7 - Large herbivores: missing partners of western European light‐demanding tree and shrub species?  pp. 203-231

Large herbivores: missing partners of western European light‐demanding tree and shrub species?

By Frans W. M. Vera, Elisabeth S. Bakker and Han Olff
Aaris‐Sørensen, K. (1980). Depauperation of the mammalian fauna of the island of Zealand during the Atlantic period. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, 142, 131–8.
Abrams, M. D. & Seischab, F. K. (1997). Does the absence of sediment charcoal provide substantial evidence against the fire and oak hypothesis? Journal of Ecology, 85, 373–5.
Abrams, M. D. (1992). Fire and the development of oak forests. BioScience, 42, 346–53.
Abrams, M. D. (1996). Distribution, historical development and ecophysiological attributes of oak species in the eastern United States. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 53, 487–512.
Abrams, M. D. (2002). The postglacial history of oak forests in eastern North America. In Oak Forests Ecosystems: Ecology and Management for Wildlife, ed. W. J. McShea & W. M. Healy. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 34–45.
Abrams, M. D. (2003). Where has all the white oak gone? BioScience, 53, 927–39.
Agusti, J. & Anton, M. (2002). Mammoths, Sabertooth's, and Hominids. New York: Columbia University Press.
Alexander, K. N. A. (1998). The links between forest history and biodiversity: the invertebrate fauna of ancient pasture‐woodlands in Britain and its conservation. In The Ecological History of European Forests, ed. K. J. Kirby & C. Watkins. Wallingford: CAB International, pp. 73–80.
Arthur, M. A., Paratley, R. D. & Blankenship, B. A. (1998). Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak‐pine forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 125, 225–36.
Bär, J. (1914). Die flora des Val Onsernone. Mitteilungen aus dem botanischen Museum der Universität Zürich, 59, 223–563.
Bakker, E. S., Olff, H., Vandenberghe, C., De Maeyer, K., Smit, R., Gleichman, J. M. and Vera, F. W. M. (2004). Ecological anachronisms in the recruitment of temperate light‐demanding tree species in wooded pastures. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 571–82.
Barlow, C. (2000). The Ghosts of Evolution: Nonsensical Fruit, Missing Partners, and Other Ecological Anachronisms. New York: Basic Books.
Belostokov, G. P. (1980). Morphogenesis of Tilia cordata Mill.; bush‐shaped regrowth. Lesoved, 6, 53–9.
Bezacinský, H. (1971). Das Hainbuchenproblem in der Slowakei. Acta Facultatis Forestalis, 8, 7–36.
Bink, F. A. (1992). Ecologische Atlas van de Dagvlinders van Noordwest‐Europa. Haarlem: Instituut voor Bos‐ en Natuuronderzoek en Unie van Provinciale Landschappen, Schuyt & Co.
Bokdam, J. (1987). Foerageergedrag van jongvee in het Junner Koeland in relatie tot het voedselaanbod. In Begrazing in de natuur, ed. S. de Bie, W. Joenje & S. E. van Wieren. Wageningen: Pudoc, pp. 165–86.
Bokdam, J. (2003). Nature Conservation and Grazing Management. Free‐Ranging Cattle as Driving Force for Cyclic Vegetation Succession. Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen.
Bonnemann, A. (1956a). Eichen‐Buchen mischbestände. Allgemeine Forst‐ und Jagdzeitung, 127, 33–42.
Bonnemann, A. (1956b). Eichen‐Buchen mischbestände. Allgemeine Forst‐ und Jagdzeitung, 127, 118–26.
Borowski, S. & Kossak, S. (1972). The natural food preferences of the European bison in seasons free of snow cover. Acta Theriologica, 17, 151–69.
Bossema, J. (1979). Jays and Oaks: An Eco‐Ethological Study of a Symbiosis. Ph.D. thesis, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen. (Also published in Behaviour, 70,: 1–117.)
Bradshaw, R. H. W., Hannon, G. E. & Lister, A. M. (2003). A long‐term perspective on ungulate‐vegetation interactions. Forest Ecology and Mangement, 181, 267–80.
Britton, N. L. & Brown, H. A. (1947). An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Posessions, Volume II. New York: New York Botanical Garden.
Brookes, P. C., Wigston, D. L. & Bourne, W. F. (1980). The dependence of Quercus robur and Q. petraea seedlings on cotyledon potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus during the first year of growth. Forestry, 53, 167–77.
Brose, P. H., Van Lear, D. H. & Keyser, P. D. (1999). A shelterwood‐burn technique for regenerating productive upland oak sites in the Piedmont region. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 23, 158–63.
Broström, A., Gaillard, M.‐J., Ihnse, M. & Odgaard, B. (1998). Pollen‐landscape relationships in modern analogues of ancient cultural landscapes in southern Sweden – a first step towards quantification of vegetation openness in the past. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 7, 189–201.
Burrichter, E., Pott, R., Raus, T. & Wittig, R. (1980). Die Hudelandschaft ‘Borkener Paradies’ im Emstal bei Meppen. Abhandlungen aus den Landesmuseum für Naturkunde zu Münster in Westfalen. Münster 42. Jahrgang 4.
Buttenschøn, J. & Buttenschøn, R. M. (1978). The effect of browsing by cattle and sheep on trees and bushes. Natura Jutlandica, 20, 79–94.
Buttenschøn, J. & Buttenschøn, R. M. (1985). Grazing experiments with cattle and sheep on nutrient poor, acidic grassland and heath. IV. Establishment of woody species. Natura Jutlandica, 21, 47–140.
Callaway, R. M., Kikvidze, Z. & Kikodze, D. (2000). Facilitation by unpalatable weeds may conserve plant diversity in overgrazed meadows in the Caucasus Mountains. Oikos, 89, 275–82.
Chettleburgh, M. R. (1952). Observations on the collection and burial of acorns by jays in Hinault Forest. British Birds, 45, 359–64. Also further note (1955); 48, 183–4.
Christensen, N. L. (1977). Changes in structure, pattern, and diversity associated with climax forest maturation in Piedmont, North Carolina. American Midland Naturalist, 97, 176–88.
Clark, J. S. & Royall, P. D. (1995). Transformation of a northern hardwood forest by aboriginal (Iroquois) fire: charcoal evidence from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The Holocene, 5, 1–9.
Clark, J. S. (1997). Facing short‐term extrapolation with long‐term evidence: Holocene fire in the north‐eastern US forests. Journal of Ecology, 85, 377–80.
Clark, J. S. Royall, P. D. & Chumbley, C. (1996). The role of fire during climate change in an eastern deciduous forest at Devil's Bathtub, New York. Ecology, 77, 2148–66.
Coops, H. (1988). Occurrence of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) in the area of Mols Bjerge and the effect of cattle‐ and sheep‐grazing on its growth. Nature Jutlandica, 9, 169–76.
Coppins, A., Coppins, B. & Quelch, P. (2002). Atlantic hazelwoods. Some observations on the ecology of this neglected habitat from a lichenological perspective. British Wildlife, 14, 17–26.
Covington, W. W. & Moore, M. M. (1994). Southwestern Ponderosa forest structure. Changes since Euro‐American settlement. Journal of Forestry, 92, 39–47.
Cramp, S. (ed.) (1988). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palaearctic, Vol. V. Tyrant Flycatchers to Thrushes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cramp, S. (ed.) (1992). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palaearctic, Vol. VI. Warblers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cronon, W. (1983). Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang.
Crow, T. R., Johnson, W. C. & Atkinson, C. S. (1994). Fire and recruitment of Quercus in a postagricultural field. American Midland Naturalist, 131, 84–97.
Dagenbach, H. (1981). Der Speierling, ein seltener Baum in unseren Wäldern und Obstgärten. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift, 36, 214–17.
Darlington, A. (1974). The galls on oak. In The British Oak: Its History and Natural History, ed. M. G. Morris & F. H. Perring. Berkshire: The Botanical Society of the British Isles, E. W. Classey, pp. 298–311.
Davis, S. J. M. (1987). The Archeology of Animals. London: B. T. Batsford.
Day, D. (1989). Vanished Species. New York: Gallery Books.
Day, G. M. (1953). The Indian as an ecological factor in the northeastern forest. Ecology, 34, 329–46.
Delcourt, H. R. & Delcourt, P. A. (1991). Quaternary Ecology: A Paleoecological Perspective. London: Chapman and Hall.
Dey, D. (2002). Fire history and postsettlement disturbance. In Oak Forests Ecosystems: Ecology and Management for Wildlife, ed. W. J. McShea & W. M. Healy. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 60–79.
Dierschke, H. (1974). Saumgesellschaften im Vegetations‐ und Standortsgefälle an Waldrändern. Scripta Geobotanica, 6, 3–246.
Dinnin, M. H. & Sadler, J. P. (1999). 10 000 years of change: the Holocene entomofauna of the British Isles. Quaternary Proceedings, 7, 545–62.
Dobson, A. & Crawley, M. (1994). Pathogens and the structure of plant communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 303–98.
Dupré, S., Thiébaut, S. & Teissier du Cros, E. (1986). Morphologie et architecture des jeunes hêtres (Fagus sylvatica L.). Influence du milieu, variabilité génétique. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 43, 85–102.
Eichhorn (1927). Waldbauliche Erfahrungen in den Hardtwaldungen des unteren Rheintales. Allgemeine Forst‐ und Jagdzeitung, 103, 169–85.
Ekstam, U. & Sjögren, E. (1973). Studies on past and present changes in deciduous forest vegetation on Öland. Zoon (Uppsala) Suppl, 1, 123–35.
Ellenberg, H. (1988). Vegetation Ecology of Central Europe. 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Emborg, J., Christensen, M. & Heilmann‐Clausen, J. (1996). The structure of Suserup Skov. A near‐natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark. Forest and Landscape Research, 1, 311–33.
Falinski, J. B. (1986). Vegetation Dynamics in Temperate Lowland Primaeval Forests. Ecological studies in Bialowieza forest, Geobotany 8. Dordrecht: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.
Felius, M. (1995). Cattle Breeds. An Encyclopedia. Doetinchem: Misset.
Flower, N. (1977). An historical and ecological study of inclosed and uninclosed woods in the New Forest, Hampshire. M.Sc. thesis, King's College, University of London.
Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B (2002). Dynamics of old‐growth oak forests in eastern United States. In Oak Forests Ecosystems: Ecology and Management for Wildlife, W. J. McShea & W. M. Healy. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 113–26.
Fritzbøger, B. & Emborg, J. (1996). Landscape history of the deciduous forest Suserup Skov, Denmark, before 1925. Forest and Landscape Research, 1, 291–309.
Gaillard, M.‐J., Birks, H. J. B., Ihse, M. & Runberg, S. (1998). Pollen/landscape calibration based on modern pollen assemblages from surface‐sediments samples and landscape mapping – a pilot study in south Sweden. In Quantification of Land Surfaces Cleared of Forest During the Holocene‐Modern Pollen/Vegetation/Landscape Relationships as an Aid to the Interpretation of Pollen Data. Paläoklimaforschung/Palaeoclimate Research 7, 31–52.
Goriup, P. D., Batten, L. A. & Norton, J. A. (eds.) (1991). The conservation of lowland dry grassland birds in Europe. Proceedings of an International Seminar held at the University of Reading, 20–22 March 1991. Peterborough: Joint Nature Committee.
Green, T. (1992). The forgotten army. British Wildlife, 4, 85–6.
Guintard, G. & Tardy, F. (1994). Les bovins de l'Île Amsterdam. Un example d'isolement génétique. In Aurochs. Le retour. Aurochs, vaches et autres bovins de la préhistoire à nos jours ed. L. Bailly & A.‐S. Cohën. Lons‐le‐Saunier Centre Jurassien du Patrimoine, pp. 203–9.
Hannon, G. E., Bradshaw, R. & Emborg, J. (2000). 6000 years of forest dynamics in Suserup Skov, a semi‐natural Danish woodland. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 9, 101–14.
Harding, P. T. & Rose, F. (1986). Pasture‐Woodlands in Lowland Britain. A Review of their Importance for Wildlife Conservation. Huntingdon: Natural Environment Research Council, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology.
Hart, G. E. (1966). Royal Forests. A History of Dean's Woods as Producers of Timber. London: Clarendon Press.
Hauskeller‐Bullerjahn, K., von Lüpke, B., Hauskeller, H.‐M. & Dong, P. H. (2000). Versuch zur natürlichen Verjüngung der Traubeneiche im Pfälzerwald. AFZ/DerWald, 10, 514–17.
Heukels, H. & Van der Meijden, R. (1983). Flora van Nederland. Groningen: Wolters‐Noordhoff.
Hibbs, D. E. (1983). Forty years of forest succession in central New England. Ecology, 64, 1394–401.
Hofmann, R. R. (1973). The Ruminant Stomach: Stomach Structure and Feeding Habits of East African Game Ruminants. Nairobi, Kenya: East African Literature Bureau.
Hofmann, R. R. (1976). Zur adaptiven Differenzierung der Wiederkäuer: Untersuchungsergebnisse auf der Basis der Vergleichenden funktionellen Anatomie des Verdauungstrakts. Praktische Tierärtzt, 57, 351–58.
Hofmann, R. R. (1985). Digestive physiology of the deer. Their morphophysiological specialisation and adaptation. The Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin, 22, 393–407.
Hondong, H., Langner, S. & Coch, T. (1993). Untersuchungen zum Naturschutz an Waldrändern. Bristol‐Schriftenreihe, Band 2, Bristol‐Stiftung, Ruth und Herbert UHL ‐ Forschungsstelle für Natur‐ und Umweltschutz.
Houtzagers, M., Neutel, W., Rosseel, A. & Swart, B. (2000). Fontainebleau (re)visited. Effect van storm in bosreservaat in Fontainebleau. Nederlands Bosbouw Tijdschrift, 72, 228–33.
Huddle, J. A. & Pallardy, S. G. (1996). Effects of long‐term annual and periodic burning on tree survival and growth in a Missouri Ozark oak‐hickory forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 82, 1–9.
Huntley, B. & Birks, H. J. B. (1983). An Atlas of Past and Present Pollen Maps of Europe: 0–13 000 Years Ago. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Hytteborn, H. (1986). Methods of forest dynamics research. In Forest Dynamics Research in Western and Central Europe. ed. I. Fanta. Wageningen: Pudoc, pp. 17–31.
Iason, G. R. & Alison, H. (1993). The response of heather (Calluna vulgaris) to shade and nutrients – predictions of the carbon‐nutrient balance hypothesis. Journal of Ecology, 81, 75–80.
Iversen, J. (1960). Problems of the early post‐glacial forest development in Denmark. Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse, IV. Raekke Bd. 4, 3 (Geological Survey of Denmark. IV Series, 4, 3).
Jahn, G. (1991). Temperate deciduous forests of Europe. In Temperate Deciduous Forests, ed. R. Röhrig & B. Ulrich. Ecosystems of the World, 7. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 377–503.
Janzen, D. H. & Martin, P. S. (1982). Neotropical anachronisms: the fruits the gomphoteres ate. Science, 215, 19–27.
Jarvis, P. G. (1964). The adaptability to light intensity of seedlings of Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. Journal of Ecology, 52, 545–71.
Jensen, T. S. & Nielsen, O. F. (1986). Rodents as seed dispersers in a heath–oak wood succession. Oecologia, 70, 214–21.
Kollmann, J. & Schill, H.‐P. (1996). Spatial patterns of dispersal, seed predation and germination during colonization of abandoned grassland by Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana. Vegetatio, 125, 193–205.
Krahl‐Urban, J. (1959). Die Eichen. Forstliche Monographie der Traubeneiche und der Stieleiche. Berlin: Paul Parey.
Lemée, G. (1978). La hêtraie naturalle de Fontainbleau. In Problèmes d'ecologie: structure et functionnement des écosystemes terrestres, ed. M. Lamotte & F. Boresliène. Paris: Masson, pp. 75–128.
Lemée, G. (1987). Les populations de chênes (Quercus petraea Liebl.) des réserves biologiques de La Tillaie et du Gros Fouteau en forêt de Fontainebleau: structure, démographie et évolution. Revue d'Ecologie, 42, 329–55.
Lemée, G., Faille, A., Pontailler, J. Y. & Roger, J. M. (1992). Hurricanes and regeneration in a natural beech forest. In Responses of Forest Ecosystems to Environmental Changes, ed. A. Teller, P. Malthy & J.N.R. Jeffers. London & New York: Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 987–8.
Malmer, N. Lindgren, K. & Persson, S. (1978). Vegetational succession in a south‐Swedish deciduous wood. Vegetatio, 36, 17–29.
Marks, J. B. (1942). Land use and plant succession in Coon Valley, Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs, 12, 113–33.
Mayer, H. & Tichy, K. (1979). Das Eichen‐Naturschutzgebiet Johannser Kogel im Lainzer Tiergarten, Wienerwald. Centralblatt für das Gesamte Forstwesen, 4, 193–226.
McCarthy, B. C., Small, J. C. & Rubino, D. L. (2001). Composition, structure and dynamics of Dysart Woods, an old‐growth mixed mesophytic forest of southeastern Ohio. Forest Ecology and Management, 140, 193–213.
McCune, B. & Cottam, G. (1985). The successional status of a southern Wisconsin oak wood. Ecology, 66, 1270–78.
McHugh, T. (1972). The Time of the Buffalo. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Milchunas, D. G. & Noy‐Meir, I. (2002). Grazing refuges, external avoidance of herbivory and plant diversity. Oikos, 99, 113–30.
Milewski, A. V., Young, T. P. & Madden, D. (1991). Thorns as induced defences: experimental evidence. Oecologia, 86, 70–5.
Morris, M. G. (1974). Oak as a habitat for insect life. In The British Oak: Its History and Natural History, ed. M. G. Morris & F. H. Perring. Berkshire: The Botanical Society of the British Isles, E. W. Classey, pp. 274–97.
Moss, C. E. (1913). Vegetation of the Peak District. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mountford, E. P. & Peterken, G. (2003). Long‐term change and implications for the management of wood‐pastures: experience over 40 years from Denny Wood, New Forest. Forestry, 76, 19–43.
Mountford, E. P., Peterken, G. F., Edwards, P. J. & Manners, J. G. (1999). Long‐term change in growth, mortality and regeneration of trees in Denny Wood, an old‐growth wood‐pasture in the New Forest (UK). Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 2, 223–72.
Namvar, K. & Spethmann, W. (1985). Waldbaumarten aus der Gattung Ulmus (Ulme, Rüster). Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift, 40, 1220–5.
Newbold, A. J. & Goldsmith, F. B. with an addendum on birch by Harding, J. S. (1981). The Regeneration of Oak and Beech: A Literature Review. Discussion Papers in Conservation. No. 33. London University College: London.
Nowacki, G. J. & Abrams, M. D. (1992). Community, edaphic, and historical analysis of mixed oak forests of the Ridge and Valley Province in central Pennsylvania. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 790–800.
Olff, H., Vera, F. W. M., Bokdam, J., Bakker, E. S., Gleichman, J. M., De Maeyer, K. & Smit, K. (1999). Shifting mosaics in grazed woodlands driven by the alternation of plant facilitation and competition. Plant Biology, 1, 127–37.
Orwig, D. A. & Abrams, M. D. (1994). Land‐use history (1720–1992), composition, and dynamics of oak‐pine forests within the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of northern Virginia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 1216–25.
Peltier, A., Toezet, M.‐C., Armengaud, C. & Ponge, J.‐F. (1997). Establishment of Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior in an old‐growth beech forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 8, 13–20.
Peterken, G. F. & Jones, E. W. (1987). Forty years of change in Lady Park Wood: the old growth stands. Journal of Ecology, 75, 477–512.
Peterken, G. F. & Tubbs, C. R. (1965). Woodland regeneration in the New Forest, Hampshire, since 1650. Journal of Applied Ecology, 2, 159–70.
Peterken, G. F. (1996). Natural Woodland. Ecology and Conservation in Northern Temperate Regions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peterson, C. J. & Picket, S. T. A. (1995). Forest reorganization: a case study in an old‐growth forest catastrophic blowdown. Ecology, 76, 763–74.
Pigott, C. D. (1988). The ecology and silviculture of limes (Tilia spp.). In O. F. I. Occasional Papers, No 37. National Hardwoods Programme. Report of the Eighth Meeting and Second Meeting of the un‐even Aged Silviculture Group 7 January 1988, ed. P. S. Savill. Oxford: Oxford Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, pp. 27–32.
Pockberger, J. (1963). Die Linden. Ein Beitrag zur Bereicherung des Mitteleuropäischen Waldbildes. Centralblatt für das Gesamte Forstwesen, 80, 99–123.
Ponge, J.‐F. & Ferdy, J.‐B. (1997). Growth of Fagus sylvatica saplings in an old growth forest as affected by soil and light conditions. Journal of Vegetation Science, 8, 789–96.
Pott, R. & Hüppe, J. (1991). Die Hudenlandschaften Nordwestdeutschlands. Westfälisches Museum für Naturkunde, Landschafsverband Westfalen‐Lippe. Veröffentlichung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Biol.‐ökol. Landesforschung, ABÖL, nr. 89, Münster.
Pruski, W. (1963). Ein Regenerationsversuch des Tarpans in Polen. Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie, 79, 1–30.
Putman, R. J. (1986). Grazing in Temperate Ecosystems: Large Herbivores and the Ecology of the New Forest. London: Croom Helm.
Putman, R. J., Edwards, P. J., Mann, J. C. E., How, R. C. & Hill, S. D. (1989). Vegetational and faunal changes in an area of heavily grazed woodland following relief of grazing. Biological Conservation, 47, 13–22.
Raben, G. (1980). Geschichtliche Betrachtung der Waldwirtschaftung im Naturwaldreservat Priorteich und deren Einfluss auf den heutigen Bestand. Diplomarbeit. Göttingen: Institut für Waldbau der Universität Göttingen.
Rackham, O. (2003). Ancient Woodland: Its History, Vegetation and Uses in England, New Edition. Kirkcudbrightshire: Castlepoint Press.
Remmert, H. (1991). The mosaic‐cycle concept of ecosystems. An overview. In The Mosaic‐Cycle Concept of Ecosystems, ed., H. Remmert. Berlin: Springer, pp. 11–21.
Rousset, O. & Lepart, J. (1999). Shrub facilitation of Quercus humilis regeneration in succession on calcareous grasslands. Journal of Vegetation Science, 10, 493–502.
Russell, E. W. B. (1983). Indian‐set fires in the forests of the northeastern United States. Ecology, 64, 78–88.
Söffner, W. (1982). Über die Grosssäugerfauna Mitteleuropas im Postglazial. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Beziehungen zwischen Wild und Vegetation. Zulassungsarbeit. Institut für Botanik der Universität Hohenheim.
Sanderson, J. L. (1958). The autecology of Corylus avellana (L.). in the neighbourhood of Sheffield with special reference to its regeneration. Ph.D. thesis, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield.
Schuster, L. (1950). Über den Sammeltrieb des Eichelhähers (Garrulus glandarius). Vogelwelt, 71, 9–17.
Scot, E. L. (1915). A study of pasture trees and shrubbery. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 42, 451–61.
Shaw, M. W. (1974). The reproductive characteristics of oak. In The British Oak: Its History and Natural History, ed. M. G. Morris & F. H. Perring. Berkshire: The Botanical Society of the British Isles, E. W. Classey Ltd., pp. 162–81.
Smith, C. (1993). Regeneration of oaks in the Central Appalachians. In Oak Regeneration: Serious Problems, Practical Recommendations. Symposium Proceedings, Knoxville, Tennessee, 8–10 September 1992, ed. D. L. Loftis & C. E. McGee. Ashville: Southeastern Forest Experiment Sation, pp. 211–21.
Smith, C. J. (1980). Ecology of the English Chalk. London: Academic Press.
Smith, D. M. (1962). The forest of the United States. In Regional Silviculture of the United States, ed. J. W. Barrett. New York: The Ronald Press Componay, pp. 3–29.
Snow, B. & Snow, D. (1988). Birds and Berries. A Study of an Ecological Interaction. Calton: T. and A. D. Poyser.
Spurr, H. S. (1956). Natural restocking of forests following the 1938 hurricane in central New England. Ecology, 33, 426–7.
Stähr, F. & Peters, T. (2000). Hähersaat – Qualität und Vitalität natürlicher Eichenverjüngung im nordostdeutschen Tiefland. AFZ/Der Wald, 32, 1231–5.
Sugita, S. MacDonald, G. & Larsen, C. P. S. (1997). Reconstruction of fire disturbance and forest succession from fossil pollen in lake sediments: potential and limitations. In Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change, ed. J. S. Clark, H. Cashier, J. G. Goldmmer & B. J. Stocks. Berlin: Springer, pp. 387–412.
Sugita, S., Gaillard, M.‐J. & Broström, A. (1999). Landscape openness and pollen records: a simulation approach. The Holocene, 9, 409–21.
Suner, A. & Röhrig, E. (1980). Die Entwicklung der Buchennaturverjüngung in Abhängigkeit von der Auflichtung des Altbestandes. Forstarchiv, 51, 145–9.
Svenning, J.‐S. (2002). A review of natural vegetation openness in north‐western Europe. Biological Conservation, 104, 133–48.
Szafer, W. (1968). The ure‐ox, extinct in Europe since the seventeenth century: an early attempt at conservation that failed. Biological Conservation, 1, 45–7.
Tallis, J. H. (1991). Plant Community History: Long‐term Changes in Plant Distribution and Diversity. London: Chapman and Hall.
Tansley, A. G. (1922). Studies on the vegetation of the English chalk. II. Early stages of redevelopment of woody vegetation on chalk grassland. Journal of Ecology, 10, 168–77.
Tansley, A. G. (1935). The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology, 16, 284–307.
Tansley, A. G. (1953). The British Islands and their Vegetation, Vol. 1, 2nd, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tansley, A. G. (ed.) (1911). Types of British Vegetation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tubbs, C. R. (1988). The New Forest, A Natural History. London: The New Naturalist, Collins.
Van de Veen, H. E. & Van Wieren, S. E. (1980). Van Grote Grazers, Kieskeurige Fijnproevers en Opportunistische Gelegenheidsvreters; over het Gebruik van Grote Herbivoren bij de Ontwikkeling en Duurzame Instandhouding van Natuurwaarden. Rapport 80/11, Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken, Amsterdam.
van Hees, A. F. M. (1997). Growth and morphology of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L) seedlings in relation to shading and drought. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 54, 9–18.
Vanselow, K. (1926). Die Waldbautechniek im Spessart. Eine historisch‐kritische Untersuchung ihrer Epochen. Berlin: Verlag von Julius Springer.
Vera, F. W. M. (1997). Metaforen voor de wildernis. Eik, hazelaar, rund en paard. Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen.
Vera, F. W. M. (2000). Grazing Ecology and Forest History. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Vereshchagin, N. K. & Baryshnikov, G. F. (1989). Quaternary mammalian extinctions in northern Eurasia. In Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution, ed. P. S. Martin & R. G. Klein. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, pp. 483–516.
von Koenigswald, W. (1983). Die Säugetierfauna des süddeutschen Pleistozäns. In Urgeschichte in Baden‐Württemberg, ed. H. J. Müller‐Beck. Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag, pp. 167–216.
von Lüpke, B. V. & Hauskeller‐Bullerjahn, K. (1999). Kahlschlagfreire Waldbau: wird die Eiche an den Rand gedrängt? Forst und Holz, 18, 563–8.
von Lüpke, B. V. (1982). Versuche zur Einbringung von Lärche und Eiche in Buchenbestände. Schriften aus der Forstlichen Fakultät der Universität Göttingen und der Niedersächsischen Forstlichen Versuchsanstalt 74.
Vullmer, H. & Hanstein, U. (1995). Der Beitrag des Eichelhähers zur Eichenverjüngung in einem Naturnah Bewirtschafteten Wald in der Lünerburger Heide. Forst und Holz, 50, 643–6.
Watt, A. S. (1919). On the causes of failure of natural regeneration in British oakwoods. Journal of Ecology, 7, 173–203.
Watt, A. S. (1924). On the ecology of British beech woods with special reference to their regeneration. Part II. The development and structure of beech communities on the Sussex downs. Journal of Ecology, 12, 145–204.
Watt, A. S. (1925). On the ecology of British beech woods with special reference to their regeneration. Part II, sections II & III. The Development and structure of beech communities. Journal of Ecology, 13, 27–73.
Watt, A. S. (1934). The vegetation of the Chiltern Hills with special reference to the beechwoods and their seral relationship. Part II. Journal of Ecology, 22, 445–507.
Watts, W. A. (1979). Late Quaternary vegetation of central Appalachia and the New Jersey coastal plain. Ecological Monographs, 49, 427–69.
Whitehouse, N. J. & Smith, D. N. (2004). ‘Islands’ in Holocene forests: implications for forest openness, landscape clearance and ‘culture‐steppe’ species. Environmental Archaeology, 9, 203–12.
Whitney, G. C. & Davis, W. C. (1986). From primitive woods to cultivated woodlots: Thoreau and the forest history Concord, Massachusetts. Journal of Forest History, 30, 70–81.
Whitney, G. G. & Somerlot, W. J. (1985). A case study of woodland continuity and change in the American midwest. Biological Conservation, 31, 265–87.
Whittaker, R. H. (1977). Animal effects on plant species diversity. In Vegetation und Fauna. Berichte der Internationalen Symposium der Internationalen Vereinigung für Vegetationskunde, ed. R. Tüxen. Vaduz: Cramer, pp. 409–25.
Wolf, G. (1982). Beobachtungen zur Entwicklung von Baumsämlingen im Eichen‐Hainbuchen und Eichen‐Buchenwald. In Struktur und Dynamik von Wäldern. ed. H. Dierschke. Berichte der Internationale Symposium der Internationale Verein für Vegetationskunde. Valduz: J. Cramer, pp. 475–94.
Wolf, G. (1988). Dauerflächen‐Beobachtungen in Naturwaldzellen derNiederrheinischen Bucht. Veränderungen in der Feldschicht. Natur und Landschaft, 63, 167–72.
Wolfe, M. L. & Von Berg, F. C. (1988). Deer and forestry in Germany. Half a Century after Aldo Leopold. Journal of Forestry, 86, 25–31.
Ziegenhagen, B. & Kausch, W. (1995). Productivity of young shaded oaks (Quercus robur L.) as corresponding to shoot morphology and leaf anatomy. Forest Ecology and Management, 72, 97–108.
Zimov, S. A., Chuprynin, V. I., Oreshko, A. P. Chapin, F. S., III, Reynolds, J. F., & Chapin, M. C. (1995). Steppe‐tundra transition: a herbivore‐driven biome shift at the end of the Pleistocene. American Naturalist, 146, 765–94.