7 - Family Solidarity  pp. 144-166


By Aafke E. Komter

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Given rising divorce rates, it comes as no surprise that people are decreasingly happy with their marriages…. Given too, that pleasure in family life is the most important contribution to happiness and life satisfaction, here lies a major explanation of America's current and rising sorrow.

(Robert Lane 2000: 108)

The worst tyrants among human beings … are jealous husbands …, resentful wives, [and] possessive parents … [in] a scene of hatred.

(Peter Laslett 1971: 4)

In most Western countries children and the bonds between generations are still an important source of support for older generations, but concern for the continuity of this support is broadly felt. Over the past two centuries drastic changes have occurred in the nature and extent of family solidarity. Whereas in the absence of social security and institutions of social welfare kin served as the most essential resource for economic assistance and security, a gradual weakening of interdependence among kin has occurred over time. In the past commitment to the survival and economic well-being of the family took priority over individual needs. Also anthropological studies suggest that “kinship dues” were traditionally the main source of kinship support (Sahlins 1972). The instrumental orientation toward family has gradually been replaced by a more individualistic and affective orientation and a greater emphasis on individual needs and personal happiness (Hareven 1995). This development has raised a concern with the vitality of family bonds and intergenerational solidarity. Demographic changes have significantly added to this concern (Bengtson 2001).

7

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Appadurai, A. (ed.). 1986. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Arber, S., and Attias-Donfut, C. (eds.). 2000. The Myth of Generational Conflict: The Family and State in Ageing Societies. London: Routledge
Arendt, H. 1963. On Revolution. New York: Viking Press
Arendt, H. 1978. The Life of the Mind. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World
Baal, J. van. 1975. Reciprocity and the Position of Women. Anthropological Papers. Assen: Van Gorcum
Bailey, F. G. (ed.). 1971. Gifts and Poison: The Politics of Reputation. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Barthes, R. 1973. Mythologies. London: Paladin
Baudrillard, J. 1988 [1970]. “Consumer society.” In Poster 1988: 45–63
Bauman, Z. 1997. Postmodernity and Its Discontents. Cambridge: Polity Press
Bauman, Z. 1998. Globalization: The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity Press
Bauman, Z. 2001. The Individualized Society. Cambridge: Polity Press
Bayertz, K. (ed.). 1998. Solidarität: Begriff und Proble. [Solidarity: Concept and problem]. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp
Beck, U. 1986. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage
Becker, H. A. 1992. Generaties en hun kanse. [Generations and their opportunities]. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff
Becker, H. A., and Hermkens, P. L. (eds.). 1993. Solidarity of Generations: Demographic, Economic and Social Change, and Its Consequences. Amsterdam: Thesis
Bender, T. 1978. Community and Social Change in America. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press
Bengtson, V. L. 1993. “Is the ‘Contract across generations’ changing?” In Bengtson and Achenbaum 1993: 3–25
Bengtson, V. L. 2001. “Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 63: 1–16
Bengtson, V. L., and Achenbaum, A. (eds.). 1993. The Changing Contract across Generations. New York: Aldine de Gruyter
Bengtson, V. L., and Mangen, D. J. 1988. “Family intergenerational solidarity revisited.” In Mangen, Bengtson, and Landry 1988: 222–238
Bengtson, V. L., and Roberts, R. E. L. 1991. “Intergenerational solidarity in aging families.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 53: 856–870
Bengtson, V. L., Rosenthal, C. and Burton, L. 1990. “Families and aging. Diversity and heterogeneity.” In Binstock and George 1990: 263–287
Bennett, W. 1993. The Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories. New York: Simon and Schuster
Berking, H. 1999. Sociology of Giving. London: Sage
Binstock, R., and George, L. (eds.). 1990. Handbook of Aging and Social Sciences. 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press
Blau, P. M. 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley
Blieszner, R., and Bedford, V. H. (eds.). 1995. Handbook of Aging and the Family. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press
Boszoemenyi-Nagy, I., and Spark, G. M. 1973. Invisible Loyalties. New York: Brunner/ Mazel
Bott, E. 1957. Family and Social Network. New York: Free Press
Bourdieu, P. 1984 [1979]. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Bourdieu, P. 1990 [1980]. The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity Press
Brink, G. van den. 2001. Agressieve jongeren. Over jeugd, agressie en beschaving in Nederlan. [Aggressive youngsters: On youth, aggression and civility in the Netherlands]. Nijmegen: SUN
Brink, G. van den 2002. Mondiger of moeilijker? Een studie naar de politieke habitus van hendedaagse burger. [More emancipated or more difficult? A study into the political habitus of contemporary citizens]. The Hague: Sdu Publishers
Brown, R. 1986. Social Psychology. New York: Free Press
Cahoone, L. 2000a. “Civic meetings, cultural meanings.” In Rouner 2000: 40–65
Cahoone, L. 2000b. “Response to Alan Wolfe.” In Rouner 2000: 142–151
Caplow, T. 1982a. Middletown Families. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
Caplow, T. 1982b. “Christmas gifts and kin networks.” American Sociological Review 47: 383–392
Caplow, T. 1984. “Rule enforcement without visible means: Christmas giving in Middletown.” American Journal of Sociology 89: 1306–1323
Carrier, J. G. 1995. Gifts and Commodities. Exchange and Western Capitalism since 1700. London: Routledge
Carter, S. L. 1998. Civility: Manners, Morals and the Etiquette of Democracy. New York: Basic Books
Castells, M. 1996. The Rise of Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell
Cheal, D. 1983. “Intergenerational family transfers.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 45: 805–813
Cheal, D. 1986. “The social dimensions of gift behavior.” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 3: 423–493
Cheal, D. 1987. “Showing them you love them: Gift giving and the dialectic of intimacy.” Sociological Review 35: 150–169
Cheal, D. 1988. The Gift Economy. London: Routledge
Cohen, R., and Rai, S. M. (eds.). 2000. Global Social Movements. London: Athlone Press
Coleman, J. 1986. Individual Interests and Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Coleman, J. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press
Coleman, J., and Fararo, T. (eds.). 1992. Rational Choice: Advocacy and Critique. London: Sage
Coser, L. A. 1971. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
Coser, L. A., and Rosenberg, B. (eds.). 1965. Sociological Theory. New York: Macmillan
Corrigan, P. 1997. The Sociology of Consumption. London: Sage
Daal, H. J. van. 1994. “Hedendaags vrijwilligerswerk: gedaanten, identiteit en aantrekkingskracht” [Contemporary volunteer work: Forms, identity and attractivity]. In SCP-Report 1994b: 201–217
Davis, J. 1996. “An anthropologist's view of exchange.” Social Anthropology 4 (3): 213–226
Dawkins, R. 1976. The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Dekker, P. (ed.). 1999. Vrijwilligerswerk vergeleke. [Volunteer work compared]. The Hague: Sdu Publishers
Dekker, P. 2000. “Sociale en politieke participatietrends” [Trends in social and political participation]. In Ester, van Houten, and Steijn 2000: 63–78
Dekker, P. 2002. De oplossing van de civil society. Over vrijwillige associaties in tijden van vervagende grenze. [The solution of the civil society: On voluntary associations in times of blurring boundaries]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau
Doreian, P., and Fararo, T. (eds.). 1998. The Problem of Solidarity: Theories and Models. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach
Douglas, M. 1990. Foreword to M. Mauss, The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, pp. vii–xviii. London: Routledge
Douglas, M., and Isherwood, B. 1979. The World of Goods: Toward an Anthropology of Consumption. London: Allen Lane
Durkheim, E. 1951 [1897]. Suicide. New York: Free Press
Durkheim, E. 1964a [1893]. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press
Durkheim, E. 1964b [1895]. The Rules of Sociological Method. New York: Free Press
Durkheim, E. 1965 [1912]. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: Free Press
Dykstra, P. 1997. “Employment and caring.” NIDI, Working Paper, November
Dykstra, P. 1998. “Moet de overheid ouderen koesteren? Onze kijk op ouderenzorg” [Should the government cherish the old? Our view on elderly care]. Demos 14: 29–31
Dykstra, P., and de Jong-Gierveld, J. 1997. “Huwelijksgeschiedenis en informele en formele hulp aan ouderen” [Marital history and informal and formal care to the elderly]. Bevolking en Gezin 3: 35–61
Elias, N. 1978. The Civilising Process. Oxford: Blackwell
Elster, J. 1989. The Cement of Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Emerson, R. W. 1902 [1844]. “Gifts.” In The Works of R. W. Emerson: Essays, 302–306. London: Grant Richards
Engbersen, G., Schuyt, K., Timmer, J., and van Waarden, F. 1993. Cultures of Unemployment: A Comparative Look at Long-Term Unemployment and Urban Poverty. San Francisco: Westview Press
Esping-Andersen, G. 1990. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press
Esping-Andersen, G. 1999. Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Ester, P., van Houten, D., and Steijn, B. (eds.). 2000. De waan van de da. [Today's delusions]. Amsterdam: SISWO
Etzioni, A. 1988. The Moral Dimension: Toward a New Economics. New York: Free Press
Finch, J. 1989. Family Obligations and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press
Finch, J., and Mason, J. 1993. Negotiating Family Responsibilities. London: Routledge
Finley, M. I. 1988. The World of Odysseus. London: Chatto & Windus
Firth, R. 1929. Primitive Economics of the New Zealand Maori. London: Routledge
Fiske, A. P. 1991. Structures of Social Life: The Four Elementary Forms of Human Relations. New York: Free Press
Freud, A. 1986 [1936]. The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. London: Hogarth Press
Frow, J. 1997. Time and Commodity Culture: Essays in Cultural Theory and Postmodernity. Oxford: Clarendon
Geertz, C. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books
Gennep, A. van. 1960. The Rites of Passage. Trans. by Monika Vizedom and Gabriëlle L. Caffee. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Gilmore, D. D. (ed.). 1987. Honor and Shame and the Unity of the Mediterranean. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association
Girard, R. 1993 [1977]. La violence et le sacré. [Violence and the sacred]. Paris: Grasset
Godbout, J. T. 1992. L'esprit du do. [The spirit of the gift]. Paris: Éditions la Découverte
Godelier, M. 1999. The Enigma of the Gift. Cambridge: Polity Press
Goffman, E. 1971. Relations in Public: Micro Studies of the Public Order. London: Allan Lane
Gouldner, A. W. 1973a. “The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement.” In Gouldner 1973c: 226–260
Gouldner, A. W. 1973b. “The importance of something for nothing.” In Gouldner 1973c: 260–290
Gouldner, A. W. (ed.). 1973c. For Sociology: Renewal and Critique in Sociology Today. London: Allen Lane
Gregory, C. A. 1982. Gifts and Commodities. London: Academic Press
Habermas, J. 1989. Rechtvaardigheid en solidariteit [Justice and solidarity]. In Korthals 1989: 78–109
Hareven, T. K. 1995. “Historical perspectives on the family and aging.” In Blieszner and Bedford 1995: 13–31
Harris, H. (ed.). 1979. Scientific Models and Man: The Herbert Spencer Lectures 1976. London: Oxford University Press
Hart, J. de. 1999. “Lange-termijntrends in lidmaatschappen en vrijwilligerswerk” [Long-term trends in memberships and volunteer work]. In Dekker 1999: 33–68
Hechter, M. 1987. The Principles of Group Solidarity. Berkeley: University of California Press
Heider, F. 1958. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: John Wiley
Herzfeld, M. 1987. “‘As in your own house’: Hospitality, ethnography, and the stereotype of the Mediterranean society.” In Gilmore 1987: 75–90
Hochschild, A. 1979. “Emotion work, feeling rules and social structure.” American Journal of Sociology 85: 551–575
Hochschild, A. 2000. “Global care chains and emotional surplus value.” In Hutton and Giddens 2000: 130–147
Hoeben, C. 2000. De organisatie van LETSystemen in Nederland, Vakgroep Sociologi. [The organization of LET systems in the Netherlands]. Groningen: RUG
Homans, G. F. 1950. The Human Group. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World
Honneth, A. 1992. The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
House, J. S., Umberson, D., and Landis, K. R. (1988). “Structures and processes of social support.” Annual Review of Sociology 14: 293–318
Hubert, H., and Mauss, M. 1974. Sacrifice: Its Nature and Functions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Hutton, W., and Giddens, A. (eds.). 2000. On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism. London: Jonathan Cape
Hyde, L. 1983 [1979]. The Gift: Imagination and the Erotic Life of Property. New York: Random House
Inglehart, R. 1977. The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles among Western Publics. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Ignatieff, M. 1993. Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism. London: Chatto & Windus
Johnson, C. 2000. “Perspectives on American kinship in the later 1990s.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 62: 623–639
Jong-Gierveld, J. de, and van Solinge, H. 1995. “Ageing and its consequences for the socio-medical system.” Straatsburg: Council of Europe Press Population Studies 29
Kecskemeti, P. (ed.). 1952. Essays in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press
Keohane, R. O., and Ostrom, E. (eds.). 1995. Local Commons and Global Interdependence. London: Sage
Kertzer, D. I. 1988. Ritual, Politics, and Power. New Haven: Yale University Press
Klein, M. 1987a [1946–1963]. Envy and Gratitude and Other Works, 1946–1963. Vol. 3. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis
Klein, M. 1987b [1957]. “Envy and gratitude.” In Klein 1987a: 176–236
Klein, M. 1987c [1963]. “On the sense of loneliness.” In Klein 1987a: 300–314
Knijn, T., and Komter, A. (eds.). 2003. Solidarity between the Sexes and the Generations: Transformations in Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Kohli, M. 1999. “Private and public transfers between generations: Linking the family and the state.” European Societies 1: 81–104
Komter, A. E. (ed.). 1996a. The Gift: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press
Komter, A. E. 1996b. “Reciprocity as a principle of exclusion.” Sociology 30: 299–316
Komter, A. E. 2000. “Een kwestie van evenwicht” [A matter of balance]. Tijdschrift voor de Sociale Sector 4: 36–39
Komter, A. E. 2001. “The disguised rationality of solidarity: Gift giving in informal relations.” Journal of Mathematical Sociology 25: 385–402
Komter, A. E., Burgers, J., and Engbersen, G. 2000. Het cement van de samenleving; een verkennende studie naar solidariteit en cohesi. [The cement of society: An exploratory study of solidarity and cohesion]. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press
Komter, A., and Schuyt, C. J. M. 1993a. Geven in Nederland [Gift giving in the Netherlands]. Amsterdam: Dagblad Trouw
Komter, A., and Schuyt, C. J. M. 1993b. “Geschenken en relaties” [Gifts and relationships]. Beleid & Maatschappij 20: 277–285
Komter, A. E., and Vollebergh, W. 1997. “Gift giving and the emotional significance of family and friends.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 59 (August): 747–757
Komter, A. E., and Vollebergh, W. 2002. “Solidarity in Dutch families: Family ties under strain?” Journal of Family Issues 23 (2): 171–189
Kopytoff, I. 1986. “The cultural biography of things: Commoditization as process.” In Appadurai 1986: 64–91
Korthals, M. (ed.). 1989. De nieuwe onoverzichtelijkheid en andere opstelle. [The new disorder and other essays]. Meppel/Amsterdam: Boom
Kulis, S. 1992. “Social class and the locus of reciprocity in relationships with adult children.” Journal of Family Issues 13: 482–504
Künemund, H., and Rein, M. 1999. “There is more to receiving than needing: Theoretical arguments and empirical explorations of crowding in and crowding out.” Ageing and Society 19: 93–121
Lane, R. F. 2000. The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies. New Haven: Yale University Press
Lasch, C. 1977. Haven in a Heartless World. New York: Norton
Lasch, C. 1979. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. New York: Warner Books
Laslett, P. 1971. The World We Have Lost. New York: Scribner's
Lazarus, R. S., and Lazarus, B. N. 1994. Passion and Emotion: Making Sense of Our Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press
Leer, M. van. 1995. “Van honingcoeck tot lingerie. Sinterklaasgeschenken als spiegel van relaties” [From honey cake to lingerie: St. Nicholas gifts as a mirror of relationships]. Psychologie & Maatschappij 72 (3): 209–219
Lévi-Strauss, C. 1961 [1949]. The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Trans. J. H. Bell, J. R. von Sturmer, and R. Needham. Rev. ed. Boston: Beacon
Lévi-Strauss, C. 1965. “The principle of reciprocity.” In Coser and Rosenberg 1965: 84–94
Lévi-Strauss, C. 1966 [1962]. The Savage Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Liefbroer, A., and Dykstra, P. 2000. Levenslopen in verandering. Een studie naar ontwikkelingen in de levenslopen van Nederlanders geboren tussen 1900 en 197. [Changing lives: A study on life course changes of the Dutch 1900–1970 birth cohorts]. The Hague: Sdu Publishers
Lindenberg, S. 1998. “The microfoundations of solidarity: A framing approach.” In Doreian and Fararo 1998: 61–112
Luescher, K., and Pillemer, K. 1998. “Intergenerational ambivalence: A new approach to the study of parent-child relations in later life.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 60: 413–425
Lukes, S. 1973. Emile Durkheim: His Life and Work. A Historical and Critical Study. London: Allen Lane
Malinowski, B. 1950 [1922]. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Mangen, D. J., Bengtson, V. L., and Landry, P. H. (eds.). 1988. Measurement of Intergenerational Relations. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage
Mannheim, K. 1952 [1928]. “The problem of generations.” In Kecskemeti 1952: 110–158
Mauss, M. 1990 [1923]. The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. London: Routledge
Mayhew, L. 1971. Society: Institutions and Activity. New York: Columbia University Press
McClellan, A. 2000. “Beyond courtesy.” In Rouner 2000: 78–94
McCracken, G. 1990. Culture and Consumption. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Mead, G. H. 1962 [1934]. Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Merton, R. 1968. “The Matthew effect in science.” Science 6 (January): 56–63
Miller, D. (ed.). 1995a. Acknowledging Consumption: A Review of New Studies. London: Routledge
Miller, D. 1995b. “Consumption and commodities.” Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 141–61
Miller, D. (ed.). 1998. Material Cultures: Why Some Things Matter. London: Ucl-Press
Misztal, B. 1996. Trust in Modern Societies. Cambridge: Polity Press
Misztal, B. 2001. Informality: Social Theory and Contemporary Practice. London: Routledge
Mutran, E., and Reitzes, D. C. 1984. “Intergenerational support activities and well-being among the elderly: A convergence of exchange and symbolic interaction perspectives.” American Sociological Review 49: 117–130
Oorschot, W. van, Komter, A., Houtman, D., and Halman, L. 2001. “Wij en Zij in Europa. De solidariteit van Nederlanders in Europees perspectief” [Us and them; The solidarity of the Dutch in European perspective]. Utrecht: AWSB-papers
Ogletree, T. W. 1985 [1946]. Hospitality to the Stranger: Dimensions of Moral Understanding. Philadelphia: Fortress Press
Osteen, M. (ed.). 2002. The Question of the Gift: Essays across Disciplines. London: Routledge
Ostrom, E. 1995. “Constituting social capital and collective action.” In Keohane and Ostrom 1995: 125–160
Otnes, C., and Beltramini, R. F. (eds.). 1996. Gift Giving: A Research Anthology. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Press
Pahl, R. E. 1984. Divisions of Labour. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Parsons, T. 1952. The Social System. London: Tavistock
Parsons, T. 1977. The Evolution of Societies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall
Peristiany, J. G. (ed.). 1968. Contributions to Mediterranean Sociology. The Hague: Mouton
Pessers, D. 1999. “Liefde, solidariteit en recht; Een interdisciplinair onderzoek naar het wederkerigheidsbeginsel” [Love, solidarity, and the law: An interdisciplinary study of the principle of reciprocity]. Ph.D. diss. Amsterdam
Pitt-Rivers, J. 1968. “The stranger, the guest and the hostile host. Introduction to the study of the laws of hospitality.” In Peristiany 1968: 13–31
Popenoe, D. 1988. Disturbing the Nest: Family Change and Decline in Modern Societies. New York: Aldine De Gruyter
Portes, A., and Sensenbrenner, J. 1993. “Embeddedness and immigration: Notes on the social determination of economic action.” American Journal of Sociology 98: 1320–1350
Poster, M. (ed.). 1988. Selected Writings. Cambridge: Polity Press
Putnam, R. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster
Raub, W. 1997. Samenwerking in duurzame relaties en sociale cohesi. [Cooperation in durable relationships and social cohesion]. Amsterdam: Thesis
Raub, W., and Weesie, J. 2000. “The management of matches: A research program on solidarity in durable social relations.” Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences 36 (1): 71–89
Regt, A. de, 1993. Geld en gezin. Financiële en emotionele relaties tussen gezinslede. [Money and the family: Financial and emotional relationships between family members]. Amsterdam: Boom
Roberts, R. E. L., Richards, L. N., and Bengtson, V. L. 1991. “Intergenerational solidarity in families: Untangling the ties that bind.” Marriage and Family Review 16: 11–46
Rosenthal, C. J. 1985. “Kinkeeping in the familial division of labor.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 47: 965–974
Rossi, A., and Rossi, P. 1990. Of Human Bonding: Parent-Child Relations across the Life Course. New York: Aldine de Gruyter
Rouner, L. S. (ed.). 2000. Civility. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press
Ryff, C. D., and Seltzer, M. M. 1995. “Family relations and individual development in adulthood and aging.” In Blieszner and Bedford 1995: 95–114
Ryff, C. D., and Seltzer, M. M. (eds.). 1996. The Parental Experience in Midlife. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Sahlins, M. 1972. Stone Age Economics. London: Tavistock
Salomon, L. M. 1992. America's Nonprofit Sector: A Primer. New York: Foundation Center
Schudson, M. 2000. The Good Citizen: A History of American Civic Life. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press
Schuyt, T. 2001. Geven in Nederland 2001; Giften, legaten, sponsoring en vrijwilligerswer. [Giving in the Netherlands: Gifts, legacies, sponsoring, and volunteer work]. Houten/Diegem: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum
Schwartz, B. 1967. “The social psychology of the gift.” American Journal of Sociology 73: 1–11
Schwartz, B. 1993. “Why altruism is impossible … and ubiquitous.” Social Service Review 67: 314–343
Schwartz, B. 1996 [1967]. “The social psychology of the gift.” In Komter 1996a: 69–80
SCP-Report. 1994a. Informele zorg. Een verkenning van huidige en toekomstige ontwikkelinge. [Informal care: An exploration of contemporary and future developments]. Rijswijk: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau/VUGA
SCP-Report 1994b. Civil Society en vrijwilligerswerk. [Civil society and volunteer work]. Rijswijk: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau/VUGA
SCP-Report 1998. 25 jaar sociale veranderin. [25 years of social change]. Rijswijk: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau/VUGA
SCP-Report 2000. Nederland in Europ. [The Netherlands in Europe]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau
SCP-Report 2002. Zekere banden. Sociale cohesie, leefbaarheid en veilighei. [Secure ties: Social cohesion, livability, and security]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau
Sen, A. 1979. “Rational fools: A critique of the behavioral foundations of economic theory.” In Harris 1979: 1–25
Sennett, R. 1998. The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York: W. W. Norton
Shils, E. 1991. “The virtue of civil society.” Government and Opposition 26 (10): 3–20
Shurmer, P. 1971. “The gift game.” New Society 18: 1242–1244
Simmel, G. 1908. Soziologie: Untersuchungen ueber die Formen der Vergesellschaftun. [Sociology: Researches into the forms of sociation]. Leipzig: Dunker und Humblot
Simmel, G. 1950 [1908]. “Faithfulness and gratitude.” In Wolff 1950: 379–396
Simmel, G. 1978 [1907]. The Philosophy of Money. London: Routledge
Smith, A. 2002 [1759]. The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Smith, J., Chatfield, C., and Pagnucco, R. (eds.). 1997. Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press
Sociale en culturele verkenningen. 1999. [Social and cultural explorations]. The Hague: Elsevier
Strathern, M. 1988. The Gender of the Gift. Berkeley: University of California Press
Straus, V. 2000. “Making peace.” In Rouner 2000: 229–247
Suitor, J. J., Pillemer, K., Keeton, S., and Robison, J. 1995. “Aged parents and aging children: Determinants of relationship quality.” In Blieszner and Bedford 1995: 223–243
Swaan, B. de. 1988. In Care of the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Titmuss, R. M. 1970. The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin
Tönnies, F. 1987. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft. Leipzig: Reisland
Trivers, R. L. 1971. “The evolution of reciprocal altruism.” Quarterly Review of Biology 46: 35–57
Tsvetajeva, M. 2000. Ik loop over de sterren. Schetsen, dagboekfragmenten en brieven over de Russische Revoluti. [I walk over the stars: Sketches, diary fragments, and letters about the Russian Revolution]. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij
Turner, B., and Rojek, C. 2001. Society and Culture: Principles of Scarcity and Solidarity. London: Sage
Turner, V. W. 1969. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. Chicago: Aldine
Uzzi, B. 1997. “Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness.” Administrative Science Quarterly 42 (1): 35–67
Veblen, T. 1934 [1899]. The Theory of the Leisure Class. New York: Vanguard Press
Waal, F. de. 1996. Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press
Waal, F. de 2001. The Ape and the Sushi Master: Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist. London: Allen Lane
Waquant, L., and Wilson, J. 1989. “The cost of racial and class exclusion in the inner city.” Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 501: 8–26
Waldinger, R. 1995. “The ‘other side’ of embeddedness: A case-study of the interplay of economy and ethnicity.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 18 (3): 555–580
Walker, A. (ed.). 1996. The New Generational Contract: Intergenerational Relations, Old Age and Welfare. Londen: UCL Press
Weber, M. 1947 [1922]. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Trans. by A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. New York: Free Press
Weesie, J., Buskens, V., and Raub, W. 1998. “The management of trust relations via institutional and structural embeddedness.” In Doreian and Fararo 1998: 113–139
Weiner, A. 1976. Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange. Austin: University of Texas Press
Weiner, A. 1992. Inalienable Possessions: The Paradox of Keeping-while-Giving. Berkeley: University of California Press
Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regereringsbeleid (WRR). 1999. [Generationally aware policy]. (Report to the government, no. 58 Generatiebewust beleid). The Hague: Sdu Publishers
Willems, L. 1994. “Burgerzin en vrijwillige zorg” [Civic spirit and voluntary care]. In SCP-Report 1994b: 185–199
Wilson, E. O. 1975. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press
Wilson, G. 1993. “Intergenerational solidarity from the point of view of people in advanced old age.” In Becker and Hermkens 1993: 625–643
Wispé, L. G. 1972. “Positive forms of social behavior: An overview.” Journal of Social Issues 28 (3): 1–20
Wit, T. de, and Manschot, H. (eds.). 1999. Solidarei. [Solidarity]. Amsterdam: Boom
Withuis, J. 1990. Opoffering en heroïek. De mentale wereld van een communistische vrouwenorganisatie in naoorlogs Nederlan. [Sacrifice and heroism: The mental world of a communist women's organization in the postwar Netherlands]. Meppel: Boom
Wolfe, A. 1989. Whose Keeper? Social Science and Moral Obligation. Berkeley: University of California Press
Wolfe, A. 2000. “Are we losing our virtue?” In Rouner 2000: 126–142
Wolff, K. (ed.). 1950. The Sociology of Georg Simmel. New York: Free Press
Wrong, D. H. 1994. The Problem of Order: What Unites and Divides Society. New York: Free Press
Wuthnow, R. 1991. Acts of Compassion: Caring for Others and Helping Ourselves. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Young, M., and Willmott, P. 1973. The Symmetrical Family: A Study of Work and Leisure in the London Region. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Zoll, R. 2000. Was ist Solidarität heute. [What is solidarity today?]. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp