3 - Identifying Risk and Protective Factors for Healthy Child Development  pp. 53-76


By Arnold Sameroff

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Developmental problems of youth are a major social problem in the United States, with approximately 21 percent of 9- to 17-year-old children having diagnosable disorders (Shaffer et al., 1996). Although many of these have minimal impairment, four million children representing 11 percent of the population have significant impairment and another 4 percent have extreme impairment (Surgeon General, 1999). In an examination of how many children are at risk for mental disorders, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) reported that during the previous 12 months, 29 percent of high school children felt blue or hopeless, 17 percent had considered suicide, and 9 percent had made an attempt. In terms of aggression, 33 percent had been in a physical fight and, in the year 2000 alone, 1.7 million youth were arrested. Academic problems in the United States were equally serious. Seventy percent of fourth graders were below proficiency levels in both reading and math, and 15 percent of adolescents dropped out of school before graduation. Although the majority of youth do not have such problems, the number who do is substantial. Reducing these numbers requires a clear understanding of the causes of these childhood problems. One of the clear correlates of increasing childhood problems is the declining quality of the child-family environment.

Concurrent with the high level of problems among children, family resources for coping with these problems have diminished in the United States.

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