.
Emeneau, Murray B. 1962a. Dravidian and Indian Linguistics. Berkeley, CA: Center for South Asian Studies, University of California.
Emeneau, Murray B. 1962b. “Bilingualism and structural borrowing,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 106(5), 430–42.
Emeneau, Murray B. 1971. Toda Songs. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Emeneau, Murray B. 1980. “India and linguistic areas,” in Language and Linguistic Area: Essays by Murray B. Emeneau, edited by A. N. Dil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 126–66.
Emeneau, Murray B. and Thomas Burrow. 1962. Dravidian Borrowings from Indo-Aryan, University of California Publications in Linguistics 26. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
Erikson, Erik. 1958. Young Man Luther. A Study Psychoanalysis and History. New York: W. W. Norton.
Erikson, Erik. 1968. Identity, Youth and Crisis. London: Faber and Faber.
Erikson, Erik. 1969. Gandhi's Truth: On the Origins of Militant Non-violence. New York: W. W. Norton.
Erikson, Erik. 1974. Dimensions of a New Identity. New York: W. W. Norton
Europa World Year Book. 2000. London: Europa.
Excerpts from Khusrau's Persian Poetry. www.alif–india.com/love.html, accessed July 2005.
Fairclough, Norman. 1989. Language and Power. London: Longman.
Faruqi, Shamsur Rahman. 2001. Early Urdu Literary Culture and History. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Fatihi, A. R. 2003. Language in India, 3, 2–9, www.languageinindia.com, accessed August 25, 2005.
Ferdman, Bernardo M., Rose–Marie Weber, and Arnulfo G. Ramírez, (eds.) 1994. Literacy across Languages and Cultures. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1945. “A chart of the Bengali Verb,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 65, 54–55.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1959. “Diglossia,” Word, 15, 325–40.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1968. “Language development,” in Language Problems of Developing Nations, edited by J. A. Fishman, Charles A. Ferguson, and J. Dasgupta. New York: John Wiley, pp. 27–35.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1976. “The structure and use of politeness formulas,” Language in Society, 5, 137–51.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1992. “South Asia as a sociolinguistic area,” in Dimensions of Sociolinguistics in South Asia. Papers in Memory of Gerald Kelley, edited by Edward C. Dimock, Jr., Braj B. Kachru, and Bh. Krishnamurti. New Delhi: Oxford University Press and India Book House, pp. 25–36.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1996. “English in South Asia: Imperialist legacy and regional asset,” in South Asian English: Structure, Use and Users, edited by Robert J. Baumgardner Urban and Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp. 29–39.
Ferguson, Charles and John Gumperz (eds.) 1960. Linguistic Diversity in South Asia: Studies in Regional, Social and Functional Variation, special issue of International Journal of American Linguistics, 26(3), Part II.
Ferguson, Donald Williams. 1887a. “Anglo-Indianisms,” Ceylon Literary Register, 1(28), 231–32.
Ferguson, Donald Williams. 1887b. “Anglo-Indianisms,” Ceylon Literary Register, (29), 238–40.
Fernando, Chitra. 1996. “The ideational function of English in Sri Lanka,” in South Asian English: Structure, Use and Users, edited by Robert J. Baumgardner. Urbana and Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp. 206–17.
First Report of the Commissioner of Linguistic Minorities. 1957. New Delhi: Government of India.
Firth, John R. 1930. Speech. London: Benn's Sixpence Library, No. 121. [Reprinted edition, London: Oxford University Press, 1966.]
Fishman, Joshua Andrew. 1973. “Language modernization and planning in comparison with other types of national modernization and planning,” Language and Society, 2(1), 23–43.
Fishman, P. M. 1983. “Interaction: The work women do,” in Language, Gender and Sex, edited by Barrie Thorne, Cheris Kramarae, and Nancy Henley. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, pp. 89–101.
Fowler, Murray. 1954. “The segmental phonemes of Sanskritized Tamil,” Language, 30, 360–7.
Fowler, R., B. Hodge, and T. Trew. 1997. Language and Control. London: Routledge.
Fox, J. A. 1973. “Russenorsk: A study in language adaptivity,” unpublished manuscript, University of Chicago.
Frykenberg, Robert. 1988. “The myth of English as a ‘colonialist’ imposition upon India: A reappraisal with special reference to south India,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 2, 305–15.
Gaeffke, Peter. 1978. Hindi Literature in the Twentieth Century, in the series A History of Indian Literature, edited by Jan Gonda, Vol. 8, fasc. 5. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Ghaffar, Muzaffar A. 1990. “Which language do we speak: Engdu, Urdeng, or Urlish?,” Midasia, Islamabad, April 12, 11.
Gaikwad, Laxman. 1998. The Branded, Translated by P. A. Koharkar. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.
Gair, J. W. 1998. Studies in South Asian Linguistics: Sinhala and other South Asian languages. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gajvi, Premanand. 2000. “Ghotbhar pani” (A Sip of Water), in Playwright at the Center: Marathi Drama from 1843 to the Present, edited by Shanta Gokhale. Calcutta, India: Seagull, pp. 458–69.
Gambhir, S. K. 1981. “The East Indian speech community in Guyana: A sociolinguistic study with special reference to Koine-formation,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Gambhir, S. K. 1987. “Structural development of Guyanese Bhojpuri,” in Language Transplanted: The Development of Overseas Hindi, edited by R. K. Barz and J. Siegel. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, pp. 69–94.
Gambhir, V. 1981. “Syntactic restrictions and discourse functions of word order in standard Hindi,” unpublished PhD. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Gargesh, Ravinder. 1998. “Some reflections on the impact of Persian on word formation of Hindi–Urdu,” in Indo-Persian Cultural Perspectives, edited by Mohammad A. Khan, Ravinder Gargesh, and Chander Shekhar. New Delhi: Saud Ahmad Dehlavi, pp. 79–90.
Gaustan, E. S. and P. L. Barlow. 2000. New Historical Atlas of Religion in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gautam, M. K. 1999. “The construction of the Indian image in Suriname: Deconstructing colonial derogatory notions and reconstructing Indian identity,” in Sojourners to Settlers: Indian Migrants in the Caribbean and the Americas, edited by M. Gosine and D. Narine. New York: Windsor Press, pp. 125–79.
Gee, J. P. 1986. “Orality and literacy: From The Savage Mind to Ways with Words,” Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Quarterly, 20, 719–46.
Geertz, C. 1995. After the Fact: Two Countries. Four Decades. One Anthropologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Geocities. 2002. “Should Urdu continue as our national language?,” www.geocities.com/paklanguage, Accessed July 2005.
Gerow, Edwin. 1971. A Glossary of Indian Figures of Speech. The Hague and Paris: Mouton.
Gerow, Edwin. 1977. Indian Poetics, A History of Indian Literature, Vol. V. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Ghosh, Arunabha. 1998. Jharkhand Movement: A Study in the Politics of Regionalism. Calcutta, India: Minerva Associates.
Gibson, M. A. 1988. Accomodation without Assimilation: Sikh Immigrants in an American High School. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gluck, Sherna Berger and Daphne Patai. 1991. Women's Words. The Feminist Practice of Oral History. New York: Routledge.
Goffin, Raymond C. 1934. Some Notes on Indian English, S. P. E. Tract No. 41. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 20–32.
Goffman, Erving. 1967. Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday.
Gokhale–Turner, Jayashree. 1980. “Bhakti or vidroha: Continuity and change in Dalit Literature,” Journal of Asian and African Studies, 15(1–2), 29–40.
Goody, Esther N. (ed.) 1978. Questions and Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goody, Jack (ed.) 1968. Literacy in Traditional Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goody, Jack. 1987. The Interface between the Written and the Oral. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gopal, Ram. 1966. Linguistic Affairs of India. London: Asia Publishing House.
Gopal, Sarvepalli (ed.) 1980. Jawahar Lal Nehru: An Anthology. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/ (accessed 25/2/2007)
Goswami, Upendranath. 1978. An Introduction to Assamese. Guwahati, India: Mani-Manik Prakash.
Government of India. 1964. Census of India. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs.
Government of India. 1978. Background Papers on Tribal Development, Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Areas in India. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs.
Government of India. 1991. The Constitution of India (3rd edn). New Delhi: Rajbhasha Khand.
Government of India. 1997. Census of India. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs.
Grant, Charles. 1831–1832. “Observations on the state of society among the Asiatic subjects of Great Britain, particularly with respect to morals, and the means of improving it,” in General Appendix to Parliamentary Papers 1831–1832, London.
Gray, John. 1992. Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. New York: HarperCollins.
Greenberg, Joseph H. 1966. “Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements,” in Universals of Language (2nd edn), edited by Joseph, H. Greenberg. Cambridge, MA: Massachussetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 73–113.
Gregory, R. G. 1971. India and East Africa – A History of Race Relations within the British Empire. Oxford: Clarendon.
Grierson, George A. 1883–1887. Seven Grammars of the Dialects and Sub-dialects of the Bihari Language. Calcutta, India: Bengal Secretariat Press.
Grierson, George A. 1903–1928. Linguistic Survey of India. Calcutta, India: Government of India [Reprinted in 1967, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (11 vols. 19 parts)].
Grierson, George A. 1967–1968. Linguistic Survey of India (11 vols). New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass [Reprint of 1st edn, 1903–1928.]
Griffin, Michael K. Viswanath, and Dona Schwartz. 1994. “Gender advertising in the US and India: Exporting cultural stereotypes,” Media, Culture and Society, 16, 487–507.
Grimes, Barbara F. (ed.) 1992. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Gumperz, John J. 1961. “Speech variation and the study of Indian civilization,” American Anthropologist, 63, 976–88.
Gumperz, John J. 1968. “The speech community,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Vol. 9. London: Macmillan, pp. 381–86.
Gumperz, John J. and Robert Wilson. 1971. “Convergence and creolization: A case from the Indo-Aryan/Dravidian border in India,” in Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell H. Hymes. London: Cambridge University Press, pp. 151–67.
Gupta, Dipankar (ed.) 1991. Social Stratification. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Guru, Kamata Prasad. 1920. Hindi Vyakaran. Banaras, India: Kashi Nagri Pracharini Sabha.
Gurung, Haraka. 1997. “Linguistic demography of Nepal,” Contributions to Nepalese Studies, 24(2), 147–85.
Haas, Mary R. 1944. “Men's and women's speech in Koasati,” Language, 20, 142–49. [Reprinted in 1964, in Language in Culture and Society, edited by Dell Hymes. New York: Harper and Row, pp. 228–33].
Haddad, Yvonne Yazebeck. 2000. “At home in the Hijra: South Asian Muslims in the United States,” in The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States, edited by H. Coward. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 239–58.
Hale, Austin. 1982. Research on Tibeto-Burman Languages. Berlin: Mouton.
Hali, K. A. H. 1971. Yadgaar-e-Ghalib (Memoirs Pertaining to Ghalib). New Delhi: Maktabe Jamia and the Government of Jammu and Kashmir.
Hall, Kira and Veronica O'Donovan. 1996. “Shifting gender positions among Hindi speaking Hijras,” in Rethinking Language and Gender Research, edited by Victoria L. Bergvall, M. Bing, and Alice F. Freed. New York: Longman, pp. 228–66.
Hall, Robert A. Jr. 1966. Pidgin and Creole Languages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Halliday, Michael A. K. 1970. “Language structure and language function,” in New Horizons in Linguistics, edited by John Lyons. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, pp. 140–65.
Halliday, Michael A. K. 1993. “The act of meaning,” in Language, Communication, and Social Meaning, Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics 1992, edited by James E. Alatis. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 7–21.
Halliday, Michael A. K. and Ruqaiya Hasan. 1976. Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
Halverson, John. 1966. “Prolegomena to the study of Ceylon English,” University of Ceylon Review, 24(1/2) 61–75.
Haque, Anjum Riyazul. 1993. “The position and status of English in Pakistan. The Urduization of English in Pakistan,” in The English Language in Pakistan, edited by Robert J. Baumgardner Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, pp. 19–30.
Hardikar, Vinay. 1985. “Profiles in social transformation: Five Dalit autobiographies,” New Quest, 49, 52–8.
Hardiman, D. 1987. The Coming of the Devi: Adivasi Assertion in Western India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Hart, George L. 1976. The Relation between Tamil and Classical Sanskrit Literature, In the series A History of Indian Literature, edited by Jan Gonda, Vol. 10, fasc. 2. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Harvey, David. 1990. The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hasan, Ruqaiya. forthcoming. “Some clause types in Urdu: a tentative analysis,” in Describing Language: Form and Function: The Collected Works of Ruqaiya Hasan, Vol. 5, edited by Jonathan Webster. London: Equinox Publishing.
Havanur, Srinivasa. 1989. HosagannaDa AruNōdaya (Dawn of Modern Kannada). Mysore, India: Institute for Kannada Studies.
Havelock, Eric Alfred. 1963. Preface to Plato. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, R. E. 1976. “Supplement of words from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sir Lanka,” in The Little Oxford Dictionary of Current English, compiled by G. Ostler. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Hawkins, R. E. 1984. Common Indian Words in English. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Hazra, Kanai Lal. 1994. Pāli Language and Literature: A Systematic Survey and Historical Study, Emerging Perceptions in Buddhist Studies, Vols. 4–5. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.
Hegde, R. S. 1991. “Adaptation and the interpersonal experience: A study of Asian Indians in the US,” unpublished PhD dissertation, Columbus: Ohio State University.
Heimann, Betty. 1964. Facets of Indian Thought. London: George Allen and Unwin.
Helweg, Arthur W. and Helweg, Usha M. 1990. An Immigrant Success Story. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hettiaratchi, D. F. 1969. “Linguistics in Ceylon, I,” in Current Trends in Linguistics. Vol. 5. Linguistics in South Asia, edited by, Thomas A. Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 736–51.
Hickey, Ramond. 2004. “South Asian Englishes,” in Legacies of Colonial English Studies in Transported Dialects, edited by Ramond Hickey Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 536–58.
Hill, B., Sachiko Ide, S. Ikuta, A. Kawasaki, and T. Ogino. 1986. “Universals in linguistic politeness: Quantitative evidence from Japanese and American English,” Journal of Pragmatics, 10, 347–71.
Hobbs, S. 1985. Fiji Hindi – English, English – Fiji Hindi Dictionary. Suva: Ministry of Education.
Hock, Hans Henrich. 1975. “Substratum influence on (Rig-Vedic) Sanskrit?,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 5(2), 76–125.
Hock, Hans Henrich. 1976. “Review article on R. Anttila: An introduction to historical comparative linguistics,” Language, 52, 202–20.
Hock, Hans Henrich. 1991. Principles of Historical Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hock, Hans Henrich and Rajeshwari Pandharipande. 1976. “The sociolinguistic position of Sanskrit in pre-Muslim India,” Studies in Language Learning, 11, 105–38.
Hock, Hans Henrich and Rajeshwari Pandharipande. 1978. “Sanskrit in pre-Islamic context of South Asia,” Special issue of International Journal of the Study of Language, 16, 11–25.
Hodge, Robert and Gunther Kress. 1988. Social Semiotic. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Holle, K. F. 1877. Tabel van oud- en nieuw-Indische Alphabetten. Buttenzorg, Java, Dutch East Indies: C. Lang [Reprinted in 1999 as Table of Old and New Indic Alphabets: Contribution to the Paleography of the Dutch Indies. Translated by Carol Molony and Henk Pechler. Written Lanuage and Literacy, 2, 167–245].
Holm, John. 1989. Pidgins and Creoles, Vol. 2: Reference Survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hooper, John S. M. 1963. Bible Translation in India, Pakistan, and Ceylon (2nd edn). Bombay, India: Oxford University Press.
Hosali, Priya. 2000. Butler English, Form and Function. New Delhi: B. R Publishing.
Hosali, Priya and Jean Aitchison. 1986. “Butler English: A minimal pidgin?,” Journal of Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, 1, 51–79.
Hossain, M. 1982. “South Asians in Southern California,” South Asia Bulletin, 2(1), 74–82.
Hovell, Laurie. 1991. “Namdeo Dhasal: Poet panther,” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 23(2), 77–83.
Huebner, Thom (ed.) 1996. Sociolinguistic Perspectives: Papers on Language in Society, 1959–1994/Charles A. Ferguson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hussainmiya, B. A. 1987. Lost Cousins: The Malays of Sri Lanka. Bangi, Malaysia: Institut Bahasa, Kesusasteraan dan Kebudayaan Melayu, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Hunt, Cecil. 1931a. Honoured Sir from Babujee. London: P. Allen.
Hunt, Cecil. 1931b. Babuji Writes Home: Being a New Edition of ‘Honoured Sir’ with Many Additional Letters. London: P. Allen.
Hutton, J. H. 1921. The Angami Nagas, with Some Notes on Neighbouring Tribes. London: Macmillan.
Hwang, Juck–Ryoon. 1990. “‘Deference’ versus ‘politeness’ in Korean speech,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 82, 41–55.
Ide, Sachiko. 1989. “Formal forms and discernment: Neglected aspects of linguistic politeness,” Multilingua, 8(2), 223–48.
Imayam. 2001. Beasts of Burden. Translated by Lakshmi Holmstrom. Chennai, India: Manas (East West Books Madras).
Internet Indian History Sourcebook: The Laws of Manu, c. 1500 BCE. Translated by G. Buhler. www.fordham.edu/halsall/india/indiasbook.html, accessed August 2005.
Indian Literature 159. 1994. XXXVII(1).
Indian Literature 193. 1999. XLIII(5).
Indian Literature 200. 2000. XLIV(6).
Indian Literature 201. 2001. XLV(1).
Internet Public Library. www.ipl.org, accessed June 2001.
Ishtiaq, M. 1999. Language Shifts among the Scheduled Tribes in India: A Geographic Study. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Itagi, N. H., B. D. Jayaram, and V. Vani. 1986. Communication Potential in the Tribal Population of Assam and Madhya Pradesh. Mysore, India: CIIL.
Itkonen, Esa. 1991. Universal History of Linguistics: India, China, Arabia, Europe, Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, Series 3, Vol. 65. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Iyengar, K. R. Srinivasa (ed.) 1983. Asian Variations in Ramayana. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.
Jadhav, Narendra. 2003. Outcaste: A Memoir. New Delhi: Viking Penguin.
Jaeggli, Osvaldo and Kenneth Safir. 1989. The Null Subject Parameter. Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Dordrecht, Boston, MA, and London: Kluwer.
Jain, Dhanesh. 1973. “Pronominal usage in Hindi: A sociolinguistics study,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Jain, S. 1989. Jaina Philosophy of Language. New Delhi: Ahimsa International.
Jaina, Devendra Kumāra [Jain, Devendra Kumar]. 1965. Apabhraṁśa bhāṣā aura sāhitya [Apabhramśa language and literature], Jñāna-pīiḥa Lokodaya Grantha-mālā 152. Calcutta, Varanasi, and New Delhi: Bhāratīya Jñāna-pīṭha Hindi.
Jaina, Jagadīśa Candra [Jain, Jagdishchandra]. 1961. Prākṛta sāhitya kā itihāsa [History of Prakrit literature], Varanasi, India: Chowkhamba Vidya Bhawan.
Jaini, P. S. 1979. The Jaina Path of Purification. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Jalibi, Jameel. 1984. Tarikh-e-Adab-e-Urdu, Vol. 1, History of Urdu literature. New Delhi: Educational Publishing Home.
James, Deborah and Sandra Clarke. 1993. “Women, men, and interruptions: A critical review,” in Gender and Conversational Interaction, edited by Deborah Tannen. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 231–80.
James, Deborah and Janice Drakich. 1993. “Understanding gender differences in amount of talk: A critical review of research,” in Gender and Conversational Interaction, edited by Deborah Tannen. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 281–312.
Jensen, Hans. 1969. Sign, Symbol and Script: An Account of Man's Efforts to Write. New York: Putnam's.
Jespersen, Otto. 1922. Language. Its Nature, Development and Origin. London: Allen and Unwin.
Jinnah, Mohammad A. 1948. Speech at a public meeting at Dacca, March 21, in Quaid-I-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah: Speeches and Statements 1947–8. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
Joshi, S. D. and S. D. Laddu. 1983. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Studies in the Asṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini. Pune, India: University of Poona.
Joshi, Svati. 1990. “Forging an epistemology of resistance: Dalit writing in Gujarati (A review of the anthology Sarvanam 1889),” The Book Review, 143, 32–3.
Kachru, Braj, B. 1965. “The ‘Indianess’ in Indian English,” Word, 21, 391–410.
Kachru, Braj B. 1976. “The Englishization of Hindi: Linguistic rivalry and language change,” in Linguistic Method: Essays in Honor of Herbert Penzl, edited by Irmengard Rauch and G. F. Carr. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 199–221.
Kachru, Braj B. 1977. “Linguistic schizophrenia and language census,” Linguistics, 186, 17–32.
Kachru, Braj B. 1978a. “Code-mixing as a communicative strategy in India,” in International Dimensions of Bilingual Education, edited by James E. Alatis. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 107–24.
Kachru, Braj B. 1978b. “English in South Asia,” in Advances in the Study of Societal Multilingualism, edited by J. A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 477–551.
Kachru, Braj B. 1978c. “Toward structuring the form and function of code-mixing: An Indian perspective,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 16, 21–40.
Kachru, Braj B. 1980. “The new Englishes and old dictionaries: Directions in lexicographical research on non-native varieties of English,” in Theory and Method in Lexicography: Western and Non-Western Perspectives, edited by Ladislav Zgusta. Columbia, SC: Hornbeam Press, pp. 71–101.
Kachru, Braj B. 1981. Kashmiri Literature, In the series History of Indian Literature, edited by Jan Gonda, Vol. 8, fasc. 4. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Kachru, Braj B. 1982a. “The bilingual's linguistic repertoire,” in Issues in International Bilingual Education: The Role of the Vernacular, edited by Beverly S. Hartford, Albert Valdman, and Charles R. Foster. New York: Plenum, pp. 25–52.
Kachru, Braj B. 1982b. “Language policy in South Asia,” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 1981, 2, 60–58.
Kachru, Braj B. (ed.) 1982c. The Other Tongue: English across Cultures. New York: Pergamon Press.
Kachru, Braj B. 1983a. The Alchemy of English: The Spread, Functions and Models of Non-native Englishes. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Kachru, Braj B. 1983b. “The bilingual's creativity: Discoursal and stylistic strategies in contact literatures in English,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 13 (2) 37–55. [Also in The Alchemy of English: The Spread, Functions, and Models of Non-native Englishes, 1986. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 159–73]
Kachru, Braj B. 1983c. The Indianization of English: The English Language in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kachru, Braj B. 1990. The Alchemy of Engish: The Spread, Functions and Models of Non-native Englishes. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Kachru, Braj B. 1992a. “Cultural contact and literary creativity in a multilingual setting,” in Dimensions of Sociolinguistics in South Asia, edited by Edward C. Dimock, Braj B. Kachru, and Bhadriraju Krishnamurti. New Delhi: Oxford and India Book House, pp. 149–59.
Kachru, Braj B. 1992b. “South Asian broadcasting,” in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, edited by Tom McArthur. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 958.
Kachru, Braj B. (ed.) 1992c. The Other Tongue: English across Cultures (2nd edn). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Kachru, Braj B. 1994. “English in South Asia,” in The Cambridge History of the English Language, Vol. 5, edited by Robert Burchfield. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 497–553.
Kachru, Braj B. 1997a. “Language in Indian society,” in Ananya: A Portrait of India, edited by S. N. Sridhar and N. K. Mattoo. New York: The Association of Indians in America, pp. 555–85.
Kachru, Braj B. 1997b. “World Englishes 2000: Resources for research and teaching,” in World Englishes 2000, edited by M. Forman and Larry E. Smith. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, pp. 48–67.
Kachru, Braj B. 2003. “On nativizing mantra: Identity construction in anglophone Englishes,” in Anglophone Cultures in Southeast Asia: Appropriations, Continuities, Contexts, edited by Klaus Stierstorfer et al. Heidelberg, Germany: Heidelberg University Press, pp. 55–72.
Kachru, Braj B. 2005. Asian Englishes: Beyond the Canon. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. [South Asian Edition: New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005.]
Kachru, Braj B., Yamuna Kachru, and Cecil L. Nelson (eds.) 2006. The Handbook of World Englishes. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Kachru, Braj B. and Cecil L. Nelson. 1996. “World Englishes,” in Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching, edited by S. L. Mckay and N. H. Hornberger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 71–102.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1966. An Introduction to Hindi Syntax. Urbana, IL: Department of Linguistics, University of Illinois.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1970. “The syntax of ko-sentences in Hindi–Urdu,” Papers in Linguistics, 2(2), 299–316.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1979. “The quotative in South Asian languages,” South Asian Languages Analysis, 63–77.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1980. Aspects of Hindi Grammar. New Delhi: Manohar Publications.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1981a. “On the syntax, semantics and pragmatics of the conjunctive participle in Hindi–Urdu,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 11(2), 35–50.
Kachru, Yamuna. (ed.) 1981b. Dimensions of South Asian linguistics, special issue of Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 11(2).
Kachru, Yamuna. 1988. “Writers in Hindi and English,” in Writing across Languages and Cultures: Issues in Contrastive Rhetoric, edited by Alan Purves. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp. 109–37.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1989. “Corpus planning for modernization: Sanskritization and Englishization of Hindi,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 19(1), 153–64.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1990. “Experiencer and other oblique subjects in Hindi,” in Experiencer Subjects in South Asian Languages, edited by Manindra K. Verma and K. P. Mohanan. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, The Center for the Study of Language and Information, pp. 59–75.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1992. “Culture, style and discourse: Expanding poetics of English,” in The Other Tongue: English across Cultures (2nd edn). edited by Braj B. Kachru. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp. 340–52.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1993. “Social meaning and creativity in India English speech acts,” in Language, Communication and Social Meaning, edited by James E. Alatis. Georgetown University Monograph Series on Languages and Linguistics 1992. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 378–87.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1994. “Self, identity, and creativity: Women writers in India,” in Self as Person in Asian Theory and Practice, edited by Roger T. Ames, Wimal Dissanayake, and Thomas P. Kasulis. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 335–56.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1995a. “Cultural meaning and rhetorical styles: Toward a framework for contrastive rhetoric,” in Principles and Practice in Applied Linguistics: Studies in Honor of Henry G. Widdowson, edited by Barbara Seidlhofer and Guy Cook. London: Oxford University Press, pp. 171–84.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1995b. “Lexical exponents of cultural contact: Speech act verbs in Hindi–English dictionaries,” in Cultures, Ideologies, and the Dictionary: Studies in Honor of Ladislav Zgusta, edited by Braj B. Kachru and Henry Kahane. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, pp. 261–74.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1996. “Language and cultural meaning: Expository writing in South Asian English,” in South Asian English: Structure, Use and Users, Edited by Robert J. Baumgardner. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, pp. 127–40.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1997. “Culture and argumentative writing in world Englishes,” in World Englishes 2000, edited by Michael Forman and Larry E. Smith. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, pp. 48–67.
Kachru, Yamuna. 1998. “Culture and speech acts: Evidence from Indian and Singaporean English,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 28, 79–98.
Kachru, Yamuna. 2001. “World Englishes and rhetoric across cultures,” Asian Englishes, 4(2), 54–71.
Kachru, Yamuna. 2003. “Conventions of politeness in plural societies,” in Anglophone Cultures in South-East Asia: Appropriations, Continuities, Contexts, edited by Rüdiger Ahrens, David Parker, Klaus Stierstorfer, and Kowk-Kan Tam. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter Heidelberg, pp. 39–53.
Kachru, Yamuna. 2006. Hindi. London Oriental and African Language Library. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kachru, Yamuna and Tej K. Bhatia. 1977. “On reflexivization in Hindi–Urdu and its theoretical implications,” Indian Linguistics, 38(1), 21–38.
Kachru, Yamuna and Tej K. Bhatia. 1978. “The emerging ‘dialect’ conflict in Hindi: A case of glottopolitics,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 16, 47–56.
Kachru, Yamuna and Cecil L. Nelson. 2006. World Englishes in Asian Contexts. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Kak, Aadil A. 2001. “Language maintenance and language shift in Srinagar,” unpublished PhD dissertation, New Delhi: University of Delhi.
Kakar, Sudhir. 1979. Indian Childhood: Cultural Ideals and Social Reality. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kakar, Sudhir. 1981. The Inner World: A Psycho-analytic Study of Childhood and Society in India. New Delhi and New York: Oxford University Press. [2nd revised and enlarged edition; 1st published in 1978.]
Kale, Kishore Shantabai. 2000. Against All Odds (Kolhatyache por “the child of a Kolhati”). Translated by Sandhya Pandey. New Delhi: Penguin.
Kandiah, Thiru. 1964. “The teaching of English as a second language in Ceylon,” Journal of the National Education Society of Ceylon, 5(4) November, 8–12.
Kandiah, Thiru. 1984. “‘Kaduva’: Power and the English language weapon in Sri Lanka,” in Honouring E. F. C. Ludowyk: Felicitation Essays, edited by Percy Colin-Thomé and Ashley Halpi. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Tisara Prakasakayo, pp. 117–54.
Kandiah, Thiru. 1991. “South Asia,” in English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, edited by Jenny Cheshire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 271–87.
Kandiah, Thiru. 1995. “Foreword: Centering the periphery of English: Towards participatory communities of discourse,” in De-hegemonizing Language Standards, edited by Arjun Parakrama. London: Macmillan, pp. xv–xxxvii.
Kandiah, Thiru. 1996. “Syntactic ‘deletion’ in Lankan English: Learning from a new variety of English about –, ” in South Asian English: Structure, Use and Users, edited by Robert J. Baumgardner. Urbana and Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp. 104–23.
Katre, Sumitra. Mangesh. 1957. “The language project at the Deccan College,” Indian Linguistics, 18, 197–224.
Kedilaya, A. Shanker. 1970. Foreign Loan Words in Kannada: Arabic and Persian. University of Madras Kannada series, no. 17. Madras: University of Madras.
Keenan, Elinor. 1974. “Norm-makers, norm-breakers: Uses of speech by men and women in a Malagasy community,” in Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, edited by J. F. Sherzer and R. Baumann. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 125–43.
Kejariwal, O. P. 2002. Ghalib in Translation. New Delhi: UBSPD.
Kelkar, Ashok R. 1969. “General linguistics in South Asia,” in Current Trends in Linguistics. Vol. 5 Linguistics in South Asia, edited by Thomas A. Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 532–42.
Kellogg, Samuel Henry. 1875. A Grammar of the Hindi Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Kemper, Steven. 2001. Buying and Believing: Sri Lankan Advertising and Consumers in a Transnational World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.
Kerswill, Paul. 2004. “Coineization and accommodation,” in The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by Jack Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Oxford: Blackwell, p. 12.
Keshari, Biseshwar P. 1982. “Problems and prospects of Jharkhandi languages,” in Fourth World Dynamics: Jharkhand, edited by Nirmal Sengupta. New Delhi: Authors Guild, pp. 137–64.
Kevichusa, M. 1996. “Relative clause formation in Tenyidie (Angami),” unpublished MPhil dissertation, New Delhi: University of Delhi.
Khan, Farhat. 1991. “Final consonant cluster simplification in a variety of Indian English,” in English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, edited by Jenny Cheshire. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 288–307.
Khubchandani, Lachman M. 1978. “Distribution of contact language in India. A study of the 1961 bilingual returns,” in Advances in the Study of Societal Multilingualism, edited by Joshua Fishman. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 553–85.
Khubchandani, Lachman M. 1983. Plural Languages, Plural Cultures. Honolulu, HI: East West Center, University of Hawaii Press.
Khubchandani, Lachman M. 1992. Tribal Identity. A Language and Communication Perspective. Simla, India: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.
Khubchandani, Lachman M. 1997a. “Demographic indicators of language persistence and shift among tribals: A sociolinguistic perspective,” in Tribal and Indigenous Languages of India: The Ethnic Space, edited by Anvita Abbi. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,.
Khubchandani, Lachman M. 1997b. Revisualizing Boundaries: A Plurilingual Ethos. New Delhi: Sage.
Kindersley, A. F. 1938. “Notes on the Indian idiom of English: Style, syntax, and vocabulary,” Transactions of the Philosophical Society, 25–34.
King, Christopher R. 1994. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. Bombay, India: Oxford University Press.
King, Robert D. 1986. “The language issue revisited,” in India 2000: The Next Fifteen Years, edited by James R. Roach. Riverdale, MD: The Riverdale Company, pp. 135–43.
King, Robert D. 1997. Nehru and the Language Politics of India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
King, Robert D. 2001. “The poisonous potency of script: Hindi and Urdu,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 40, 43–60.
Kiparsky, Paul. 1979. Pāṇini as a Variationist. Cambridge, MA: The Massachussetts Institute of Technology Press; Pune, India: University of Poona.
Kishore, Satyendra. 1987. National Integration in India. New Delhi: Sterling.
Kishwar, Madhu. 2000. Personal Interview. Manushi, October 30. New Delhi.
Klaiman, M. H. 1987. “Bengali,” in The World's Major Languages, edited by Bernard Comrie. London: Croom Helm, pp. 490–513.
Kluyev, Boris I. 1981. India: National and Language Problem. New Delhi: Sterling.
Koerner, E. F. K. and R. E. Asher. 1995. Concise History of the Language Sciences from the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. New York, Oxford: Pergamon.
Koh, T. J. 2003. “Agreement in Ho,” unpublished MA dissertation, New Delhi: University of Delhi.
Kondapi, C. 1951. Indians Overseas, 1838–1949. New Delhi: Indian Council of World Affairs.
Kothari, Rita. 2001. “Short story in Gujarati Dalit literature,” Economic and Political Weekly, XXXVI(45), 4308–11.
Koul, Omkar N. 1984. “Modes of address in Kashmiri,” in Aspects of Kashmiri Linguistics, edited by Peter Hook. New Delhi: Bahri.
Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala. 1989. Modes of Address and Pronominal Usage in Punjabi. A Sociolinguistic Study. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Kramarae, Cheris. 1981. Women and Men Speaking. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Krishan, Shree (ed.) 1990. Linguistic Traits across Language Boundaries, A Report of All India Linguistic Traits Survey. Calcutta, India: Anthropological Survey of India.
Krishna, Sumi. 1991. India's Living Languages: The Critical Issues. New Delhi: Allied Publishers.
Krishnamurthy, K. 1997. “Sanskrit literature,” in Ananya: A Portrait of India, edited by S. N. Sridhar and Nirmal K. Mattoo. New York: Association of Indians in America,.
Krishnamurti, Bh. 1978. “Language planning and development: The case of Telegu,” Contributions to Asian Studies, 2, 37–56.
Krishnamurti, Bh. (ed.) 1986. South Asian Language: Structural Convergence and Dialogue. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas.
Krishnamurti, Bh. 1992. “On verbalizing politeness in Telugu,” in Dimensions of Sociolinguistics in South Asia: Papers in Memory of Gerald B. Kelley, edited by Edward C. Dimock, Jr. Braj B. Kachru and Bh. Krishnamurti. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH; 1992, pp. 87–99.
Krishnamurti, Bh. 1993. “Dravidian languages,” in The International Encyclopaedia of Linguistics, edited by William Bright. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 373–76.
Krishnamurti, Bh. 1995. “Official language policies with special reference to the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India,” in Language and the State, edited by Gupta, R. S., Anvita Abbi, and Kailash N. Aggarwal. New Delhi: Creative Books, pp. 8–23.
Krishnamurti, Bh. 2003. The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krishnaswamy, N. and Archana S. Brude. 1998. The Politics of Indians' English: Linguistic Colonialism and the Expanding English Empire. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Krishnamurti, Bh. and J. P L. Gwynn. 1985. A Grammar of Modern Telugu. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Krishnamurti, Bh. and Aditi Mukherji (eds.) 1984. Modernization of Indian Languages in the News Media. Hyderabad, India: Department of Linguistics, Osmania University.
Kuiper, F. B. J. 1967. “The genesis of a linguistic area,” Indo-Iranian Journal, 10, 81–102.
Kulke, Hermann and Dietmar Rothermund. 1991. A History of India. Calcutta, India: Rupa.
Kulli, Jayavant S. 1991. History of Grammatical Theories in Kannada. Trivandrum, India: International School of Dravidian Linguistics.
Kumar, Braj Bihari. 1978. Nagami vyakaran ki ruparekha. Kohima, India: Nagaland Bhasha Parishad.
Kumar, N. (ed.) 1994. Women as Subjects: South Asian Histories. New Delhi: Stree.
Kumar, Raj. 1995. “Oriya Dalit literature: A historical perspective,” The Fourth World, 2, 91–111.
Kunjunni Raja K. 1972. “The influence of Sanskrit on the Dravidian literatures with special reference to Malayalam,” in Indian Literature, edited by Arabinda Poddar. Simla, India: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.
Labov, William. 1972. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press.
Labov, William. 1982. “Objectivity and commitment in linguistic science: The case of Black English trial in Ann Arbor,” Language in Society, 11, 165–201.
Labru, G. L. 1984. Indian Newspaper English. New Delhi: B. R Publishing.
Lakoff, Robin. 1975. Language and Woman's Place. New York: Harper and Row.
Lakshmi Narasaiah, G. 1999. The Essence of Dalit Poetry: A Socio-Philosophic Study of Telugu Dalit Poetry. Hyderabad, India: Dalit Sana Publications.
Lal, B. 1979. “Girmityas: The background to banishment,” in Rama's Banishment: A Centenary Tribute to the Fiji Indians, 1879–1979, edited by V. Misra. London: Heineman Educational, pp. 12–39.
Lal, Chaman. 1998. “Dalit trend in Punjabi literature,” Indian Literature 185, XLII(3), 13–7.
Lalitha Murthy, B. 1994. “Participial constructions: A cross-linguistic study,” unpublished PhD dissertation, New Delhi: University of Delhi.
Lalitha Murthy, B. and Karumuri V. Subbarao. 2000. “Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Mizo,” in Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages, edited by Barbara Lust, James Gair, Kashi Wali, and Karumuri V. Subbarao. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 777–840.
Lankshear, Colin. 1987. Literacy, Schooling and Revolution. London: Falmer Press.
Law, Bimala Churn. 1933. History of Pāli Literature. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. [Reprinted in 1983: New Delhi: Indological Book House].
Law, Narendra Nath. 1915. Promotion of Learning in India by Early European Settlers. London: Longman.
Lee, Motoko. 1976. “The married women's status and role as reflected in Japanese,” Signs, 1, 991–9.
Lele, Jayant and Rajendra Singh. 1987. “Language and literature of Dalits and Sants: Some missed opportunities,” in Literature, Social Consciousness and Polity, edited by Iqbal Narain and Lothar Lutze. New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 28–60.
Leonard, Karen I. 1997. The South Asian Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Lewis, Ivor. 1991. Sahibs, Nawabs and Boxwallahs: A Dictionary of the Words of Anglo-India. Bombay, India: Oxford University Press.
Lingat, Robert. 1998. The Classical Law of India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Limbale, Sharankumar. 2003a. Towards an Aesthetic of Dalit Literature: History, Controversies and Considerations. Translated by Alok Mukherjee. Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman.
Limbale, Sharankumar. 2003b. The Outcaste: Akkarmashi. Translated from Marathi by Santosh Bhoomkar. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Lokpriy. 2005. Demographic Profile Scheduled Tribes in India, 1981–2001. Seminar Paper submitted for Diploma in Population Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Mumbai.://www.iipsindia.org/sp05%5Clokpriy.pdf (Accessed August 21, 2005)
Luke, A. 1998. “Ideology,” in Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics, edited by J. L May. Pergamon, pp. 366–68.
Lust, Barbara, James Gair, Kashi Wali, and Karumuri V. Subbarao (eds.) 2000. Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Macmillan, Michael. 1895. “Anglo-Indian words and phrases.” The Globe Trotter in India Two Hundred Years Ago and Other Indian Studies. London: Sonnenschein, pp. 77–114.
Macwan, Joseph. 2004. The Stepchild: Angaliyat. Translated by Rita Kothari. New Delhi: Oxford.
Madan, T. N. 1986. Foreword to Vaudeville's Barahmasa in Indian Literature. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, v–vii.
Mahadeva, Devanur. 1992. “Tar arrives,” Translated by Manu Shetty and A. K. Ramanujan. In From Cavery to Godavari: Modern Kannada Short Stories. Edited by Ramachandra Sharma. New Delhi: Penguin.
Mahadevan, Iravatham. 2003. Early Tamil Epigraphy. From the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D. (Harvard Oriental Series, v. 62). Chennai: Cre-A / Harvard: The Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard University.
Mahajani, Usha. 1960. The Role of Indian Minorities in Burma and Malaya. Bombay, India: Vora and Co.
Mahapatra, Bijoy P. 1979. “Santali language movement in the context of many dominant languages,” in Language Movements in India, Edited by E. Annamalai. Mysore, India: Central Institute of India Languages, pp. 107–17.
Mahapatra, Bijoy P. 1989. “The problems in learning minority languages with special reference to tribal languages,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 75, 61–72.
Mahboob, A. and Ahmar, N. 2004. Pakistani English: A historical and phonological overview. In B. Kortmann & E. Traugott (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 1, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1003–16.
Majumdar, Ramesh C., H. D. Raychaudhuri, and Kalikindar Datta. 1961. An Advanced History of India. Bombay, India: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1920. “War and weapons among the natives of the Trobriand Islands,” Man, 20, 10–12.
Malla, Kamal Prakash. 1977. English in Nepalese Education. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
Mallikarjun, B. 2001. “Languages of India according to the 1991 census,” Language in India, 1, November 7, www.languageinindia.com, accessed June 2002.
Mallikarjun, B. 2004. “Indian multilingualism, language policy and the digital divide,” Language in India, 4(4), www.languageinindia.com/april2004/ kathmandupaper1.html, accessed September 2004.
Maltz, Daniel and Ruth Borker. 1982. “A cultural approach to male–female miscommunication,” in Language and Social Identity, edited by John J. Gumperz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 196–214.
Mane, Laxman. 1997. Upara: An Outsider. Translated by A. K Kamat. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.
Manoharan, S. 1989. A Descriptive and Comparative Study of the Andamanese Language. Calcutta, India: Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India.
Mansoor, Sabiha. 1993. Punjabi, Urdu, English in Pakistan: A Sociolinguistic Study. Lahore, Pakistan: Vanguard.
Marek, Jan. 1968. “Persian literature in India,” in History of Iranian Literature, edited by Jan Rypka. Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel, pp. 711–34.
Mascarenhas–Keyes, Stella. 1994. “Language as diaspora: The use of Portuguese, English and Konkani by Catholic Goan women,” in Bilingual Women, edited by Pauline Burton, Ketaki Kushari Dyson, and Shirley Ardener. Oxford: Berg, pp. 149–66.
Masica, Colin P. 1976. Defining a Linguistic Area: South Asia. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Masica, Colin P. 1991. The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mathai, Samuel. [1979]2004. “Preface,” in Indian and British English: A Handbook of Usage and Pronunciation, 2nd edn, edited by Paroo Nihalani, R. K Tongue, Priya Hosali, and Jonathan Crowther India: Oxford University Press, pp. v–viii.
Matilal, Bimal Krishna. 1991. The Word and the World: India's Contribution to the Study of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Maurer, Walter H. 1981. “The origin of grammatical speculation and its development in India,” Indo-Pacifica, Occasional Papers, 1, 1–27.
Maurer, Walter H. 1981. “The origin of grammatical speculation and its development in India,” Indo-Pacifica, Occasional Papers, 1, 1–27.
McAlpin, David W. 1981. Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and Its Implications (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 71, 3). Philadelphia, PA: The American Philosophical Society.
McConnell–Ginet, Sally. 1988. “Language and gender,” in Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey, Vol. IV, edited by Frederick J. Newmyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 75–99.
McCormack, William. 1960. “Social dialects in Dharwar Kannada,” in Linguistic Diversity in South Asia: Studies in Regional, Social and Functional Variation, edited by Charles Ferguson and John Gumperz. Special issue of International Journal of American Linguistics, 26(3), 79–91.
McDonald, Hamish (1993/1994). Review 200-India. Far Eastern Economic Review (Dec. 30/Jan. 6), 46–47.
McGregor, Ronald Stuart. 1972. Outline of Hindi Grammar. London: Oxford University Press.
McGregor, Ronald Stuart. 1974. Hindi Literature of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, in the series A History of Indian Literature, edited by Jan Gonda, Vol. 8, fasc. 2. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Mead, Margaret. 1949. Male and Female. New York: William Morrow.
Mehrotra, Arvind Krishna (ed.) 2003. An Illustrated History of Indian Literature in English. New Delhi: Permanent Black.
Mehrotra, Raja Ram. 1981. “Non-kin forms of address in Hindi,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 32, 121–37.
Mehrotra, Raja Ram. 1985. Sociolinguistics in Hindi Contexts. New Delhi: Oxford University Press and India Book House.
Mehrotra, Raja Ram. 1998. Indian English: Text and Interpretation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Meraj, Shaheen. 1993. “The use of English in Urdu advertising in Pakistan,” in The English Language in Pakistan, edited by Robert J. Baumgardener. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, pp. 221–52.
Mesthrie, Rajend. 1989. “The origins of Fanagalo,” Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 4(2), 211–40.
Mesthrie, Rajend. 1991. Language in Indenture: A Sociolinguistic History of Bhojpuri-Hindi in South Africa. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. [International edition, 1992, London: Routledge.]
Mesthrie, Rajend. 1992. English in Language Shift: The History, Structure and Sociolinguistics of South African Indian English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mesthrie, Rajend. 1993. “Gandhi and language politics,” Bua, 8(4), 4–7.
Mesthrie, Rajend. 2000. “Dravidian Hindi in South Africa: An historical variety,” in Yearbook of South Asian Languages, edited by Rajendra Singh. London: Sage, pp. 49–59.
Metz, Christian. 1982. Imaginary Signifier. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Minocha, Urmilla. 1987. “South Asian immigrants: Trends and impact on the sending and receiving societies,” in Pacific Bridges: The New Immigrants from Asia and the Pacific Islands, edited by James T. Fawcett and Benjamin Carino. New York: Center for Migration Studies, pp. 347–74.
Miranda, Rocky V. 1978. “Caste, religion, and dialect differentiation in the Konkani area,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 16, 77–91.
Mirza, Mohammad Wahid. 1974. The Life and Works of Amir Khusrau. New Delhi: Idareh-e-adabiyaat-e-Delhi.
Mishra, Pramod and Urmila Mohapatra. 2001. South Asian Diaspora: A Bibliographical Study. New Delhi: Kalinga.
Misra, Vijay (ed.) 1979. Rama's Banishment: A Centenary Tribute to the Fiji Indians, 1879–1979. London: Heineman Educational.
Mitry, Jean. 2000. Semiotics and the Analysis of Films. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Moag R. F. 1977. Fiji Hindi. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Moag R. 1979. “The linguistic adaptations of the Fiji Indians,” in Rama's Banishment: A Centenary Tribute to the Fiji Indians, 1879–1979, edited by Vijay Misra. London: Heineman Educational, pp. 112–38.
Modood, Tariq, Richard Berthoud, Jane Lakey, James Nazroo, Patten Smith, Satnam Virdee, and Sharon Beishon (eds.) 1997. Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage. London: Policy Studies Institute.
Mohan, Peggy Ramesar. 1978. “Trinidad Bhojpuri: A morphological study,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. 1984. “Under Western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourses,” Boundary, 2(12), 333–58.
Monier-Williams, Monier. 1899. A Sanskrit–English Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press. [Reprinted in 1990, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.]
Montaut, Annie. 2004. A Grammar of Hindi. LINCOM Studies in Indo-European Linguistics 02. Munich: Lincom.
Moon, Vasant. 2001. Growing up Untouchable in India. Translated by Gail Omvedt. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Rowman and Littlefield.
Morey, Stephen. 2005. The Tai Languages of Assam: a Grammar and Texts (Pacific Linguistics 565). Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Linguistics, Australian National University.
Mufwene, S. 2001. The Ecology of Language Evolution. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mugler, F. and S. Mohan Lal. 1995. “Fiji Tamil: The structure of a language under threat,” International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 24(2), 118–133.
Mugler, F. and V. Saratchandaran Nair. 1997. “Fiji Malayalam,” PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies, 7(1), 1–14.
Mugler, F. and G. Vijayasarathi. 1997. “Telugu in Fiji,” PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies, 7(1), 129–43.
Mühlhüusler, Peter. 1974. Pacific Linguistics, B-26. Pidginization and Simplification of Language. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1986. Pidgin and Creole Linguistics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Mukherjee, Aditi. 1980. “Language maintenance and language shift among Panjabis and Bengalis in Delhi: A sociolinguistic perspective,” unpublished PhD dissertation, New Delhi: Delhi University.
Mukherjee, Sujit (ed.) 1981. The Idea of an Indian Literature. Mysore, India: Central Insitute of Indian Languages.
Mukherji, Amulyadhan. 1976. Sanskrit Prosody: Its Evolution. Calcutta, India: Saraswat Library.
Mukta, Parita. 1994. Upholding the Common Life: The Community of Mirabai. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Munda, Ram D. 1989. “In search of a tribal homeland,” The Saturday Statesman, February 4.
Munshi, Kanhaiyalal M. 1971. Pilgrimage to Freedom, Vol. 1. Bombay, India: Bhartiya Vidhya Bhavan.
Murlidhar, T. 1996. “Exhibiting wounds: Dalit self-consciousness in Telugu poetry,” New Quest, 118, 213–16.
Muthiah, S. 1991. Words in Indian English: A Reader's Guide, New Delhi: Harper Collins.
Nadkarni, M. V. 1970. “NP-embedded structures in Kannada and Konkani,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles.
Nadkarni, M. V. 1975. “Bilingualism and syntactic change in Konkani,” Language, 51(3), 672–83.
Nadkarni, Mangesh V. 1983. “Cultural pluralism as a national resource: Strategies for language education,” in Language Planning and Language Education, edited by Chris Kennedy. London: George Allen and Unwin, pp. 151–59.
Nagamma Reddy, K. 1991. “Woman, gender and language structure,” International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 20(2), 83–90.
Nagaraj, D. R. 1992. “Grasshopper versus a horse for the sun – A critical narrative on social change in Kannada fiction,” Indian International Centre Quarterly, Monsoon, 127–36.
Nagaraj, D. R. 1993. The Flaming Feet. Bangalore, India: South Forum Press.
Nagaraj, D. R. 1994. “From political rage to cultural affirmation: Notes on the Kannada Dalit poet-activist Siddalingaiah,” India International Centre Quarterly, 21(4), 15–26.
Nagaraj, S. 1995. “Gauri Vishwanathan's Masks of Conquest,” Jodhpur Studies in English, 6.
Nagendra. 1973. Hindi Sahitya ka Itihas. New Delhi: National.
Nair, B. G. 1971. “Caste dialects of Malayalam,” in Proceedings of the First All India Conference of Dravidian Linguistics, pp. 409–14.
Naipaul, V. S. 1990. India: A Million Mutinies Now. New York: Viking.
Nakebandi. 1999. Translations by V. D Chandanshive. Mumbai, India: Sanjana Publication.
Nanda, Serena. 1990. Neither Man Nor Woman. The Hijras of India. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Nandy, Ashis. 1983. The Intimate Enemy. Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Nandy, Ashis. 1988. “Woman vs. womanliness in India: An essay in social and political psychology,” in Women in Indian Society. A Reader, edited by Rehana Ghadially. New Delhi: Sage, pp. 69–80.
Naqvi, Dr S. 1962 Farhang Navisi Faarsi dar Hindo-Pakistan. Tehran: Inteshrat Idara'E' Kul Nigarish Vizarate Farhang.
Narasaiah, G. Lakshmi. 1999. The Essence of Dalit Poetry: A Socio–Philosophic Study of Telugu Dalit Poetry. Hyderabad, India: Dalit Sana.
Narasimhaiah C. D. (ed.) 1969. Gandhi and the West. Mysore, India: University of Mysore.
Narawane, Vishwanath Dinkar. 1978. Bharatiya Kahavat Sangrah (Proverbs of India). Pune, India: Triveni Sangam.
Narayan, K. 1997. “Towards an integrated theory of developing writing system for oral language,” in On Writing, Edited by K. P Acharya. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages, pp. 15–20.
Narayanan, Vasudha. 1994. The Vernacular Veda. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press.
National Institute of Adult Education. 1993. Statistical Database for Literacy. New Delhi: National Institute of Adult Education.
Nayak, H. M. 1967. Kannada: Literary and Colloquial – A Study in Two Styles. Mysore, India: Rao and Raghavan.
Nayar, Baldev Raj. 1969. National Communication and Language Policy in India. New York: Praeger.
NCERT (National Council of Education Research and Training). 1992. Fifth All India Educational Survey. New Delhi: National Council of Education Research and Training and New Delhi: Sage.
Nichols, Patricia. 1980. “Women in their speech communities,” in Women and Language in Literature and Society, edited by Sally McConnell-Ginet, Ruth Borker, and Nelly Furman. New York: Praeger, pp. 140–49.
Nida, Eugene and Harold W. Fehderau. 1970. “Indigenous pidgins and koinés,” International Journal of American Linguistics, 36, 146–55.
Nigam, R. C. 1972. India: Language Handbook on Mother Tongues in Census. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs.
Nihalani, Paroo., R. K. Tongue, and Priya Hosali. 1979. Indian and British English: A Handbook of Usage and Pronunciation. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Nimbalkar, Waman. 1973. Gaokushabaheril Kavita (Poems from beyond the village boundary). Translated by Graham Smith. Aurangabad, India: Asmitadarsh Prakashan.
Nitti–Dolci, Luigia. 1938. Les Grammairiens Prakrits. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve. [The Prākṛta Grammarians by Late Luigia Nitti-Dolci. Translated by Prabhākara Jha. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1972]
Noonan, Michael. 1996. “The fall and rise of the Chantyal language,” Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 15, 121–35.
Norman, K. R. 1983. Pāli Literature: Including the Canonical Literature in Prakrit and Sanskrit of all the Hīnayāna Schools of Buddhism, A History of Indian Literature, Vol. VII. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Oakley, Ann. 1981. Subject Women. New York: Pantheon.
Ohala, Manjari. 1983. Aspects of Hindi Phonology. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Olson, David R. 1985. “Introduction,” in Literacy, Language, and Learning: The Nature and Consequences of Reading and Writing, edited by David R. Olson, Nancy Torrance, and Aangela Hildyard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–18.
Olson, David R. 1991. “Literacy as metalinguistic activity,” in Literacy and Orality, edited by David R. Olson and Nancy Torrance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 251–70.
Olson, David R., Nancy Torrance, and Aangela Hildyard (ed.) 1985. Literacy, Language, and Learning: The Nature and Consequences of Reading and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Omar, Kaleem. 1986. “The Pakistanisation of English,” The Star, Ḳarachi, February 27, 11.
Ong, Walter J. 1982. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the World. London: Methuen
Oxenham, John. 1980. Literacy: Writing, Reading and Social Organization. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Padgaonkar, Dilip (ed.) 1973. Times of India Weekly supplement, Vol. 4(7), special issue on Dalit Literature. November 25.
Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation. (PBC) n.d. Basic Facts. Islamabad.
Pakistan Languages. 2002. “The Excellence Network,” www.excellence.com.pk/ explorepakistan/pakistan%20languages.htm, accessed June 2002.
Panayi, Panikos. 1999. The Impact of Immigration: A Documentary History of the Effects and Experiences of Immigrants in Britain since 1945. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.
Pandharipande, Rajeshwari. 1979. “Passive as an optional rule in Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali,” South Asian Languages Analysis, 1, 89–106.
Pandharipande, Rajeshwari. 1983. “Linguistics and written discourse in particular language: contrastive studies: English and Marathi,” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 3, 118–36.
Pandharipande, Rajeshwari. 1992a. “Language of religion in Soth Asia: The case of Hindi,” in Dimensions of Sociolinguistics in South Asia. Papers in Memory of Gerard Kelly, edited by E. Dimmock, Braj B. Kachru, and Bhadriraju Krishnamurti. New Delhi: Oxford University Press and India Book House, pp. 271–84.
Pandharipande, Rajeshwari. 1992b. “Defining politeness in Indian English,” World Englishes, 11. 2/3: 241–50.
Pandharipande, Rajeshwari. 1997. Marathi. London and New York: Routledge.
Pandharipande, Rajeshwari. 1999. “Metaphors as a mechanism of language change,” paper presented at South Asian Languages and Linguistics Roundtable. Urbana and Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Pandharipande, Rajeshwari. 2001. “The role of language of religion in the convergence of South Asian languages,” in The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics, edited by Rajendra Singh. New Delhi: Sage, pp. 289–310.
Pandian, M. S. S. 1992. The Image Trap. Delhi: Sage.
Pandian, M. S. S. 1998a. “On a Dalit woman's testimonio,” Seminar, 471, 53–6.
Pandian, M. S. S. 1998b. “Stepping outside history? New Dalit writings from Tamil Nadu,” in Wages of Freedom: Fifty Years of the Indian Nation-State, edited by Partha Chaterjee. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 293–309.
Pandit, Prabodh B. 1963. “Sanskritic clusters and caste dialects,” Indian Linguistics, 24, 70–80.
Pandit, Prabodh B. 1969. “Parameters of speech variation in an Indian community,” in Language and Society in India, edited by A. Poddar. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, pp. 207–28.
Pandit, Prabodh B. 1972. India as a Sociolinguistic Area. Poona, India: University of Poona.
Pandit, Prabodh B. 1977. Language in a Plural Society. New Delhi: Dev Raj Chanana Memorial Publication; Pune, India: Ganeshkhind.
Pandit, Prabodh B. 1979. “Perspectives on sociolinguistics in India,” in Language and Society: Anthropological Issues, edited by W. C McCormick and S. A Wurm. The Hague: Mouton.
Pantawane, Gangadhar. 1986. “Evolving a new Identity: The Development of a Dalit Culture,” in Untouchable! Voices from the Dalit Liberation Movement, edited by Barbara Joshi. London: Zed Books, pp. 79–87.
Parakrama, Arjuna. 1995. De-hegemonizing Language Standards: Learning from (Post)colonial Englishes about “English.” Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.
Parpola, Asko. 1994. Deciphering the Indus Script. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pasoloni, Pier Paolo. 1978. Heretical Empiricism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Pathak, R. S. 1985. “Language variation in a bilingual setting: A North Indian case study,” Indian Linguistics, 46(1–2), 9–24.
Pattanayak, Debi Prasanna. 1973. Indian Languages: Bibliography of Grammars, Dictionaries, and Teaching Materials (2nd revised edn). New Delhi: Educational Resourses Center.
Pattanayak, Debi Prasanna. 1981. Multilingualism and Mother-Tongue Education. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Pattanayak, Devi P. (ed.) 1990. Multilingualism in India. Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters.
Paulston, Christina Bratt. 1994. Linguistic Minorities in Multilingual Settings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Paulston, Christina Bratt. 2000. “Ethnicity, ethnic movements, and language maintenance,” in Assessing Ethnolinguistic Vitality: Theory and Practice. Selected Papers from The Third International Language Assessment Conference, SIL International Publication in Sociolinguistics No. 3, edited by Gloria Kindell and M. Paul Lewis. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 27–38.
Pawar, Urmila. 1998. Amhihi Itihas Ghadawala (We made history too). Mumbai, India: Sparrow.
Pawar, Urmila. 2001. Chauthi Bhint (The Fourth Wall). Translated by Gail Omvedt. Manushi, 122, 23–31.
Peach, Ceri (ed.) 1996. Ethnicity in the 1991 Census. London: In the Service of Her Majesty: National Statistics.
Peng, Fred C. C. et. al. 1981. Male/Female Differences in Japanese. Special issue of Language Sciences, 3(1).
Peterson, Indira Viswanathan. 1989. Poems to Shiva. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Petievich, Carla (ed.) 1999. The Expanding Landscape: South Asians and the Diaspora. New Delhi: Manohar.
Pillai, Anavartavinayakam S. 1924. “The Sanskritic element in the vocabularies of the Dravidian languages,” in Dravidic Studies, III, edited by Mark Collins. Madras, India: University of Madras, pp. 27–48.
Pillai, R. C. 1975. “Fiji Hindi as a Creole language,” unpublished MA thesis, Southern Illinois University.
Pind, Ole Holten. 1989. “Studies in the Pāli grammarians I: Buddha-ghosa's references to grammar and grammarians,” Journal of the Pāli Text Society, 1, 33–82.
Pind, Ole Holten. 1990. “Studies in the Pāli grammarians II,” Journal of the Pāli Text Society, 14, 175–218.
Pind, Ole Holten. 1995. “Pāli and the Pāli grammarians: The methodology of the Pāli grammarians,” in Studies in Honour of Siegfried Lienhard on his 70th Birthday, edited by Sauhṛdya-maṅgalam. Stockholm: The Association of Oriental Studies, pp. 281–97.
Pind, Ole Holten. 1997. “Pāli grammar and grammarians from Buddha-ghosa to Vajira-buddhi: A survey,” Buddhist Studies (Bukkyo Kenkyu), 26, 23–88.
Pollock, Sheldon. 1998. “India in the vernacular millennium: Literary culture and polity 1000–1500” in Collective Identities and Political Order, edited by Shmuel Eisenstadt and W. Schlichter, special Issue of Daedalus, 127(3), pp. 41–74.
Polomé, Edgar C. 1982. “Language, paleoculture, and religion,” in Language, Society, and Paleoculture, edited by Anwar S. Dil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 285–368.
Possehl, Gregory L. 1996. The Indus Age: Writing System. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Prabhakar, M. E. 1996. “Doing theology with poetic traditions of India with special reference to the Dalit poetry of poet-laureate, Joshua,” in Doing Theology with the Poetic Traditions of India: Focus on Dalit and Tribal Poems, edited by Joseph Patmury. Bangalore, India: Program for Theologies and Cultures / South Asia Thealogical Research Institute, pp. 3–20.
Prabhakaran, Varijakshi. 1991. “The Telugu language and its influence on the cultural lives of the Hindu ‘Pravasandhras’ in South Africa,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Durban-Westville.
Prabhakaran, Varijakshi. 1994. “Tamil lexical borrowings in South African Telugu,” South African Journal of Linguistics, 12(1), 26–31.
Prasad, M. Madhava. 1998. Ideology of the Hindi Film. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Punalekar, S. P. 1988. “Identities and consciousness: An overview of Dalit literature in Maharashtra,” Man and Development, X(4), 111–40.
Punalekar, S. P. 1997. “Sociology of Dalit autobiography,” in Social Transformation in India: Essays in Honour of Professor I. P Desai (2 vols.), edited by Ghanshyam Shah. Jaipur, India: Rawat, pp. 370–96.
Punalekar, S. P. 2001. “Dalit literature and Dalit identity,” in Dalit Identity and Politics, edited by Ghanshyam Shah. New Delhi: Sage, pp. 216–41.
Pushp, P. N. 1996. “Kashmiri and the linguistic predicament of the state,” in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh: Linguisitic Predicament, edited by P. N. Pushp and K. Warikoo New Delhi: Har-Anand, pp. 13–29.
Pushp, P. N. and K. Warikoo. 1996. Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh: Linguisitic Predicament. New Delhi: Har Anand.
Radhakrishna, B. 1971. “Diglossia in Telugu,” Proceedings of the First All India Conference of Linguists, pp. 218–26.
Raghavan, Venkatarama (ed.) 1980. The Ramayana Tradition in Asia. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.
Raghavan, Venkatarama and Nagendra. 1970. An Introduction to Indian Poetics. Bombay, India: Macmillan.
Raheja, Gloria Goodwin. 1994. “Women's speech genres, kinship and contradiction,” in Women as Subjects: South Asian Histories, edited by Nita Kumar. Charlottesville, VI: University Press of Virginia, pp. 49–80.
Rahman, M. L. 1978. “Guru Govind Singh and his contribution to Persian literature,” Indo-Iranica, 31(3–4), 37–62.
Rahman, S. S. A. 1957. “Glimpses of Indo-Persian literature,” Indo-Iranica, 10(2), 1–25.
Rahman, Tariq. 1991a. Pakistan Engilsh. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Qaid-i-Azam University.
Rahman, Tariq. 1991b. A History of Pakistani Literature in English. Lahore, Pakistan: Vanguard.
Rahman, Tariq. 1996a. Language and Politics in Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press.
Rahman, Tariq. 1996b. The History of the Urdu–English Controversy in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Language Authority.
Rahman, Tariq. 2004. Language policy and localization in Pakistan: Proposal for a paradigm shift. Paper presented at SCALLA 2004, Kathmandu, www.elda.org/en/proj/scalla/SCALLA2004/rahman.pdf, accessed August 19, 2005.
Rai, Amrit. 1984. A House Divided: The Origin and Development of Hindi/Hindavi. New Delhi: Oxford Univsersity Press.
Raina, A. M. 2002. “The verb second phenomenon in Kashmiri,” in Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, edited by O. N. Koul and K. Wali. New Delhi: Creative Books, 113–29.
Raj, Sebasti L. and G. F. Xavier Raj (eds.) 1993. Caste Culture in Indian Church: The Response of Church to the Problem of Caste within the Christian Community. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute.
Ram, Tulsi. 1983. Trading in Language: The Story of English in India. New Delhi: GDK.
Ramanujan, A. K. 1968. “The structure of variation: A study in caste dialects,” in Structure and Change in Indian Society, edited by Milton Singer and Bernard S. Cohn. Chicago, IL: Aldine, pp. 461–74.
Ramanujan, A. K. 1973. Speaking of Shiva. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
Ramanujan, A. K. 1989. “Is there an Indian way of thinking?,” Contributions to Indian Sociology, 23(1), 41–58.
Ramanujan, A. K. (ed.) 1993. Folktales from India. New Delhi: Viking.
Ramanujan A. K. 1999. “Who needs folklore? The relevance of oral traditions to South Asian studies,” in The Collected Essays of A. K. Ramanujan, edited by Vinay Dharwarkar. Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 532–52.
Ramanujan, A. K. and Colin P. Masica. 1969. “Toward a phonological typology of the Indian linguistic area,” in Current Trends in Linguistics: Linguistics in South Asia, edited by Thomas A. Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 543–77.
Ramarao, C. and B. Ramakrishna Reddy. 1984. “Some influences and non-influences of English on the syntax of Telugu newspapers,” in Modernization of Indian Languages in the News Media, edited by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti and Aditi Mukherji. Hyderabad, India: Department of Linguistics, Osmania University.
Ramchand, K. 1973. “The language of the master,” in Varieties of Present-Day English, edited by R. W. Bailey and J. Robinson. New York: Macmillan, pp. 115–46.
Ramdat, K. 1984. “Some aspects of Indic pejorative usage among Hindus in Guyana,” paper presented at The Third Conference on East Indians in the Caribbean. Trinidad: University of the West Indies, August 28–September 5.
Rampton, M. B. H. 1992. “Scope for empowerment in sociolinguistics,” in Researching Language: Issues of Power and Method, edited by D. Cameron, E. Frazer, P. Harvey, M. B. H. Rampton, and K. Richardson. London: Routledge, pp. 29–64.
Ramyead, Lutchmee Parsad. 1988. “Hindi in Mauritius: A perspective,” in Language Transplanted: The Development of Overseas Hindi, edited by R K. Barz and J. Siegel. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, pp. 23–40.
Ranade, R. D. 1933. Mysticism in Maharashtra. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Rangaswamy, Padma. 2000. Namaste America: Indian Americans in an American Metropolis. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press.
Rao, B. Raamchandra. 1984. “Modernization of Kannada in news media,” in Modernization of Indian Languages in the News Media, edited by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti and Aditi Mukherji. Hyderabad, India: Department of Linguistics, Osmania University, pp. 64–72.
Rao, Subba G. 1954. Indian Words in English: A Study in Indo-British Cultural and Linguistic Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rasheed, Abdur. 1996. Farsi me˜ Hindi alfaaz (Hindi Words in Persian). New Delhi: Rabita Publications.
Raza, Moonis and Aijazuddin Ahmed. 1990. An Atlas of Tribal India. New Delhi: Concept Publications.
Remlinger, Kathryn A. 1994. “Language choice and use: Influences of setting and gender,” in Differences that Make a Difference, edited by Lynn H. Turner and Helen M. Slerk. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, pp 163–73.
Renou, Louis and Jean Filliozat. 1947. L'Inde Classique. Paris: Payot.
Report of the States Reorganization Commission. 1955. New Delhi: Government of India.
Report of the States Reorganization Commission. 1956. New Delhi: Government of India.
Richter, Julius. 1908. A History of Missions in India. Translated by Sydney H. Moore. New York: F. H. Revell.
Roberts, T. T. 1800. An Indian Glossary Consisting of Some Thousand Words and Forms Commonly Used in East Indies … Extremely Serviceable in Assisting Strangers to Acquire with Ease and Quickness the Language of That Country. London: Murray and Highley.
Robertson, Roland. 1992. Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. Newberry Park, CA: Sage.
Robinson, Francis (ed.) 1989. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, Vaughan. 1996. “The Indians: Onward and upward,” in The Ethnic Minority Populations, edited by Ceri Peach. London: In the Service of Her Majesty: National Statistics, pp. 95–121.
Roland, Alan. 1988. In Search of Self in India and Japan: Toward a Cross-Cultural Psychology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Romaine, Suzanne. 1988. Pidgins and Creoles. London: Longman.
Romaine, Suzanne. 1989. Bilingualism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Romaine, Suzanne. 1999. Communicating Gender. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Roy, Ramashray. 1985. “Region and nation: A heretical view,” in Region and Nation in India, edited by Paul Wallace. New Delhi: American Institute of Indian Studies.
Roy, Rammohan. 1823. “Letter to Lord Amherst, December 11,” in Selection from Educational Records, Part 1 (1781–1838). Calcutta, India: Bureau of Education, Government of India, pp. 99–101.
Ruberu, Ranjit. 1962. Education in Colonial Ceylon. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Kandy printers.
Ruegg, David Seyfort. 1978. “Mathematical and linguistic models in Indian thought: The case of zero and śūnyatā,” Weiner Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens and Archiv fur indische Philosophie, 22, 171–81.
Rushdie, Salman. 1991. “Hobson-Jobson,” in Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981–1991. London: Viking, pp. 81–83.
Russell, Ralph. 1980. A New Course in Hindustani for Learners in Britain. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
Rypka, Jan. 1968. “History of Persian literature up to the beginning of the 20th century,” in History of Iranian Literature, edited by Jan Rypka. Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel, pp. 69–351.
Safavi, K. 2002. “Re-evaluating the emergence of Hindi style in Persian poetry,” paper presented at The Seminar on Dialogue between Civilizations: India and Iran. Bareilly, India, December 15–18.
Saghal, Anju. 1991. “Patterns of language use in a bilingual setting in India,” in English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, edited by Jenny Cheshire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 299–307.
Salomon, Richard. 1989. “Linguistic variability in post-Vedic Sanskrit,” in Dialectes dans les Littératures Indo-Aryennes. Publications de l'Institut de Civilisation Indienne (Fascicule 55), edited by Colette Caillat. Paris: Institut de Civilisation Indienne, pp. 275–94.
Salomon, Richard. 1998. Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. New York: Oxford University Press.
Samarin, W. J. 1971. “Salient and substantive pidginization,” in Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell Hymes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–40.
Sankoff, Gillian. 1980. The Social Life of Language. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Sapir, Edward. 1949. “Male and female forms of speech in Yana,” in Selected Writings of Edward Sapir on Language, Culture and Personality, edited by David Mandelbaum. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 206–12.
Saran, Parmatma and Edwin Eames. 1980. The New Ethnics: The Asian Indians in the U.S. New York: Praeger.
Sarju Devi, T. and Karumuri V. Subbarao. 2003. “Reduplication and case copying: The case of lexical anaphors in Manipuri and Telugu,” in Perspectives in Honor of P. J. Mistry, edited by Ritva Laury, Gerald McMenamin, Shigeko Okamoto, Vida Samiian, and Karumuri V. Subbarao. New Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies, pp. 55–81.
Sarkar, J. N. 1985a. “The age of Akbar,” Indo-Iranica, 38(3–4), 16–25.
Sarkar, J. N. 1985b. “A study of Sufism – Its background and its syncretic significance in Medieval India,” Indo-Iranica, 38(1–2), 1–24.
Saroop B. 1998. ‘Taj-ul-Maathir’ of Hasan Nizami. (Translated from Persian to English). Delhi: Saud Ahmed & Co.
Sastri, Korada Mahadeva. 1969. Historical Grammar of Telugu – With Special Reference to Old Telugu, c. 200 BC – 1000 AD. Anantapur, India: Sri Venkateswara University, Post-graduate Centre.
Satchidanandan, K. 2001. “The tradition of dissent in Indian poetry,” in Culturation: Essays in Honour of Jawaharlal Handoo, edited by Udaya Narayana Singh. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages, pp. 35–78.
Sathasivam, A. 1969.“Linguistics in Ceylon, II,” in Current Trends in Linguistcs. Vol. 5. Linguistics in South Asia,” edited by Thomas A. Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 752–59.
Satyanarayana, A. 1994. “Dalit protest literature in Telugu: A historical perspective,” Economic and Political Weekly, XXX(3), 171–5.
Satyanath, T. S. 1982. “Kannadigas in Delhi: A sociolinguistic study,” unpublished PhD dissertation, Delhi: Delhi University.
Sawhney, Sabina. 1997. “Feminism and hybridity,” Surfaces, VII(113), 1–12.
Scharfe, Hartmut. 1971. Pāṇini's Metalanguage. Philadephia, PA: American Philosophical Society.
Scharfe, Hartmut. 1977. Grammatical Literature, A History of Indian Literature, Vol. V. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Schimmel, Annemarie. 1973. Islamic Literatures of India. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Schirmer, Jennifer G. 1989. “‘Those who die for life cannot be called dead:’ Women in human rights protest in Latin America,” Feminist Review, 32, 3–29.
Schuchardt, H. [1891] 1980. “Indo-English,” in Pidgins and Creole Languages: Selected Essays, edited and translated by G. G. Gilbert. London: Cambridge University Press, pp. 38–64.
Schulz, Muriel R. 1975. “The semantic derogation of woman,” in Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance, edited by Barrie Thorne and Nancy Henley. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, pp. 64–73.
Schwartzberg, Joseph E. 1985. “Factors in the linguistic reorganization of Indian states,” in Region and Nation in India, edited by Paul Wallace. New Delhi: American Institute of Indian Studies.
Scmidt, Ruth Laila. 1999. Urdu, an Essential Grammar. London: Routledge.
Sebba, Mark. 1997. Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Sekhar, Anantaramayyar Chandra. 1969. Evolution of Malayalam. Poona, India: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute.
Sen, A. P. 1902. “Does education breed sedition in India?,” Westminster Review, 158, 168–78.
Sen, Sukumar. 1979. Women's Dialect in Bengali. Calcutta, India: Jijnasa.
Shackle, Christopher. 1970. “Punjabi in Lahore,” Modern Asian Studies, 4(3), 239–67.
Shackle, Christopher. 1977. “Siraiki: A language movement in Pakistan,” Modern Asian Studies, 11(3), 239–67.
Shackle, Christopher. 1983. An Introduction to the Sacred Language of the Sikhs. London: The School of Oriental and African Studies.
Shackle, Christopher. 2001. “Christianity in South Asia,” in Concise Encyclopedia of Language and Religion, edited by John F. A. Sawyer. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 39–41.
Shah, A[mritlal] B. (ed.) 1968. The Great Debate: Language Controversy and University Education. Bombay, India: Lalvani.
Shah, Ijlal Hussain. 1994. The Pragmatics of Formality and Politeness in Burushaski and Shina. Islamabad: Quaid-i-Azam University (Unpublished M.Phil. Thesis).
Shanmugam Pillai, M. 1960. “Tamil: Literary and colloquial,” in Linguistic Diversity in South Asia: Studies in Regional, Social, and Functional Variation, edited by Charles A. Ferguson and John Gumperz. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 27–42.
Shanmugham Pillai, M. 1965. “Caste isoglosses in kinship terms,” Anthropological Linguistics, 7(3), 59–66.
Shanmugan, S. V. 1975. “Modernization in Tamil,” Anthropological Linguistics, 17(3), 53–67.
Shapiro, Michael. 2003. A Primer of Modern Standard Hindu. Seatlle, WA: University of Washington Press.
Shapiro, Michael C. and Harold F. Schiffman. 1981. Language and Society in South Asia. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Sharma, Aryendra. 1958. A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Education and Scientific Research.
Sharma, Rama Nath. 1981. “On the notion of grammar in Pāṇini,” Indo-Pacifica Occasional Papers, 1, 29–58.
Sharma, Rama Nath. 1987. The Aṣtādhyāyī of Pāṇini: Introduction to the Aṣtādhyāyī as a Grammatical Device. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
Sharma, Shri Ram. 1964. Dakkhinī Hindī kā Udbhav aur Vikās (The Origin and Development of Dakkhini Hindi). Prayag (Allahabad), India: Hindi Sahitya Sammelan.
Shastri, K. G. 1986. “Modernization of Kannada,” paper presented at The Eighth South Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.
Shekhar, Chander. 1998. “Some peculiarities of Persian poetry at the court of Shahjahan,” in Indo-Persian Cultural Perspectives, edited by Mohammad A. Khan, Ravinder Gargesh and Chander Shekhar. New Delhi: Saud Ahmad Dehlavi, pp. 91–106.
Sherring, Matthew A. 1884. The History of Protestant Missions in India from Their Commencement in 1706 to 1871. London and Edinburgh: Religious Tracy Society.
Shirwadkar, K. R. 1881. “Stranger than fiction: Dalit memoirs in Marathi,” New Quest, 27, 173–7.
Shivapurkar, H. S. 1993a. “One earth – many words: The new generation,” Book Review, 17(12), 10–11.
Shivapurkar, H. S. 1993b. “Modernism and after: Some reflections on contemporary Kannada poetry,” Indian Literature, 36(6), 151–56.
Shrestha, Balgopal and Bert van den Hoek. 1994. “Education in the mother tongue: The case of Newari,” Nepalese Linguistics, 11, 46–47.
Shukla, Ramchandra. 1929. Hindi Sahitya Ka Itihas (History of Hindi Literature). Benaras, India: Nagri Pracharini Sabha.
Siddalingaiah. 2003. Ooru-Keri: An Autobiography. Translated by S. R. Ramakrishna. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.
Siegel, Jeff. 1975. “Fiji Hindustani,” University of Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics, 7(3), 127–44.
Siegel, Jeff. 1987. Language Contact in a Plantation Environment: A Sociolinguistic History of Fiji. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Siegel, Jeff. 1990. “Language maintenance of overseas Hindi,” in Learning, Keeping and Using Language (Selected papers from The Eighth World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Sydney, 16–21 August 1987), edited by M. A. K. Halliday, J. Gibbons, and H. Nicholas. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 91–113.
Siegel, Jeff. 1993. “Dialect contact and koineization: A review of dialects in contact by Peter Trudgill,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 99, 105–21.
Siegel, Jeff. 2001. “Koine formation and creole genesis,” in Creolization and Contact, edited by Norval Smith and Tonjes Veenstra. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, pp. 175–98.
SIL (Summer Institute of Linguistics) International. 2002. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (14th edn). www.ethnologue.com, accessed August 2005.
Silverstein, Michael. 1979. “Language structure and linguistic ideology,” in The Elements: A Parasession on Linguistic Units and Levels, edited by Paul R. Clyne, William F. Hanks, and Carol L. Hofbauer. Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguisitc Society, pp. 193–247.
Simelane, Sandie E. 2002. “The population of South Africa: An overall and demographic description of the South African population based on Census ‘96,” Occassional paper 2002/01.
Singer, Milton. 1972. When a Great Tradition Modernizes: An Anthropological Approach to Indian Civilization. New York: Praeger.
Singh, Harjinder (ed.) 1977. Caste among Non-Hindus in India. New Delhi: National Publishing House.
Singh, Harjinder (ed.) 1995–1998. The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Patiala, India: Punjabi University.
Singh, K. S. and S. Manoharan. 1993. Languages and Scripts. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Singh, M. P. 1994. V. N. Shukla's ‘Constitution of India.’ Lucknow, India: Eastern Book Company.
Singh, M. P. 1997. Outline of Indian Legal and Constitutional History. New Delhi: Universal Law Publishing Co.
Singh, Rajendra. 1985. “Grammatical constraints on code-switching: Evidence from Hindi–English,” Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 30, 33–45.
Singh, Rajendra (ed.) 1998. The Native Speaker: Multilingual Perspectives. New Delhi: Sage.
Singh, R. and R. K. Agni hotri. 1997. Hindi Morphology: A Word-based Description. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Singh, Udaya Narayana. 1989. “How to honor someone in Maithili,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 75, 87–107.
Singh, Udaya Narayana. 1992. On Language Development and Planning. Simla, India: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.
Singh, Udaya Narayana. 2001a. “Multiscriptality in South Asia and language development,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 150, 61–74.
Singh, Udaya Narayana (ed.) 2001b. Culturation: Essays in Honour of Jawaharlal Handoo. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Sinha, A. K. 1998. “Influence of Indian languages on Persian,” in Indo-Persian Cultural Perspectives, edited by Mohammad A. Khan, Ravinder Gargesh and Chander Shekhar. New Delhi: Saud Ahmad Dehlavi, pp. 53–64.
Sjoberg, Andrée F. 1962. “Co-existant phonemic systems in Telugu,” Word, 18, 269–79.
Sjoberg, Andrée F. and Gideon Sjoberg. 1956. “Problems in glottochronology: Culture as a significant variable in lexical change,” American Anthropologist, 58(2), 296–300.
Smith, Ian R. 1979. “Substrata vs. universals in the formation of Sri Lanka Portuguese,” Papers in Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, No. 2. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, pp. 183–200.
Smith, Ian R. 1998. “Introdução,” in Dialecto Indo-Português de Ceylão [Re-issue of a description of Sri Lanka Portuguese by Sabastião Rodolpho Dalgado, 1900]. Lisbon: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portuguêses, pp. 13–36.
Smith, Ian R. forthcoming. “Sri Lanka Portuguese,” in Encyclopaedia of Linguistics, edited by Christy Prahl and Philipp Strazny. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn.
Smith-Pearse, T. L. N. 1934. English Errors in Indian Schools. Bombay, India: Oxford University Press.
Sommer, Anton F. W. 1991. Kurzgefasste Grammatik des Assamesischen mit ausgewähltem Wörterverzeichnis und einigen Textproben. Wien: Anton F. W. Sommer.
Sontaag, Salma. 1995. “Ethnolinguistic identity and language policy in Nepal,” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 1(4), 108–20.
Sopher, David E. (ed.) 1980. An Exploration of India. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Southworth, Franklin C. 1971. “Detecting prior creolization: An analysis of the historical origins of Marathi,” in Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell Hymes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 255–76.
Southworth, Franklin C. 1979. “Lexical evidence for early contact between Indo-Aryan and Dravidian,” in Aryan and Non–Aryan in India, edited by Madhav Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Michigan, pp. 191–233.
Spender, Dale. 1980. Man-Made Language. Boston, MA: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Sreedevi, B. 1991. “Language of women,” International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 20, 261–82.
Sreedhar, M. V. 1974. Naga Pidgin: A Sociolinguistic Study of Inter-lingual Communication Pattern in Nagaland. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Sreedhar, M. V. 1976a. “Standardization of Naga pidgin,” Anthropological Linguistics, 18, 371–9.
Sreedhar, M. V. 1976b. Sema Phonetic Reader. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Sreedhar, M. V. 1985. Standardized Grammar of Naga Pidgin. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Sreedhar, M. V. (ed.) 1988. Pidgins and Creoles: Languages of Wider Communication. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Sreekantaiya, T. N. 1956. “Notes on loans and native replacements in Kannada,” American Anthropologist, 58, 306–8.
Sridhar, Kamal K. 1988. “Language maintenance by Asian Indians in the U.S.: Kannada speakers in the New York area,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 69, 73–87.
Sridhar, Kamal K. 1989. English in Indian Bilingualism. New Delhi: Manohar.
Sridhar, Kamal K. 1991. “Speech acts in an Indigenized variety: Sociocultural values and language variation,” in English around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, edited by Jenny Cheshire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 308–18.
Sridhar, Kamal K. 1993. “Meaning, means, maintenance,” in Language, Communication, and Social Meaning (Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics), edited by James. E. Alatis. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 56–65.
Sridhar, Kamal K. 1997. “Languages of India in New York,” in The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City, edited by Ofelia Garcia and Joshua A. Fishman. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyer, pp. 257–80.
Sridhar, Kamal K. and S. N. Sridhar. 2000. “At home with English: Assimilation and adaptation of Asian Indians in the US,” in Language Diversity: Problem or Resource, edited by Sandra Mckay and Sau–ling C. Wong. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 369–92.
Sridhar, S. N. 1975. “On the Indo-Aryanization of the Kannada lexicon: A study of the Hindi–Urdu loanwords in Kannada,” in Language Borrowing, edited by Herman van Olphen. Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin, pp. 99–108.
Sridhar, S. N. 1978. “On the functions of code–mixing in Kannada,” in Aspects of Sociolinguistics in South Asia, edited by Braj B. Kachru and S. N. Sridhar. Special issue of International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 16, 109–17.
Sridhar, S. N. 1979a. “Dative subjects and the notion of subject,” Lingua, 49, 99–125.
Sridhar, S. N. 1979b. “In defense of spontaneous demotion,” South Asian Languages Analysis, 1, 115–24.
Sridhar, S. N. 1980. “Diglossia in Kannada,” paper presented at The Second International Conference on South Asian Languages and Linguistics, Hyderabad, India.
Sridhar, S. N. 1981. “Linguistic convergence: Indo-Aryanization of Dravidian languages,” Lingua, 53, 199–220.
Sridhar, S. N. 1984. “The role of English in expanding the stylistic repertoire of Indian languages,” in Perspectives on English Language Teaching, edited by J. M. Ure and S. Velayudhan. Bangalore, India: Macmillan.
Sridhar, S. N. 1987. “Language variation, attitudes, and rivalry: The spread of Hindi in India,” in Language Spread and Language Policy: Issues, Implications and Case Studies, Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics, edited by Peter Lowenberg. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 300–19.
Sridhar, S. N. 1988. “Language modernization: Structural and sociolinguistic aspects,” in Euskara Biltzarra, Conference on the Basque Language, Vol. 1: Description of the Language. Victoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jauriaritzaren Argitalpen–Zerbitzu Naguisa, pp. 351–62.
Sridhar, S. N. 1990. Descriptive Grammar: Kannada. London: Routledge.
Sridhar, S. N. 1992. “Language modernization in Kannada,” in Dimensions of South Asia as a Sociolinguistic Area: Papers in Honor of Gerald B. Kelly, edited by Edward Dimmock, Jr., Braj B. Kachru, and Bh. Krishnamurti. New Delhi: Oxford and India Book House, pp. 223–36.
Sridhar, S. N. 1995. Indina Kannada: Racane Mattu Balake (Contemporary Kannada: Structure and Function). Hampi, India: Kannada University.
Sridhar, S. N and Kamal K. Sridhar. 1980. “The syntax and psycholinguistics of bilingual code–mixing,” Canadian Journal of Psychology, 34(4), 409–18.
Srinivas, M. N. 1966. Social Change in Modern India. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Srinivas, M. N. 1976. The Remembered Village. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Srinivas, M. N. 1989. The Cohesive Role of Sanskritization and Other Essays. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Srinivas, M. N. 1997. “Caste: A systemic change,” in Ananya: A Portrait of India, edited by S. N. Sridhar and Nirmal K. Mattoo. New York: Association of Indians in America, pp. 297–312.
Srivastava, Gopi Nath. 1970. The Language Controversy and The Minorities. New Delhi: Atma Ram and Sons.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath. 1980. Language Teaching in Bi- or Pluralingual and Multilingual Environment. [Academic Report]. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath. 1984a. “Linguistic minorities and national language,” in Linguistic Minorities and Literacy: Language Policy Issues in Developing Countries, edited by Florian Coulmas. Berlin: Mouton, pp. 99–114.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath. 1984b. “Consequences of initiating literacy in a second language,” in Linguistic Minorities and Literacy: Language Policy Issues in Developing Countries, edited by Florian Coulmas. Berlin: Mouton, pp. 39–46.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath. 1987. “Theory of planning and language planning,” in Perspectives in Language Planning, edited by Uday N. Singh and Ravindra Nath Srivastava. Calcutta, India: Mithila Darshan, pp. 137–52.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath. 1988. “Address to the Indian linguists,” International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 17, 1–13.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath. 1992. “Theory and reality in Indian linguistics,” in Dimensions of Sociolinguistics in South Asia, edited by Edward C. Dimock, Braj B. Kachru, and Bh. Krishnamurti. New Delhi: Oxford and India Book House, pp. 329–38.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath. 1994. Hindi bhasha ka samaj shastr. Compiled and edited by Mahendra Beena Srivastava and Dilip Singh. New Delhi: Radhakrishna Parkashan.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath and R. S. Gupta. 1983. “A linguistic view of literacy,” Journal of Pragmatics, 7, 533–49.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath and R. S. Gupta. 1990. “Literacy in a multilingual context,” in Multilingualism in India, edited by Debi P. Pattanayak. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters, pp. 67–78.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath and Ashok Kalra. 1984. “Modernization of Hindi in news media,” in Modernization of Indian Languages in the News Media, edited by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti and Aditi Mukherji. Hyderabad, India: Osmania University.
Srivastava, Ravindra Nath and Ira Pandit. 1988. “The pragmatic basis of syntactic structures and the politeness hierarchy in Hindi,” Journal of Pragmatics, 12, 185–205.
Staal, J. Frits (ed.) 1972. A Reader on the Sanskrit Grammarians. Cambridge, MA: The Massachussetts Institute of Technology Press.
Staal, J. Frits. 1989. “The mantra in Vedic and Tantric ritual,” in Mantra, edited by H. P. Alper. Albany, NY: The State University of NewYork Press, pp. 48–95.
Stearns, Peter (ed.) 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Steever, Sanford B. (ed.) 1998. The Dravidian Languages. London and New York: Routledge.
Stegmuller, Henning, Dilip Chitre, Namdeo Dhasal. 1996. Bombay Mumbai: Bilder einere Mega Stadt. Translated by Lothar Lutze. Munich: A–1 Verlag.
Street, Brian V. 1994. “What is meant by local literacies?,” in Sustaining Local Literacies, edited by D. Barton. Special issue of Language and Education, 8, 19–30.
Street, Brian V. 1997. “Social literacies,” in Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 2, edited by V. Edwards and D. Corson. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 133–42.
Subbarao, Karumuri V. 1984. Complementation in Hindi Syntax. New Delhi: Academic Publications.
Subbarao, Karumuri V. 1998a. “Linguistic theory and syntactic typology: A proposal for a symbiotic relationship,” in Vaagbhaarati: Proceedings of the International Conference on South Asian Languages, edited by L. V. Khokhlova and Atul Sawani. Moscow: Institute of Asian & African Studies, Moscow State University, pp. 5–23. [Reprinted in 1999, Indian Linguistics, 60, 95–110.]
Subbarao, Karumuri V. 1998b. Fieldnotes.
Subbarao, Karumuri V. 2000. “Syntactic typology and South Asian languages,” in The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000, edited by Rajendra Singh. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks; London: Sage, pp. 93–103.
Subbarao, Karumuri V. 2001. “Agreement in South Asian languages and minimalist inquiries: The framework,” in The Yearbook of South Asian Languages 2001, edited by Peri Bhaskararao and Karumuri V. Subbarao. New Delhi: Thousand Oaks, London: Sage, pp. 457–492.
Subbarao, Karumuri V. and B. Lalitha Murthy. 2000. “Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Telugu,” in Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages, edited by Barbara Lust, James Gair, Kashi Wali, and Karumuri V. Subbarao. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 217–273.
Subbarao, Karumuri V. and A. Saxena. 1987. “Language universals: Inductive or deductive?,” in Select Papers from SALA-7, edited by Elena Bashir, Madhav Deshpande, and Peter E. Hook. Bloomigton, IN: Indiana University Linguistic Club, pp. 337–342.
Subbarao, Karumuri V., C. Viswanath Rao, A. Saxena, and N. Rau. 1989. “The verb ‘say’ in South Asian languages: A study in linguistic convergence,” in Language Variation and Change, edited by Aditi Mukherjee. Hyderabad, India: Centre for Advanced Study in Linguistics, Osmania University, pp. 89–103.
Subramoniam, V. I. and P. C. Ganeshsundaram. 1954. “Marathi loans in Tamil,” Indian Linguistics, 14, 104–23.
Sukthankar, V. S. 1941. “The position of linguistics studies in India,” Proceedings of the 10th All India Oriental Conference, 593–609. [Reproduced in Bharatiya Vidya 2: 23–35; Sukthankar Memorial Edition 2, 1945, Bombay, India: Karnatak, pp. 386–99.]
Swan, Maureen. 1985. Gandhi: The South African Experience. Johannesburg: Ravan.
T. W. J. 1890. ‘Baboo English’ ; or, Our Mother-Tongue as Our Aryan Brethren Understand It. Amusing Specimens of Composition and Style, or, English as Written by Some of Her Majesty's Indian Subjects. Calcutta, India: Kent.
Tagare, Ganesh Vasudev. 1948. Historical Grammar of Apabhramśa, Deccan College Dissertation Series 5. Poona, India: Deccan College.
Tannen, Deborah. 1990. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Ballantine.
Tannen, Deborah (ed.) 1993. Gender and Conversational Interaction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tannen, Deborah. 1994. Gender and Discourse. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tannen, Deborah. 1998. Argument Culture. New York: Random House.
Taylor, Douglas. 1971. “Grammatical and lexical affinities of creoles,” in Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell Hymes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 293–96.
Taylor, Gordon and Tingguang Chen. 1991. “Linguistic, cultural and subcultural issues in contrastive discourse analysis: Anglo-American and Chinese scientific texts,” Applied Linguistics, 12, 319–36.
Taylor, Issac. 1833. The Alphabet, 2 Vols. (2nd edn, 1899). London: Edward Arnold.
Thapar, Romila. 1966. A History of India, Vol. I. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
Thapar, Romila. 1973. The Past and Prejudice. New Delhi: Publications Division, Government of India.
Tharu, Susie and K. Lalita (ed.) 1991. Women Writing in India. New York: The Feminist Press.
The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2002. New York: World Almanac Books.
Theva Rajan, A. 1995. Tamil as Official Language: Retrospect and Prospect. Colombo: International Centre for Ethnic Studies.
Thirumalai, M. S. 2005. “The roots of linguistics reorganization of Indian provinces: Dr. Annie Besant and her Home Rule Movement,” Language in India, 5(5), May 2005. www.languageinindia.com/may2005/motilalnehrureport1.html, accessed august 21, 2005.
Thirugnanasambandhan, P. 1992. Sanskrit–Tamil Contact. Thiruvananthapuram, India: International School of Dravidian Linguisitcs.
Thomason, Sarah G. and Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Thompson, John B. 1990. Ideology and Modern Culture. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Thorat, Vimal. 1996. “Social movement and literary consciousness: A comparative study of Hindi and Dalit poetry in the sixties,” translated by Raj Kumar and Eleanor Zelliot, The Fourth World, 3, 58–64.
Thorat, Vimal. 2002. The Silent Volcano: English Translation of Dalit Women's Poetry. Bangalore: National Federation of Dalit Women.
Thumboo, Edwin (ed.) 2001. The Three Circles of English. Singapore: Unipress, The Center for the Arts, National University of Singapore.
Tikku, Girdhari Lal. 1961. Shu'ara-I-Kashmir (The Poets of Kashmir). Tehran: Hind-I-Nau.
Tinker, Hugh. 1974. A New System of Slavery: The Export of Indian Labour Overseas 1830–1920. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tirumalesh, K. V. 1979. “Movement rules in Kannada,” unpublished PhD dissertation, Hyderabad, India: Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages.
Tiwary, Kapil Muni. 1978. “Tuneful weeping: A mode of communication,” Frontiers, 3(3), 24–7.
Toynbee, Arnold J. 1927. Survey of International Affairs, Vol. I. London: Oxford University Press.
Treichler, Paula, Richard Frankel, Cheris Kramarae, Kathleen Zoppi, and Howard Beckman. 1984. “Problems and problems: Power relationships in a medical encounter,” in Language and Power, edited by Cheris Kramarae. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp. 62–88.
Trivedi, Darshana and Rupalee Burke (ed./trans.) 2000. Tongues of Fire. Ahmedabad, India: Gujarat Dalit Sahitya Akademi.
Tröemel-Plöetz, Senta. 1991. “Selling the apolitical,” Discourse and Society, 2(4), 489–502.
Trudgill, Peter. 1972. “Sex, covert prestige and linguistic change in the urban British English of Norwich,” Language in Society, 1, 179–95.
Trudgill, Peter. 1986. Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Trubetzkoy N. S. 1928. Proposition 16. In Actes du 1er Congrès international de linguistes. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff's Uitgeversmaatschappij, pp. 17–18.
Tulpule, Shankar Gopal. 1979. Classical Marathi Literature, in the series A History of Indian Literature, edited by Jan Gonda, Vol. 9, fasc. 4. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Turner, Barry (ed.) 2001. The Statesman's Yearbook: The Politics, Cultures, and Economies of the World 2001. New York: St. Martin's Press.
T. W. J. 1890. Baboo English or Our Mother Tongue as Our Aryan Brethren Understand It. Amusing Specimens of Composition and Style. Or English as Written by Her Majesty's Indian Subjects. Calcutta: Kent.
Ukyab, Tamla and Shyam Adhikari. 2000. The Nationalities of Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Local Development, National Committee for Development of Nationalities.
Ullrich, Helen E. 1992. “Sociolinguistic change in language attitudes: A Karnataka village study,” in Dimensions of Sociolinguistics in South Asia, edited by Edward C. Dimock, Braj B. Kachru, and Bhadriraju Krishnamurti. New Delhi: Oxford and India Book House, pp. 113–27.
Umar, M. 1979. “Indigenous elements in Persian literature and language produced during the 18th century in India,” Indo-Iranica 32(1–2), 3–8.
UNESCO. (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) 1984a. Literacy Situation in Asia and the Pacific: Bangladesh. Bangkok: Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.
UNESCO. (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) 1984b. Literacy Situation in Asia and the Pacific: India. Bangkok: Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.
UNESCO. (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) 1984c. Literacy Situation in Asia and the Pacific: Nepal. Bangkok: Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.
Underwood, Ellis. 1885. Indian English and Indian Character. Calcutta, India: Thacker, Spink.
Unger, Rhoda and Mary Crawford. 1996. “Sex and gender – The troubled relationship between terms and concepts,” in Questions of Gender, edited by Dina L. Anselmi and Ann L. Law. Boston, MA: McGraw–Hill, pp. 18–21.
Upadhyaya, U. P. 1971. “Effects of bilingualism on Bidar Kannada,” Indian Linguistics, 32(2), 132–8.
Upadhye, A. N. 1975. Prakrit Languages and Literature Dr. P. D. Gune Memorial Lectures. Poona, India: University of Poona.
Vagartha. Serial Publication. New Delhi: Joshi Foundation.
Vaidyanathan, S. 1971. Indo-Aryan Loanwords in Old Tamil. Madras, India: Rajan Publishers.
Valentine, Tamara. 1983. “Sexism in Hindi: Form, function and variation,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 13(2), 143–58.
Valentine, Tamara. 1985a. “Cross–sex conversation in Indian English fiction,” World Englishes, 4(3), 319–32.
Valentine, Tamara. 1985b. “Sex, power and linguistic strategies in the Hindi language,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 15(1), 195–211.
Valentine, Tamara. 1986. “Language and power. Cross-sex communicative strategies in Hindi and Indian English,” Economic and Political Weekly, 21(43), WS75–WS87.
Valentine, Tamara. 1987. “Sexist practices in the Hindi Language,” Indian Journal of Linguistics, 14, 25–55.
Valentine, Tamara. 1988. “Developing discourse types in non-native English: Strategies of gender in Hindi and Indian English,” World Englishes, 7(2), 143–58.
Valentine, Tamara. 1993. “What's the point? Storytelling by women of India,” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 25(2), 77–102.
Valmiki, Omprakash. 2003. Joothan: An Untouchable's Life. Translated from Hindi by Arun Prabha Mukherjee. New York: Columbia University Press.
van Bekkum, Wout, Jan Houben, Kneke Sluiter, and Kees Versteegh (eds.) 1997. The Emergence of Semantics in Four Linguistic Traditions: Hebrew, Sanskrit, Greek, Arabic. Amsterdam Studies in The Theory and History of Linguistics Science, Series 3, Vol. 82. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Van de Walle, Lieve. 1993. Pragmatics and Classical Sanskrit: A Pilot Study in Linguistic Politeness. Pragmatics and Beyond New Series 28, Amsterdam, John Benjamins.
van Driem, George. 2001. Languages of the Himalayas: an ethnolinguistic handbook of the Greater Himalayan region. 2 vols. (Handbuch der Orientalistik 10/1, 2). Leiden/Boston/Köln: Brill.
van Driem, George. 2007. ‘South Asia and the Middle East’. In Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, Christopher Moseley ed. London & New York: Routledge. 282–347.
van Elteren, Mel. 1996. “Conceptualizing the impact of US popular culture globally,” Journal of Popular Culture, 30, 47–81.
Varma, Baidya Nath. 1980. “Indians as new ethnics: A theoretical note,” in The New Ethnics: The Asian Indians in the United States, edited by Parmatma Saran and Edwin Eames. New York: Praeger, pp. 29–41.
Varma, Ram Kumar. 1947. Hindi Sahitya ka Aloćnaatmak Itihas. Allahabad, India: Nav Sahitya Press.
Varma, Siddheshwar. 1972–1976. G. A. Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India: A Summary, 3 vols. Hoshiarpur, India: Vishveshvaranand Institute, Punjab University.
Varma, Udayanarayana. 1983. Diglossia in Bangladesh and Language Planning. Calcutta, India: Gyan Bharati.
Vasanthakumari, T. 1991. “Language of women: A focus on the impact of stratification and socialization,” International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 20(2), 49–60.
Vatuk, Sylvia. 1969. “Reference, address, and fictive kinship in urban north India,” Ethnology, 8, 255–72.
Vaudeville, C. 1986. Barahmasa in Indian Literature. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Vaughn, Robinson. 1996. The Indians: onward and upward. In Ceri Peach ed. The Ethnic Minority Populations. London: In the Service of Her Majesty: National Statistics.
Velten H. V. 1943. “The Nez Perce verb”, Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 34, 271–92.
Verghese, Anila. 2002. Hampi. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Verhagen, Pieter C. 1994. A Sanskrit of Grammatical Literature in Tibet. Vol 1: Transmission of the Canonical Literature. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Verma, Dhirendra. 1933. Hindi bhasa ka itihas. Allahabad, India: Hindustani Academy.
Verma, Manindra K. and K. P. Mohanan. 1990. Experiencer Subjects in South Asian Languages. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.
Verma, Tugeshwar P. 1996. “Some features of Nepali newspaper English,” in South Asian English: Structure, Use and Users, edited by Robert J. Baumgardner. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, pp. 82–87.
Vetterling-Braggin, M. (ed.) 1981. Sexist Language. Lehigh U: Littlefield, Adams.
Vinaypatrika: Tulsidas Letter to Sri Ram, compiled by Camille Bulcke (presented by “Khristnath”) Patna: Navajyoti Niketan, 1988.
Vogel, Claus. 1979. Indian Lexicography (A History of Indian Literature, Vol. V). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
von Hinüber, Oskar. 1994. Selected Papers on Pali Studies. Oxford: Pali Text Society.
Viswanathan, Gauri. 1987. “The beginings of English literary study in British India,” Oxford Literary Review, 9, 2–26.
Viswanathan, Gauri. 1989. Masks of Conquest: Literary Study and British Rule in India, New York: Columbia University Press.
von Hinüber, Oskar. 1994. Selected Papers on Pali Studies. Oxford: Pali Text Society.
Vyas, B. S., Bhola Nath Tiwari, and Ravindra Nath Srivastava. 1972. Hindī vyakaran aur rachna. New Delhi: National Council of Educational Research and Training.
Vygotsky, L. S. 1978. Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, edited by M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, and E. Souberman. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wadhwa, Kamlesh K. 1975. Minority Safeguards in India. New Delhi: Thomson Press.
Wadia, Ardeshir R. 1954. The Future of English in India. Bombay, India: Asia Publishing House.
Wadley, Susan. 1986. “Women and the Hindu tradition,” in Women in India: Two Perspectives, edited by Doranne Jacobson and Susan S. Wadley. New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 113–39.
Wali, Kashi and Omkar N. Koul. 1997. Kashmiri: A Cognitive Descriptive Grammar. London and New York: Routledge.
Wali, Kashi, Omkar N. Koul, Peter E. Hook, and Ashok K. Koul. 2000. “Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Kashmiri,” in Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages, edited by Barbara Lust, James Gair, Kashi Wali, and Karumuri V. Subbarao. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 471–512.
Warder, A. K. 1972. Indian Kavya Literature, Vol. 1. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Watters, Steve. 2001. “Language death: A review and examination of the global issue in the Nepalese context,” a working paper presented at The National Symposium on Language Death or Suicide: An Examination of the Issues in the Nepalese Context. Kathmandu, Nepal.
Weil, Shalva. 1983. “Women and language in Israel,” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 41, 77–91.
Weinreich, Uriel. 1958. “On the compatibility of genetic relationship and convergent development,” Word, 14, 374–79.
Whinnom, Keith. 1971. “Linguistic hybridization and the ‘special case’ of pidgins and creoles,” in Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell Hymes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 91–115.
Whitworth, George C. 1885. An Anglo-Indian Dictionary: A Glossary of Indian Terms Used in English, and of Such English or Other Non-English Terms as Have Attained Special Meanings in India. London: Kegan Paul.
Whitworth, George C. 1907. Indian English: An Examination Made by Indians in Writing English. Letchworth: Garden City Press.
Whorf, Benjamin Lee. 1940. “Linguistics as an exact science,” Technology Review, 43, 61–3, 80–3. [Reprinted in 1996 in the collection of Whorf 's selected writings, Language, Thought, and Reality, Cambridge, MA: The Massachussetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 220–32.]
Williams, Colin (ed.) 1991. Linguistic Minorities, Society, and Territory. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Williams P. M. 2001. “Buddhism, Tibetan,” in Concise Encyclopedia of Language and Religion, edited by J. A. Sawyer. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 39–41.
Williams, Walter L. 1986. The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Wolpert, Stanley. 1991. India. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Wolpert, Stanley. 1993. A New History of India (4th edn). New York: Oxford University Press.
Woollcombe, David. Peace Child International, www.global–vision.org/sustainability/rescuemission.html, accessed August 2005.
Wright, Arnold. 1891. Baboo English as ‘Tis Writ: Being Curiosities of Indian Journalism. London: Fisher Unwin.
Yadava, Yogendra P. 2006. “Linguistic activities in Nepal (1999–2004),” in The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics, 2006, edited by Rajendra Singh. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 153–64.
Yule, Henry. 1886. “Hobson-Jobsoniana,” Asiatic Quarterly Review, 1, 119–40.
Yule, Henry and A. C. Burnell. 1886. Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical, and Discursive. [New edition. by W. Crooke (1903). London: J. Murry.]
Zakaria, Fareed. 2001. “The roots of rage,” Special report of Newsweek, October 15, p. 20.
Zelliot, Eleanor. 1992. From Untouchable to Dalit: Essays on the Ambedkar movement. New Delhi: Manohar. [3rd end. 2001].
Zelliot, Eleanor. 1996. “Stri Dalit Sahitya: The new voice of women poets,” in Images of Women in Maharashtrian Literature and Religion, edited by Anne Feldhaus. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 65–93.
Zelliot, Eleanor. 2000. “Sant Sahitya and Dalit movements,” in Intersections: Socio-cultural Trends in Maharashtra, edited by Meera Kosambi. Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman, pp. 187–93.
Zelliot, Eleanor and Philip Engblom (eds.) 1982. “A Marathi sampler,” Journal of South Asia Literature, 17(1), 1–169.
Zimmerman, D. H. and C. West. 1975. “Sex roles, interruptions, and silences in conversation,” in Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance, edited by B. Thorne and N. Henley. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, pp. 105–29.
Zvelebil, Kamil Veith. 1973. The Smile of Murugan. On Tamil Lieterature of South India. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Zvelebil, Kamil Veith. 1974. Tamil Literature, in the series A History of Indian Literature, edited by Jan Gonda, Vol. 10, fasc. 1. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Zvelebil, Kamil Veith. 1995. Lexicon of Tamil Literature (Handbuch der Orientalistik 2). Leiden and New York: E. J. Brill.
Zwilling, Leonard and Michael J. Sweet. 2000. “The evolution of third-sex constructs in ancient India: A study in ambiguity,” in Invented Identities: The Interplay of Gender, Religion and Politics in India, edited by Julia Leslie and Mary McGee. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 99–132.