There are many tensions in landscape management at spatial scales from individual fields to regions and upwards to global environmental change (Dalgaard et al. 2003). Farmers are under increasing pressure to produce nonfood products including recreational opportunities, attractive landscapes, and habitats for wildlife. The many different forms of agri-environmental payment schemes are witness to these pressures. In urban landscapes we see a new emphasis on urban green space, urban green structures, and greenways fulfilling multiple goals (Fábos 2004, Gobster and Westphal 2004).
One of the trends in the funding of landscape research over the last 20 years has been the rapid growth of large-scale integrative projects (Höll and Nilsson 1999, Tress et al. 2005a). This trend must be seen against the background of environmental concerns that have placed greater demands on the way landscapes are managed and the widening range of objectives they should fulfil. This has fuelled the demand for new research tools to address these problems. Since the problems are complex and span several disciplines, it was natural to consider integrative forms of research as the way forward (Balsiger 2004). In this chapter, we explore several of the major concepts associated with integrative research modes, what funding bodies and researchers expect from such research, and what is being delivered. We discuss the organisational barriers to integration, merit system, and ways to improve the theory base. Finally, we present education and training needs for integrative research and recommend measures to enhance integrative landscape research.
Moss, M. R. 1999. Fostering academic and institutional activities in landscape ecology. Pages 138–144 in J. A. Wiens and M. R. Moss (eds.) Issues in Landscape Ecology. Snowmass Village: International Association for Landscape Ecology.
August, P., L. R. Iverson, and J. Nugranad. 2002. Human conversion of terrestrial landscapes. Pages 198–224 in K. Gutzwiller, (ed.). Applying Landscape Ecology in Biological Conservation. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Beard, K. 2001. Roles of meta-information in uncertainty management. Pages 363–78 in C. T. Hunsaker, M. F. Goodchild, M. A. Friedl, and T. J. Case (eds.). Spatial Uncertainty in Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Bernert, J. A., J. M. Eilers, T. J. Sullivan, K. E. Freemark, and C. Ribic. 1997. A quantitative method for delineating regions: an example for the western Corn Belt plains ecoregion of the USA. Environmental Management 21, 405–20.
Boerner, R. E. J., S. J. Morris, E. K. Sutherland, and T. F. Hutchinson. 2000. Spatial variability in soil nitrogen dynamics after prescribed burning in Ohio mixed-oak forests. Landscape Ecology 15, 425–39.
Burrough, P. A. 1987. Spatial aspects of ecological data. Pages 213–57 in R. H. G. Jongman, C. J. F. ter Braak, and D. F. R. Jongeren (eds.). Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology. Wageningen: Pudoc.
Burrows, S. N., S. T. Gower, M. K. Clayton, et al. 2002. Application of geostatistics to characterize leaf area index (LAI) from flux tower to landscape scales using a cyclic sampling design. Ecosystems 5, 667–79.
Buttenfield, B. P. 2001. Mapping ecological uncertainty. Pages 115–32 in C. T. Hunsaker, M. F. Goodchild, M. A. Friedl, and T. J. Case (eds.). Spatial Uncertainty in Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Cook, E. A., L. R. Iverson, and R. L. Graham (eds.). 1987. The Relationship of Forest Productivity to Landsat Thematic Mapper Data and Supplemental Terrain Information. Sioux Falls, SD: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
Cornelis, B. and S. Brunet. 2002. A policy-maker point of view on uncertainties in spatial decisions. Pages 168–85 in W. Shi, P. F. Fisher, and M. F. Goodchild (eds.). Spatial Data Quality. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Eastman, R. 2001. Uncertainty management in GIS: decision support tools for effective use of spatial data resources. Pages 379–90 in C. T. Hunsaker, M. F. Goodchild, M. A. Friedl, and T. J. Case (eds.). Spatial Uncertainty in Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Ferrier, S., M. Drielsma, G. Manion, and G. Watson. 2002. Extended statistical approaches to modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in northeast New South Wales. II. Community-level modelling. Biodiversity and Conservation 11, 2309–38.
Hershey, R. R. 1996. Understanding the spatial distribution of tree species in Pennsylvania. Pages 73–82 in H. T. Mowrer, R. L. Czaplewski, and R. H. Hamre (eds.). Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences. General Technical Report RM-GTR-277, Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service.
Holsinger, K. E. and IBRCS Working Group. 2003. IBRCS White Paper. Rationale, Blueprint, and Expectations for the National Ecological Observatory Network. Washington, DC: American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. 1994. The Changing Illinois Environment: Critical Resources. Volume 3. Technical Report. ILENR/RE-EA-94/05. Springfield, IL: Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources.
Iverson, L. R., E. A. Cook, and R. L. Graham. 1989a. A technique for extrapolating and validating forest cover data across large regions: calibrating AVHRR data with TM. International Journal of Remote Sensing 10, 1805–12.
Iverson, L. R., R. L. Oliver, D. P. Tucker, et al. 1989b. Forest Resources of Illinois: An Atlas and Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Trends. Champaign, IL: Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 11.
Iverson, L. R. and L. G. Perry. 1985. Integration of biological pieces in the siting puzzle. Pages 99–131 in The Siting Puzzle: Piecing Together Economic Development and Environmental Quality. Proceedings of the 13th Annual ENR Conference. Springfield, IL: Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources.
Iverson, L. R., A. M. Prasad, and A. Liaw. 2004a. New machine learning tools for predictive vegetation mapping after climate change: bagging and random forest perform better than regression tree analysis. Pages 317–20 in R. Smithers (ed.). Proceedings, Cirencester, UK: UK-International Association for Landscape Ecology.
Iverson, L. R., D. A. Yaussy, J. Rebbeck, et al. 2004b. A data recording method to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of fire behavior from prescribed fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13, 1–12.
Lewis, A. and M. F. Hutchinson. 2000. From data accuracy to data quality: using spatial statistics to predict the implications of spatial error in point data. Pages 17–35 in H. T. Mowrer and R. G. Congalton (eds.). Quantifying Spatial Uncertainty in Natural Resources. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press.
Li, H. and J. Wu. 2006. Uncertainty analysis in ecological studies: an overview. Pages 45–66 in J. Wu, B. Jones, B. Li, and O. L. Loucks (eds.). Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology: Methods and Applications. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
Lopez-Blanco, J., and L. Villers-Ruiz. 1995. Delineating boundaries of environmental units for land management using a geomorphological approach and GIS: a study in Baja California, Mexico. Remote Sensing and Environment 53, 109–17.
Lund, H. G. and C. E. Thomas. 1995. A Primer on Evaluation and Use of Natural Resource Information for Corporate Data Bases. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-62. Washington, DC: Washington Office.
Matthews, S. N., R. J. O'Connor, L. R. Iverson, and A. M. Prasad. 2004. Atlas of Current and Climate Change Distributions of Common Birds of the Eastern United States. General Technical Report NE-318. Newtown Square, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.
Mitasova, H., J. Hofierka, M. Zlocha, and L. R. Iverson. 1996. Modeling topographic potential for erosion and deposition using GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 10, 629–41.
Mowrer, H. T., R. L. Czaplewski, R. H. Hamre, and Tech coords. 1996. Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences: Second International Symposium. General Technical Report RM-GTR-277. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Ohmann, J. L. and M. J. Gregory. 2002. Predictive mapping of forest composition and structure with direct gradient analysis and nearest-neighbor imputation in coastal Oregon, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32, 725–41.
Olson, R. J., C. J. Emerson, and M. K. Nungesser. 1980. Geoecology: A County-Level Environmental Data Base for the Conterminous United States. Publication No. 1537. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Sciences Division.
Prasad, A. M. and L. R. Iverson. 2000. Predictive vegetation mapping using a custom built model-chooser: comparison of regression tree analysis and multivariate adaptive regression splines. In Proceedings CD-ROM. 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects and Research Needs. Banff, Alberta, Canada (http://www.colorado.edu/research/cires/banff/upload/159/index.html).
Price, D. T., D. W. McKenney, I. A. Nalder, M. F. Hutchinson, and J. L. Kesteven. 2000. A comparison of two statistical methods for spatial interpolation of Canadian monthly mean climate data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101, 81–94.
Riemann-Hershey, R. and G. Reese. 1999. Creating a “First-cut” Species Distribution Map for Large Areas from Forest Inventory Data. General Technical Report NE-256. Radnor, PA: Northeastern Research Station, USDA Forest Service.
Riitters, K., J. Wickham, R. O'Neill, B. Jones, and E. Smith. 2000. Global scale patterns of forest fragmentation. Conservation Ecology4, 3 [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/Journal/vol4/iss2/art3.
Risser, P. G. and L. R. Iverson. 1988. Geographic information systems and natural resource issues at the state level. Pages 231–239 in D. B. Botkin, M. E. Caswell, J. E. Estes, and A. A. Orio (eds.). Our Role in Changing the Global Environment: What We Can Do About Large Scale Environmental Issues. New York: Academic Press.
Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, and J. Fallon. 2001. The North American breeding bird survey, results and analysis 1966–2000. Version 2001.2. Laurel, MD: USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. (http://www.mbr.nbs.gov/bbs/htm96/trn626/all.html).
Shi, W., M. F. Goodchild, and P. F. Fisher. 2002b. Epilog: a prospective on spatial data quality. Pages 304–9 in W. Shi, P. F. Fisher, and M. F. Goodchild (eds.). Spatial Data Quality. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Shifley, S. R. and N. H. Sullivan. 2002. The Status of Timber Resources in the North Central United States. General Technical Report NC-228. St. Paul, MN: North Central Research Station, USDA Forest Service.
Sklar, F. H. and C. T. Hunsaker. 2001. The use and uncertainties of spatial data for landscape models: an overview with examples from the Florida Everglades. Pages 15–46 in C. T. Hunsaker, M. F. Goodchild, M. A. Friedl, and T. J. Case (eds.). Spatial Uncertainty in Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Spanner, M. A., A. M. Strahler, and J. E. Estes. 1983. Soil loss prediction in a geographic information system format. Pages 89–102 in Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. Ann Arbor, MI: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan.
Spear, M., J. Hall, and R. Wadsworth. 1996. Communication of uncertainty in spatial data to policy makers. Pages 199–207 in H. T. Mowrer, R. L. Czaplewski, and R. H. Hamre (eds.). Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences. General Technical Report RM-GTR-277, Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Stine, P. A. and C. T. Hunsaker. 2001. An introduction to uncertainty issues for spatial data used in ecological applications. Pages 91–107 in C. T. Hunsaker, M. F. Goodchild, M. A. Friedl, and T. J. Case (eds.). Spatial Uncertainty in Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Wickham, J. D., R. V. O'Neill, K. H. Riitters, T. G. Wade, and K. B. Jones. 1997. Sensitivity of selected landscape pattern metrics to misclassification and differences in land cover composition. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 63, 397–402.
Burrough, P. A. 1987. Spatial aspects of ecological data. Pages 89–125 in R. H. Jongman, C. J. F. ter Braak, and O. F. R. van Tongeren (eds.). Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology. The Netherlands: Pudoc Wageningen.
Fortin, M. -J., M. R. T. Dale, and J. ver Heof. 2002. Statistical analysis in ecology. Pages 2051–2058 in A. H. El-Shaarawi and W. W. Piegorsch (eds.). Encyclopedia of Environment. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fortin, M.-J. and S. Payette. 2002. How to test the significance of the relation between spatially autocorrelated data at the landscape scale: a case study using fire and forest maps. Ecoscience 9, 213–18.
Li, H., D. Gartner, P. Mou, and C. C. Trettin. 2000. A landscape model (LEEMATH) to evaluate effects of management impacts on timber and wildlife habitat. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 27, 263–92.
McGarigal, K. and B. J. Marks. 1995. FRAGSTATS: Spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-351. Portland, OR: Pacific Northwest Research Station.
O'Neill, R. V., J. R. Krummel, R. H. Gardner, G. Sugihara, B. Jackson, D. L. DeAngelis, B. T. Milne, M. G. Turner, B. Zygmunt, S. W. Christensen, V. H. Dale, and R. L. Graham. 1988. Indices of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecology 1, 153–62.
Wickham, J. D., R. V. O'Neill, K. H. Riitters, T. G. Wade, and K. B. Jones. 1997. Sensitivity of landscape metrics to land cover misclassification and differences in land cover composition. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 63, 397–402.
Berger, J., P. B. Stacey, L. Bellis, and M. P. Johnson. 2001. A mammalian predator–prey imbalance: grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants. Ecological Applications 11, 947–60.
Burrows, S. N., S. T. Gower, M. K. Clayton, et al. 2002. Application of geostatistics to characterize leaf area index (LAI) from flux tower to landscape scales using a cyclic sampling design. Ecosystems 5, 667–79.
Correll, D. L., T. E. Jordan, and D. E. Weller. 1992. Nutrient flux in a landscape: effects of coastal land use and terrestrial community mosaic on nutrient transport to coastal waters. Estuaries 15, 431–42.
Costanza, R., F. H. Sklar, and M. L. White. 1990. Modeling coastal landscape dynamics: process-based dynamic spatial ecosystem simulation can examine long-term natural changes and human impacts. BioScience 40, 91–107.
Fisher, S. G. and J. R. Welter. 2005. Flowpaths as integrators of heterogeneity in streams and landscapes. Pages 311–328 in G. Lovett, C. Jones, M. G. Turner, and K. C. Weathers (eds.). Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous Landscapes. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Gardner, R. H., V. H. Dale, R. V. O'Neill, and M. G. Turner. 1992. A percolation model of ecological flows. Pages 259–69 in A. J. Hansen and F. Di Castri (eds.). Landscape Boundaries: Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flow. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Garrabou, J., E. Ballesteros, and M. Zabala. 2002. Structure and dynamics of northwestern Mediterranean rocky benthic communities along a depth gradient. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 55, 493–508.
Holland, E. A., W. J. Parton, J. K. Detling, and D. L. Coppock. 1992. Physiological responses of plant populations to herbivory and other consequences of ecosystem nutrient flow. American Naturalist 140, 685–706.
Jones, K. B., A. C. Neale, M. S. Nash, et al. 2001. Predicting nutrient and sediment loadings to streams from landscape metrics: a multiple watershed study from the United States Mid-Atlantic Region. Landscape Ecology 16, 301–12.
Jussy, J. H., W. Koerner, E. Dambrine, J. L. Dupouey, and M. Benoit. 2002. Influence of former agricultural land use on net nitrate production in forest soils. European Journal of Soil Science 53, 367–74.
McGarigal, K. and B. J. Marks. 1995. FRAGSTATS. Spatial Analysis Program for Quantifying Landscape Structure. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-351. Portland, OR: US Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Riera, J. L., J. J. Magnuson, T. K. Kratz, and K. E. Webster. 2000. A geomorphic template for the analysis of lake districts applied to the Northern Highland Lake District, Wisconsin, USA. Freshwater Biology 43, 301–18.
Serrano, L., J. Penuelas, and S. L. Ustin. 2002. Remote sensing of nitrogen and lignin in Mediterranean vegetation from AVIRIS data: decomposing biochemical from structural signals. Remote Sensing of Environment 81, 355–64.
Shaver, G. R., K. J. Knadelhoffer, and A. E. Giblin. 1991. Biogeochemical diversity and element transport in a heterogeneous landscape, the north slope of Alaska. Pages 105–125 in M. G. Turner and R. H. Gardner (eds.). Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Sklar, F. H. and R. Costanza. 1990. The development of dynamic spatial models for landscape ecology: a review and prognosis. Pages 239–88 in M. G. Turner and R. H. Gardner (eds.). Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Soranno, P. A., S. L. Hubler, S. R. Carpenter, and R. C. Lathrop. 1996. Phosphorus loads to surface waters: a simple model to account for spatial pattern of land use. Ecological Applications 6, 865–78.
Tongway, D. J. and J. A. Ludwig. 2001. Theories on the origins, maintenance, dynamics and functioning of banded landscapes. Pages 20–31 in D. Tongway, C. Valentin, and J. Seghieri (eds.). Banded Vegetation Patterning in Arid and Semiarid Environments: Ecological Processes and Consequences for Management. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Turner, M. G. and F. S. Chapin III. 2005. Causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity in ecosystem function. In G. Lovett, C. Jones, M. G. Turner, and K. C. Weathers (eds.). Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous Landscapes. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Turner, M. G., S. M. Pearson, P. Bolstad, and D. N. Wear. 2003. Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA). Landscape Ecology 18, 449–64.
Turner, M. G., W. H. Romme, D. B. Tinker, D. M. Kashian, and C. M. Litton. 2004. Landscape patterns of sapling density, leaf area, and aboveground net primary production in postfire lodgepole pine forests, Yellowstone National Park (USA). Ecosystems 7, 751–75.
Urban, N. H., S. M. Davis, and N. G. Aumen. 1993. Fluctuations in sawgrass and cattail densities in Everglades-Water-Conservation-Area-2a under varying nutrient, hydrologic and fire regimes. Aquatic Botany 46, 203–23.
van Dokkum, H. P., D. M. E. Slijkerman, L. Rossi, and M. L. Costantini. 2002. Variation in the decomposition of Phragmites australis litter in a monomictic lake: the role of gammarids. Hydrobiologia 482, 69–77.
Webster, K. E., T. K. Kratz, C. J. Bowser, J. J. Magnuson, and W. J. Rose. 1996. The influence of landscape position on lake chemical responses to drought in northern Wisconsin. Limnology and Oceanography 41, 977–84.
Drechsler, M., K. Frank, I. Hanski, R. B. O'Hara, and C. Wissel. 2003. Ranking metapopulation extinction risk: from patterns in data to conservation management decisions. Ecological Applications 13, 990–8.
Klinkhamer, P. G., T. J. de Jong, J. A. J. Metz, and J. Val. 1987. Life history tactics of annual organisms: the joint effects of dispersal and delayed germination. Theoretical Population Biology 32, 127–56.
Léon-Cortés, J. L., J. J. Lennon, and C. D. Thomas. 2003. Ecological dynamics of extinct species in empty habitat networks. 1. The role of habitat pattern and quantity, stochasticity and dispersal. Oikos 102, 449–64.
Lindenmayer, D. B., M. A. Burgman, H. R. Akçakaya, R. C. Lacy, and H. P. Possingham. 1995. A review of the generic computer programs ALEX, RAMAS-space and VORTEX for modelling the viability of wildlife metapopulations. Ecological Modelling 82, 161–74.
Topping, C. J. and K. D. Sunderland. 1994. A spatial population dynamics model for Lepthyphantes tenuis (Araneae: Linyphiidae) with some simulations of the spatial and temporal effects of farming operations and land-use. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 48, 203–17.
Walker, R. S., A. J. Novaro, and L. C. Branch. 2003. Effects of patch attributes, barriers, and distance between patches on the distribution of a rock-dwelling rodent (Lagidium viscacia). Landscape Ecology 18, 187–94.
Gardner, R. H., R. V. O'Neill, and M. G. Turner. 1993. Ecological implications of landscape fragmentation. Pages 208–226 in S. T. A. Pickett and M. J. McDonnell (eds.). Humans as Components of Ecosystems: The Ecology of Subtle Human Effects and Populated Areas. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Gardner, R. H., M. G. Turner, R. V. O'Neill, and S. Lavorel. 1992. Simulation of the scale-dependent effects of landscape boundaries on species persistence and dispersal. Pages 76–89 in M. M. Holland, P. G. Risser, and R. J. Naiman (eds.). The Role of Landscape Boundaries in the Management and Restoration of Changing Environments. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Hanski, I. and D. Simberloff. 1997. The metapopulation approach, its history, conceptual domain and application to conservation. Pages 5–26 in I. Hanski and M. E. Gilpin (eds.). Metapopulation Biology. New York: Academic Press.
Iverson, L. R., M. E. Dale, C. T. Scott, and A. Prasad. 1997. A GIS-derived integrated moisture index to predict forest composition and productivity of Ohio forests (USA). Landscape Ecology 12, 331–48.
Malhi, Y., P. Meir, and S. Brown. 2002. Forests, carbon and global climate. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 360, 1567–91.
Merriam, G., K. Henein, and K. Stuart-Smith. 1990. Landscape dynamic models. Pages 399–416 in M. G. Turner and R. H. Gardner (eds.). Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Tewksbury, J. J., D. J. Levey, N. M. Haddad, et al. 2002. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, 12923–6.
van Dorp, D., P. Schippers, and J. M. van Groenendael. 1997. Migration rates of grassland plants along corridors in fragmented landscapes assessed with a cellular automation model. Landscape Ecology 12, 39–50.
Allardt, E. 1969. Aggregate analysis: the problem of its informative value. Pages 41–51 in M. Dogan and S. Rokkan (eds.). Quantitative Ecological Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Allen, T. F. H., R. V. O'Neill, and T. W. Hoekstra. 1984. Interlevel Relations in Ecological Research and Management: Some Working Principles from Hierarchy Theory. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-110. Fort Collins, Co: Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Brown, J. H., V. K. Gupta, B.-L. Li, et al. 2002. The fractal nature of nature: Power laws, ecological complexity and biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London B) 357, 619–26.
Hall, O., G. J. Hay, A. Bouchard, and D. J. Marceau. 2004. Detecting dominant landscape objects through multiple scales: an integration of object-specific methods and watershed segmentation. Landscape Ecology 19, 59–76.
Kersebaum, K. C. and K.-O. Wenkel. 1998. Modelling water and nitrogen dynamics at three different spatial scales: influence of different data aggregation levels on simulation results. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 50, 313–19.
Levin, S. A. and S. W. Pacala. 1997. Theories of simplification and caling of spatially distributed processes. Pages 271–95 in D. Tilman and P. Kareiva (eds.). Spatial Ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Li, H. and J. Wu. 2005. Uncertainty and error analysis in ecological studies: an overview. In J. Wu, K. B. Jones, H. Li, and O. L. Loucks (eds.). Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology: Methods and Applications. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mertens, K. C., L. P. C. Verbeke, T. Westra, and R. R. De Wulf. 2004. Sub-pixel mapping and sub-pixel sharpening using neural network predicted wavelet coefficients. Remote Sensing of Environment 91, 225–36.
Miller, D. H. 1978. The factor of scale: ecosystem, landscape mosaic, and region. Pages 63–88 in K. A. Hammond, G. Macinio, and W. B. Fairchild (eds.). Sourcebook on the Environment: A Guide to the Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
O'Neill, R. V., R. H. Gardner, B. T. Milne, M. G. Turner, and B. Jackson. 1991. Heterogeneity and spatial hierarchies. Pages 85–96 in J. Kolasa and S. T. A. Pickett (eds.). Ecological Heterogeneity. New York: Springer-Verlag.
O'Neill, R. V. and A. W. King. 1998. Homage to St. Michael; or, why are there so many books on scale? Pages 3–15 in D. L. Peterson and V. T. Parker (eds.). Ecological Scale: Theory and Applications. New York: Columbia University Press.
Openshaw, S. and P. Taylor. 1979. A million or so correlation coefficients: three experiments on the modifiable areal unit problem. Pages 127–144 in N. Wrigley (ed.). Statistical Application in the Spatial Sciences. London: Qion.
Reynolds, J. F., D. W. Hilbert, and P. R. Kemp. 1993. Scaling ecophysiology from the plant to the ecosystem: a conceptual framework. Pages 127–40 in J. R. Ehleringer and C. B. Field (eds.). Scaling Physiological Processes: Leaf to Globe. San Diego: Academic Press.
Reynolds, J. F. and J. Wu. 1999. Do landscape structural and functional units exist? Pages 273–96 in J. D. Tenhunen and P. Kabat (eds.). Integrating Hydrology, Ecosystem Dynamics, and Biogeochemistry in Complex Landscapes. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schneider, D. C. 2001. Spatial allometry. Pages 113–53 in R. H. Gardner, W. M. Kemp, V. S. Kennedy, and J. E. Petersen (eds.). Scaling Relations in Experimental Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.
Withers, M. and V. Meentemeyer. 1999. Concepts of scale in landscape ecology. Pages 205–52 in J. M. Klopatek and R. H. Gardner (eds.). Landscape Ecological Analysis: Issues and Applications. New York: Springer.
Wrigley, N. 1994. Revisiting the modifiable areal unit problem and the ecological fallacy. Pages 1–35 in A. D. Cliff, P. R. Goulc, and A. G. Hoare (eds.). Festschrift for Peter Haggett. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wrigley, N., T. Holt, D. Steel, and M. Tranmer. 1996. Analyzing, modelling, and resolving the ecological fallacy. Pages 23–40 in P. Longley and M. Batty (eds.). Spatial Analysis: Modelling in a GIS Environment. Cambridge: GeoInformation International.
Boston, K. and P. Bettinger. 1999. An analysis of Monte Carlo integer programming, simulated annealing, and tabu search heuristics for solving spatial harvest scheduling problems. Forest Science 45, 292–301.
Calkin, D. E., C. A. Montgomery, N. H. Schumaker, et al. 2002. Developing a production possibility set of wildlife species persistence and timber harvest value. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32, 1329–42.
Conroy, M. J., Y. Cohen, F. C. James, Y. G. Matsinos, and M. B. A. 1995. Parameter estimation, reliability, and model improvement for spatially explicit models of animal populations. Ecological Applications 5, 17–19.
Fahrig, L. 1991. Simulation methods for developing general landscape-level hypotheses of single-species dynamics. Pages 416–42 in M. G. Turner and R. H. Gardner (eds.). Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Flather, C. H., K. R. Wilson, D. J. Dean, and W. C. McComb. 1997. Identifying gaps in conservation networks: of indicators and uncertainty in geographic-based analyses. Ecological Applications 7, 531–42.
Noon, B., K. McKelvey, and D. Murphy. 1997. Developing an analytical context for multispecies conservation planning. Pages 43–59 in S. T. A. Pickett, R. S. Ostfeld, M. Shachak, and G. E. Likens (eds.). The Ecological Basis of Conservation: Heterogeneity, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Possingham, H., I. Ball, and S. Andelman. 2000. Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. Pages 291–306 in S. Ferson and M. Burgman (eds.). Quantitative Methods for Conservation Biology. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Pressey, R. L., C. J. Humphries, C. R. Margules, R. I. Vane-Wright, and P. H. Williams. 1993. Beyond opportunism: key principles for systematic reserve selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8, 124–8.
Bastin, G. N., J. A. Ludwig, R. W. Eager, V. H. Chewings, and A. C. Liedloff. 2002. Indicators of landscape function: comparing patchiness metrics using remotely sensed data from rangelands. Ecological Indicators 1, 247–60.
Burrows, D. W. and B. Butler. 2001. Managing livestock to protect the aquatic resources of the Burdekin Catchment, North Queensland. Pages 95–101 in I. Rutherford, F. Sheldon, G. Brierley, and C. Kenyon (eds.). The Value of Healthy Streams, Proceedings of the Third Australian Stream Management Conference. Melbourne: Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology.
Douglas, M. M., S. A. Townsend, and P. S. Lake. 2003. Streams. Pages 59–78 in A. A. Andersen, G. D. Cook, and R. J. Williams (eds.). Fire in Tropical Savannas: the Kapalga Experiment. New York: Springer.
Karfs, R., R. Applegate, R. Fisher, et al. 2000. Regional land condition and trend assessment in tropical savannas. In Impacts on Biophysical Resources. National Land and Water Resources Audit. Canberra: Australian Government, Natural Heritage Trust Ministerial Board (http://audit.ea.gov.au/ANRA/rangelands/docs/project.html).
Landsberg, R. G., A. J. Ash, R. K. Shepard, and G. M. McKeon. 1998. Learning from history to survive in the future: management evolution on Trafalgar Station, northeast Queensland. Rangeland Journal 20, 104–18.
Liedloff, A. C., M. B. Coughenour, J. A. Ludwig, and R. Dyer. 2001. Modelling the trade-off between fire and grazing in a tropical savanna landscape, northern Australia. Environment International 27, 173–80.
Ludwig, J. A., G. N. Bastin, R. W. Eager, et al. 2000. Monitoring Australian rangeland sites using landscape function indicators and ground- and remote-based techniques. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 64, 167–78.
Ludwig, J. A., R. W. Eager, R. J. Williams, and L. M. Lowe. 1999. Declines in vegetation patches, plant diversity and grasshopper diversity near cattle watering points in the Victoria River District, northern Australia. Rangeland Journal 21, 135–49.
Ludwig, J. A., D. J. Tongway, G. N. Bastin, and C. James. 2004. Monitoring ecological indicators of rangeland functional integrity and their relationship to biodiversity at local to regional scales. Austral Ecology 29, 108–20.
Mott, J. J., J. Williams, M. H. Andrew, and A. Gillison. 1985. Australian savanna ecosystems. Pages 56–82 in J. C. Tothill and J. J. Mott (eds.). Ecology and Management of the World's Savannas. Canberra: Australian Academy of Science.
Pringle, H. J. R. 2002. Grazing Impacts in Rangelands: Assessment of Two Contrasting Landscape Types in Arid Western Australia from Different Land Management Practices. PhD Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Prosser, I. P., I. D. Rutherford, J. M. Olley, et al. 2001. Large-scale patterns of erosion and sediment transport in river networks, with examples from Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 52, 81–99.
Tongway, D. J. and J. A. Ludwig. 1997. The conservation of water and nutrients within landscapes. Pages 13–22 in J. A. Ludwig, D. T. Tongway, D. O. Freudenberger, J. C. Noble, and K. C. Hodgkinson (eds.). Landscape Ecology, Function and Management: Principles from Australia's Rangelands. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
TS-CRC. 2000. A review of pastoral monitoring programs and their real and potential contribution to biodiversity monitoring. In Background Paper 2, Rangelands Monitoring: Developing an Analytical Framework for Monitoring Biodiversity in Australia's Rangelands. Tropical Savannas Cooperative Research Centre (TS-CRC) for the National Land and Water Resources Audit. Canberra: Australian Government, Natural Heritage Trust Ministerial Board (http://audit.ea.gov.au/ANRA/rangelands/docs/change/BP02.pdf).
Wallace, J. F. and N. A. Campbell. 1998. Evaluation of the Feasibility of Remote Sensing for Monitoring National State of the Environment Indicators. State of the Environment Technical Paper Series. Canberra: Australian Government Department of the Environment.
Whitehead, P. J., J. Woinarski, P. Jacklyn, D. Fell, and D. Williams. 2000. Defining and Measuring the Health of Savanna Landscapes: a North Australian Perspective. Darwin: Tropical Savannas Cooperative Research Centre, Charles Darwin University.
Wilson, B. A., V. J. Neldner, and A. Accad. 2002. The extent and status of remnant vegetation in Queensland and its implications for statewide vegetation management and legislation. Rangeland Journal 24, 6–35.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., A. N. Andersen, T. B. Churchill, and A. J. Ash. 2002. Response of ant and terrestrial spider assemblages to pastoral and military land use, and to landscape position, in a tropical savanna woodland in northern Australia. Austral Ecology 27, 324–33.
Agarwal, C., G. M. Green, J. M. Grove, T. P. Evans, and C. M. Schweik. 2002. A Review and Assessment of Land-Use Change Models: Dynamics of Space, Time, and Human Choice. General Technical Report NE-297. Newtown Square, PA: USDA, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.
Brandt, J. and H. Vejre. 2004. Multifunctional landscapes: motives, concepts and perceptions. Pages 3–32 in J. Brandt and H. Vejre (eds.). Multifunctional Landscapes: Theory, Values and History. Vol. I. Southampton: WIT Press.
Hägerstrand, T. 1995. A Look at the Political Geography of Environmental Management. Landscape and Life: Appropriate Scales for Sustainable Development, LASS Working Paper No.17. Dublin: University College Dublin.
Litkowski, K. C. 1999. Towards a meaning-full comparison of lexical resources. In Proceedings of the Association for Computational Linguistics Special Interest Group on the Lexicon, June 21–22, College Park, Maryland (http://www.clres.com/Comparison_of_Lexical_Resources.html).
Miller, M. M. and B. P. Riechert. 1994. Identifying themes via concept mapping: a new method of content analysis. In Communication Theory and Methodology Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia (http://excellent.com.utk.edu/~mmmiller/pestmaps.txt).
Olwig, K. R. 2004. “This is not a landscape”: circulating reference and land shaping. Pages 41–66 in H. Palang, H. Sooväli, M. Antrop, and S. Setten (eds.). European Rural Landscapes: Persistence and Change in a Globalising Environment. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Steinitz, C. 2001. Landscape ecology and landscape planning: links and gaps and common dilemmas. Pages 48–50 in U. Mander, A. Printsmann, and H. Palang (eds.). Development of European Landscapes. Tartu: Publicationes Instituti Geographici Universitatis Tartuensis.
Andelman, S. J., I. Ball, F. W. Davis, and D. M. Stoms. 1999. SITES V 1.0: an Analytical Toolbox for Designing Ecoregional Conservation Portfolios. Unpublished manual prepared for the nature conservancy. (available at http://www.biogeog.ucsb.edu/projects/tnc/toolbox.html).
Austin, J. M., B. G. Mackey, and K. P. van Niel. 2003. Estimating forest biomass using satellite radar: an exploratory study in a temperate Australian Eucalyptus forest. Forest Ecology and Management 176, 575–83.
Bowman, D. M. J. S., O. Price, P. J. Whitehead, and A. Walsh. 2001. The “wilderness effect” and the decline of Callitris intratropica on the Arnhem Land Plateau, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 49, 665–72.
Catchpole, W. 2002. Fire properties and burn patterns in heterogeneous landscapes. Pages 49–75 in R. A. Bradstock, J. E. Williams, and A. M. Gill (eds.). Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dobson, D., K. Ralls, M. Foster, et al. 1999. Reconnecting fragmented landscapes. Pages 129–70 in M. E. Soulé and J. Terborgh (eds.). Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations for Regional Conservation Networks. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Drake, V. A., P. C. Gregg, I. T. Harman, et al. 2001. Characterizing insect migration systems in inland Australia with novel and traditional methodologies. Pages 207–34 in I. P. Woiwood, D. R. Reynolds, and C. D. Thomas (eds.). Insect Movement: Mechanisms and Consequences. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.
Friedel, M. H., B. D. Foran, and D. M. Stafford Smith. 1990. Where the creeks run dry or ten feet high: pastoral management in arid Australia. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16, 185–94.
GBRMPA. 2003. Explanatory Statement, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan 2003. Australian Government, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (http://www.reefed.edu.au/rap/pdf/ES_25-11-03.pdf).
Gill, A. M. and J. E. Williams. 1996. Fire regimes and biodiversity: the effects of fragmentation of southeastern eucalypt forests by urbanization, agriculture and pine plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 85, 261–78.
Hobbs, R. J. 2002b. Fire regimes and their effects in Australian temperate woodlands. Pages 305–26 in R. Bradstock, J. E. Williams, and A. M. Gill (eds.). Flammable Australia: Fire Regimes and the Biodiversity of a Continent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hobbs, R. J., D. A. Saunders, and A. R. Main. 1993. Conservation management in fragmented systems. Pages 279–96 in R. J. Hobbs and D. A. Saunders (eds.). Reintegrating Fragmented Landscapes: Towards Sustainable Production and Nature Conservation. New York: Springer.
Keith, D., J. E. Williams, and J. Woinarski. 2002. Fire management and biodiversity conservation – key approaches and principles. Pages 401–428 in R. A. Bradstock, J. E. Williams, and A. M. Gill (eds.). Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Landsberg, J. J. and R. H. Waring. 1997. A generalized model of forest productivity using simplified concepts of radiation-use efficiency, carbon balance and partitioning. Forest Ecology and Management 95, 209–28.
Lewis, D. 2002. Slower Than the Eye Can See: Environmental Change in Northern Australia's Cattle Lands: A Case Study from the Victoria River District, Northern Territory. Darwin: Tropical Savannas Cooperative Research Centre.
Mackey, B. G., H. A. Nix, M. F. Hutchinson, J. P. McMahon, and P. M. Fleming. 1988. Assessing representativeness of places for conservation reservation and heritage listing. Environmental Management 12, 501–14.
Morton, S. R., D. M. Stafford Smith, M. H. Friedel, G. F. Griffin, and G. Pickup. 1995. The stewardship of arid Australia: ecology and landscape management. Journal of Environmental Management 43, 195–218.
Nix, H. A. 1974. Environmental control of breeding, post-breeding dispersal and migration of birds in the Australian region. Pages 272–305 in H. J. Frith and J. A. Calaby (eds.). Proceedings of the XVI International Ornithological Congress. Canberra: Australian Academy of Sciences.
Nix, H. A., D. P. Faith, M. F. Hutchinson, et al. 2001. The Biorap Toolbox: A National Study of Biodiversity Assessment and Planning for Papua New Guinea. Canberra: The Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, The Australian National University.
Noss, R. F., C. Carroll, K. Vance-Borland, and G. Wuerthner. 2002. A multicriteria assessment of the irreplaceability and vulnerability of sites in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Conservation Biology 16, 895–908.
NTK. 2003. Developing a National Biodiversity and Climate Change Action Plan. National Task Group on the Management of Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity. Canberra: Australian Government, Department of Environment and Heritage.
Palmer, C. and J. C. Z. Woinarski. 1999. Seasonal roosts and foraging movements of the black flying fox Pteropus alecto in the Northern Territory: resource tracking in a landscape mosaic. Wildlife Research 26, 823–38.
Paton, D. C., A. M. Prescott, R. J. Davies, and L. M. Heard. 2000. The distribution, status and threats to temperate woodlands in South Australia. Pages 57–85 in R. J. Hobbs and C. J. Yates (eds.). Temperate Eucalypt Woodlands in Australia: Biology, Conservation, Management and Restoration. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.
Possingham, H. P., Andelman, S. J., Noon, B. R., Trombulak, S. and Pulliam, H. R. 2001. Making smart conservation decisions. Pages 225–44 in G. Orians and M. Soule (eds.). Research Priorities for Conservation Biology. Covelo: Island Press.
Possingham, H. P., I. R. Ball, and S. Andelman. 2000. Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. Pages 291–306 in S. Ferson and M. Burgman (eds.). Quantitative Methods for Conservation Biology. New York: Springer.
Price, O. and D. M. J. S. Bowman. 1994. Fire-stick forestry: a matrix model in support of skillful fire management of Callitris intratropica R. T. Baker by north Australian Aborigines. Journal of Biogeography 21, 573–80.
Russell-Smith, J., P. G. Ryan, D. Klessa, G. Waight, and R. Harwood. 1998. Fire regimes, fire-sensitive vegetation and fire management of the sandstone Arnhem Plateau, monsoonal northern Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 35, 829–46.
Shapcott, A. 2000. Conservation and genetics in the fragmented monsoon rainforest in the Northern Territory, Australia: a case study of three frugivore dispersed species. Australian Journal of Botany 48, 397–407.
Singleton, P. H., W. Gaines, and J. F. Lehmkuhl. 2001. Using weighted distance and least-cost corridor analysis to evaluate regional-scale large carnivore habitat connectivity in Washington. Pages 583–94 in The Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, Keystone, CO. September 24–27.
Starr, B. J., R. J. Wasson, and G. Caitcheon. 1999. Soil Erosion, Phosphorous and Dryland Salinity in the Upper Murrumbidgee: Past Changes and Current Findings. “Pine Gully,” Wagga, NSW, Australia: Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Committee.
Terborgh, J., J. A. Estes, P. C. Paquet, et al. 1999. Role of top carnivores in regulating terrestrial ecosystems. Pages 39–64 in M. E. Soulé and J. Terborgh (eds.). Continental Conservation: Design and Management Principles for Long-term, Regional Conservation Networks. Washington DC: Island Press.
Woinarski, J., P. Whitehead, D. Bowman, and J. Russell-Smith. 1992. Conservation of mobile species in a variable environment: the problem of reserve design in the Northern Territory, Australia. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 2, 1–10.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., D. J. Milne, and G. Wanganeen. 2001. Changes in mammal populations in relatively intact landscapes of Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia. Austral Ecology 26, 360–70.
World Resources Institute. 2001. World Resources 2000–2001. People and Ecosystems. United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and World Resources Institute.
Yibarbuk, D., P. J. Whitehead, J. Russell-Smith, et al. 2001. Fire ecology and Aboriginal land management in central Arnhem Land, northern Australia: a tradition of ecosystem management. Journal of Biogeography 28, 325–44.
Bowman, D. M. J. S. and C. J. Robinson. 2002. The getting of the Nganabbarru: observations and reflections on Aboriginal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hunting in Northern Australia. Australian Geographer 33, 191–206.
Bowman, D. M. J. S., Y. Zhang, A. Walsh, and R. J. Williams. 2003. Experimental comparison of four remote sensing techniques to map tropical savanna fire-scars using Landsat-TM imagery. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12, 3–4.
Christian, C. S. and G. A. Stewart. 1953. General Report on Survey of Katherine-Darwin Region, 1946. CSIRO Land Research Series No. 1. Melbourne: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.
Lynch, A. J. J. and V. J. Neldner. 2000. Problems of placing boundaries on ecological continua: options for a workable national rainforest definition in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 48, 511–30.
Price, O., J. C. Z. Woinarski, D. Liddle, and J. Russell-Smith. 1995. Patterns of species composition and reserve design for a fragmented estate: monsoon rainforests in the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation 74, 9–19.
Russell-Smith, J., C. Yates, A. Edwards, et al. 2004. Contemporary fire regimes of northern Australia, 1997–2001: change since Aboriginal occupancy, challenges for sustainable management. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12, 283–97.
Whitehead, P. J., J. C. Z. Woinarski, D. Franklin, and O. Price. 2002. Landscape ecology, wildlife management and conservation in northern Australia: linking policy, practice and capability in regional planning. Pages 227–59 in J. Bissonette and I. Storch (eds.). Landscape Ecology and Resource Management: Linking Theory with Practice. New York: Island Press.
Woinarski, J. C. Z. 1996. Application of a taxon priority system for conservation planning by selecting areas which are most distinct from environments already reserved. Biological Conservation 76, 147–59.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., P. J. Whitehead, D. M. J. S. Bowman, and J. Russell-Smith. 1992. Conservation of mobile species in a variable environment: the problem of reserve design in the Northern Territory, Australia. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 2, 1–10.
Yibarbuk, D. M., P. J. Whitehead, J. Russell-Smith, et al. 2001. Fire ecology and Aboriginal land management in central Arnhem Land, northern Australia: a tradition of ecosystem management. Journal of Biogeography 28, 325–43.
Ahern, J. 1999. Spatial concepts: planning strategies and future scenarios: a framework method for integrating landscape ecology and landscape planning. Pages 175–201 in J. Klopatek and R. Gardner (eds.). Landscape Ecological Analysis. New York: Springer.
Etienne, R. S., C. J. F. Ter Braak, and C. C. Vos. 2004. Application of stochastic patch occupancy models to real metapopulations. Pages 105–32 in I. Hanski and O. E. Gaggiiotti (eds.). Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution of Metapopulations. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.
Lambeck, R. J. and R. J. Hobbs. 2002. Landscape and regional planning for conservation. Pages 360–80 in K. J. Gutzwiller (ed.). Applying Landscape Ecology in Biological Conservation. New York: Springer.
Ovaskainen, O. and I. Hanski. 2004. Metapopulation dynamics in highly fragmented landscapes. Pages 73–104 in I. Hanski and O. E. Gaggiiotti (eds.). Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution of Metapopulations. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.
Verboom, J., R. Foppen, P. Chardon, P. Opdam, and P. Luttikhuizen. 2001. Introducing the key-patch approach for habitat networks with persistent populations: an example for marshland birds. Biological Conservation 100, 89–101.
Vos, C. C., H. Baceco, and C. J. Grashof-Bokdam. 2002. Corridors and species dispersal. Pages 84–104 in K. J. Gutzwiller (ed.). Applying Landscape Ecology in Biological Conservation. New York: Springer.
Fry, G. L. A. 1991. Conservation in agricultural ecosystems. Pages 415–43 in I. F. Spellerberg, F. B. Goldsmith, and M. G. Morris (eds.). The Scientific Management of Temperate Communities for Nature Conservation. London: Blackwell.
Fry, G. L. A. 2003. From objects to landscapes in natural and cultural heritage management: a role for landscape interfaces. Pages 237–53 in H. Palang and G. Fry (eds.). Landscape Interfaces: Cultural Heritage in Changing Landscapes. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Jakobsen, C. H., T. Hels, and W. J. McLaughlin. 2004. Barriers and facilitators to integration among scientists in transdisciplinary landscape analysis: a cross country comparison. Forest Policy and Economics 6, 15–31.
Sarlöv-Herlin, I. and G. Fry. 2000. Dispersal of woody plants in forest edges and hedgerows in a Southern Swedish agricultural area: the role of site and landscape structure. Landscape Ecology 15, 229–42.
Smoliner, C., R. Häberli, and M. Welti. 2001. Mainstreaming transdisciplinarity: a research-political campaign. Pages 263–71 in J. T. Klein, W. Grossenbacher-Mansu, R. Häberli, A. Bill, R. W. Scholz, and M. Welti (eds.). Transdisciplinarity: Joint Problem Solving among Science, Technology, and Society. Basel: Birkhäuser.
Tress, B. and G. Tress. 2002. Disciplinary and meta-disciplinary approaches in landscape ecology. Pages 25–37 in O. Bastian and U. Steinhardt (eds.). Development and Perspectives in Landscape Ecology. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Tress, G., B. Tress, and G. Fry. 2003b. Knowledge creation and reflection in integrative and participatory projects. Pages 14–24 in G. Tress, B. Tress, and M. Bloemmen (eds.). From Tacit to Explicit Knowledge in Integrative and Participatory Research. Wageningen: Delta Series 3.
Winder, N. 2003. Successes and problems when conducting interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary (= integrative) research. Pages 74–90 in B. Tress, G. Tress, A. V.d. Valk, and G. Fry (eds.). Interdisciplinarity and Transdisciplinarity in Landscape Studies: Potential and Limitations. Wageningen: Delta Series 2.
Ahern, J. 1999. Integration of landscape ecology and landscape design: an evolutionary process. Pages 119–23 in J. A. Wiens and M. R. Moss (eds.). Issues in Landscape Ecology. Snowmass Village: International Association for Landscape Ecology.
Forman, R. T. T. 1981. Interaction among landscape elements: a core of landscape ecology. Pages 35–48 in S. P. Tjallingii and A. A. de Veer (eds.). Perspectives in Landscape Ecology: Contributions to Research, Planning and Management of Our Environment. Wageningen: Pudoc.
Forman, R. T. T. 1990. The beginnings of landscape ecology in America. Pages 35–41 in I. S. Zonneveld and R. T. T. Forman (eds.). Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Moss, M. R. 1999. Fostering academic and institutional activities in landscape ecology. Pages 138–44 in J. A. Wiens and M. R. Moss (eds.). Issues in Landscape Ecology. Snowmass Village: International Association for Landscape Ecology.
Wiens, J. A. 1999. Toward a unified landscape ecology. Pages 148–51 in J. A. Wiens and M. R. Moss (eds.). Issues in Landscape Ecology. Snowmass Village: International Association for Landscape Ecology.