4 - Irigaray and Hölderlin on the Relation Between Nature and Culture  pp. 127-160

Irigaray and Hölderlin on the Relation Between Nature and Culture

By Alison Stone

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter

I have suggested that Irigaray's philosophy of natural sexual duality is attractive insofar as she sees nature as dynamic and bodies as active and striving for expression, consequently proposing cultural change to give expression to nature generally and to female bodies, with their inherent rhythms, which have never achieved adequate expression in western culture. However, a revised version of Butler's approach to sex and gender, which rests on a notion of active, multiple, bodily forces, offers equivalent attractions: it regards bodily activity as responsible for a constant instability in gender norms which generates deep differences between women. This revised version of Butler's approach also prescribes that dualistic gender norms should be subverted to give greater expression to bodily forces. This latter approach to sex and gender is incompatible with that of Irigaray. These two approaches to sex and gender are premised on antithetical conceptions of human bodies as, respectively, internally diverse (and naturally non-sexed) or sexually dual. I have argued that each conception has some phenomenological support: the former articulates our embodied experience of having diverse pre-conscious impulses and energies; the latter articulates our sense of being constrained by bodily rhythms which have their own momentum, especially in respect of those processes (such as menstruation and pregnancy) which seem most plainly to be sexually specific. Following Irigaray's argument that an adequate account of human bodies, and of the nature within which they are located, must articulate pre-theoretical experience, we need an account of bodies and nature which coherently synthesises these opposed conceptions.


Reference Type: bibliography

Abraham, Nicolas. Rhythms: On the Work, Translation, and Psychoanalysis. Translated by Benjamin Thigpen. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.
Alaimo, Stacy. Undomesticated Ground: Recasting Nature as Feminist Space. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Allison, Henry. Kant's Transcendental Idealism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
Allwood, Gill. French Feminisms: Gender and Violence in Contemporary Theory. London: UCL Press, 1998.
Ansell-Pearson, Keith. An Introduction to Nietzsche as Political Thinker: The Perfect Nihilist. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Armour, Ellen T. Deconstruction, Theology and the Problem of Difference: Subverting the Race/Gender Divide. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Bachelard, Gaston. The Dialectic of Duration. 1950. Translated by Mary McAllester Jones. Manchester, U.K. : Clinamen Press, 2000.
Bachofen, Johann Jakob. Myth, Religion and Mother-Right. 1861. Translated by Ralph Manheim. London: Routledge, 1967.
Barad, Karen. ‘Posthumanist Performativity: Toward an Understanding of How Matter Comes to Matter’. Signs 28: 3 (2003): 801–31.
Barnes, Jonathan, ed. Early Greek Philosophy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987.
Battersby, Christine. The Phenomenal Woman: Feminist Metaphysics and the Patterns of Identity. Cambridge, U.K. : Polity Press, 1998.
Beiser, Frederick. ‘German Romanticism’. In The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward Craig. London and New York: Routledge, 1998.
Beiser, Frederick. The Romantic Imperative. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Benhabib, Seyla. ‘Subjectivity, Historiography, and Politics: Reflections on the “Feminism/Postmodernism Exchange”’. In Benhabib et al., Feminist Contentions. London: Routledge, 1995.
Benhabib, Seyla, Judith Butler, Drucilla Cornell, and Nancy Fraser. Feminist Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange. London: Routledge, 1995.
Bernstein, J. M. Introduction to Classic and Romantic German Aesthetics, edited by J. M. Bernstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Benveniste, Emile. Problems in General Linguistics. 1966. Translated by Mary Elizabeth Meek. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami Press, 1971.
Bigwood, Carol. Earth Muse: Feminism, Nature, and Art. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.
Birke, Lynda. Feminism and the Biological Body. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999.
Bloodsworth, Mary K. ‘Embodiment and Ambiguity: Luce Irigaray, Sexual Difference and “Race”’. International Studies in Philosophy 31: 2 (1999): 69–90.
Bordo, Susan R. The Flight to Objectivity: Essays on Cartesianism and Culture. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987.
Boulous, Walker, Michelle. Philosophy and the Maternal Body: Reading Silence. London: Routledge, 1998.
Bowie, Andrew. Schelling and Modern European Philosophy: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 1993.
Bowie, Andrew. Introduction to German Philosophy: From Kant to Habermas. Cambridge, U.K. : Polity Press, 2003.
Braidotti, Rosi. ‘The Politics of Ontological Difference’. In Between Feminism and Psychoanalysis, edited by Teresa Brennan. London: Routledge, 1989.
Braidotti, Rosi. Patterns of Dissonance: A Study of Women in Contemporary Philosophy. Translated by Elizabeth Guild. Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press, 1991.
Braidotti, Rosi. ‘Feminism by Any Other Name’. Interview with Judith Butler. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 6: 2 + 3 (1994): 27–61.
Braidotti, Rosi. ‘Sexual Difference Theory’. In A Companion to Feminist Philosophy, edited by Alison M. Jaggar and Iris Marion Young. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1998.
Braidotti, Rosi. Metamorphoses: Towards a Materialist Theory of Becoming. Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press, 2002.
Braidotti, Rosi. ‘Becoming Woman: Or Sexual Difference Revisited’. Theory, Culture and Society 20: 3 (2003): 43–64.
Bray, Abigail. ‘Not Woman Enough: Irigaray's Culture of Difference’. Feminist Theory 2: 3 (2001): 311–27.
Burke, Carolyn, Naomi Schor, and Margaret Whitford, eds. Engaging with Irigaray: Feminist Philosophy and Modern European Thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Butler, Judith. ‘Sex and Gender in Simone de Beauvoir's Second Sex’. Yale French Studies 72 (1986): 35–49.
Butler, Judith. ‘Foucault and the Paradox of Bodily Inscriptions’. Journal of Philosophy 86: 11 (1989): 601–7.
Butler, Judith. ‘Sexual Ideology and Phenomenological Description: A Feminist Critique of Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception’. In The Thinking Muse: Feminism and Modern French Philosophy, edited by Jeffner Allen and Iris Marion Young. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Butler, Judith. ‘Sexual Difference as a Question of Ethics: Alterities of the Flesh in Irigaray and Merleau-Ponty’. In Bodies of Resistance: New Phenomenologies of Politics, Agency, and Culture, edited by Laura Doyle. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2001.
Butler, Judith. ‘Gender as Performance: An Interview with Judith Butler’. Interview with Peter Osborne and Lynne Segal. Radical Philosophy 67 (1994): 32–9.
Butler, Judith. ‘Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory’. In Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory, edited by Katie Conboy, Nadia Medina, and Sarah Stanbury. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
Butler, Judith. The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Butler, Judith. Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative. London: Routledge, 1997.
Butler, Judith. Anniversary Edition of Gender Trouble. London: Routledge, 1999.
Butler, Judith. Antigone's Claim. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Butler, Judith. Contingency, Hegemony, Universality: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left. With Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Žižek. London: Verso, 2000.
Butler, Judith. Kritik der ethischen Gewalt. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2003.
Cavarero, Adriana. In Spite of Plato. 1990. Translated by Serena Anderlini-D'Onofrio and Áine O'Healy. Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press, 1995.
Chanter, Tina. Ethics of Eros: Irigaray's Rewriting of the Philosophers. London: Routledge, 1995.
Chase, Cheryl et al. ‘Intersexual Rights’. Letters section, The Sciences (July/August 1993): 3–4.
Cheah, Pheng, and Elizabeth Grosz. ‘Of Being-Two: Introduction’. Diacritics 28: 1 (1998): 3–18.
Chodorow, Nancy. The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.
Colebrook, Claire. Introduction to Deleuze and Feminist Theory, edited by Ian Buchanan and Claire Colebrook. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.
Colebrook, Claire. ‘From Radical Representations to Corporeal Becomings: The Feminist Philosophy of Lloyd, Grosz, and Gatens’. Hypatia 15: 2 (2000): 76–93.
Cornell, Drucilla. Transformations: Recollective Imagination and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge, 1993.
Cornell, Drucilla. At the Heart of Freedom: Feminism, Sex, and Equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.
Dastur, Françoise. ‘Tragedy and Speculation’. In Philosophy and Tragedy, edited by Miguel de Beistegui and Simon Sparks. London: Routledge, 2000.
De Lauretis, Teresa. ‘The Essence of the Triangle or, Taking the Risk of Essentialism Seriously: Feminist Theory in Italy, the U.S., and Britain’. In The Essential Difference, edited by Schor and Weed.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Brian Massumi. London: Athlone, 1988. Originally published as Mille Plateaux. Paris: Minuit, 1980.
Descartes, René. The Philosophical Writings of Descartes. 2 vols. Translated by John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Deutscher, Penelope. ‘French Feminist Philosophers on Law and Public Policy: Michèle le Doeuff and Luce Irigaray’. Australian Journal of French Studies 34: 1 (1997): 24–44.
Deutscher, Penelope. Yielding Gender: Feminism, Deconstruction and the History of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1997.
Deutscher, Penelope. A Politics of Impossible Difference: The Later Work of Luce Irigaray. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002.
Di Giovanni, George. ‘Kant's Metaphysics of Nature and Schelling's Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature’. Journal of the History of Philosophy 17 (1979): 197–215.
Disch, Lisa. ‘Judith Butler and the Politics of the Performative’. Political Theory 27: 4 (1999): 545–59.
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. ‘How Many Sexes Are There?’ New York Times March 12, 1993: A29.
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. ‘The Five Sexes, Revisited’. The Sciences (July/August 2000): 19–23.
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Field, Terri. ‘Is the Body Essential for Ecofeminism?’ Organization and Environment 13: 1 (2000): 39–60.
Fielding, Helen. ‘Questioning Nature: Irigaray, Heidegger and the Potentiality of Matter’. Continental Philosophy Review 36: 1 (2003): 1–26.
Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality: Volume One. 1976. Translated by Robert Hurley. London: Allen Lane, 1979.
Foucault, Michel. ‘Nietzsche, Genealogy, History’. 1971. In Nietzsche, edited by John Richardson and Brian Leiter. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Fraser, Nancy. ‘False Antitheses: A Response to Seyla Benhabib and Judith Butler’. In Benhabib et al., Feminist Contentions.
Freud, Sigmund. On Metapsychology: The Theory of Psychoanalysis. Translated under the general editorship of James Strachey. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization, Society and Religion. Translated under the general editorship of James Strachey. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985.
Fuss, Diana. Essentially Speaking: Feminism, Nature and Difference. London: Routledge, 1989.
Gallop, Jane. ‘Quand nos lèvres s’écrivent: Irigaray's Body Politic'. Romanic Review 74: 1 (1983): 77–83.
Gardner, Sebastian. Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason. London: Routledge, 1999.
Gatens, Moira. Imaginary Bodies: Ethics, Power and Corporeality. London: Routledge, 1996.
Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Glazebrook, Trish. ‘From Physis to Nature, Technē to Technology: Heidegger on Aristotle, Galileo, and Newton’. Southern Journal of Philosophy 38 (2000): 95–118.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Scientific Studies. Edited and translated by Douglas Miller. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Grosz, Elizabeth. Sexual Subversions: Three French Feminists. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1989.
Grosz, Elizabeth. Jacques Lacan: A Feminist Introduction. London: Routledge, 1990.
Grosz, Elizabeth. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.
Grosz, Elizabeth. Architecture from the Outside: Essays on Virtual and Real Space. London: MIT Press, 2001.
Grosz, Elizabeth. The Nick of Time: Politics, Evolution, and the Untimely. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.
Grosz, Elizabeth. Time Travels: Feminism, Nature, Power. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.
Hammond, Michael, Jane Howarth, and Russell Keat. Understanding Phenomenology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.
Haraway, Donna. ‘A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century’. In Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Routledge, 1991.
Hardimon, Michael. Hegel's Social Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Harding, Sandra, and Merrill B. Hintikka, eds. Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: David Reidel, 1984.
Haslanger, Sally. ‘Feminism in Metaphysics: Negotiating the Natural’. In The Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy, edited by Miranda Fricker and Jennifer Hornsby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Hass, Marjorie. ‘The Style of the Speaking Subject: Irigaray's Empirical Studies of Language Production’. Hypatia 15: 1 (2000): 64–89.
Hayles, N. Katherine. ‘Gender Encoding in Fluid Mechanics: Masculine Channels and Feminine Flows’. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4: 2 (1992): 16–44.
Hegel, G. W. F. Natural Law: The Scientific Ways of Treating Natural Law, Its Place in Moral Philosophy, and Its Relation to the Positive Sciences of Law. 1802–1803. Translated by T. M. Knox. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1975.
Hegel, G. W. F.. Encyclopaedia Logic. Third edition, 1830. Translated by T. F. Geraets, W. A. Suchting, and H. S. Harris. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1991.
Hegel, G. W. F.. Philosophy of Nature. 3 vols. Third edition, 1830. Edited and translated by M. J. Petry. London: Allen and Unwin, 1970.
Hegel, G. W. F.. Philosophy of Mind. Third edition, 1830. Translated by A. V. Miller and William Wallace. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.
Heidegger, Martin. Introduction to Metaphysics. 1935. Translated by Ralph Manheim. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959.
Heidegger, Martin. Elucidations of Hölderlin's Poetry. Translated by Keith Hoeller. New York: Humanity Books, 2000. Published in German as Erläuterungen zu Hölderlins Dichtung. Frankfurt: Klostermann, 1981.
Heidegger, Martin. ‘On the Essence and Concept of Physis in Aristotle's Physics B, I’. 1939. Translated by Thomas Sheehan. In Pathmarks, edited by Will McNeill. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Published in German as ‘Vom Wesen und Begriff der Physis Aristoteles, Physik B, 1’. In Wegmarken. Gesamtausgabe, division 1, volume 9. Frankfurt: Klostermann, 1996.
Heidegger, Martin. ‘Modern Science, Metaphysics, and Mathematics’. 1962. In Basic Writings, edited by David Farrell Krell. Second, revised, edition; London: Routledge, 1993.
Heinämaa, Sara. ‘What Is a Woman? Butler and Beauvoir on the Foundations of the Sexual Difference’. Hypatia 12: 1 (1997): 20–39.
Heraclitus. The Art and Thought of Heraclitus. Edited and translated by Charles Kahn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Hodge, Joanna. ‘Irigaray Reading Heidegger’. In Engaging with Irigaray, edited by Burke et al.
Hölderlin, Friedrich. ‘Being Judgement Possibility’. 1795. In Classic and Romantic German Aesthetics, edited by J. M. Bernstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Hölderlin, Friedrich. Hyperion and Selected Poems. Edited by Eric L. Santner. New York: Continuum, 1990.
Hölderlin, Friedrich. Poems and Fragments. Translated by Michael Hamburger. London: Anvil Press, 1994.
Hölderlin, Friedrich. Essays and Letters on Theory. Translated by Thomas Pfau. Albany: SUNY Press, 1988.
Hölderlin, Friedrich. Sämtliche Werke und Briefe. 2 vols. Edited by Günter Mieth. Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag, 1970.
Huntingdon, Patricia. Ecstatic Subjects, Utopia, and Recognition. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.
Huntingdon, Patricia. Introduction to Feminist Interpretations of Martin Heidegger, edited by Nancy J. Holland and Patricia Huntingdon. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 2001.
Irigaray, Luce. ‘Women's Exile’. Translated by Couze Venn. Ideology and Consciousness 1 (1977): 62–76.
Irigaray, Luce. Marine Lover of Friedrich Nietzsche. 1980. Trans. Gillian C. Gill. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.
Irigaray, Luce. ‘Women-Mothers, the Silent Substratum of the Social Order’. 1981. In The Irigaray Reader, edited by Margaret Whitford. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.
Irigaray, Luce. Elemental Passions. 1982. Translated by Joanne Collie and Judith Still. London: Athlone, 1992.
Irigaray, Luce. To Speak is Never Neutral. 1985. Translated by Gail Schwab. London: Continuum, 2002.
Irigaray, Luce. Interview with Elaine Hoffman Baruch and Lucienne J. Serrano. In Women Analyze Women, edited by Baruch and Serrano. New York: New York University Press, 1988.
Irigaray, Luce. ‘From The Forgetting of Air to To Be Two’. In Feminist Interpretations of Martin Heidegger, edited by Nancy J. Holland and Patricia Huntingdon. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 2001.
Irigaray, Luce. ‘Why Cultivate Difference?’ Paragraph 25: 3 (2002): 79–90.
Irigaray, Luce. ‘Being Two, How Many Eyes Have We?’ Paragraph 25: 3 (2002): 143–51.
Irigaray, Luce. ‘Animal Compassion’. In Animal Philosophy, edited by Peter Atterton and Matthew Calarco. London: Continuum, 2004.
Joy, Morny. ‘Love and the Labor of the Negative: Irigaray and Hegel’. In Resistance, Flight, Creation: Feminist Enactments of French Philosophy, edited by Dorothea Olkowski. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. 1781; second edition, 1787. Translated by Norman Kemp Smith. Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1929.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgement. 1790. Translated by Werner S. Pluhar. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Keltner, Stacy. ‘The Ethics of Air: Technology and the Question of Sexual Difference’. Philosophy Today Suppl. 45:5 (2001): 53–65.
Kessler, Suzanne. Lessons from the Intersexed. Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1998.
Kirby, Vicki. Telling Flesh: The Substance of the Corporeal. London: Routledge, 1997.
Krell, David Farrell. ‘Three Ends of the Absolute: Schelling on Inhibition, Hölderlin on Separation, and Novalis on Density’. Research in Phenomenology 32 (2002): 60–85.
Lacan, Jacques. Écrits. 1966. Translated by Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock, 1977.
Lacey, Nicola. Unspeakable Subjects: Feminist Essays in Legal and Social Theory. Oxford: Hart, 1998.
Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe. Typography: Mimesis, Philosophy, Politics. Edited by Christopher Fynsk. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.
Lear, Jonathan. Aristotle: The Desire to Understand. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Lefebvre, Henri. Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time, and Everyday Life. Translated by Stuart Elden and Gerald Moore. London: Continuum, 2004.
Lennon, Kathleen. ‘Imaginary Bodies and Worlds’. Inquiry 47 (2004): 107–22.
Lloyd, Genevieve. The Man of Reason. Second edition. London: Routledge, 1993.
Lloyd, Genevieve, ed. Feminism and History of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. 1690. Edited by John W. Yolton. London: J. M. Dent, 1976.
Lorrain, Tamsin. Irigaray and Deleuze: Experiments in Visceral Philosophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.
MacDonald, Mairi. ‘Intersex and Gender Identity’. 2000. At: www.ukia.co.uk/voices/is_gi.htm
MacKinnon, Catherine. ‘Feminism, Marxism, Method and the State: An Agenda for Theory’. Signs 7 (1982): 515–44.
Mader, Mary Beth. ‘All Too Familiar: Luce Irigaray's Recent Thoughts on Sexuation and Generation’. Continental Philosophy Review 36: 4 (2003): 367–90.
Martin, Alison. Luce Irigaray and the Question of the Divine. Leeds: Maney Publishing, 2000.
McNay, Lois. Gender and Agency: Reconfiguring the Subject in Feminist and Social Theory. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000.
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Nature: Course Notes from the Collège de France. Translated by Robert Vallier. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2003.
Miller, Elaine. The Vegetative Soul: From Philosophy of Nature to Subjectivity in the Feminine. Albany: SUNY Press, 2002.
Mills, Catherine. ‘Efficacy and Vulnerability: Judith Butler on Reiteration and Resistance’. Australian Feminist Studies 32 (2000): 265–79.
Moi, Toril. Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory. London: Methuen, 1985.
Moi, Toril. Simone de Beauvoir: The Making of an Intellectual Woman. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.
Murphy, Ann V. ‘The Enigma of the Natural in Irigaray’. Philosophy Today. Suppl. 45: 5 (2001): 75–82.
New, Caroline. ‘Realism, Deconstruction, and the Feminist Standpoint’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 28: 4 (1998): 349–72.
Nicholson, Linda. ‘The Myth of the Traditional Family’. In Feminism and Families, edited by Hilde Lindemann Nelson. London: Routledge, 1997.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy of Morality. 1887. Translated by Carol Diethe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Published in German as Zur Genealogie der Moral. In Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Division 6, Volume 2, edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1967–.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Will to Power. 1906. Translated by Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale. New York: Random House, 1967.
Olkowski, Dorothea. ‘Materiality and Language: Butler's Interrogation of the History of Philosophy’. Philosophy and Social Criticism 23: 3 (1997): 37–53.
Olkowski, Dorothea. Gilles Deleuze and the Ruin of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Olkowski, Dorothea. ‘The End of Phenomenology: Bergson's Interval in Irigaray’. Hypatia 15: 3 (2000): 73–91.
Olkowski, Dorothea. ‘Morpho-logic in Deleuze and Irigaray’. In Deleuze and Feminist Theory, edited by Ian Buchanan and Claire Colebrook. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.
Patton, Paul, ed. Nietzsche, Feminism, and Political Theory. London: Routledge, 1993.
Pinkard, Terry. Hegel's Phenomenology: The Sociality of Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Plato. Timaeus and Critias. Translated by Desmond Lee. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.
Plaza, Monique. ‘“Phallomorphic Power” and the Psychology of “Woman”’. Ideology and Consciousness 4 (1978): 5–36.
Poxon, Judith L. ‘Corporeality and Divinity: Irigaray and the Problem of the Ideal’. In Religion in French Feminist Thought: Critical Perspectives, edited by Morny Joy, Kathleen O'Grady, and Judith L. Poxon. London: Routledge, 2003.
Richardson, John. ‘Nietzsche's Power Ontology’. In Nietzsche, edited by John Richardson and Brian Leiter. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Richards, Robert J. The Romantic Conception of Life. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Ricoeur, Paul. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. Translated by Denis Savage. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970.
Riley, Denise. ‘Am I That Name?’: Feminism and the Category of ‘Women’ in History. London: Macmillan, 1988.
Rose, Jacqueline. ‘Introduction – II’. In Jacques Lacan, Feminine Sexuality, edited by Juliet Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose. New York: Norton, 1982.
Salih, Sara. Judith Butler. London: Routledge, 2002.
Sandford, Stella. ‘Feminism Against “The Feminine”’. Radical Philosophy 105 (2001): 6–14.
Sayer, Andrew. Realism and Social Science. London: Sage, 2000.
Sayers, Janet. Sexual Contradictions: Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Feminism. London: Tavistock, 1986.
Schelling, F. W. J. Von der Weltseele. Eine Hypothese der hÖhern physik zur Erklärung des allgemeinen Organismus. 1978. In Schelling, Werke: Historisch-kritische Ausgabe Reihe 1. Vol. 6, edited by JÖrg Jantzen. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog, 2000.
Schlegel, Friedrich. ‘Dialogue on Poetry’ (selections). Translated by Ernst Behler and Roman Struc. In German Romantic Criticism, edited by A. Leslie Willson. New York: Continuum, 1982.
Schoenbohm, Susan. ‘Heidegger's Interpretation of Physis in Introduction to Metaphysics’. In A Companion to Heidegger's Introduction to Metaphysics, edited by Richard Polt and Gregory Fried. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.
Schor, Naomi. ‘Previous Engagements: The Receptions of Irigaray’. In Engaging with Irigaray, edited by Burke et al.
Schor, Naomi. ‘This Essentialism Which Is Not One: Coming to Grips with Irigaray’. In Engaging with Irigaray, edited by Burke et al.
Schor, Naomi. ‘French Feminism Is a Universalism’. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 7: 1 (1995): 14–47.
Schor, Naomi, and Elizabeth Weed, eds. The Essential Difference. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.
Schrift, Alan. Nietzsche and the Question of Interpretation: Between Hermeneutics and Deconstruction. London: Routledge, 1990.
Schutte, Ofelia. ‘A Critique of Normative Heterosexuality: Identity, Embodiment, and Sexual Difference in Beauvoir and Irigaray’. Hypatia 12: 1 (1997): 40–62.
Schwab, Gail. ‘Sexual Difference as Model: An Ethics for the Global Future’. Diacritics 28: 1 (1998): 76–92.
Sen, Amartya. Inequality Reexamined. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
Shildrick, Margrit. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)ethics. London: Routledge, 1997.
Spelman, Elizabeth. Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought. London: The Women's Press, 1988.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. Outside in the Teaching Machine. London: Routledge, 1993.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty.. ‘Feminism, Criticism and the Institution’. Thesis Eleven 10/11 (1984/5): 175–87.
Sturma, Dieter. ‘The Nature of Subjectivity: The Critical and Systematic Function of Schelling's Philosophy of Nature’. In The Reception of Kant's Critical Philosophy: Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, edited by Sally Sedgwick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Summers-Bremner, Eluned. ‘Reading Irigaray, Dancing’. Hypatia 15: 1 (2000): 90–124.
Van Lenning, Alkeline. ‘The Body as Crowbar: Transcending or Stretching Sex?’ Feminist Theory 5: 1 (2004): 25–47.
Vasseleu, Cathryn. Textures of Light: Vision and Touch in Irigaray, Levinas and Merleau-Ponty. London: Routledge, 1998.
Vasterling, Veronica. ‘Butler's Sophisticated Constructionism’. Hypatia 14: 3 (1999): 17–38.
Vogel, Steven. ‘Nature as Origin and Difference: On Environmental Philosophy and Continental Thought’. Philosophy Today 42 Suppl. (1998): 169–81.
Walsh, Lisa. ‘Her Mother Her Self: The Ethics of the Antigone Family Romance’. Hypatia 14: 3 (1999): 96–125.
Warnke, Georgia. ‘Intersexuality and the Categories of Sex’. Hypatia 16: 3 (2001): 126–37.
Webster, Fiona. ‘The Politics of Sex and Gender: Benhabib and Butler Debate Subjectivity’. Hypatia 15: 1 (2000): 1–22.
Weir, Allison. Sacrificial Logics: Feminist Theory and the Critique of Identity. London: Routledge, 1996.
Weiss, Gail. Body Images: Embodiment as Intercorporeality. London: Routledge, 1999.
Whitford, Margaret. Luce Irigaray: Philosophy in the Feminine. London: Routledge, 1991.
Whitford, Margaret. ‘Irigaray, Utopia and the Death Drive’. In Engaging with Irigaray, edited by Burke et al.
Whitford, Margaret. ‘Reading Irigaray in the Nineties’. In Engaging with Irigaray, edited by Burke et al.
Whitford, Margaret, ed. The Irigaray Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.
Williams, Raymond. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Revised, expanded, edition. London: Flamingo, 1983.
Wirth, Jason. The Conspiracy of Life: Meditations on Schelling and His Time. Albany: SUNY Press, 2003.
Wood, David. ‘Thinking With Cats’. In Animal Philosophy, edited by Peter Atterton and Matthew Calarco. London: Continuum, 2004.
Wright, Elizabeth, ed. Feminism and Psychoanalysis: A Critical Dictionary. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.
Xu, Ping. ‘Irigaray's Mimicry and the Problem of Essentialism’. Hypatia 10: 4 (1995): 76–89.
Young, Iris Marion. Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Young, Iris Marion.. ‘Gender as Seriality: Thinking about Women as a Social Collective’. Signs 19: 3 (1994): 713–38.