12 - The passionate scientist: emotion in scientific cognition  pp. 235-250

The passionate scientist: emotion in scientific cognition

By Paul Thagard

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



This chapter discusses the cognitive contributions that emotions make to scientific inquiry, including the justification as well as the discovery of hypotheses. James Watson's description of how he and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA illustrates how positive and negative emotions contribute to scientific thinking. I conclude that emotions are an essential part of scientific cognition.

Introduction

Since Plato, most philosophers have drawn a sharp line between reason and emotion, assuming that emotions interfere with rationality and have nothing to contribute to good reasoning. In his dialogue the Phaedrus, Plato compared the rational part of the soul to a charioteer who must control his steeds, which correspond to the emotional parts of the soul (Plato, 1961, p. 499). Today, scientists are often taken as the paragons of rationality, and scientific thought is generally assumed to be independent of emotional thinking.

Current research in cognitive science is increasingly challenging the view that emotions and reason are antagonistic to each other, however. Evidence is accumulating in cognitive psychology and neuroscience that emotions and rational thinking are closely intertwined (see, for example: Damasio, 1994; Kahneman, 1999; Panksepp, 1999). My aim in this chapter is to extend that work and describe the role of the emotions in scientific thinking. If even scientific thinking is legitimately emotional, then the traditional division between reason and emotion becomes totally unsupportable.

My chapter begins with a historical case study.

12

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Adler, J. (1984). Abstraction is uncooperative. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 14
AHG/APESA (1992). Plan de desarollo integrado de Petén: Inventario forestal del Departamento del Petén (Convenio Gobiernos Alemania y Guatemala). Santa Elena, Petén. SEGEPLAN
Ahn, W. and Bailenson, J. (1996). Causal attribution as a search for underlying mechanisms: an explanation of the conjunction fallacy and the discounting principle. Cognitive Psychology, 31
Ahn, W., Kalish, C., Medin, D. and Gelman, S. (1995). The role of covariation versus mechanism information in causal attribution. Cognition, 54
Aiello, L. and Wheeler, P. (1995). The expensive tissues hypothesis. Current Anthropology, 36
Amado, G. and Deumie, C. (1991). Pratiques magiques et régressives dans la gestion des ressources humaines. Revue de Gestion des Ressources Humaines, 1
Anderson, J. (1990). The Adaptive Character of Thought. Lawrence Erlbaum
Armstrong, D. (1968). A Materialist Theory of the Mind. Routledge
Armstrong, D. (1973). Belief, Truth and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press
Arsuaga, J.-L., Martinez, I., Gracia, A., Carretero, J.-M. and Carbonell, E. (1993). Three new human skulls from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site in Sierra de Atapuerca. Nature, 362
Atran, S. (1985). The nature of folk-botanical life forms. American Anthropologist, 87
Atran, S. (1987). Origins of the species and genus concepts. Journal of the History of Biology, 20
Atran, S. (1990). Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science. Cambridge University Press
Atran, S. (1998). Folk biology and the anthropology of science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21
Atran, S. (1999). Itzaj Maya folk-biological taxonomy. In D. Medin and S. Atran (eds.), Folk Biology. MIT Press
Atran, S. and Sperber, D. (1991). Learning without teaching: its place in culture. In L. Tolchinsky-Landsmann (ed.), Culture, Schooling and Psychological Development. Norwood, NJ: Ablex
Atran, S. and Ucan Ek', E. (1999). Classification of useful plants among the Northern Peten Maya. In C. White (ed.), Reconstructing Maya Diet. University of New Mexico Press
Atran, S., Estin, P., Coley, J. and Medin, D. (1997). Generic species and basic levels: essence and appearance in folk biology. Journal of Ethnobiology, 17
Atran, S., Medin, D., Lynch, E., Vapnarsky, V., Ucan Ek', E. and Sousa, P. (2001). Folk biology doesn't come from folk psychology: evidence from Yukatek Maya in cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 1
Atran, S., Medin, D., Ross, N., Lynch, E., Coley, J., Ucan Ek', E. and Vapnarsky, V. (1999). Folk ecology and commons management in the Maya Lowlands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 96
Au, T., Romo, L. and DeWitt, J. (1999). Considering children's folk biology in health education. In M. Siegal and C. Peterson (eds.), Children's Understanding of Biology and Health. Cambridge University Press
Au, T., Sidle, A. and Rollins, K. (1993). Developing an intuitive understanding of conservation and contamination: invisible particles as a plausible mechanism. Developmental Psychology, 29
Axelrod, R. (1986). An evolutionary approach to norms. American Political Science Review, 80(4)
Ayer, A. (1946). Language, Truth and Logic. Gollancz
Bahrick, L. and Watson, J. (1985). Detection of intermodal proprioceptive – visual contingency as a potential basis of self-perception in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 21(6)
Baillargeon, R. (1995). Physical reasoning in infancy. In M. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press
Baker, L. and Dunbar, K. (2001). Experimental design heuristics for scientific discovery: the use of ‘baseline’ and ‘known’ standard controls. International Journal of Computer Studies
Ball, L., Evans, J. and Dennis, I. (1994). Cognitive processes in engineering design: a longitudinal study. Ergonomics, 37
Ball, L., Evans, J., Dennis, I. and Oremord, T. (1997). Problem solving strategies and expertise in engineering design. Thinking and Reasoning, 3
Banning, E. (1998). The Neolithic period: triumphs of architecture, agriculture and art. Near Eastern Archaeology, 61
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. (eds.) (1992). The Adapted Mind. Oxford University Press
Barnes, A. and Thagard, A. (1997). Empathy and analogy. Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review, 36
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. MIT Press
Barrett, J. and Keil, F. (1996). Conceptualizing a nonnatural entity: anthropomorphism in God concepts. Cognitive Psychology, 31
Barrett, J., Richert, R. and Driesenga, A. (2001). God's beliefs versus mother's: the development of non-human agent concepts. Child Development, 72
Barsalou, L. (1983). Ad hoc categories. Memory and Cognition, 11
Barsalou, L. (1991). Deriving categories to achieve goals. In G. Bower (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory. Academic Press
Barsalou, L. (1999). Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral and Brain Systems, 22
Bartlett, H. (1936). A method of procedure for field work in tropical American phytogeography based on a botanical reconnaissance in parts of British Honduras and the Petén forest of Guatemala. Botany of the Maya Area, Miscellaneous Papers I. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, 461
Bartlett, H. (1940). History of the generic concept in botany. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 47
Barwise, J. and Etchemendy, J. (1996). Heterogeneous logic. In G. Allwein and J. Barwise (eds.), Logical Reasoning with Diagrams. Oxford University Press
Bar-Yosef, O. (1998). On the nature of transitions: the Middle to the Upper Palaeolithic and the Neolithic revolutions. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 8
Basso, A., Spinnler, H., Vallar, G. and Zanobio, M. (1982). Left hemisphere damage and selective impairment of auditory verbal short-term memory: a case study. Neuropsychologia, 20
Bechtel, W. (1996a). What should a connectionist philosophy of science look like?. In R. McCauley (ed.), The Churchlands and Their Critics. Blackwell
Bechtel, W. (1996b). What knowledge must be in the head in order to acquire knowledge?. In B. Velichkovsky and D. Rumbaugh (eds.), Communicating Meaning: The Evolution and Development of Language. Lawrence Erlbaum
Ben-Shakhar, G., Bar-Hillel, M., Blui, Y., Ben-Abba, E. and Flug, A. (1989). Can graphology predict occupational success? Journal of Applied Psychology, 71
Bentham, J. (1879). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Oxford University Press
Berk, L. (1994). Why children talk to themselves. Scientific American, November
Berlin, B. (1978). Ethnobiological classification. In E. Rosch and B. Lloyd (eds.), Cognition and Categorization. Lawrence Erlbaum
Berlin, B. (1992). Ethnobiological Classification. Princeton University Press
Berlin, B. (1999). How a folk biological system can be both natural and comprehensive. In D. Medin and S. Atran (eds.), Folk Biology. MIT Press
Berlin, B., Breedlove, D. and Raven, P. (1973). General principles of classification and nomenclature in folk biology. American Anthropologist, 74
Bickerton, D. (1995). Language and Human Behavior. University of Washington Press (UCL Press, 1996)
Binford, L. (1981). Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths. Academic Press
Binford, L. (1986). Comment on ‘Systematic butchery by Plio/Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge’, by H. T. Bunn and E. M. Kroll. Current Anthropology, 27
Blanchette, I. and Dunbar, K. (2001). How analogies are generated: the roles of structural and superficial similarity. Memory and Cognition, 29
Block, N. and Fodor, J. (1972). What psychological states are not. Philosophical Review, 81
Bloom, P. (2000). How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. MIT Press
Bloor, D. (1976). Knowledge and Social Imagery. Routledge
Blurton-Jones, N. and Konner, M. (1976).!Kung knowledge of animal behaviour. In R. Lee and I. DeVore (eds.), Kalahari Hunter – Gatherers. Cambridge University Press
Bock, W. (1973). Philosophical foundations of classical evolutionary taxonomy. Systematic Zoology, 22
Boden, M. (1990). The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson (expanded edn., Abacus, 1991)
Boëda, E. (1988). Le concept laminaire: rupture et filiation avec le concept Levallois. In J. Kozlowski (ed.), L'Homme Neanderthal, Vol. 8: La Mutation. Liège, Belgium: ERAUL
Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. (1984). Mental maps in wild chimpanzees: an analysis of hammer transports for nut cracking. Primates, 25
Bohner, G., Bless, H., Schwarz, N. and Strack, F. (1988). What triggers causal attributions? The impact of valence and subjective probability. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18
Bond, R. and Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: a meta-analysis of studies using Asch's (1952b, 1956) line-judgement task. Psychological Bulletin, 119
Boster, J. (1991). The information economy model applied to biological similarity judgement. In L. Resnick, J. Levine and S. Teasley (eds.), Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition. American Psychological Association
Botterill, G. and Carruthers, P. (1999). The Philosophy of Psychology. Cambridge University Press
Bower, G. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36
Boyd, R. (1989). What Realism implies and what it does not. Dialectica, 43(1–2)
Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. (1992). Punishment allows the evolution of co-operation (or anything else) in sizeable groups. Ethology and Sociobiology, 13
Boyd, R. and Silk, J. (1997). How Humans Evolved. Norton
Boyer, P. and Walker, S. (2000). Intuitive ontology and cultural input in the acquisition of religious concepts. In K. Rosengren, C. Johnson and P. Harris (eds.), Imagining the Impossible: Magical, Scientific and Religious Thinking in Children. Cambridge University Press
Brown, C. (1984). Language and Living Things: Uniformities in Folk Classification and Naming. Rutgers University Press
Brown, D. and Boysen, S. (2000). Spontaneous discrimination of natural stimuli by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 114
Brown, R. and Fish, D. (1983). The psychological causality implicit in language. Cognition, 14
Brown, R. and van Kleeck, R. (1989). Enough said: three principles of explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57
Bullock, M. and Gelman, R. (1979). Preschool children's assumptions about cause and effect: temporal ordering. Child Development, 50(1)
Bulmer, R. (1974). Folk biology in the New Guinea Highlands. Social Science Information, 13
Bunn, H. and Kroll, E. (1986). Systematic butchery by Plio-Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Current Anthropology, 27
Bush, V. (1945). Science: The Endless Frontier. Washington DC: National Science Foundation
Bussey, K. and Bandura, A. (2000). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106
Butterfield, H. (1957). The Origins of Modern Science 1300–1800 (revised edn.). London: Bell
Butterworth, G., Siegal, M., Newcombe, P. and Dorfmann, M. (2002). Models and methodology in children's cosmology. Manuscript submitted for publication. University of Sheffield
Campbell, J. (1995). Past, Space and Self. MIT Press
Carbonell, E., Bermúdez de Castro, J.-M., Arsuaga, J.-M., Diez, J., Rosas, A., Cuenca-Bercos, G., Sala, R., Mosquera, M. and Rodriguez, X. (1995). Lower Pleistocene hominids and artefacts from Atapuerca – TD-6 (Spain). Science, 269
Carey, S. (1985). Conceptual Change in Childhood. MIT Press
Carey, S. (1995). On the origin of causal understanding. In D. Sperber, D. Premack and A. Premack (eds.), Causal Cognition. Oxford University Press
Carey, S. (1996). Cognitive domains as modes of thought. In D. Olson and N. Torrance (eds.), Modes of Thought. Cambridge University Press
Carey, S. (1999). Sources of conceptual change. In E. Scholnick, K. Nelson, S. Gelman and P. Miller (eds.), Conceptual Development: Piaget's Legacy. Lawrence Erlbaum
Carey, S. (2000a). Science education as conceptual change. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21
Carey, S. (2000b). Whorf versus continuity theorists: bringing data to bear on the debate. In M. Bowerman, and S. Levinson (eds.), Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development. Cambridge University Press
Carey, S. and Spelke, E. (1994). Domain-specific knowledge and conceptual change. In L. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (eds.), Mapping the Mind: Domain-Specificity in Culture and Cognition. Cambridge University Press
Carey, S. and Spelke, E. (1996). Science and core knowledge. Philosophy of Science, 63
Carnap, R. (1950). Logical Foundations of Probability. Chicago University Press
Carnap, R. (1967). The Logical Structure of the World (trans. R. George). Routledge & Kegan Paul
Carruthers, P. (1992). Human Knowledge and Human Nature. Oxford University Press
Carruthers, P. (1996a). Language, Thought and Consciousness. Cambridge University Press
Carruthers, P. (1996b). Autism as mind-blindness: an elaboration and partial defence. In P. Carruthers and P. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press
Carruthers, P. (1998). Thinking in language: evolution and a modularist possibility. In P. Carruthers and J. Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought. Cambridge University Press
Carruthers, P. (2002). Human creativity: its cognitive basis, its evolution, and its connections with childhood pretence. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 53
Carruthers, P. and Chamberlain, A. (eds.) (2000). Evolution and the Human Mind. Cambridge University Press
Cartwright, N. (1983). How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford University Press
Cartwright, N. (1989). Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement. Oxford University Press
Cerella, J. (1979). Visual classes and natural categories in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance, 5
Chandrasekaran, B., Glasgow, J. and Narayanan, N. (1995). Diagrammatic Reasoning: Cognitive and Computational Perspectives. MIT Press
Chater, N. (1999). The search for simplicity: a fundamental cognitive principle? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52A
Cheney, D. and Seyfarth, R. (1990). How Monkeys See the World. Chicago University Press
Cheng, P. (1993). Separating causal laws from casual facts: pressing the limits of statistical relevance. In D. Medin (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. Academic Press
Cheng, P. (1997). From covariation to causation: a causal power theory. Psychological Review, 104(2)
Cheng, P. (1999). Causal reasoning. In R. Wilson and F. Keil (eds.), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. MIT Press
Cheng, P. and Holyoak, K. (1985). Pragmatic reasoning schemas. Cognitive Psychology, 17
Cheng, P. and Novick, L. (1992). Convantion in natural causal induction. Psychological Review, 99
Chi, M., Feltovich, P. and Glaser, R. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5
Chinn, C. and Brewer, W. (1993). Factors that influence how people respond to anomalous data. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society
Chinn, C. and Brewer, W. (1998). An empirical test of a taxonomy of responses to anomalous data in science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(6)
Chinn, C. and Brewer, W. (2000). Knowledge change in response to science, religion and magic. In K. Rosengren, C. Johnson and P. Harris (eds.), Imagining the Impossible: Magical, Scientific and Religious Thinking in Children. Cambridge University Press
Chomsky, N. (1988). Language and Problems of Knowledge: The Managua Lectures. MIT Press
Churchland, P. (1981). Eliminative materialism and the propositional attitudes. Journal of Philosophy, 78
Churchland, P. (1989). A Neurocomputational Perspective: The Nature of Mind and the Structure of Science. MIT Press
Churchland, P. (1990). On the nature of explanation: A PDP approach. Physica, 42
Clark, A. (1997). Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. MIT Press
Clark, A. (1998). Magic words: how language augments human computation. In P. Carruthers and J. Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press
Clement, J. (1989). Learning via model construction and criticism. In G. Glover, R. Ronning and C. Reynolds (eds.), Handbook of Creativity: Assessment, Theory, and Research. Plenum
Coady, C. (1992). Testimony. Oxford University Press
Cohen, L. (1981). Can human irrationality be experimentally demonstrated? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4
Coley, J., Medin, D. and Atran, S. (1997). Does rank have its privilege? Inductive inferences in folkbiological taxonomies. Cognition, 63
Coley, J., Medin, D., Lynch, E., Proffitt, J. and Atran, S. (1999). Inductive reasoning in folk-biological thought. In D. Medin and S. Atran (eds.), Folk Biology. MIT Press
Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with Wason Selection Task. Cognition, 31
Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. (1992). Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides and J. Tooby (eds.), The Adapted Mind. Oxford University Press
Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. (1994). Origins of domain specificity: the evolution of functional organization. In L. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (eds.), Mapping the Mind: Domain-Specificity in Culture and Cognition. Cambridge University Press
Craik, K. (1943). The Nature of Explanation. Cambridge University Press
Crick, F. (1988). What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books
Crombie, A. (1994). Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition: The History of Argument and Explanation Especially in the Mathematical and Biomedical Sciences. London: Duckworth
Cunningham, A. and Williams, P. (1993). De-centering the ‘big’ picture: the origins of modern science and the modern origins of science. British Journal of the History of Science, 26
Curtiss, S. (1977). Genie: A Psycholinguistic Study of a Modern-day ‘Wild Child’. Academic Press
D'Errico, F. (1995). A new model and its implications for the origin of writing: the La Marche antler revisited. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 5
D'Errico, F. and Nowell, A. (2000). A new look at the Berekhat Ram figurine: implications for the origins of symbolism. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 10
D'Errico, F., Zilhao, J., Julien, M., Baffier, D. and Pelegrin, J. (1998). Neanderthal acculturation in Western Europe? A critical review of the evidence and its interpretation. Current Anthropology, 39
Daly, M. and Wilson, M. (1988). Homicide. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter
Dama, M. and Dunbar, K. (1996). Distributed reasoning. When social and cognitive worlds fuse. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society
Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. Putnam Books (Picador, 1995)
Darden, L. (1980). Theory construction in genetics. In T. Nickles (ed.), Scientific Discovery: Case Studies. Dordrecht: Reidel
Darden, L. (1991). Theory Change in Science: Strategies from Mendelian Genetics. Oxford University Press
Darley, J. and Batson, C. (1973). From Jerusalem to Jericho: a study of situational and dispositional variables in helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27
Darwin, C. (1859). On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London: Murray
Darwin, C. (1883). On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection (6th edn.). New York: Appleton (originally published 1872)
Davidson, D. (1970). Mental events. In L. Foster and J. Swanson (eds.), Experience and Theory. Duckworth
Davis, M. (1999). Response to Weak Argument on the Part of Asians and Americans. University of Michigan
Davis, M., Nisbett, R. and Schwarz, N. (1999). Responses to Weak Arguments by Asians and Americans. University of Michigan
Dawes, R. (1994). House of Cards: Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth. Free Press
de Sousa, R. (1987). The Rationality of Emotion. MIT Press
de Villiers, J. and de Villiers, P. (1999). Linguistic determinism and the understanding of false beliefs. In P. Mitchell and K. Riggs (eds.), Children's Reasoning and the Mind. Psychology Press
Dehaerne, S. (1997). The Number Sense. Penguin Press
DeKleer, J. and Brown, J. (1983). Assumptions and ambiguities in mechanistic mental models. In D. Stevens (ed.), Mental Models. Lawrence Erlbaum
Dennett, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. London: Allen Lane
Dennett, D. (1993). Consciousness Explained (2nd edn.). Penguin
Dennett, D. (1995). Darwin's Dangerous Idea. Penguin Press
Diamond, J. (1966). Zoological classification system of a primitive people. Science, 15
Diamond, J. and Bishop, D. (1999). Ethno-ornithology of the Ketengban people, Indonesian New Guinea. In D. Medin and S. Atran (eds.), Folk Biology. MIT Press
Dias, M. and Harris, P. (1988). The effect of make-believe play on deductive reasoning. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6
Dickinson, A. (1980). Contemporary Animal Learning Theory. Cambridge University Press
Dickinson, A., Shanks, D. and Evenden, J. (1984). Judgement of act – outcome contingency: the role of selective attribution. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37B
Diver, C. (1940). The problem of closely related species living in the same area. In J. Huxley (ed.), The New Systematics. Oxford University Press
Dixon, E. (2001). Human colonization of the Americas: timing, technology and process. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20
Doherty, M., Mynatt, C., Tweney, R. and Schiavo, M. (1979). Pseudodiagnosticity. Acta Psychologica, 43
Donaldson, M. (1978). Children's Minds. Fontana
Donnellan, K. (1971). Necessity and criteria. In J. Rosenberg and C. Travis (eds.), Readings in the Philosophy of Language. Prentice-Hall
Dougherty, J. (1979). Learning names for plants and plants for names. Anthropological Linguistics, 21
Dretske, F. (1969). Seeing and Knowing. Chicago University Press
Dretske, F. (1981). Knowledge and the Flow of Information. MIT Press
Dunbar, K. (1993). ‘In vivo cognition: knowledge representation and change in real-world scientific laboratories.’ Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development. New Orleans
Dunbar, K. (1995). How scientists really reason: scientific reasoning in real-world laboratories. In R. Sternberg and J. Davidson (eds.), The Nature of Insight. MIT Press
Dunbar, K. (1997). How scientists think: online creativity and conceptual change in science. In T. Ward, S. Smith and S. Vaid (eds.), Conceptual Structures and Processes: Emergence, Discovery and Change. APA Press
Dunbar, K. (1999a). The scientist in vivo: how scientists think and reason in the laboratory. In L. Magnani, N. Nersessian and P. Thagard (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Plenum Press
Dunbar, K. (1999b). Science. In M. Runco and S. Pritzker (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Creativity. Academic Press
Dunbar, K. (1999c). Cognitive development and scientific thinking. In R. Wilson and F. Keil (eds.), The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. MIT Press
Dunbar, K. (2000). How scientists think and reason: implications for education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21
Dunbar, K. (2001a). What scientific thinking reveals about the nature of cognition. In K. Crowley, C. D. Scheenn and T. Okada (eds.), Designing for Science: Implications from Everyday, Classroom, and Professional Settings. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA
Dunbar, K. (2001b). The analogical paradox: why analogy is so easy in naturalistic settings, yet so difficult in the psychology laboratory. In D. Gentner, K. Holyoak and B. Kokinov (eds.), The Analogical Mind: Perspective from Cognitive Science. MIT Press
Dunbar, K. and Dama, M. (in preparation). Why groups sometimes work and sometimes fail: the representational change cycle
Dunbar, K. and Klahr, D. (1989). Developmental differences in scientific discovery processes. In D. Klahr and K. Kotovsky (eds.), Complex Information Processing: The Impact of Herbert A. Simon. Brighton: Lawrence Erlbaum
Dunbar, R. (1995) The Trouble with Science. Faber & Faber
Dunbar, R. (1996). Gossip, Grooming and the Evolution of Language. Faber & Faber
Dupré, J. (1993). The Disorder of Things. Harvard University Press
Ehreshefsky, M. (1992). Eliminative pluralism. Philosophy of Science, 59
Einhorn, H. and Hogarth, R. (1978). Confidence in judgement: persistence of the illusion of validity. Psychological Review, 85
Einhorn, H. and Hogarth, R. (1986). Judging probable cause. Psychological Bulletin, 99
Ekman, P. (1972). Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. Cole (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1971, Vol. 4. University of Nebraska Press
Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6
Eldredge, N. (1986). Information, economics and evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17
Ellen, R. (1993). The Cultural Relations of Classification. Cambridge University Press
Elman, J., Bates, E., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D. and Plunkett, K. (1997). Rethinking Innateness. MIT Press
Ericsson, K. A. and Simon, H. A. (1984). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data (revised edn., 1993). MIT Press
Evans, E. (2001). Cognitive and contextual factors in the emergence of diverse belief systems: creation versus evolution. Cognitive Psychology, 42
Evans, J. (1989). Bias in Human Reasoning: Causes and Consequences. Brighton: Erlbaum
Evans, J. (1998). Matching bias in conditional reasoning: do we understand it after 25 years?. Thinking and Reasoning, 4
Evans, J. (1999). Hypothetical thinking in reasoning and decision making. ESRC Workshop on Reasoning and Thinking, London Guildhall University
Evans, J. (2001). Thinking and believing. In J. Garcia-Madruga, N. Carriedo and M. Gonzales-Labra (eds.), Mental Models on Reasoning. Madrid: UNED
Evans, J. and Handley, S. (1997). Necessary and possible inferences: a test of the mental model theory of reasoning. Report to the Economic and Social Research Council (Grant R000221742)
Evans, J. and Over, D. (1996). Rationality and Reasoning. Psychology Press
Evans, J. and Over, D. (1997). Rationality in reasoning: the case of deductive competence. Current Psychology of Cognition, 16
Evans, J., Allen, J. L., Newstead, S. E. and Polland, P. (1994). Debiasing by instruction: the case of belief bias. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 6
Evans, J., Handley, S., Harper, C. and Johnson-Laird, P. (1999). Reasoning about necessity and possibility: a test of the mental model theory of deduction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 25
Evans, J., Newstead, S. and Byrne, R. (1993). Human Reasoning: The Psychology of Deduction. Lawrence Erlbaum
Evans-Pritchard, E. (1976). Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. Oxford University Press (original work published 1937)
Faraday, M. (1839). Experimental Researches in Electricity, vol. 1, plate I. London: Taylor (reprinted New York: Dover, 1965)
Feeney, A. (1996). Information selection and belief updating in hypothesis evaluation. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Plymouth, UK
Feeney, A., Evans J. St B. T. and Clibbens, J. (2000). Background beliefs and evidence interpretation. Thinking and Reasoning, 6
Feyerabend, P. (1970). Consolations for the specialist. In I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge University Press
Feyerabend, P. (1975). Against Method. London: Verso
Feynman, R. (1999). The Pleasure of Finding Things Out. Perseus Books
Fischhoff, B. (1975). Hindsight ≠ foresight: the effect of outcome knowledge on judgement under uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1
Fischhoff, B. (1982). Debiasing. In D. Kahneman, P. Slovic and A. Tversky (eds.), Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Cambridge University Press
Flavell, J. (1986). The development of children's knowledge about the appearance – reality distinction. American Psychologist, 41
Flavell, J. (1993). The development of children's understanding of false belief and the appearance – reality distinction. International Journal of Psychology, 28
Flavell, J. (1999). Cognitive development: children's knowledge about the mind. Annual Review of Psychology, 50
Flavell, J., Flavell, E. and Green, F. (1983). Development of the appearance – reality distinction. Cognitive Psychology, 15
Flavell, J., Green, F. and Flavell, E. (1986). Development of the appearance – reality distinction. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 51, serial no. 212
Fodor, J. (1975). The Language of Thought. Thomas Y. Crowell Company
Fodor, J. (1981). RePresentations. Harvester Press
Fodor, J. (1983). The Modularity of Mind. MIT Press
Fodor, J. (1987). Psychosemantics. MIT Press
Fodor, J. (2000). The Mind Doesn't Work that Way. MIT Press
Gabunia, L., Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Swisher III, C., Ferring, R., Justus, A., Nioradze, M., Tvalchrelidze, M., Antón, S., Bosinski, G., Jöris, O., de Lumley, M., Majsuradze, G. and Mouskhelishvili, A. (2000). Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia. Science, 288
Gallistel, C. (1990). The Organization of Learning. MIT Press
Gallistel, R. and Gelman, R. (1992). Preverbal and verbal counting and computation. Cognition, 44
Gamble, C. (1993). Timewalkers: The Prehistory of Global Colonization. Stroud, UK: Alan Sutton
Gargett, R. (1989). Grave shortcomings: the evidence for Neanderthal burial. Current Anthropology, 30
Garrett, M. (1982). Production of speech: observations from normal and pathological language use. In A. Ellis (ed.), Normality and Pathology in Cognitive Functions. Academic Press
Gauvain, M. and Greene, J. (1994). What do children know about objects? Cognitive Development, 9
Gazzaniga, M., Ivry, R. and Mangun, G. (1998). Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind. W. W. Norton
Geary, D. (1995). Reflections on evolution and culture in children's cognition: Implications for mathematical development and instruction. American Psychologist, 50
Gelman, R. (1991). Epigenetic foundations of knowledge structures: initial and transcendent constructions. In S. Carey and R. Gelman (eds.), The Epigenesis of Mind: Essays on Biology and Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum
Gelman, R. (2000). The epigenesis of mathematical thinking. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21
Gelman, S. and Bloom, P. (2000). Young children are sensitive to how an object was created when deciding how to name it. Cognition, 76
Gelman, S. and Wellman, H. (1991). Insides and essence: early understandings of the non-obvious. Cognition, 38(3)
Gelman, S., Collman, P. and Maccoby, E. (1986). Inferring properties from categories versus inferring categories from properties: the case of gender. Child Development, 57
Gentner, D. (1983). Structure-mapping: a theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7
Gentner, D. (1989). The mechanisms of analogical learning. In S. Vosniadou and A. Ortony (eds.), Similarity and Analogical Reasoning. Cambridge University Press
Gentner, D. and Gentner, D. R. (1983). Flowing waters and teeming crowds: mental models of electricity. In D. Gentner and A. Stevens (eds.), Mental Models. Lawrence Erlbaum
Gentner, D., Brem, S., Ferguson, R., Markman, A., Levidow, B., Wolff, P. and Forbus, K. (1997). Analogical reasoning and conceptual change: a case study of Johannes Kepler. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6(1)
Gentner, D., Holyoak, K. and Kokinov. B. (eds.) (2001). The Analogical Mind: Perspective from Cognitive Science. MIT Press
George, C. (1995). The endorsement of the premises: assumption-based or belief-based reasoning. British Journal of Psychology, 86
German, T. and Leslie, A. (2001). Children's inferences from knowing to pretending and believing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19
Gick, M. and Holyoak, K. (1980). Analogical problem solving. Cognitive Psychology, 12
Gick, M. and Holyoak, K. (1983). Schema induction and analogical transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 15
Giere, R. (1988). Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach. University of Chicago Press
Giere, R. (1989). Computer discovery and human interests. Social Studies of Science, 19
Giere, R. (1992). Cognitive models of science. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 15. University of Minnesota Press
Giere, R. (1994). The cognitive structure of scientific theories. Philosophy of Science, 61
Giere, R. (1996a). Visual models and scientific judgement. In B. Baigrie (ed.), Picturing Knowledge: Historical and Philosophical Problems Concerning the Use of Art in Science. University of Toronto Press
Giere, R. (1996b). The scientist as adult. Philosophy of Science, 63
Giere, R. (1999a). Science without Laws. University of Chicago Press
Giere, R. (1999b). Using models to represent reality. In L. Magnani, N. Nersessian and P. Thagard (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Kluwer
Gigerenzer, G. (2000). Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World. Oxford University Press
Gigerenzer, G., Todd, P. and the ABC Research Group (1999). Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart. Oxford University Press
Giménez, M. and Harris, P. (2001). Understanding the impossible: intimations of immortality and omniscience in early childhood. Paper presented at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Minneapolis, MI, 19–22 April
Girotto, V., Evans, J. and Legrenzi, P. (2000). Pseudodiagnosticity in hypothesis testing: a focussing phenomenon. Unpublished manuscript. University of Provence
Glymour, C. (2000). Bayes-Nets as psychological models. In F. Keil and R. Wilson (eds.), Cognition and Explanation. MIT Press
Glymour, C. (2001). The Mind's Arrows. Bayes Nets and Graphical Causal Models Psychology. MIT Press
Glymour, C. and Cooper, G. (eds.) (1999). Computation, Causation, and Discovery. AAAI/MIT PRESS
Goldin-Meadow, S. and Zheng, M.-Y. (1998). Thought before language: the expression of motion events prior to the impact of a conventional language system. In P. Carruthers and J. Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press
Goldman, A. (1976). Discrimination and perceptual knowledge. Journal of Philosophy, 73
Goldman, A. (1979). What is justified belief? In G. Pappas (ed.), Justification and Knowledge. Reidel
Goldman, A. (1986). Epistemology and Cognition. Harvard University Press
Goldman, A. (1993). The psychology of folk psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16
Goldman, A. (1999). Knowledge in a Social World. Oxford University Press
Gooding, D. (1981). Final steps to the field theory: Faraday's study of electromagnetic phenomena, 1845–1850. Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 11
Gooding, D. (1990). Experiment and the Making of Meaning: Human Agency in Scientific Observation and Experiment. Kluwer
Gooding, D. (1992). The procedural turn: or why did Faraday's thought experiments work? In R. Giere (ed.), Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press
Gopnik, A. (1988). Conceptual and semantic development as theory change. Mind and Language, 3
Gopnik, A. (1993). The illusion of first-person knowledge of intentionality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16
Gopnik, A. (1996a). The scientist as child. Philosophy of Science, 63
Gopnik, A. (1996b). A reply to commentators. Philosophy of Science, 63
Gopnik, A. (1998). Explanation as orgasm. Minds and Machines, 8(1)
Gopnik, A. and Meltzoff, A. (1997). Words, Thoughts and Theories. MIT Press
Gopnik, A. and Sobel, D. (2000). Detecting blickets: how young children use information about novel causal powers in categorization and induction. Child Development, 71(5)
Gopnik, A., Sobel, O. M., Schulz, L. and Glymour, C. (2001). Causal learning mechanisms in very young children. Two, three, and four-year-olds inter causal relations from patterns of dependent and independent probability. Developmental Psychology, 37(5)
Gopnik, A. and Wellman, H. (1992). Why the child's theory of mind really is a theory. Mind and Language, 7
Gopnik, A. and Wellman, H. (1994). The theory-theory. In L. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (eds.), Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture. Cambridge University Press
Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. and Kuhl, P. (1999a). The Scientist in the Crib: Minds, Brains and How Children Learn. William Morrow
Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. and Kuhl, P. (1999b). How Babies Think. Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Gorman, M. (1995). Confirmation, disconfirmation and invention: the case of Alexander Graham Bell and the telephone. Thinking and Reasoning, 1
Goswami, U. (1998). Cognition in Children. Psychology Press
Gould, S. and Lewontin, R. (1979). The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. In E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. MIT Press
Gowlett, J. (1984). Mental abilities of early man: a look at some hard evidence. In R. Foley (ed.), Hominid Evolution and Community Ecology. Academic Press
Green, D. and Over, D. (2000). Decision theoretic effects in testing a causal conditional. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition, 19
Greenberg, J. and Baron, R. (1997). Behavior in Organizations. (6th edn.). Prentice-Hall
Greeno, J. (1998). The situativity of knowing, learning, and research. American Psychologist, 53
Grice, H. (1961). The causal theory of perception. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, supplementary volume 35
Grice, H. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Wiley
Griesemer, J. (1991a). Material models in biology. PSA 1990. East Lansing, MI: PSA
Griesemer, J. (1991b). Must scientific diagrams be eliminable? The case of path analysis. Biology and Philosophy, 6
Griesemer, J. and Wimsatt, W. (1989). Picturing Weismannism: a case study of conceptual evolution. In M. Ruse (ed.), What the Philosophy of Biology is: Essays for David Hull. Kluwer
Griffith, T. (1999). A computational theory of generative modeling in scientific reasoning. PhD thesis. College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
Griffith, T., Nersessian, N. and Goel, A. (1996). The role of generic models in conceptual change. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 18. Lawrence Erlbaum
Griffith, T., Nersessian, N. and Goel, A. (2001). Function-follows-form transformations in scientific problem solving. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, Vol. 22. Lawrence Erlbaum
Griggs, R. and Cox, J. (1982). The elusive thematic materials effect in the Wason selection task. British Journal of Psychology, 73
Guantao, J., Hongye, F. and Qingfeng, L. (1996). The structure of science and technology in history: on the factors delaying the development of science and technology in China in comparison with the west since the 17th century (Parts One and Two). In F. Dainian and R. Cohen (eds.), Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science (Vol. 179): Chinese Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology. Kluwer
Gutmann, A. and Thompson, D. (1996). Deliberative Democracy. Harvard University Press
Hacking, I. (1975). The Emergence of Probability. Cambridge University Press
Hamilton, D. and Gifford, R. (1976). Illusory correlation in interpersonal perception: a cognitive basis of stereotypic judgements. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12
Harman, G. (1999). Moral philosophy and linguistics. In K. Brinkmann (ed.), Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of Philosophy, Vol. I: Ethics. Bowling Green, OH: Philosophy Documentation Center
Harris, P. (2000a). On not falling down to earth: children's metaphysical questions. In K. Rosengren, C. Johnson and P. Harris (eds.), Imagining the Impossible: Magical, Scientific, and Religious Thinking in Children. Cambridge University Press
Harris, P. (2000b). The Work of the Imagination. Blackwell
Harris, P. L. and Giménez, M. (2001). Intimations of mortality and omniscience in early childhood. Paper presented at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Minneapolis, MI, 19–22 April
Harris, P., German, T. and Mills, P. (1996). Children's use of counterfactual thinking in causal reasoning. Cognition, 61(3)
Hart, H. and Honoré, A. (1985). Causation in the Law (2nd edn.). Oxford University Press
Hastie, R. (1984). Causes and effects of causal attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46
Hatano, G. and Inagaki, K. (1994). Young children's naive theory of biology. Cognition, 50
Hatano, G. and Inagaki, K. (1999). A developmental perspective on informal biology. In D. Medin and S. Atran (eds.), Folk Biology. MIT Press
Hauser, M. (2000). Wild Minds: What Animals Really Think. New York: Henry Holt
Hays, T. (1983). Ndumba folkbiology and general principles of ethnobotanical classification and nomenclature. American Anthropologist, 85
Heaton, R., Chelune, G., Talley, J., Kay, G. and Curtiss, G. (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Bowling Green, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources
Hegarty, M. (1992). Mental animation: inferring motion from static diagrams of mechanical systems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18(5)
Hegarty, M. and Just, M. (1994). Constructing mental models of machines from text and diagrams. Journal of Memory and Language, 32
Hegarty, M. and Sims, V. (1994). Individual differences in mental animation from text and diagrams. Journal of Memory and Language, 32
Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley
Hejmadi, A., Rozin, P. and Siegal, M. (2002). Children's understanding of contamination and purification in India and the United States. Unpublished manuscript. University of Pennsylvania
Hempel, C. (1965). Aspects of Scientific Explanation and other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. London: Collier Macmillan/New York: Free Press
Hempel, C. (1966). The Philosophy of Natural Science. Prentice-Hall
Hermer-Vazquez, L., Spelke, E. and Katsnelson, A. (1999). Sources of flexibility in human cognition: dual-task studies of space and language. Cognitive Psychology, 39
Herrnstein, R. (1984). Objects, categories, and discriminative stimuli. In H. Roitblat (ed.), Animal Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum
Hertwig, R. and Ortmann, A. (forthcoming a). Experimental practices in economics: a challenge for psychologists? Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Hertwig, R. and Ortmann, A. (forthcoming b). Does deception impair experimental control? A review of the evidence
Hesslow, G. (1988). The problem of causal selection. In D. Hilton (ed.), Contemporary Science and Natural Explanation: Common Sense Conceptions of Causality. Harvester Press
Hickling, A. and Gelman, S. (1995). How does your garden grow? Evidence of an early conception of plants as biological kinds. Child Development, 66(3)
Hilton, D. (1990). Conversational processes and causal explanation. Psychological Bulletin, 107
Hilton, D. (1991). A conversational model of causal explanation. In W. Stroebe and M. Hewstone (eds.), European Review of Social Psychology, 2
Hilton, D. (1995a). Logic and language in causal explanation. In D. Sperber, D. Premack and A. Premack (eds.), Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate. Oxford University Press
Hilton, D. (1995b). The social context of reasoning: conversational inference and rational judgement. Psychological Bulletin, 118
Hilton, D. and Erb, H.-P. (1996). Mental models and causal explanation: judgements of probable cause and explanatory relevance. Thinking and Reasoning, 2
Hilton, D. and Jaspars, J. (1987). The explanation of occurrences and non-occurrences: a test of the inductive logic model of causal attribution. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26
Hilton, D. and Neveu, J.-P. (1996). Induction and utility in managerial decision making: the enduring value of John Stuart Mill's perspective. Paper presented at the Colloque L'Utilitarisme: analyse et histoire. Faculté des Sciences Economiques et Sociales de l'Université Lille I, 25–26 January 1996
Hilton, D. and Slugoski, B. (1986). Knowledge-based causal attribution: the abnormal conditions focus model. Psychological Review, 93
Hilton, D. and Slugoski, B. (2000). Discourse processes and rational inference: judgement and decision-making in a social context. In T. Connolly, H. Arkes and K. Hammond (eds.), Judgement and Decision-making: A Reader (2nd edn.). Cambridge University Press
Hilton, D., Mathes, R. and Trabasso, T. (1992). The study of causal explanation in natural language: Analysing reports of the Challenger disaster in the ‘New York Times’. In M. McLaughlin, S. Cody and S. Read (eds.), Explaining One's Self to Others: Reason-Giving in a Social Context. Lawrence Erlbaum
Hirschfeld, L. (1995). Do children have a theory of race? Cognition, 54
Hirschfeld, L. (1996). Race in the Making. MIT Press
Holland, J., Holyoak, K., Nisbett, R. and Thagard, P. (1986). Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery. MIT Press
Holmes, F. (1981). The fine structure of scientific creativity. History of Science, 19
Holmes, F. (1985). Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life: An Exploration of Scientific Creativity. University of Wisconsin Press
Holyoak, K. and Thagard, P. (1989). Analogical mapping by constraint satisfaction: a computational theory. Cognitive Science, 13
Holyoak, K. and Thagard, P. (1996). Mental Leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. MIT Press
Hookway, C. (1993). Mimicking foundationalism: on sentiment and self-control. European Journal of Philosophy, 1
Hookway, C. (1999). Doubt: affective states and the regulation of inquiry. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 24
Hookway, C. (2001). Epistemic akrasia and epistemic virtue. In A. Fairweather and L. Zagzebski (eds.), Virtue Epistemology. Oxford University Press
Howson, C. and Urbach, P. (1993). Scientific Reasoning (2nd edn.). Chicago: Open Court
Hrdy, S. (1999). Mother Nature: A History of Mothers, Infants and Natural Selection. Pantheon
Hughes, C. and Plomin, R. (2000). Individual differences in early understanding of mind: genes, non-shared environment and modularity. In P. Carruthers and A. Chamberlain (eds.), Evolution and the Human Mind. Cambridge University Press
Hull, D. (1997). The ideal species definition and why we can't get it. In M. Claridge, H. Dawah and M. Wilson (eds.), Species: The Units of Biodiversity. Chapman & Hall
Hume, D. (1739). A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford, 1888)
Hunn, E. (1976). Toward a perceptual model of folk biological classification. American Ethnologist, 3
Hunn, E. (1977). Tzeltal Folk Zoology. Academic Press
Hunn, E. (1982). The utilitarian factor in folk biological classification. American Anthropologist, 84
Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the Wild. MIT Press
Inagaki, K. (1990). The effects of raising animals on children's biological knowledge. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8
Inagaki, K. and Hatano, G. (1991). Constrained person analogy in young children's biological inference. Cognitive Development, 6
Inagaki, K. and Hatano, G. (1993). Young children's understanding of the mind – body distinction. Child Development, 64
Inhelder, B. and Piaget, J. (1958). The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence. Routledge & Kegan Paul
Ippolito, M. and Tweney, R. (1995). The inception of insight. In R. Sternberg and J. Davidson (eds.), The Nature of Insight. MIT Press
Isaac, G. (1978). The food-sharing behaviour of proto-human hominids. Scientific American, 238
Isaac, G. (1984). The archaeology of human origins: studies of the Lower Pleistocene in East Africa. 1971–1981. Advances in World Archaeology, 3
Ishihara, S. (1983). Ishihara's Tests for Colour-Blindness. Kanehara
Jacob, F. (1988). The Statue Within (trans. F. Philip). Basic Books
Janis, I. (1971). Groupthink. Psychology Today, 5
Ji, L., Peng, K. and Nisbett, R. (2000). Culture, control and the perception of relationships in the environment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78
Job, R. and Surian, L. (1998). A neurocognitive mechanism for folk biology? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21
Johansen, D. and Edgar, B. (1996). From Lucy to Language. Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Johnson, C. (1990). If you had my brain, where would I be? Children's developing conceptions of the mind and brain. Child Development, 61
Johnson, C. and Wellman, H. (1982). Children's developing conception of the mind and brain. Child Development, 53
Johnson, S. and Solomon, G. (1997). Why dogs have puppies and cats have kittens: the role of birth in young children's understanding of biological origins. Child Development, 68
Johnson-Laird, P. (1982). The mental representation of the meaning of words. Cognition, 25
Johnson-Laird, P. (1983). Mental Models. MIT Press
Johnson-Laird, P. (1989). Mental models. In M. Posner (ed.), Foundations of Cognitive Science. MIT Press
Johnson-Laird, P. and Byrne, R. (1991). Deduction. Lawrence Erlbaum
Jordan, M. (ed.) (1998). Learning in Graphical Models. MIT Press
Judson, H. (1979). The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. Simon & Schuster
Kahneman, D. (1999). Objective happiness. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener and N. Schwarz (eds.), Well-Being: Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. Russell Sage Foundation
Kahneman, D. and Miller, D. (1986). Norm theory: comparing reality to its alternatives. Psychological Review, 93
Kahneman, D., Slovic, P. and Tversky, A. (eds.) (1982). Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Cambridge University Press
Kalish, C. (1996). Preschoolers' understanding of germs as invisible mechanisms. Cognitive Development, 11
Kalish, C. (1997). Preschoolers' understanding of mental and bodily reactions to contamination: what you don't know can hurt you, but cannot sadden you. Developmental Psychology, 33
Kalish, C. (1999). What young children's understanding of contamination and contagion tells us about their concepts of illness. In M. Siegal and C. Peterson (eds.), Children's Understanding of Biology and Health. Cambridge University Press
Kant, I. (1951). Critique of Judgement (trans. J. Bernard). New York: Hafner Press (originally published in German in 1790)
Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992). Beyond Modularity. MIT Press
Kay, J., Lesser, R. and Coltheart, M. (1992). Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia. Psychology Press
Keil, F. (1979). Semantic and Conceptual Development: An Ontological Perspective. Harvard University Press
Keil, F. (1989). Concepts, Kinds, and Cognitive Development. MIT Press
Keil, F. (1994). The birth and nurturance of concepts by domains: the origins of concepts of living things. In L. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (eds.), Mapping the Mind: Domain-Specificity in Culture and Cognition. Cambridge University Press
Keil, F. (1995). The growth of causal understandings of natural kinds. In D. Sperber, D. Premack and A. Premack (eds.), Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate. Oxford University Press
Kelley, H. (1967). Attribution in social psychology. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 15
Kelley, H. (1973). The processes of causal attribution. American Psychologist, 28(2)
Kempton, W. (1986). Two theories of home heat control. Cognitive Science, 10
Key, C. (2000). The evolution of human life-history. World Archaeology, 31
Kingery, D. W., Vandiver, P. B. and Pickett, M. (1988). The beginnings of pyrotechnology. Part II: production and use of lime and gypsum plaster in the pre-pottery Neolithic Near East. Journal of Field Archaeology, 15
Kitcher, P. (1985). Vaulting Ambition. MIT Press
Kitcher, P. (1990). The division of cognitive labor. Journal of Philosophy, 87
Kitcher, P. (1993). The Advancement of Science. Oxford University Press
Klahr, D. with K. Dunbar, A. Fay, D. Pennes and C. Schunn (2000). Exploring Science: The Cognition and Development of Discovery Processes. MIT Press
Klahr, D. and Simon, H. (1999). Studies of scientific discovery: complementary approaches and convergent findings. Psychological Bulletin, 125(5)
Klayman, J. (1995). Varieties of confirmation bias. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 32
Klayman, J. and Burt, R. (1999). Individual differences in confidence and experiences in social networks. Working Paper, Centre for Decision Research, University of Chicago
Klayman, J. and Ha, Y.-W. (1987). Confirmation, disconfirmation and information in hypothesis testing. Psychological Review, 94
Klayman, J., Soll, J. B., González-Vallejo and Barlas, S. (1999). Overconfidence: it depends on how, what and whom you ask. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79
Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Harvard University Press
Kohlberg, L. (1966). A cognitive – developmental analysis of children's sex-role concepts and attitudes. In E. Maccoby (ed.), The Development of Sex Differences. Stanford University Press
Koslowski, B. (1996). Theory and Evidence: The Development of Scientific Reasoning. MIT Press
Koslowski, B. and Masnick, A. (2001) The development of causal reasoning. In U. Goswami, (ed.), Handbook of Cognitive Development. Blackwell
Koslowski, B. and Winsor, A. (1981). Preschool children's spontaneous explanations and requests for explanations: a non-human application of the child-as-scientist metaphor. Unpublished manuscript. Department of Human Development, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Kosslyn, S. (1980). Image and Mind. Harvard University Press
Kosslyn, S. (1994). Image and Brain. MIT Press
Kripke, S. (1972). Naming and necessity. In G. Harman and D. Davidson (eds.), Semantics of Natural Language. Reidel
Kubovy, M. (1999). On the pleasures of the mind. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener and N. Schwarz (eds.), Well-Being: Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. Russell Sage Foundation
Kuhn, D. and Lao, J. (1996). Effects of evidence on attitudes: is polarization the norm? Psychological Science, 7
Kuhn, D., Amsel, E. and O'Loughlin, M. (1988). The Development of Scientific Thinking Skills. Academic Press
Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press
Kuhn, T. (1979). Metaphor in science. In A. Ortony (ed.), Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge University Press
Kulkarni, D. and Simon, H. (1988). The processes of scientific discovery: the strategy of experimentation. Cognitive Science, 12
Kurz, E. and Tweney, R. (1998). The practice of mathematics and science: from the calculus to the clothesline problem. In M. Oaksford and N. Chater (eds.), Rational Models of Cognition. Oxford University Press
Labandeira, C. and Seposki, J. (1993). Insect diversity in the fossil record. Science, 261
Lahr, M. and Foley, R. (1998). Towards a theory of modern human origins: geography, demography and diversity in recent human evolution. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 41
Lakatos, I. (1970). The methodology of scientific research programmes. In I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge University Press
Langley, P., Simon, H., Bradshaw, G. and Zytkow, J. (1987). Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Processes. MIT Press
Larkin, J. (1983). The role of problem representation in physics. In D. Gentner and A. Stevens (eds.), Mental Models. Lawrence Erlbaum
Latour, B. (1986). Visualization and cognition: Thinking with eyes and hands. Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Culture, Past and Present, 6
Latour, B. (1987). Science in Action. Harvard University Press
Latour, B. and Woolgar, S. (1986). Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts, 2nd edn. Princeton University Press
Lazarus, R. (1994). Universal antecedents of the emotions. In P. Ekman and R. Davidson (eds.), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. Oxford University Press
Legrenzi, P., Butera, F., Mugny, G. and Perez, J. (1991). Majority and minority influence in inductive reasoning: a preliminary study. European Journal of Social Psychology, 21
Leslie, A. (1994a). Pretending and believing: issues in the theory of ToMM. Cognition, 50
Leslie, A. (1994b). ToMM, ToBY and Agency: core architecture and domain specificity. In L. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (eds.), Mapping the Mind: Domain-Specificity in Culture and Cognition. Cambridge University Press
Leslie, A. and Keeble, S. (1987). Do six-month-old infants perceive causality? Cognition, 25(3)
Levenson, R. (1994). Human emotion: a functional view. In P. Ekman and R. Davidson (eds.), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. Oxford University Press
Lévi-Strauss, C. (1963). The bear and the barber. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 93
Lewis, D. (1966). An argument for the identity theory. Journal of Philosophy, 63
Lewis, D. (1970). How to define theoretical terms. Journal of Philosophy, 67
Lewis, D. (1980). Mad pain and Martian pain. In N. Block (ed.), Readings in Philosophy of Psychology, Vol. 1. Methuen
Leyens, J.-P. and Scaillet, N. (2000). The Wason selection task as an opportunity to improve social identity. Unpublished manuscript
Leyens, J.-P., Dardenne, B., Yzerbyt, V., Scaillet, N. and Snyder, M. (1999). Confirmation and disconfirmation: their social advantages. In W. Stroebe and M. Hewstone (eds.), European Review of Social Psychology, 10
Liebenberg, L. (1990). The Art of Tracking: The Origin of Science. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers
Linnaeus, C. (1738). Classes Plantarum. Leiden: Wishoff
Linnaeus, C. (1751). Philosophia Botanica. Stockholm: G. Kiesewetter
Lloyd, G. (1990). Demystifying Mentalities. Cambridge University Press
Lober, K. and Shanks, D. (1999). Is causal induction based on causal power? Critique of Cheng (1997). Psychological Review, 107
Locke, D. (1971). Memory. Macmillan
Loewenstein, G. (1994). The psychology of curiosity: a review and reinterpretation. Psychological Bulletin, 116
Logan, R. (1986). The Alphabet Effect. Morrow
López, A., Atran, S., Coley, J., Medin, D. and Smith, E. (1997). The tree of life: universals of folk-biological taxonomies and inductions. Cognitive Psychology, 32
Lord, C., Ross, L. and Lepper, M. (1979). Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: the effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(11)
Lorenz, K. (1966). The role of gestalt perception in animal and human behavior. In L. White (ed.), Aspects of Form. Indiana University Press
Lutz, C. (1988). Unnatural Emotions: Everyday Sentiments on a Micronesian Atoll and Their Challenge to Western Theory. The University of Chicago Press
Lynch, M. and Woolgar, S. (eds.) (1990). Representation in Scientific Practice. MIT Press
Mackie, J. (1980). The Cement of the Universe (2nd edn.). Oxford University Press
Macnamara, J. (1982). Names for Things. MIT Press
Mandel, D. and Lehman, D. (1998). Integration of contingency information in judgements of cause, covariation and probability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127
Mandler, J. and McDonough, L. (1996). Drinking and driving don't mix: inductive generalization in infancy. Cognition, 59
Mandler, J., Bauer, P. and McDonough, L. (1991). Separating the sheep from the goats: differentiating global categories. Cognitive Psychology, 23
Mani, K. and Johnson-Laird, P. (1982). The mental representation of spatial descriptions. Memory and Cognition, 10
Mania, D. and Mania, U. (1988). Deliberate engravings on bone artefacts by Homo erectus. Rock Art Research, 5
Manktelow, K. (1999). Reasoning and Thinking. Psychology Press
Manktelow, K. and Over, D. (1991). Social roles and utilities in reasoning with deontic conditionals. Cognition, 39
Manktelow, K., Fairley, N., Kilpatrick, S. and Over, D. (2000). Pragmatics and strategies for practical reasoning. In W. Schaeken, G. De Vooght, A. Vandierendonck and G. d'Ydewalle (eds.), Deductive Reasoning and Strategies. Lawrence Erlbaum
Marshall, B. and Warren, J. (1984). Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration, Lancet, 1(8390)
Martin, A., Ungerleider, L. and Haxby, J. (2000). Category specificity and the brain: the sensory – motor model of semantic representations of objects. In M. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Sciences. MIT Press
Martin, C. and Deutscher, M. (1966). Remembering. Philosophical Review, 75
Martin, R. (1993). Short-term memory and sentence processing: evidence from neuropsychology. Memory and Cognition, 21
Martin, R. and Feher, E. (1990). The consequences of reduced memory span for the comprehension of semantic versus syntactic information. Brain and Language, 38
Marx, R., Stubbart, C., Traub, V. and Cavanaugh, M. (1987). The NASA space shuttle disaster: a case study. Journal of Management Case Studies, 3
Masnick, A., Barnett, S., Thompson, S. and Koslowski, B. (1998). Evaluating explanations in the context of a web of information. Paper presented at the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Madison, WI
Massey, C. and Gelman, R. (1988). Preschoolers' ability to decide whether a pictured unfamiliar object can move itself. Developmental Psychology, 24
Maxwell, J. C. (1890). On physical lines of force. In The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, D. Niren (ed.), Cambridge University Press, vol. 1
McAllister, J. (1996). Beauty and Revolution in Science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
McArthur, L. (1972). The how and what of why: some determinants and consequences of causal attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22
McClelland, J., Rumelhart, D. and the PDP Research Group (eds.) (1986). Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition. MIT Press
McClure, J. (1998). Discounting causes of behavior: are two reasons better than one? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47
McGill, A. (1989). Context effects in causal judgement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57
McGill, A. and Klein, J. (1995). Counterfactual and contrastive reasoning in explanations for performance: implications for gender bias. In N. Roese and J. Olson (eds.), What Might Have Been: The Social Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum
McKenzie, C. and Mikkelsen, L. (in press). The psychological side of Hempel's paradox of confirmation. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review,
McKenzie, C., Mikkelsen, L., McDermott, K. and Skrable, R. (2000). Are hypotheses phrased in terms of rare events? Unpublished manuscript
McNamara, T. and Sternberg, R. (1983). Mental models of word meaning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22
Medin, D., Lynch, E. and Solomon, K. (2000). Are there kinds of concepts? Annual Review of Psychology, 51
Medin, D., Lynch, E., Coley, J. and Atran, S. (1997). Categorization and reasoning among tree experts: do all roads lead to Rome? Cognitive Psychology, 32
Mellars, P. (1996). The Neanderthal Legacy. Princeton University Press
Michotte, A. (1962). Causalité, Permanence et Réalité Phénoménales: Etudes de Psychologie Expérimentale. Louvain: Publications Universitaires
Mill, J. (1872/1973). System of logic. In J. Robson (ed.), Collected Works of John Stuart Mill (8th edn., Vols. 7 and 8). University of Toronto Press
Miller, G. (2000). The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature. Pantheon
Miller, R. (1987). Fact and Method. Princeton University Press
Miller, R. and Matute, H. (1996). Biological significance in forward and backward blocking: resolution of a discrepancy between animal conditioning and human causal judgement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 125(4)
Mithen, S. (1988). Looking and learning: Upper Palaeolithic art and information gathering. World Archaeology, 19
Mithen, S. (1990). Thoughtful Foragers: A Study of Prehistoric Decision Making. Cambridge University Press
Mithen, S. (1996). The Prehistory of the Mind. Thames & Hudson
Mithen, S. (1998). The supernatural beings of prehistory and the external storage of religious ideas. In C. Renfrew and C. Scarre (eds.), Cognition and Material Culture: The Archaeology of Symbolic Storage. Cambridge: McDonald Institute
Mithen, S. (2000). Palaeoanthropological perspectives on the theory of mind. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Talgar-Flusberg and D. Cohen (eds.), Understanding Other Minds. Oxford University Press
Mitroff, I. (1974). The Subjective Side of Science. Elsevier
Morris, M. and Larrick, R. (1995).When one cause casts doubt on another: a normative analysis of discounting in causal attribution. Psychological Review, 102(2)
Morris, S., Taplin, J. and Gelman, S. (2000). Vitalism in naïve biological thinking. Developmental Psychology, 36
Morrow, D., Bower, G. and Greenspan, S. (1989). Updating situation models during narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 28
Munro, D. (1969). The Concept of Man in Early China. Stanford University Press
Murphy, G. and Medin, D. (1985). The role of theories in conceptual coherence. Psychological Review, 92(3)
Mynatt, C., Doherty, M. and Dragan, W. (1993). Information relevance, working memory and the consideration of alternatives. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46A
Mynatt, C., Doherty, M. and Tweney, R. (1977). Confirmation bias in a simulated research environment: an experimental study of scientific inference. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29
Nagel, E. (1961). The Structure of Science. Harcourt & Brace
Nagel, T. (1974). What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review, 83
Nakamura, H. (1964/1985). Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples. University of Hawaii Press
Nazzi, T. and Gopnik, A. (2000). A shift in children's use of perceptual and causal cues to categorization. Developmental Science, 3
Needham, J. (1954). Science and Civilization in China I. Cambridge University Press
Nemeroff, C. and Rozin, P. (1994). The contagion concept in adult thinking in the United States: transmission of germs and of interpersonal influence. Ethos: Journal of Psychological Anthropology, 22
Nersessian, N. J. (1984a). Aether/or: The creation of scientific concepts. Studies in the History & Philosophy of Science, 15
Nersessian, N. J. (1984b). Faraday to Einstein: Constructing Meaning in Scientific Theories. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff/Kluwer Academic Publishers
Nersessian, N. J. (1985). Faraday's field concept. In D. Gooding and F. James (eds.), Faraday Rediscovered: Essays on the Life & Work of Michael Faraday. Macmillan
Nersessian, N. J. (1988). Reasoning from imagery and analogy in scientific concept formation. In A. Fine and J. Leplin (eds.), PSA 1988. Philosophy of Science Association
Nersessian, N. J. (1992a). How do scientists think? Capturing the dynamics of conceptual change in science. In R. Giere (ed.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 15. University of Minnesota Press
Nersessian, N. J. (1992b). In the theoretician's laboratory: thought experimenting as mental modeling. In D. Hull, M. Forbes and K. Okruhlik (eds.), PSA 1992. Philosophy of Science Association
Nersessian, N. J. (1995). Opening the black box: cognitive science and the history of science. Osiris, 10
Nersessian, N. J. (1999). Model-based reasoning in conceptual change. In L. Magnani, N. Nersessian and P. Thagard (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers
Nersessian, N. J. (2001a). Abstraction via generic modeling in concept formation in science. In M. Jones and N. Cartwright (eds.), Correcting the Model: Abstraction and Idealization in Science. Amsterdam: Rodopi
Nersessian, N. J. (2001b). Maxwell and the method of physical analogy: model-based reasoning, generic abstraction, and conceptual change. In D. Malamet (ed.), Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics in Honor of Howard Stein on his 70th Birthday. LaSalle, IL: Open Court
Neter, E. and Ben-Shakhar, G. (1989). Predictive validity of graphological inferences: a meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 10
Newcombe, P. and Siegal, M. (1996). Where to look first for suggestibility in children's memory. Cognition, 59
Newcombe, P. and Siegal, M. (1997). Explicitly questioning the nature of suggestibility in preschoolers' memory and retention. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 67
Newell, A. and Simon, H. (1972). Human Problem Solving. Prentice-Hall
Nichols, S. and Stich, S. (2000). A cognitive theory of pretence. Cognition, 74
Nisbett, R. and Ross, L. (1980). Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgement. Prentice-Hall
Nisbett, R. and Wilson, T. (1977). Telling more than we can know: verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84
Nisbett, R., Peng, K., Choi, I. and Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: holistic vs. analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108(2)
Norenzayan, A., Nisbett, R., Smith, E. and Kim, B. (1999). Rules vs. Similarity as a Basis for Reasoning and Judgement in East and West. University of Michigan
O'Connell, J., Hawkes, K. and Blurton-Jones, N. (1999). Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution, 36
Oakes, L. and Cohen, L. (1990). Infant perception of a causal event. Cognitive Development, 5
Oakes, L. and Cohen, L. (1994). Infant causal perception. In C. Rovee-Collier and L. Lipsitt (eds.), Advances in Infancy Research, vol. 9. Norfolk, NJ: Ablex
Oakhill, J. and Garnham, A. (eds.) (1996). Mental Models in Cognitive Science: Essays in Honor of Philip Johnson-Laird. Psychology Press
Oaksford, M. and Chater, N. (1994). A rational analysis of the selection task as optimal data selection. Psychological Review, 101
Oaksford, M. and Chater, N. (1995). Information gain explains relevance which explains the selection task. Cognition, 57
Oaksford, M. and Chater, N. (1998). Rationality in an Uncertain World. Psychology Press
Oatley, K. (1992). Best Laid Schemes: The Psychology of Emotions. Cambridge University Press
Occhipinti, S. and Siegal, M. (1994). Reasoning about food and contamination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66
Occhipinti, S. and Siegal, M. (1996). Cultural evolution and divergent rationalities in human reasoning. Ethos, 24
O'Keefe, J. and Nadel, L. (1978). The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map. Oxford University Press
Olby, R. (1974). The Path to the Double Helix. Macmillan
Osherson, D., Smith, E., Wilkie, O., López, A. and Shafir, E. (1990). Category-based induction. Psychological Review, 97
Palmer, S. (1999). Vision Science: From Photons to Phenomenology. MIT Press
Palmerino, C., Rusiniak, K. and Garcia, J. (1980). Flavor – illness aversions: The peculiar roles of odor and taste in memory for poison. Science, 208(4445)
Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford University Press
Papineau, D. (2000). The evolution of knowledge. In P. Carruthers and A. Chamberlain (eds.), Evolution and the Human Mind. Cambridge University Press
Parker, G. (1978). Searching for mates. In J. Krebs and N. Davies (eds.), Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell
Payne, J. (1997). The scarecrow's search: a cognitive psychologist's perspective on organizational decision-making. In Z. Shapira (ed.), Organizational Decision-making. Cambridge University Press
Payne, J., Bettman, J. and Johnson, E. (1993). The Adaptive Decision-Maker. Cambridge University Press
Pearce, J. and Hall, G. (1980). A model of Pavlovian learning: variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review, 87
Pearl, J. (1988). Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems. Morgan Kaufman
Pearl, J. (2000). Causality. Oxford University Press
Pearl, J. and Verma, T. (1991). A theory of inferred causation. Second Annual Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Morgan Kaufmann
Perner, J. (1991). Understanding the Representational Mind. MIT Press
Perrig, W. and Kintsch, W. (1985). Propositional and situational representations of text. Journal of Memory and Language, 24
Piaget, J. (1928). Judgement and Reasoning in the Child. Routledge & Kegan Paul
Piaget, J. (1929). The Child's Conception of the World. Routledge & Kegan Paul
Piaget, J. (1930). The Child's Conception of Physical Causality. Routledge & Kegan Paul
Piaget, J. (1952). The Child's Conception of Number. Routledge & Kegan Paul
Piaget, J. (1954). The Construction of Reality in the Child. Basic Books
Piaget, J. (1962). Play, Dreams, and Imitation. Routledge & Kegan Paul
Pickering, D. (1992). Science as Practice and Culture. University of Chicago Press
Pinker, S. (1984). Language Learnability and Language Development. Harvard University Press
Pinker, S. (1994). The Language Instinct. William Morrow
Pinker, S. (1997). How the Mind Works. Allen Lane
Place, U. (1956). Is consciousness a brain process? British Journal of Psychology, 47
Plato (1961). The Collected Dialogues. Princeton University Press
Polak, A. and Harris, P. (1999). Deception by young children following non-compliance. Developmental Psychology, 35
Polanyi, M. (1958). Personal Knowledge. University of Chicago Press
Pollard, P. and Evans, J. (1987). On the relationship between content and context effects in reasoning. American Journal of Psychology, 100
Popper, K. (1935). Logik der Forschung. Vienna. (trans. as The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson, 1959)
Popper, K. (1945). The Open Society and its Enemies. Routledge
Popper, K. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson
Popper, K. (1963). Conjectures and Refutations. Routledge & Kegan Paul
Popper, K. (1972). Objective Knowledge. Oxford University Press
Potts, R. (1988). Early Hominid Activities at Olduvai Gorge. New York: Aldine de Gruyter
Povinelli, D. (2000). Folk Physics for Apes? Oxford University Press
Premack, D. (1995). Forward to part IV: causal understanding in naïve biology. In S. Sperber, D. Premack and A. Premack (eds.), Causal Cognition. Oxford University Press
Putnam, H. (1960). Minds and machines. In S. Hook (ed.), Dimensions of Mind. Harvard University Press
Putnam, H. (1962). The analytic and the synthetic. In H. Feigland and G. Maxwell (eds.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. III. University of Minnesota Press
Putnam, H. (1967). The nature of mental states. In W. Capitan and D. Merrill (eds.), Art, Mind and Religion. University of Pittsburgh Press
Putnam, H. (1975). The meaning of ‘meaning’. Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science, 7
Quine, W. (1951). Two dogmas of empiricism. Philosophical Review, 60
Quine, W. (1960). Word and Object. MIT Press
Rakison, D. and Poulin-Dubois, D. (2001). Developmental origins of the animate – inanimate distinction. Psychological Bulletin, 127
Ramón y Cajal, S. (1999). Advice for a Young Investigator (trans. N. Swanson and L. Swanson). MIT Press
Rapoport, J. (1989). The Boy Who Couldn't Stop Washing. Harper Collins
Read, H. and Varley, R. (in preparation). A dissociation between music and language in severe aphasia
Reber, A. (1993). Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge. Oxford University Press
Reichenbach, H. (1938). Experience and Prediction. University of Chicago Press
Reichenbach, H. (1956). The Direction of Time. University of California Press
Reid, T. (1764/1997). An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense. Edinburgh University Press
Rescorla, R. and Wagner, A. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In A. Black and W. Prokasy (eds.), Classical Conditioning II: Current Theory and Research. New York: Appleton-Century-Croft
Resnick, L., Levine, J. and Teasley, S. (eds.) (1991). Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition. American Psychological Association
Richards, C. and Sanderson, J. (1999). The role of imagination in facilitating deductive reasoning in 2-, 3- and 4-year-olds. Cognition, 72
Richmond, B. G. and Strait, D. (2000). Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle walking ancestor. Nature, 404
Rieff, C., Koops, W., Terwogt, M., Stegge, H. and Oomen, A. (2001). Preschoolers' appreciation of uncommon desires and subsequent emotions. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19
Rips, L. (1989). Similarity, typicality, and categorization. In S. Vosniadou and A. Ortony (eds.), Similarity and Analogical Reasoning. Cambridge University Press
Roberts, M. (1997). Boxgrove. Current Archaeology, 153
Rorty, R. (1979). Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton University Press
Rosch, E. (1975). Universals and cultural specifics in categorization. In R. Brislin, S. Bochner and W. Lonner (eds.), Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Learning. NY: Halstead
Rosch, E., Mervis, C., Grey, W., Johnson, D. and Boyes-Braem, P. (1976). Basic objects in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, 8
Rosen, A. and Rozin, P. (1993). Now you see it … now you don't: the preschool child's conception of invisible particles in the context of dissolving. Developmental Psychology, 29
Rosenberg, L. (1998). Scientific Opportunities and Public Needs. National Academy Press
Ross, B. and Murphy, G. (1999). Food for thought: cross-classification and category organization in a complex real-world domain. Cognitive Psychology, 38
Ross, L. (1977). The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: distortions in the attribution process. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 14. Academic Press
Ross, N., Medin, D., Coley, J. and Atran, S. (submitted). Cultural and experiential differences in the development of folkbiological induction
Rozin, P. (1976). The evolution of intelligence and access to the cognitive unconscious. In J. Sprague and A. Epstein (eds.), Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology, Vol. 6. Academic Press
Rozin, P. and Srull, J. (1988). The adaptive – evolutionary point of view in experimental psychology. In R. Atkinson, R. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey and R. Luce (eds.), Handbook of Experimental Psychology. New York: Wiley-Interscience
Rudwick, M. (1976). The emergence of a visual language for geological science. History of Science, 14
Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. Hutchinson
Salmon, W. (1984). Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Princeton University Press
Samuels, R. (forthcoming). Innateness in cognitive science
Sapp F., Lee, K. and Muir, D. (2000). Three-year-olds' difficulty with the appearance-reality distinction: is it real or is it apparent? Developmental Psychology, 36
Sartori, G. and Job, R. (1988). The oyster with four legs: a neuro-psychological study on the interaction of semantic and visual information. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 5
Savage-Rumbaugh, S., Murphy, J., Sevcik, R., Brakke, K., Williams, S. and Rumbaugh, D. (1993). Language comprehension in ape and child. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58(3–4)
Scaillet, N. and Leyens, J.-P. (2000). From incorrect deductive reasoning to ingroup favouritism. In D. Capozza and R. Brown (eds.). Social Identity Processes: Trends in Theory and Research. Sage
Schaeken, W., De Vooght, G., Vandierendonck, A. and d'Ydewalle, G. (2000). Deductive Reasoning and Strategies. Lawrence Erlbaum
Schaller, S. (1995). A Man Without Words. University of California Press
Schank, R. and Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding: An Enquiry into Human Knowledge Structures. Lawrence Erlbaum
Schauble, L. (1990). Belief revision in children: the role of prior knowledge and strategies for generating evidence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 49
Scheffler, I. (1991). In Praise of the Cognitive Emotions. Routledge
Scheines, R., Spirtes, P., Glymour, C. and Meek, C. (1984). TETRAD II. Lawrence Erlbaum
Schepartz, L. (1993). Language and modern human origins. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 36
Schick, K., Toth, N., Garufi, G., Savage-Rumbaugh, S., Rumbaugh, D. and Sevcik, R. (1999). Continuing investigations into the stone tool making and tool-using capabilities of a Bonobo (Pan piniscus). Journal of Archaeological Science, 26
Schick, T. (1988). Nahal Hemar Cave: cordage, basketry and fibres. In O. Bar-Yosef and D. Alon (eds.), Nahal Hemar Cave, Atiqot 18. Jerusalem: Department of Antiquities and Museums
Schlottmann, A. (1999). Seeing it happen and knowing how it works: how children understand the relation between perceptual causality and underlying mechanism. Developmental Psychology, 35
Scholl, B. and Tremoulet, P. (2000). Perceptual causality and animacy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4
Schustack, M. and Sternberg, R. (1981). Evaluation of evidence in causal inference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110
Schwartz, D. and Black, J. (1996). Analog imagery in mental model reasoning: depictive models. Cognitive Psychology, 30
Segal, G. (1996). Representing representations. In P. Carruthers and J. Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press
Sen, A. (1985). Choice, Welfare, and Measurement. Harvard University Press
Shanks, D. (1985). Forward and backward blocking in human contingency judgement. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37B
Shanks, D. and Dickinson, A. (1987). Associative accounts of causality judgement. In G. Bower (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol. 21. Academic Press
Shanks, D. and Dickinson, A. (1988). The role of selective attribution in causality judgement. In D. Hilton (ed.), Contemporary Science and Natural Explanation: Common Sense Conceptions of Causality. Harvester Press
Shapin, S. (1994). A Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England. University of Chicago Press
Shapin, S. (1996). The Scientific Revolution. University of Chicago Press
Shelley, C. (1996). Visual abductive reasoning in archeology. Philosophy of Science, 63
Shennan, S. (in press). Demography and culture change. Cambridge Archaeological Journal
Shepard, R. and Cooper, L. (1982). Mental Images and their Transformations. MIT Press
Shultz, T. (1982). Rules of causal attribution. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, serial no. 194
Siegal, M. (1988). Children's knowledge of contagion and contamination as causes of illness. Child Development, 59
Siegal, M. (1995). Becoming mindful of food and conversation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6
Siegal, M. (1996). Conversation and cognition. In R. Gelman and T. Au (eds.), Handbook of Perception and Cognition: Perceptual and Cognitive Development (2nd edn.). Academic Press
Siegal, M. (1997). Knowing Children: Experiments in Conversation and Cognition (2nd edn.). Psychology Press
Siegal, M. (1999). Language and thought: the fundamental significance of conversational awareness for cognitive development. Developmental Science, 2
Siegal, M. and Peterson, C. (1996). Breaking the mold: a fresh look at questions about children's understanding of lies and mistakes. Developmental Psychology, 32
Siegal, M. and Peterson, C. (1998). Children's understanding of lies and innocent and negligent mistakes. Developmental Psychology, 34
Siegal, M. and Peterson, C. (1999). Becoming mindful of biology and health: an introduction. In M. Siegal and C. Peterson (eds.), Children's Understanding of Biology and Health. Cambridge University Press
Siegal, M. and Robinson, J. (1987). Order effects in children's gender-constancy responses. Developmental Psychology, 23
Siegal, M. and Share, D. (1990). Contamination sensitivity in young children. Developmental Psychology, 26
Siegal, M., Surian, L., Nemeroff, C. and Peterson, C. (2001). Lies, mistakes and blessings: defining and characteristic features in conceptual development. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 1
Siegler, R. (1994). Cognitive variability: a key to understanding cognitive development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3
Simmons, D. and Keil, F. (1995). An abstract to concrete shift in the development of biological thought: the insides story. Cognition, 56
Simon, H. (1977). Models of Discovery. Dordrecht: Reidel
Slaughter, V., Jaakkola, R. and Carey, S. (1999). Constructing a coherent theory: children's biological understanding of life and death. In M. Siegal and C. Peterson (eds.), Children's Understanding of Biology and Health. Cambridge University Press
Slugoski, B. and Wilson, A. (1998). Contribution of conversational skills to the production of judgmental errors. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28
Slugoski, B., Lalljee, M., Lamb, R. and Ginsburg, J. (1993). Attribution in conversational context: effect of mutual knowledge on explanation-giving. European Journal of Social Psychology, 23
Slugoski, B., Sarson, D. and Krank, M. (1991). Cognitive load has paradoxical effects on the formation of illusory correlation. Unpublished manuscript
Smart, J. (1959). Sensations and brain processes. Philosophical Review, 68
Smedslund, J. (1963). The concept of correlation in adults. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 4
Smith, B. (1995). The Emergence of Agriculture. Washington: Smithsonian Press
Smith, E. and Medin, D. (1981). Categories and Concepts. Harvard University Press
Sober, E. (1993). Philosophy of Biology. Westview Press
Sober, E. and Wilson, D. (1998). Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Harvard University Press
Sodian, B., Zaitchik, D. and Carey, S. (1991). Young children's differentiation of hypothetical beliefs from evidence. Child Development, 62(4)
Solomon, G. and Cassimatis, N. (1999). On facts and conceptual systems: young children's integration of their understanding of germs and contagion. Developmental Psychology, 35
Solomon, G. and Johnson, S. (2000). Conceptual change in the classroom: teaching young children to understand biological inheritance. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18
Solomon, G., Johnson, S., Zaitchik, D. and Carey, S. (1996). Like father, like son: young children's understanding of how and why offspring resemble their parents. Child Development, 67
Spelke, E. (1994). Initial knowledge: six suggestions. Cognition, 50
Spelke, E., Breinlinger, K., Macomber, J. and Jacobson, K. (1992). Origins of knowledge. Psychological Review, 99(4)
Spelke, E., Vishton, P. and von Hofsten, C. (1995). Object perception, object-directed action, and physical knowledge in infancy. In M. Gazzaniga (edn.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, MIT Press
Sperber, D. (1996). Explaining Culture: A Naturalistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell
Sperber, D., Cara, F., and Girotto, V. (1995). Relevance theory explains the selection task. Cognition, 57
Spirtes, P., Glymour, C., and Scheines, R. (1993). Causation, Prediction and Search. NY: Springer-Verlag
Spirtes, P., Glymour, C., and Scheines, R. (2000). Causation, Prediction and Search (rev. 2nd edn.). MIT Press
Springer, K. (1995). Acquiring a naïve theory of kinship through inference. Child Development, 66
Springer, K. (1999). How a naïve theory of biology is acquired. In M. Siegal and C. Peterson (eds.), Children's Understanding of Biology and Health. Cambridge University Press
Springer, K. and Belk, A. (1994). The role of physical contact and association in early contamination sensitivity. Developmental Psychology, 30
Springer, K. and Keil, F. (1989). On the development of biologically specific beliefs: the case of inheritance. Child Development, 60
Springer, K. and Keil, F. (1991). Early differentiation of causal mechanisms appropriate to biological and non-biological kinds. Child Development, 62
Stanovich, K. (1999). Who is Rational? Studies of Individual Differences in Reasoning. Lawrence Erlbaum
Stanovich, K. and West, R. (1998). Cognitive ability and variation in selection task performance. Thinking and Reasoning, 4
Stanovich, K. and West, R. (in press). Individual differences in reasoning: implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Stein, E. (1996). Without Good Reason. Oxford University Press
Sterman, J. (1994). Learning in and about complex systems. Systems Dynamics Review, 10
Stevenson, R. and Over, D. (1995). Deduction from uncertain premises. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A
Stich, S. (1983). From Folk Psychology to Cognitive Science. MIT Press
Stich, S. (1993). Moral philosophy and mental representation. In M. Hechter, L. Nadel and R. Michod (eds.), The Origin of Values. New York: Aldine de Gruyter
Stich, S. and Nichols, S. (1998). Theory theory to the max. Mind and Language, 13(3)
Straus, L. (1990). The original arms race: Iberian perspectives on the Solutrean phenomenon. In J. Kozlowski (ed.), Feuilles de Pierre: Les Industries Foliacées du Paléolithique Supérieur Européen. Liège, Belgium: ERAUL
Stringer, C. and Gamble, C. (1993). In Search of the Neanderthals. Thames & Hudson
Stross, B. (1973). Acquisition of botanical terminology by Tzeltal children. In M. Edmonson (ed.), Meaning in Mayan Languages. The Hague: Mouton
Suchman, L. (1987). Plans and Situated Actions. Cambridge University Press
Susman, R. (1991). Who made the Oldowan tools? Fossil evidence for tool behaviour in Plio-Pleistocene hominids. Journal of Anthropological Research, 47
Swiderek, M. (1999). Beliefs can change in response to disconfirming evidence and can do so in complicated ways, but only if collateral beliefs are disconfirmed. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Swisher III, C., Curtis, G., Jacob, T., Getty, A., Suprijo, A. and Widiasmoro (1994). Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia. Science, 263
Tetlock, P. (1992). The impact of accountability on judgement and choice: toward a social contingency model. In M. Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25
Thagard, P. (1988). Computational Philosophy of Science. MIT Press
Thagard, P. (1992). Conceptual Revolutions. Princeton University Press
Thagard, P. (1996). The concept of disease: structure and change. Communication and Cognition, 29
Thagard, P. (1999). How Scientists Explain Disease. Princeton University Press
Thagard, P. (2000). Coherence in Thought and Action. MIT Press
Thagard, P. (2001). How to make decisions: coherence, emotion, and practical inference. In E. Millgram (ed.), Varieties of Practical Inference. MIT Press
Thagard, P. and Shelley, C. (2001). Emotional analogies and analogical inference. In D. Gentner, K. Holyoak and B. Kokinov (eds.), The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science. MIT Press
Thagard, P. and Zhu, J. (forthcoming). Acupuncture, incommensurability, and conceptual change. In G. Sinatra and P. Pintrich (eds.), Intentional Conceptual Change. Lawrence Erlbaum
Thagard, P., Holyoak, K., Nelson, G. and Gochfield, D. (1990). Analog retrieval by constraint satisfaction. Artificial Intelligence, 46
Thelan, E. and Smith, L. (1994). A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action. MIT Press
Thieme, H. (1997). Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature, 385
Thompson, V. (1996). Reasoning from false premises: the role of soundness in making correct logical deductions. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50
Tolman, E. (1932). Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men. New York: The Century Co
Tomasello, M. (1996). The cultural roots of language. In B. Velichkovsky and D. Rumbaugh (eds.), Communicating Meaning: The Evolution and Development of Language. Lawrence Erlbaum
Tomasello, M. and Call, J. (1997). Primate Cognition. Oxford University Press
Tooby, J. and Cosmides, L. (1992). The psychological foundations of culture. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides and J. Tooby (eds.), The Adapted Mind. Oxford University Press
Toth, N., Schick, K., Savage-Rumbaugh, S., Sevcik, R. and Rumbaugh, D. (1993). Pan the tool maker: investigations into the stone tool-making and tool-using capabilities of a bonobo (Pan paniscus). Journal of Archaeological Science, 20
Tournefort, J. (1694). Elémens de Botanique. Paris: Imprimerie Royale
Trumpler, M. (1997). Converging images: techniques of intervention and forms of representation of sodium-channel proteins in nerve cell membranes. Journal of the History of Biology, 20
Turq, A. (1992). Raw material and technological studies of the Quina Mousterian in Perigord. In H. Dibble and P. Mellars (eds.), The Middle Palaeolithic: Adaptation, Behaviour and Variability. The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgement under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science, 185
Tweney, R. (1985). Faraday's discovery of induction: a cognitive approach. In D. Gooding and F. James (eds.), Faraday Rediscovered. Stockton Press
Tweney, R. (1987). What is scientific thinking? Unpublished manuscript
Tweney, R. (1992). Stopping time: Faraday and the scientific creation of perceptual order. Physis, 29
Tweney, R. and Chitwood, S. (1995). Scientific reasoning. In S. Newstead and J. Evans (eds.), Perspectives on Thinking and Reasoning: Essays in Honour of Peter Wason. Lawrence Erlbaum
Ungerleider, L. and Mishkin, M. (1982). Two cortical visual systems. In D. Ingle, M. Goodale and R. Mansfield (eds.), Analysis of Visual Behavior. MIT Press
Van der Lely, H., Rosen, S. and McClelland, A. (1998). Evidence for a grammar-specific deficit in children. Current Biology, 8
Varela, F., Thompson E. and Rosch, E. (1993). The Embodied Mind. MIT Press
Varley, R. (1998). Aphasic language, aphasic thought: an investigation of propositional thinking in an a-propositional aphasic. In P. Carruthers and J. Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press
Varley, R. and Siegal M. (2000). Evidence for cognition without grammar from causal reasoning and ‘theory of mind’ in an agrammatic aphasic patient. Current Biology, 10
Varley, R., Siegal M. and Want, S. (2001). Severe impairment in grammar does not preclude theory of mind. Neurocase, 7
Velichkovsky, B. and Rumbaugh, D. (eds.) (1996). Communicating Meaning: The Evolution and Development of Language. Lawrence Erlbaum
Vicente, K. and Brewer, W. (1993). Reconstructive remembering of the scientific literature. Cognition, 46
Vosniadou, S. and Brewer, W. (1992). Mental models of the earth: a study of conceptual change in childhood. Cognitive Psychology, 24
Vygotsky, L. (1962). Thought and Language. MIT Press
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press
Waddington, C. (1959). Canalization of development and the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Nature, 183
Walker, A. and Leakey, R. (eds.) (1993). The Nariokotome Homo erectus Skeleton. Berlin: Springer-Verlag
Wallace, A. (1889/1901). Darwinism (3rd edn.). Macmillan. (1st edn. 1889)
Warburton, F. (1967) The purposes of classification. Systematic Zoology, 16
Warrington, E. and Shallice, T. (1984). Category specific impairments. Brain, 107
Wason, P. (1960). On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12
Wason, P. (1966). Reasoning. In B. Foss (ed.), New Horizons in Psychology I. Penguin
Wason, P. (1968). On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task – a second look. In P. Watson and P. Johnson-Laird (eds.), Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press
Wason, P. and Evans, J. (1975). Dual processes in reasoning? Cognition, 3
Wason, P. and Johnson-Laird, P. (1970). A conflict between selecting and evaluating information in an inferential task. British Journal of Psychology, 61
Wasserman, E. and Berglan, L. (1998). Backward blocking and recovery from overshadowing in human causal judgement. The role of within-compound associations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 51
Watson, J. (1967). Memory and ‘contingency analysis’ in infant learning. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 13
Watson, J. (1979). Perception of contingency as a determinant of social responsiveness. In E. Tohman (ed.), The Origins of Social Responsiveness. Lawrence Erlbaum
Watson, J. D. (1969). The Double Helix. New York: New American Library
Watson, J. D. (2000). A Passion for DNA: Genes, Genomes, and Society. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Watts, I. (1999). The origin of symbolic culture. In R. Dunbar, C. Knight and C. Power (eds.), The Evolution of Culture. Edinburgh University Press
Wechsler, D. (1981). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised. The Psychological Corporation
Weiner, B. (1995). ‘Spontaneous’ causal thinking. Psychological Bulletin, 109
Wellman, H. (1990). The Child's Theory of Mind. MIT Press
Wellman, H. and Estes, D. (1986). Early understanding of mental entities: a re-examination of childhood realism. Child Development, 57
Wellman, H. and Gelman, S. (1992). Cognitive development: foundational theories of core domains. Annual Review of Psychology, 43
Wellman, H. and Gelman, S. (1997). Knowledge acquisition in foundational domains. In D. Kuhn and R. Siegler (eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology (5th edn.). Wiley
Wellman, H., Cross, D. and Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory of mind development: the truth about false belief. Child Development, 72
Wertsch, J. (1985). Culture, Communication, and Cognition: Vygotskian Perspectives. Cambridge University Press
Wetherick, N. (1962). Eliminative and enumerative behaviour in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14
Wheeler, P. (1994). The thermoregulatory advantages of heat storage and shade seeking behaviour to hominids foraging in equatorial savannah environments. Journal of Human Evolution, 26
White, R. (1989). Production, complexity and standardization in early Aurignacian bead and pendant manufacture: evolutionary implications. In P. Mellars and C. Stringer (eds.), The Human Revolution. Edinburgh University Press
Whiten, A. (1996). When does smart behavior become mind reading? In P. Carruthers and P. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press
Wilkins, J. (1675). Of the Principles and Duties of Natural Religion. London: Bonwicke
Wittgenstein, L. (1953). Philosophical Investigations. Blackwell
Wolpert, L. and Richards, A. (1997). Passionate Minds: The Inner World of Scientists. Oxford University Press
Wood, B. (1997). The oldest whodunnit in the world. Nature, 385
Wood, B. and Collard, M. (1999). The Human genus. Science, 284
Woodward, J. (1965). Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press
Wynn, K. (1990). Children's understanding of counting. Cognition, 36
Wynn, K. (1995). Origins of mathematical knowledge. Mathematical Cognition, 1
Wynn, K. (1998). Psychological foundations of number: numerical competence in human infants. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4
Wynn, T. (1991). Tools, grammar and the archaeology of cognition. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 1
Wynn, T. (2000). Symmetry and the evolution of the modular linguistic mind. In P. Carruthers and A. Chamberlain (eds.), Evolution and the Human Mind. Cambridge University Press
Wynn, T. and McGrew, B. (1989). An ape's eye view of the Oldowan. Man, 24
Yates, J. and Curley, S. (1996). Contingency judgement: primacy effects and attention decrement. Acta Psychologica, 62
Yellen, J., Brooks, A., Cornelissen, E., Mehlman, M. and Steward, K. (1995). A Middle stone age worked bone industry from Katanda, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science, 268
Zubin, D. and Köpcke, K.-M. (1986). Gender and folk taxonomy. In C. Craig (ed.), Noun Classes and Categorization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Zvelebil, M. (1984). Clues to recent human evolution from specialized technology. Nature, 307