4 - Sociolinguistic variation  pp. 61-111

Sociolinguistic variation

By Ceil Lucas et al.

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



[George Trager and Henry Lee Smith] insisted that language could not be studied by itself, in isolation, but must be looked at in direct connection to the people who used it, the things they used it to talk about, and the view of the world that using it imposed on them.

Stokoe (1994: 333)

Language varies both in space and in time, as well as according to the linguistic environment in which a form is used. For example, the American Sign Language (ASL) sign DEAF has three possible forms. It can be produced with a movement from ear to chin (the citation or dictionary form), with a movement from chin to ear, or simply by contacting the cheek once (both non-citation forms). Even though the form of DEAF varies from signer to signer and even within the signing of the same signer, the variation we observe is far from random. Rather, signers' choices among the three forms of DEAF are systematically constrained by a range of factors at both the linguistic and the social levels. Thus, compared to signers in other parts of the USA, signers in Boston, Massachusetts tend to be quite conservative in the choice of a form of DEAF. In contrast, signers in Kansas, Missouri and Virginia tend to prefer non-citation forms. Indeed, a recent study conducted by three of the authors of this chapter showed that signers in these states used non-citation forms of DEAF 85 percent of the time, more than twice the rate of signers in Boston (Bayley et al., 2000; Lucas et al., 2001).

4

Reference Type: bibliography

Aarons, D. and P. Akach (1998) South African Sign Language: One language or many? Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics 31. Stellenbosch, South Africa
Aarons, D. and R. Morgan (1998) The linguistic structure of South African Sign Language after apartheid. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, Washington, DC
Adegbija, E. (1994) Language Attitudes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Afolayan, A. (1988) Bilingualism and bilingual education in Nigeria. In C. Paulston (ed.), International Handbook of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. New York: Greenwood Press, 345–358
Agheyisi, R. and J. Fishman (1970) Language attitude studies: A brief survey of methodological approaches. Anthropological Linguistics 12, 137–157
Ahlgren, I. (1990a) Deictic pronouns in Swedish and Swedish Sign Language. In S. Fisher and P. Siple (eds.), Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research 1: Linguistics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 167–174
Ahlgren, I. (1990b) Swedish conditions: Sign language in Deaf education. In (S. Prillwitz and T. Vollhaber (eds.), Sign Language Research and Application: Proceedings of the International Congress on Sign Language Research and Application. Hamburg: Signum, 91–94
Akinnaso, F. (1989) One nation, four hundred languages: Unity and diversity in Nigeria's language policy. Language Problems and Language Planning 13, 133–146
Akinnaso, F. and I. Ogunbiyi (1990) The place of Arabic in language education and language planning in Nigeria. Language Problems and Language Planning 14, 1–19
Alexander, N. (1989) Language Policy and National Unity in South Africa/Azania. Cape Town: Buchu Books
Allen, T. E. (1986) Patterns of academic achievements among hearing impaired students: 1974–1983. In A. N. Schildroth and M. A. Karchmer (eds.), Deaf Children in America. San Diego, CA: College Hill, 161–206
Allport, G. W. (1935) Attitudes. In C. Murchison (ed.), A Handbook of Social Psychology. Worcester, MA: Clarke University Press
Almond, B. (1993) Rights. In P. Singer (ed.), A Companion to Ethics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 259–269
Altbach, P. (1984) The distribution of knowledge in the third world: A case study in neocolonialism. In (P. Altbach and G. Kelly (eds.), Education and the Colonial Experience, 2nd revised edn. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 229–251
Anderson, L. (1979) A comparison of some American, British, Australian and Swedish Signs: Evidence on historical changes in signs and some family relationships of sign languages. Paper presented at First International Symposium on Sign Language, Stockholm, June
Ann, J. (1998a) Contact between a sign language and a written language: Character Signs in Taiwan Sign Language. In C. Lucas (ed.), Pinky Extension and Eye Gaze: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 59–99
Ann, J. (1998b) Dialectal variation in Taiwan Sign Language: evidence from morphology, syntax and the lexicon. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, Washington, DC, November
Ann, J. and L. Peng (2000) Optimality Theory and opposed handshapes in Taiwan Sign Language. University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences 1(2), 1–22
Annamalai, E. (1986) Language rights and language planning. New Language Planning Newsletter 1, 1–3
Anthony, D. (1971) Seeing Essential English. Anaheim, CA: Educational Services Division
Antilla, A. (1997) Deriving variation from grammar. In F. Hinskens, R. van Hout and W. Leo Wetzels (eds.), Variation, Change, and Phonological Theory. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 35–68
Aramburo, A. (1989) Sociolinguistic aspects of the Black Deaf community. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. New York: Academic Press, 103–122
Asante, M. (1990) African elements in American English. In J. Holloway (ed.), Africanism in American Culture. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 19–23
Austin, J. (1962) How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Baer, A. M. (1991) Tactility in the Deaf community. Paper presented at the Gallaudet University Department of Sign Communication Lecture Series. Washington, DC
Bahan, B. (1989) The war is not over. Reprinted In S. Wilcox (ed.), American Deaf Culture: An Anthology. Burtonsville, MD: Linstok Press, 189–192
Bahan, B. and S. Supalla (1995) Line segmentation and narrative structure: A study of eyegaze behavior and narrative structure in American Sign Language. In (K. Emmorey and J. Reilly (eds.), Language, Gesture, and Space. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 171–191
Bailey, G., T. Wikle, J. Tillery and L. Sand (1991) The apparent time construct. Language Variation and Change 3, 241–264
Bailey, G., T. Wikle, J. Tillery and L. Sand (1993) Some patterns of linguistic diffusion. Language Variation and Change 5, 359–390
Baker, C. (1977) Regulators and turntaking in American Sign Language. In L. Friedman (ed.), On the Other Hand: New Perspectives on American Sign Language. New York: Academic Press, 215–236
Baker, C. (1992) Attitudes and Language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Baker, C. (1993) Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Baker, C. and D. Cokely (1980) American Sign Language. Silver Spring, MD: T. J. Publishers
Baker, C. and C. Padden (1978) Focusing on the nonmanual components of American Sign Language. In P. Siple (ed.), Understanding Language Through Sign Language Research. New York: Academic Press, 59–90
Ball, R. (1997) The French-Speaking World: A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistic Issues. London: Routledge
Banham, D. (1991) Monasteriales Indicia: The Anglo-Saxon Monastic Sign Language. London: Anglo-Saxon Books
Barakat, R. (1987) Cistercian Sign Language. In J. Umiker-Sebeok and T. Sebeok (eds.), Monastic Sign Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
Baron, D. (1981) Going native: The Regeneration of Saxon English. American Dialect Society 69. University, AL: University of Alabama Press
Baron, D. (1990) The English-Only Question: An Official Language for Americans? New Haven: Yale University Press
Bateson, G. (1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Ballantine
Battison, R. (1978) Lexical Borrowing in American Sign Language. Silver Spring, MD: Linstok Press
Battison, R. M., H. Markowicz, and J. C. Woodward (1975) A good rule of thumb: Variable phonology in American Sign Language. In R. W. Fasold and R. Shuy (eds.), Analyzing Variation in Language. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press
Baugh, J. (1983) Black Street Speech: Its History, Structure, and Survival. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press
Bayley, R. (1994a) Consonant cluster reduction in Tejano English. Language Variation and Change 6, 303–326
Bayley, R. (1994b) Interlanguage variation and the quantitative paradigm: Past-tense marking in Chinese-English. In E. Tarone, S. Glass and A. Cohen (eds.), Research Methodology in Second-Language Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 157–181
Bayley, R. (1997) VARBRUL Analysis of Linguistic Variation. Workshop presented at the American Dialect Society Meeting, Chicago, January
Bayley, R. and D. R. Preston (eds.) (1996) Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Variation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins
Bayley, R., C. Lucas and M. Rose (2000) Variation in American Sign Language: The case of DEAF. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4, 81–107
Baynton, D. (1996) Forbidden Signs: American Culture and the Campaign Against Sign Language. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Beer, W. and J. Jacob (eds.) (1985) Language Policy and National Unity. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld
Benson, A. (1979) An attitude study. Teaching English to the Deaf, 6(1), 10–14
Benson, P., P. Grundy, H. Itakura, and T. Skutnabb-Kangas (eds.) (in press) Access to Language Rights. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Bergman, E. (1976) Deaf students speak up: how they feel about the teaching and teachers of English. Teaching English to the Deaf 3(1), 4–14
Bergman, B. (1979) Signed Swedish. Stockholm: National Swedish Board of Education
Bergmann, R. (1994) Teaching sign language as the mother tongue in the education of deaf children in Denmark. In (I. Ahlgren and K. Hyltenstan (eds.), Bilingualism in Deaf Education. Hamburg: Signum, 83–90
Berke, L. (1978) Attitudes of deaf high school students toward American Sign Language. In Proceedings of the Second National Symposium on Sign Language Research and Teaching. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf
Bernstein, B. (1970) Social class, language and socialisation. Reprinted in P. Giglioli (eds) (1972) Language and Social Context. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 157–178
Beukes, A. (1991) The politics of language in formal education: The position of Afrikaans. Journal for Language Teaching 25, 64–77
Biber, D. and E. Finegan (eds.) (1993) Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Blattberg, S., L. Byers, E. Lockwood and R. Smith (1995) Sociolinguistic variation in American Sign Language: Phonological variation by age group in fingerspelling. In L. Byers, J. Chaiken and M. Mueller (eds.), Communication Forum 1995. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, 157–182
Bloomfield, L. (1933) Language. London: George Allen and Unwin
Bochner, J. H. and J. A. Albertini (1988) Language varieties in the deaf population. In M. Strong (ed.), Language, Learning and Deafness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3–48
Bord na Gaeilge, An Coiste Comharleach Pleanála (1989) The Irish Language in a Changing Society. Dublin: Bord na Gaeilge
Bornstein, H. (ed.) (1990) Manual Communication: Implications for Education. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Bornstein, H., L. Hamilton, K. Saulnier and H. Roy (eds.) (1975) The Signed English Dictionary for Pre-school and Elementary Levels. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Press
Bouchard Ryan, E., H. Giles and R. J. Sebastian (1982) An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes towards language variation. In E. Bouchard Ryan and H. Giles (eds.), Attitudes Towards Language Variation: Social and Applied Contexts. London: Edward Arnold
Bouvet, D. (1990) The Path to Language: Bilingual Education for Deaf Children. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Boyes-Braem, P. (1985) Studying sign language dialects. In (W. Stokoe and V. Volterra (eds.), SLR 1983: Proceedings of the III International Symposium on Sign Language Research, Rome, 22–26 June 1983. Silver Spring, MD: Linstok Press, 247–253
Bradac, J. J. (1990) Language attitudes and impression formation. In H. Giles and W. P. Robinson (eds.) Handbook of Language and Social Psychology. London: John Wiley, 387–412
Bragg, B. (1990) Communication and the Deaf community. In M. Garretson (ed.), Eyes, Hands and Voices: Communication Issues Among Deaf People. A Deaf American Monograph. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf
Branson, J. and D. Miller (1993) Sign language, the deaf and the epistemic violence of mainstreaming. Language and Education 7, 21–41
Branson, J. and D. Miller (1998a) Achieving human rights: Educating deaf immigrant students from non-English-speaking families in Australia. In A. Weisel (ed.), Issues Unresolved: New perspectives on Language and Deaf Education. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 88–100
Branson, J. and D. Miller (1998b) Nationalism and the linguistic rights of deaf communities. Journal of Sociolinguistics 2, 3–34
Branson, J., D. Miller and I. G. Marsaja, with the assistance of I. W. Negara (1996) Everyone here speaks sign language, too: A deaf village in Bali, Indonesia. In C. Lucas (ed.), Multicultural Aspects of Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 39–57
Bridges, B. (1993) Gender variation with sex signs. Unpublished manuscript, Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, Washington, DC
Brien, D. (ed.) (1992) Dictionary of British Sign Language/English. London: Faber and Faber
Brien, D and M. Brennan (1995) Sign language dictionaries: Issues and developments. In (H. Bos and T. Schermer (eds.), Sign Language Research. Hamburg: Signum, 313–336
Brown, P. and S. C. Levinson (1987) Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Bruce, J. (1993) A comparative study of backchanneling signals between an African American Deaf speaker and African American and White Deaf speakers. In E. Winston (ed.), Communication Forum, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: School of Communication Student Forum, 1–10
Bucholtz, M. (1999) “Why be normal?”: Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society 28, 203–223
Budding, C., R. Hoopes, M. Mueller and K. Scarcello (1995) Identification of foreign sign language accents by the deaf. Student Forum, Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics and Interpretation, Washington DC, 1–16
Bullivant, B. (1981) The Pluralist Dilemma in Education: Six Case Studies. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin
Bulwer, J. (1644) Chirologia; Or the Natural Language of the Hand. London: R. Whitaker
Burns, S. E. (1998) Irish Sign Language: Ireland's second minority language. In C. Lucas (ed.), Pinky Extension and Eye Gaze: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 233–273
Calvet, L. J. (1998) Language Wars and Linguistic Politics. New York: Oxford University Press
Cameron, R. (1993) Ambiguous agreement, functional compensation, and non-specific tu in the Spanish of San Juan, Puerto Rico and Madrid, Spain. Language Variation and Change 5, 305–335
Cameron, R. (1998) A variable syntax of speech, gesture and sound effect: Direct quotations in Spanish. Language Variation and Change 10, 43–83
Campos de Abreu, A. (1994) The deaf social life in Brazil. In C. Erting et al. (eds.), The Deaf Way. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 114–116
Carranza, M. A. and E. B. Ryan (1975) Evaluative reactions of bilingual Anglo and Mexican American adolescents toward speakers of English and Spanish. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 6, 83–104
Cedergren, H. and D. Sankoff (1974) Variable rules: Performance as a statistical reflection of competence. Language 50, 233–255
Celo, P. (1996) Pragmatic aspects of the interrogative form in Italian Sign Language. In C. Lucas (ed.), Multicultural Aspects of Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 132–151
Chambers, J. K. (1995) Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic Variation and its Social Significance. Oxford: Blackwell
Chao, Chien-Min, Chu Hsi-Hsiung and Liu Chao-Chung (1988) Taiwan Ziran ShouYu [Taiwan Natural Sign Language]. Taipei, Taiwan: Deaf Sign Language Research Association
Chen, C. (1993) Attention getting strategies used by a Deaf adult with Deaf children. In E. Winston (ed.), Gallaudet University Communication Forum, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University School of Communication Student Forum. 11–19
Chen, P. (1999) Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Christian, D. (1988) Language planning: The view from linguistics. In F. Newmeyer (ed.), Linguistics: The Cambridge survey, Vol. 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 193–209
Cluver, A. (1993) A Dictionary of Language Planning Terms. Pretoria: University of South Africa
Cobarrubias, J. (1983a) Ethical issues in status planning. In (J. Cobarrubias and J. Fishman (eds.), Progress in Language Planning. Berlin: Mouton, 41–85
Cobarrubias, J. (1983b) Language planning: The state of the art. In (J. Cobarrubias and J. Fishman (eds.), Progress in Language Planning. Berlin: Mouton, 3–26
Cobarrubias, J. and J. Fishman (eds.) (1983) Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton
Cokely, D. (1983) When is a pidgin not a pidgin? An Alternative Analysis of the American Sign Language-English contact situation. Sign Language Studies 38, 1–24
Cokely, D. and R. Gawlik (1973) A position paper on the relationship between manual English and sign. The Deaf American, 7–11
Collins, S. and K. Petronio (1998) What happens in Tactile American Sign Language? In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities, Vol. 4: Pinky Extension and Eye Gaze: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 18–37
Collins-Ahlgren, M. (1990) Word formation processes in New Zealand Sign Language. In (S. Fischer and P. Siple (eds.), Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, Vol. 1: Linguistics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 279–312
Conrad, R. (1977) The reading ability of deaf school-leavers. British Journal of Educational Psychology 47: 138–148
Cooper, R. (1989) Language Planning and Social Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cooper, R. and J. Fishman (1974) The study of language attitudes. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 3, 5–19
Corson, D. (1999) Language Policy in Schools: A Resource for Teachers and Administrators. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Coulombe, P. (1993) Language rights, individual and communal. Language Problems and Language Planning 17, 140–152
Coulter, G. (ed.) (1992) Phonetics and Phonology, Vol. 3: Current Issues in American Sign Language Phonology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Coupland, N. and A. Jaworski (1997) Sociolinguistics: A Reader and Coursebook. London: Macmillan
Covington, V. (1976) Problems for a sign language planning agency. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 11, 85–106
Crawford, J. (1992a) Hold Your Tongue: Bilingualism and the Politics of “English only”. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Crawford, J. (ed.) (1992b) Language Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official English Controversy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Crystal, D. (1997) The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press
Crystal, D. and E. Craig (1978) Contrived sign language. In I. M. Schlesinger and L. Namir (eds.), Sign Language of the Deaf: Psychological, Linguistic and Sociological Perspectives. New York: Academic Press, 141–168
Cummins, J. and M. Swain (1986) Bilingualism in Education: Aspects of Theory, Research and Practice. London: Longman
Curry, J. and R. Curry (1978) Deaf students can use their fluency in American Sign Language to develop English competency. In Proceedings of the Second National Symposium on Sign Language Research and Teaching. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf
Dakic, A. (1999) Report on sign languages in the constitution and in other governmental branches to the Deaf Association of Munich and surrounding area, and the German Deaf Association. Munich: German Deaf Association
Davis, J. (1989) Distinguishing language contact phenomena in American Sign Language interpretation. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 85–102
Day, L. (1995) Sign language acquisition of deaf adults in deaf and hearing families. Unpublished video dissertation at University of Bristol
Dede, K. (1999) The ablative postposition in the Xining dialect. Language Variation and Change 11, 1–17
De Francis, J. (1984) The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press
Degenaar, J. (1987) Nationalism, liberalism, and pluralism. In J. Butler, R. Elphick and D. Walsh (eds.), Liberalism in South Africa. Cape Town: David Philip, 236–249
de la Zerda, N. and R. Hopper (1979) Employment interviewers' reactions to Mexican American speech. Communication Monographs 46, 126–134
DeMatteo, A. (1977) Visual imagery and visual analogues in American Sign Language. In L. Friedman (ed.), On the Other Hand. New York: Academic Press
DeSantis, S. (1977) Elbow to hand shift in French and American Sign Languages. Paper presented at the New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) conference, Georgetown University, Washington, DC
Deuchar, M. (1980) Language planning and treatment of British Sign Language: Problems for research. In (I. Ahlgren and B. Bergman (eds.), Papers from the First International Symposium on Sign Language Research. Stockholm: Swedish National Association of the Deaf, 109–119
Deuchar, M. (1984) British Sign Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Dively, V. (1998) Conversational repairs in American Sign Language. In C. Lucas (ed.), Pinky Extension, Eye Gaze, and Other Sign Language Intricacies: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 137–169
Djité, P. (1990) Les langues africaines dans la nouvelle francophonie. Language Problems and Language Planning 14, 20–32
Djité, P. (1991) Langues et développement en Afrique. Language Problems and Language Planning 15, 121–138
Dogançay-Aktuna, S. (1995) An evaluation of the Turkish language reform after 60 years. Language Problems and Language Planning, 19, 221–249
Eastman, C. (1983) Language Planning: An Introduction. San Francisco, CA: Chandler and Sharp
Eastman, G. (1974) Sign Me Alice: A Play in Sign Language. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Bookstore
Ebbinghaus, H. and J. Hessman (1996) Signs and words: Accounting for spoken language elements in German Sign Language. International Review of Sign Linguistics 1(1) 23–56
Eckert, P. (1989) The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change 1, 245–267
Eckert, P. (2000) Linguistic Variation as Social Practice: The Linguistic Construction of Identity in Belten High. Oxford: Blackwell
Eckert, P. and S. McConnell-Ginet (1999) New generalizations and explanations in language and gender research. Language in Society 28, 185–201
Eco, U. (1995) The Search for the Perfect Language. Oxford: Blackwell
Edwards, J. (1984a) Irish: Planning and preservation. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 5, 267–275
Edwards, J. (ed.) (1984b) Linguistic Minorities, Policies and Pluralism. London: Academic Press
Edwards, J. (1985) Language, Society and Identity. Oxford: Blackwell
Edwards, J. (1999) Refining our understanding of language attitudes. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18, 101–110
Edwards, V. (1978) Language attitudes and under-performance in West Indian children. Educational Review 30, 51–58
Edwards, V. (1983) Language in Multicultural Classrooms. London: Batsford
Edwards, V. and P. Ladd (1983) British Sign Language and West Indian Creole. In (J. Kyle and B. Woll (eds.), Language in Sign. London: Croom Helm, 147–158
Ellis, R. (1986) Understanding Second Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press
Emenanjo, E. (ed.) (1990) Multilingualism, Minority Languages and Language Policy in Nigeria. Agbor, Nigeria: Center Books, in collaboration with the Linguistic Association of Nigeria
Emmorey, K. and B. Falgier (1999) Talking about space with space: Describing environments in American Sign Language. In E. Winston (ed.), Storytelling and Conversation: Discourse in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 3–26
Emmorey, K. and J. Reilly (eds.) (1995) Language, Gesture, and Space. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Engberg-Pedersen, E. (1995) Point of view expressed through shifters. In (K. Emmorey and J. Reilly (eds.), Language, Gesture, and Space. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 133–154
Eriksson, P. (1998) The History of Deaf People. Örebro: Daufr
Erting, C. (1978) Language policy and deaf ethnicity in the United States. Sign Language Studies 19, 139–152
Erting, C. (1982) Deafness, communication and social identity: An anthropological analysis of interaction among parents, teachers, and deaf children in a preschool. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, American University, Washington, DC
Erting, C. J. (1994) Deafness, Communication, Social Identity: Ethnography in a Pre-school for Deaf Children. Burtonsville, MD: Linstok Press
Ethnologue database (1996) collected by the Summer Institute of Linguistics. Available at www.sil.org/ethnologue
Fairclough, N. (1989) Language and Power. London: Longman
Fasold, R. (1984) The Sociolinguistics of Society. Oxford: Blackwell
Fasold, R. (1990) The Sociolinguistics of Language. Oxford: Blackwell
Fenn, A. (1992) A pilot study on sign language attitudes. Unpublished thesis, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC
Ferguson, C. A. (1959) Diglossia. Word 15, 325–340
Ferguson, C. A. (1973) Language problems of variation and repertoire. Daedalus 102, 37–46
Fischer, J. (1958) Social influences on the choice of a linguistic variant. Word 14, 47–56
Fischer, R. and H. Lane (eds.) (1993) Looking Back: A Reader on the History of Deaf Communities and their Sign Languages. Hamburg: Signum
Fischer, S. (1978) Sign Language and Creoles. In P. Siple (ed.), Understanding Language through Sign Language Research. New York: Academic Press, 309–331
Fischer, S. (1996) By the numbers: Language-internal evidence for creolization. International Review of Sign Linguistics 1, 1–22
Fishman, J. A. (1968) Nationality-nationalism and nation-nationism. In J. A. Fishman, C. A. Ferguson and J. Das Gupta (eds.), Language Problems of Developing Nations. New York: Wiley, 39–52
Fishman, J. (1971) Advances in the Sociology of Language. The Hague: Mouton
Fishman, J. (1991) Reversing Language Shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
FitzPatrick, T. (1993) Attention getting strategies used by a Deaf adult with deaf children. In E. Winston (ed.) Gallaudet University Communication Forum, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University School of Communication, 37–50
Fleetwood, E. and M. Metzger (1998) Cued Language Structure: An Analysis of Cued American English Based on Linguistic Principles. Silver Spring, MD: Calliope Press
Flynn, J. (1984) No Longer by Gaslight: The First 100 Years of the Adult Deaf Society of Victoria. Melbourne: Adult Deaf Society of Victoria
Fodor, I. and C. Hagège (eds.) (1983/84) Language Reform: History and Future, 3 vols. Hamburg: Buske Verlag
Fodor, I. and C. Hagège (eds.) (1990) Language Reform: History and Future, Vol. 5. Hamburg: Buske Verlag
Fok, A. and U. Bellugi (1986) The acquisition of Visual Spatial Script. In H. S. R. Kao, G. P. van Galen, R. Hoosain (eds.), Graphonomics: Contemporary Research in Handwriting. North Holland: Elsevier, 329–355
Fok, A., U. Bellugi, K. van Hoek and E. Klima (1988) The formal properties of Chinese languages in space. In Mao Liu, Hsuan-Chih Chen and May Jane Chen (eds.), Cognitive Aspects of the Chinese Language. Hong Kong: Asian Research Service, 187–205
Foster, S. (1986) Employment experiences of Deaf RIT graduates. Occasional Papers of the National Technical Institute of the Deaf, Rochester, NY
Frender, R. and W. Lambert (1973) Speech style and scholastic success: The tentative relationships and possible implications for lower social class children. In R. Shuy (ed.), Georgetown Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, 1972. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 237–272
Frishberg, N. (1975) Arbitrariness and iconicity: Historical change in American Sign Language. Language 51, 696–719
Fromkin, V. and R. Rodman (1998) An Introduction to Language. 6th edn. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
Gannon, J. R. (1989) The Week the World Heard Gallaudet. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Gardner, R. C. (1985) Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The Role of Attitudes and Motivation. London: Edward Arnold
Gardner, R. C. and W. E. Lambert (1972) Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House
Garfinkel, H. (1967) Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Garfinkel, H. (1974) On the origins of the term “ethnomethodology”. In R. Turner (ed.), Ethnomethodology. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 15–18
Garretson, M. D. (ed.) (1990) Eyes, Hands, Voices: Communication Issues Among Deaf People. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf
Garrett, P., N. Coupland and A. Williams (1999) Evaluating dialect in discourse: Teachers' and teenagers' responses to young English speakers in Wales. Language in Society 28, 321–354
Gauchat, L. (1905) L'unité phonétique dans le patois d'une commune. Aus Romanischen Sprachen und Literaturen: Festschrift Heinrich Mort. Halle: Max Niemeyer, 175–232
Gee, J. (1986) Units in the production of narrative discourse. Discourse Processes 9, 391–422
Gee, J. and J. Kegl (1983) Narrative/Story structure, pausing, and American Sign Language. Discourse Processes 6, 243–258
Genesee, F. (1988) The Canadian second language immersion program. In C. Paulston (ed.), International Handbook of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. New York: Greenwood Press, 163–183
Giles, H. (1970) Evaluative reactions to accents. Educational Review 22, 211–227
Giles, H. (1973) Accent mobility, a model and some data. Anthropological Linguistics 15, 87–105
Giles, H., R. Bourhis and D. Taylor (1977) Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In H. Giles (ed.), Language, Ethnicity and Inter-group Relations. London: Academic Press, 307–349
Giles, H. and N. Coupland (1991) Language: Contexts and Consequences. Milton Keynes: Open University Press
Giles, H. and P. F. Powesland (1975) Speech Style and Social Evaluation. London: Academic Press
Giles, H., P. Wilson and T. Conway (1981) Accent and lexical diversity as determinants of impression formation and employment selection. Language Sciences 3, 92–103
Glaser, M. (1999) Affect, emphasis, and comment in text telephone conversations. In E. Winston (ed.), Storytelling and Conversation: Discourse in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 83–106
Godfrey, E. and S. Tagliamonte (1999) Another piece of the verbal -s story: Evidence from Devon in southwest England. Language Variation and Change 11, 87–121
Goffman, E. (1974) Frame Analysis. New York: Harper and Row
Goffman, E. (1981) Forms of Talk. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press
Gomes de Matos, F. (1985) The linguistic rights of language learners. Language Planning Newsletter 11, 1–2
Gregory, S. (1992) The language and culture of deaf people: Implications for education. Language and Education 6, 183–197
Gregory, S. and G. Hartley (eds.) (1991) Constructing Deafness. London: Pinter Publishers, in association with the Open University
Gregory, S. and D. Miles (1991) British Sign Language, Communication and Deafness, Unit 3: Issues in Deafness. Milton Keynes: The Open University
Grice, H. P. (1957) Meaning. Philosophical Review 67, 377–388
Grice, H. P. (1968) Utterer's meaning, sentence-meaning, and word-meaning. Foundations of Language 4, 1–18
Grice, H. P. (1975) Logic and conversation. In (P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, 41–58
Griffey, N. (1994) From Silence to Speech. Dublin: Dominican
Groce, N. (1985) Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Grosjean, F. (1982) Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Grosjean, F. (1992) The bilingual and the bicultural person in the hearing and in the deaf world. Sign Language Studies 77, 307–320
Grosjean, F. (1998) Living with two languages and two cultures. In I. Parasnis (ed.), Cultural and Language Diversity and the Deaf Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press, 20–37
Gudschinsky, S. (1956) The ABC's of lexicostatistics (glottochronology). Word 12, 175–210
Guggenheim, L. (1993) Ethnic variation in American Sign Language: The signing of African Americans and how it is influenced by conversational topic. In E. Winston (ed.), Communication Forum 1993. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, 51–76
Gustason, G. (1983) Manual English and American Sign Language: Where do we go from here? In (J. Kyle and B. Woll (eds.), Language in Sign. London: Croom Helm, 163–172
Gustason, G. and J. Woodward (eds.) (1973) Recent Developments in Manual English. Washington, DC: Department of Education, Gallaudet College
Gustason, G., D. Pfetzing and E. Zawolkow (1975) Signing Exact English. Los Alamitos, CA: Modern Signs Press
Gustason, G., D. Pfetzing and E. Zawolkow (1980) Signing Exact English. Los Alamitos, CA: Modern Signs Press
Gutiérrez, P. (1994) A preliminary study of deaf educational policy. Bilingual Research Journal 18, 85–113
Guy, G. R. (1980) Variation in the group and in the individual: The case of final stop deletion. In W. Labov (ed.), Locating Language in Time and Space. New York: Academic Press, 1–36
Guy, G. R. (1981) Linguistic variation in Brazilian Portuguese: Aspects of the phonology, syntax, and language history. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
Guy, G. R. (1991) Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3, 1–2
Guy, G. R. (1997) Violable is variable: Optimality theory and linguistic variation. Language Variation and Change 9, 333–347
Guy, G. R. and R. Bayley (1995) On the choice of relative pronouns in English. American Speech 70, 148–162
Haas, C., E. Fleetwood and M. Ernest (1995) An analysis of American Sign Language variation within Deaf Blind interaction: Question forms, backchanneling, and turn-taking. In L. Byers, J. Chaiken and M. Mueller (eds.), Communication Forum 1995. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, 103–140
Halliday, M. A. K. and R. Hasan (1976) Cohesion in English. London: Longman
Hansen, B. (1990) Trends in the progress towards bilingual education for deaf children in Denmark. In (S. Prillwitz and T. Vollhaber (eds.), Sign Language Research and Application: Proceedings of the International Congress on Sign Language Research and Application. Hamburg: Signum, 51–62
Harries, L. (1983) The nationalisation of Swahili in Kenya. In C. Kennedy (ed.), Language Planning and Language Education. London: George Allen and Unwin, 118–128
Hartshorne, K. (1987) Language policy in African education in South Africa, 1910–1985, with particular reference to the issue of medium of instruction. In D. Young (ed.), Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice in English Second Language Teaching: Essays in Honour of L. W. Lanham. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman, 62–81
Hartshorne, K. (1992) Crisis and Challenge: Black Education, 1910–1990. Cape Town: Oxford University Press
Haugen, E. (1966) Language Conflict and Language Planning: The Case of Modern Norwegian. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Haugen, E. (1971) Linguistics and language planning. In W. Bright (ed.), Sociolinguistics: Proceedings of the UCLA Sociolinguistics Conference, 1964. The Hague; Mouton, 50–71
Henry, A. (1995) Belfast English and Standard English: Dialect Variation and Parameter Setting. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Herriman, M. and B. Burnaby (eds.) (1996) Language Policies in English-Dominant Countries. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Hess, M. C. (1997) On the Notion of Accent. Unpublished manuscript, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC
Heugh, K. (1985) The relationship between nationalism and language in education in the South African context. In D. Young (ed.), UCT papers in Language Education. Cape Town: University of Cape Town, Language Education Unit, Department of Education, 35–70
Heugh, K. (1987) Trends in language medium policy for a post-apartheid South Africa. In D. Young (ed.), Language: Planning and Medium in Education. Rondebosch: Language Education Unit (UCT) and SAALA, 206–220
Hindley, R. (1990) The Death of the Irish Language. London: Routledge
Hinnebusch, T. (1979) Swahili. In T. Shopen (ed.), Languages and their Status. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 209–293
Hirson, B. (1981) Language in control and resistance in South Africa. African Affairs 80, 219–237
Holmes, J. (1992) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. New York: Longman
Hooghe, L. (1991) A Leap in the Dark: Nationalist Conflict and Federal Reform in Belgium. Western Societies Program, Occasional Paper No. 27, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Hoopes, R. (1998) A preliminary examination of pinky extension: Suggestions regarding its occurrence, constraints and function. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities, Vol. 4: Pinky Extension and Eye Gaze: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 3–17
Hoopes, R., M. Rose, R. Bayley, C. Lucas, A. Wulf, K. Petronio and S. Collins (2001) Analyzing variation in sign languages: Theoretical and methodological issues. In V. Dively, M. Metzger, S. Taub and A. M. Baer (eds.), Signed Languages: Discoveries from International Research. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Houston, A. (1991) A grammatical continuum for (ING). In P. Trudgill and J. K. Chambers (eds.), Dialects of English: Studies in Grammatical Variation. London: Longman, 241–257
Hymes, D. (1972) Models of the interaction of language and social life. In (J. Gumperz and D. Hymes (eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 35–71
Jacobs, L. (1980) A Deaf Adult Speaks Out. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Janton, P. (1993) Esperanto: Language, Literature, and Community. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press
Jensen, S. E. (1995) Television to video. In Proceedings of Equal Partnership in the Media: A Seminar Organised by the Irish Deaf Society and the European Union of the Deaf. Dublin, 10–11 November 1995
Jepson, J. (1991) Urban and rural sign language in India. Language in Society 20, 37–57
Jernudd, B. (1977) Linguistic sources for terminological innovation: Policy and opinion. In J. Rubin, B. Jernudd, J. Das Gupta, J. Fishman and C. Ferguson (eds.), Language Planning Processes. The Hague: Mouton, 209–293
Jernudd, B. and M. Shapiro (eds.) (1989) The Politics of Language Purism. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
Johnson, R. C. (1990) The publication and early aftermath of ‘Unlocking the Curriculum’. Sign Language Studies 69, 295–325
Johnson, R. E. (1994a) Sign language and the concept of deafness in a traditional Yucatec Mayan village. In C. Erting, R. Johnson, D. Smith and B. Snider (eds.), The Deaf Way: Perspectives from the International Conference on Deaf Culture. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 102–109
Johnson, R. E. (1994b) The structure of fingerspelling. Fifth International Teleclass: Waubonsee Community College, Chicago, IL
Johnson, R. E. and C. Erting (1989) Ethnicity and socialization in a classroom for Deaf children. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 41–83
Johnson, R., S. Liddell and C. Erting (1989) Unlocking the Curriculum: Principles for Achieving Access in Deaf Education. Gallaudet Research Institute Working Paper 89–3. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University
Johnston, L. (1993) Conversational analysis of American Sign Language in a second-language classroom: Modeling a discourse repair. In E. Winston (ed.), Gallaudet University Communication Forum, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University School of Communication, 77–85
Johnston, T. (1989) AUSLAN Dictionary: A Dictionary of the Sign Language of the Australian Deaf Community. Petersham, NSW: Deafness Resources Australia
Johnston, T. (1991) Autonomy and integrity in sign languages. Signpost. Spring, 2–5
Jones, L. and G. Pullen (1990) Inside We are All Equal: A Social Policy Survey of Deaf People in the European Community. London: European Community Regional Secretariat of the World Federation of the Deaf
Joseph, J. and T. Taylor (eds.) (1990) Ideologies of Language. London: Routledge
Kachru, B. (1992) The Other Tongue: English Across Cultures. 2nd edition. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press
Kalin, R. and D. Rayko (1980) The social significance of speech in the job interview. In R. N. St Clair and H. Giles (eds.), The Social and Psychological Contexts of Language. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 39–50
Kannapell, B. (1982) Inside the Deaf community. The Deaf American 34, 23–26
Kannapell, B. (1989) An examination of deaf college students' attitudes toward American Sign Language and English. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Kannapell, B. (1991 [1985]) Language Choice: Identity Choice. Burtonsville, MD: Linstok Press. Originally doctoral dissertation (1985), Georgetown University, Washington, DC
Kaplan, R. and R. Baldauf (1997) Language Planning: From Practice to Theory. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Kegl, J., A. Senghas and M. Coppola (1999) Creation through contact: Sign language emergence and sign language change in Nicaragua. In M. DeGraff (ed.), Language Creation and Language Change: Creolization, Diachrony, and Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Kelly, A. B. (1995) Fingerspelling interaction: A set of Deaf parents and their Deaf daughter. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 62–73
Kendon, A. (1988) Sign Languages of Aboriginal Australia: Cultural, Semiotic and Communicative Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kennedy, C. (ed.) (1983) Language Planning and Language Education. London: George Allen and Unwin
Kerr, D. (1976) Educational Policy: Analysis, Structure, and Justification. New York: David McKay
Khalid, A. (1977) The Liberation of Swahili from European Appropriation. Nairobi: East Africa Literature Bureau
Khubchandani, L. (1983) Plural Languages, Plural Cultures. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press
King, K. (1999) Inspecting the unexpected: Language status and corpus shifts as aspects of Quichua language revitalization. Language Problems and Language Planning 23, 109–132
Kiparsky, P. (1982) Explanation in Phonology. Dordrecht: Foris
Kisch, S. (in preparation) Deafness among a Bedouin tribe in southern Israel. MA Thesis, Tel-Aviv University
Kleinfeld, M. and N. Warner (1996) Variation in the Deaf community: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual signs. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities, Vol. 2: Multicultural Aspects of Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 3–35
Klima, E. and U. Bellugi (1979) The Signs of Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Kretschmer, R. and L. Kretschmer (1978) Language Development and Intervention in the Hearing Impaired. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press
Kroch, A. (1978) Toward a theory of social dialect variation. Language in Society 7, 17–36
Kuo, E. C. Y. and B. H. Jernudd (1994) Balancing macro- and micro-sociolinguistic perspectives in language and management: The case of Singapore. In T. Kandiah and J. Kwan-Terry (eds.), English and Language Planning: A Southeast Asian Contribution. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 70–91
Kuschel, R. (1973) The silent inventor: The creation of a sign language by the only deaf-mute on a Polynesian island. Sign Language Studies 2, 1–28
Kyle, J. (ed.) (1987) Sign and School: Using Signs in Deaf Children's Development. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Kyle, J. and L. Allsop (1997) Sign in Europe: A Study of Deaf People and Sign Language in the European Union. Bristol: Centre for Deaf Studies, University of Bristol
Kyle, J. and B. Woll (1983) Language in Sign. London: Croom Helm
Kyle, J. G. and B. Woll (1985) Sign Language: The Study of Deaf People and Their Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Labov, W. (1963) The social motivation of a sound change. Word 19, 273–307
Labov, W. (1966a) The linguistic variable as a structural unit. Washington Linguistics Review 3, 4–22
Labov, W. (1966b) The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics
Labov, W. (1969a) Contraction, deletion, and inherent variability of the English copula. Language 45, 715–762
Labov, W. (1969b) The logic of nonstandard English. Reprinted in P. P. Giglioli (ed.) (1972) Language and Social Context. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 179–215
Labov, W. (1972a) Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania
Labov, W. (1972b) Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania
Labov, W. (1984) Field methods of the project on language change and variation. In (J. Baugh and J. Sherzer (eds.), Language in Use: Readings in Sociolinguistics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 28–53
Labov, W. (1989) The child as linguistic historian. Language Variation and Change 1, 85–97
Labov, W. (1990) The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change. Language Variation and Change 2, 205–244
Labov, W. (1994) Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol. 1: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell
Labov, W. (1997) Resyllabification. In F. Hinskens, R. van Hout and L. Wetzels (eds.), Variation, Change and Phonological Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 145–179
Labov, W., P. Cohen, C. Robins and J. Lewis (1968) A Study of the Non-standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican Speakers in New York City. Cooperative Report 3288. Philadelphia, PA: US Regional Survey
La Bue, M. A. (1995) Language and learning in a deaf education classroom: Practice and paradox. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 164–220
Ladd, P. (1988) The modern deaf community. In D. Miles (ed.), British Sign Language: A Beginner's Guide. London: BBC, 27–43
Lambert, R. (1990) Language Policy: An International Perspective. Washington, DC: National Foreign Language Center, Johns Hopkins University
Lambert, W. E., R. Hodgson, R. C. Gardner and S. Fillenbaum (1960) Evaluational reactions to spoken languages. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60, 44–51
Lane, H. (1984) When the Mind Hears: A History of the Deaf. New York: Random House
Lane, H. (1985) On Language, power and the Deaf. Unpublished manuscript, Convention of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Boston, MA
Lane, H. (1992) The Mask of Benevolence: Disabling the Deaf Community. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
Lane, H., R. Hoffmeister and B. Bahan (1996) A Journey into the Deaf-world. San Diego, CA: Dawn Sign Press
Lane, H. and F. Philip (1984) The Deaf Experience: Classics in Language and Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Language Plan Task Group (1996) Towards a National Language Plan for South Africa: Final Report of the Language Plan Task Group (LANGTAG). Pretoria: Government Printer
Lawrence, S. (1998) Sign language interpreters' effect on audience perception of deaf speaker's credibility. Unpublished Master's thesis, California State University, Hayward, CA
Lawson, L. (1981) The role of sign in the structure of the Deaf community. In B. Woll, J. Kyle and M. Deuchar (eds.), Perspectives on British Sign Language and Deafness. London: Croom Helm
Leben, W. (1996) Tonal feet and the adaptation of English borrowings into Hausa. Studies in African Linguistics 25, 139–154
Lee, D. M. (1982) Are there really signs of diglossia? Reexamining the Situation. Sign Language Studies 35, 127–152
Le Master, B. and J. Dwyer (1991) Knowing and using female and male signs in Dublin. Sign Language Studies 73, 361–396
Lentz, E. (1977) Informing deaf people about the structure of American Sign Language. In Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Sign Language Research and Teaching. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf
Lentz, E., K. Mikos and C. Smith (1988) Signing Naturally: Teacher's Curriculum Guide, Level I. San Diego, CA: Dawn Sign Press
LePage, R. and A. Tabouret-Keller (1985) Acts of Identity: Creole-Based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Levinson, S. (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Lewis, J. (1996) Parallels in communication styles of hearing and deaf African Americans. Unpublished manuscript, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC
Lewis, J., C. Palmer and L. Williams (1995) Existence of and attitudes toward black variations of sign language. In L. Byers, J. Chaiken and M. Mueller (eds.), Communication Forum 1995. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, 17–48
Liddell, S. (1980) American Sign Language Syntax. The Hague: Mouton
Liddell, S. (1984) THINK and BELIEVE: Sequentiality in American Sign Language signs. Language 60, 372–399
Liddell, S. (1992) Holds and positions: Comparing two models of segmentation in American Sign Language. In G. Coulter (ed.), Phonetics and Phonology, Vol. 3: Current Issues in American Sign Language Phonology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 189–211
Liddell, S. (1995) Real, surrogate, and token space: Grammatical consequences in American Sign Language. In (K. Emmorey and J. Reilly (eds.), Language, Gesture, and Space. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 19–42
Liddell, S. and M. Metzger (1998) Gesture in sign language discourse. Journal of Pragmatics 30, 657–697
Liddell, S. and R. E. Johnson (1989) American Sign Language: The phonological base. Sign Language Studies 64, 195–278
Lippi-Green, R. (1997) English with an Accent. London: Routledge
Llewellyn-Jones, P., J. G. Kyle and B. Woll (1979) Sign language communication. Paper presented at International Conference on Social Psychology of Language, Bristol
Locker McKee, R. (1992) Footing shifts in American Sign Language lectures. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, CA
Louw, J. (1983/84) The development of Xhosa and Zulu as languages. In I. Fodor and C. Hagège (eds.), Language Reform, Vol. 2. Hamburg: Buske Verlag, 371–392
Lucas, C. (ed.) (1989) The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Lucas, C. (ed.) (1995) Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Lucas, C. (ed.) (1996) Multicultural Aspects of Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Lucas, C. (ed.) (1998) Pinky Extension and Eye Gaze: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Lucas, C. and C. Valli (1989) Language contact in the American Deaf community. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 11–40
Lucas, C. and C. Valli (1991) American Sign Language or contact signing: Issues of judgement. Language and Society 20, 201–216
Lucas, C. and C. Valli (1992) Language Contact in the American Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Lucas, C., R. Bayley and C. Valli (2001) Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities, Vol. 7: Sociolinguistic Variation in American Sign Language. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Lucas, C., R. Bayley, M. Rose and A. Wulf (in press). Location variation in American Sign Language. Sign Language Studies
Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1988) The benefit of oral English-only as compared with signed input to hearing-impaired students. Volta Review 90, 349–361
Machabée, D. (1995) Description and status of initialized signs in Québec Sign Language. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Machabée, D. and C. Dubuisson (1995) Initialized signs in (or outside of?) Québec Sign Language. In (H. Bos and T. Schermer (eds.), Sign Language Research. Hamburg: Signum, 211–229
Maclagan, M., E. Gordon and G. Lewis (1999) Women and sound change: Conservative and innovative behavior by the same speakers. Language Variation and Change 11, 19–41
Maclean, J. (1896) Canadian Savage Folk: The Native Tribes of Canada. Toronto: William Briggs, 486–495
MacMillan, M. (1982) Henri Bourassa on the defence of language rights. Dalhousie Review 62, 413–430
Maguire, G. (1991) Our Own Language: An Irish Initiative. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Mahshie, S. N. (1995) Educating Deaf Children Bilingually. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Pre-College Programs
Malloy, C. and J. Doner (1995) Variation in American Sign Language discourse: Gender differences in the use of cohesive devices. In L. Byers, J. Chaiken and M. Mueller (eds.), Communication Forum 1995. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, 183–205
Mansfield, D. (1993) Gender differences in American Sign Language: A sociolinguistic study of sign choices by Deaf native signers. In E. Winston (ed.), Communication Forum 1993. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, 86–98
Marivate, C. (1993) Language and education, with special reference to the mother-tongue policy in African schools. Language Matters: Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 24, 91–105
Mar-Molinero, C. (1997) The Spanish-Speaking World: A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistic Issues. London: Routledge
Martinez, L. (1993) Eye gaze as an element in Filipino Sign Language discourse. In E. Winston (ed.), Gallaudet Communication Forum, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University School of Communication, 99–102
Martinez, L. (1995) Turn-taking and eye gaze in sign conversations between Deaf Filipinos. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 272–306
Mas, C. (1994) Bilingual education for the deaf in France. In (I. Ahlgren and K. Hyltenstan (eds.), Bilingualism in Deaf Education. Hamburg: Signum, 71–81
Mather, S. (1987) Eye gaze and communication in a deaf classroom. Sign Language Studies 54, 11–30
Mather, S. (1989) Visually oriented teaching strategies with deaf preschool children. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 165–187
Mather, S. (1990) Home and classroom communication. In D. Moores and K. Meadow-Orleans (eds.), Educational and Developmental Aspects of Deafness. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 232–254
Mather, S. (1991) The discourse marker OH in typed telephone conversations among deaf typists. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC
Mather, S. (1994) Adult-Deaf toddler discourse. In B. D. Snider (ed.), Post-Milan-American Sign Language and English Literacy: Issues, Trends, and Research. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University College for Continuing Education, 283–297
Mather, S. (1996) Initiation in visually constructed dialogue: Reading books with three-to-eight year old students who are deaf and hard of hearing. In C. Lucas (ed.), Pinky Extension, Eye Gaze, and Other Sign Language Intricacies: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 109–131
Mather, S. and E. Winston (1998) Spatial mapping and involvement in American Sign Language storytelling. In C. Lucas (ed.), Pinky Extension, Eye Gaze, and Other Sign Language Intricacies: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 170–182
Mathur, G., C. Rathman and G. Mirus (1998) Why not ‘GIVE-US’: An articulatory constraint in signed languages. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, Washington, DC, November 1998
Matthews, P. (1996) The Irish Deaf Community: Survey Report, History of Education, Language and Culture, Vol. 1. Dublin: Linguistic Institute of Ireland
Mazrui, A. and A. Mazrui (1998) The Power of Babel: Language and Governance in the African Experience. Oxford: James Currey
McCagg, W. (1993) Some problems in the history of Deaf Hungarians. In J. V. van Cleve (ed.), Deaf History Unveiled, Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 252–271
McDonnell, P. (1992) Patterns of Communication Among Deaf Pupils. Dublin: Sociological Association of Ireland, National Rehabilitation Board
McDonnell, P. and H. Saunders (1993) Sit on your hands. In (R. Fischer and H. Lane (eds.), Looking Back. Hamburg: Signum, 255–260
McGroarty, M. (1996) Language attitudes, motivation and standards. In S. L. McKay and N. H. Hornberger (eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
McKay, S. (1993) Agendas for Second Language Literacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
McKee, D. and G. Kennedy (1998) Lexical comparisons of signs from American, Australian, British and New Zealand sign languages. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, Washington, DC, November 1998
McNeill, D. (1992) Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
McRae, K. (1978) Bilingual language districts in Finland and Canada: Adventures in the transplanting of an institution. Canadian Public Policy 4, 331–351
Meath-Lang, B. (1978) A comparative study of experienced and non-experienced groups of deaf college students: Their attitude toward language learning. Teaching English to the Deaf 5, 9–13
Meath-Lang, B., F. Caccamise and J. Albertini (1984) Deaf people's views on English language learning: educational and sex implications. In (R. Hoeman and R. Wilbur (eds.), Interpersonal Communication and Deaf People. Working Papers No. 5. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College
Metzger, M. (1993) Pronoun variation in formal and informal discourse. In E. Winston (ed.), Communication Forum 1993. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, 132–149
Metzger, M. (1995) Constructed dialogue and constructed action in American Sign Language. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 255–271
Metzger, M. (1999) Sign Language Interpreting: Deconstructing the Myth of Neutrality. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Milroy, J. (1992) Linguistic Variation and Change. Oxford: Blackwell
Milroy, J. and L. Milroy (1978) Belfast: Change and variation in an urban vernacular. In P. Trudgill (ed.), Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English. London: Edward Arnold, 19–36
Milroy, L. (1987a) Language and Social Networks. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell
Milroy, L. (1987b) Observing and Analyzing Natural Language. Oxford: Blackwell
Mirzoeff, N. (1995) Silent Poetry: Deafness, Sign and Visual Culture in Modern France. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Mohanan, K. P. and T. Mohanan (1987) The lexical phonology of Malayalee English: Structure formation in transplanted second language systems. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
Moores, D. F. (1978) Educating the Deaf. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Morgan, G. (1999) Event packaging in British Sign Language discourse. In E. Winston (ed.), Storytelling and Conversation: Discourse in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 27–58
Mori, S. (1996) Japanese Sign Language Phonology from comparative study between Japanese Sign Language and American Sign Language. Poster session at Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, University of Quebec at Montreal and McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Mottez, B. (1977) La diglossia à l'interieur de la langue des signes. Rééducation Orthophonique 15, 415–418
Mulrooney, K. (2001) Gender variation in fingerspelling in American Sign Language. Paper presented at the American Dialect Society, Washington, D. C., Jan. 6. (to appear in Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities, Vol. 8, C. Lucas ed., Washington, D. C., Gallaudet University Press)
Nagy, N. and B. Reynolds (1997) Optimality theory and variable word-final deletion in Faetar. Language Variation and Change 9, 37–56
Nahir, M. (1977) The five aspects of language planning. Language Problems and Language Planning 1, 107–124
Nahir, M. (1988) Language planning and language acquisition: The ‘great leap’ in the Hebrew revival. In C. Paulston (ed.), International Handbook of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. New York: Greenwood Press, 275–295
Namir, L., I. Sella, M. Rimor and I. M. Schlesinger (1979) Dictionary of Sign Language of the Deaf in Israel. Jerusalem: Ministry of Social Welfare
Nash, J. (1987) Policy and practice in the American Sign Language community. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 68, 7–22
Neidle, C., J. Kegl, D. McLaughlin, R. Lee and B. Bahan (2000) The Syntax of American Sign Language: Functional Categories and Hierarchical Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Nover, S. (1995) Politics and language: American Sign Language and English in Deaf education. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 109–163
Nover, S. and J. Andrews (1998) Critical Pedagogy in Deaf Education: Bilingual Methodology and Staff Development. Santa Fe, New Mexico: New Mexico School for the Deaf
Nuessel, F. (2000) The Esperanto Language. New York: Legas
Nwachukwu, P. (1983) Towards an Igbo Literary Standard. London: Kegan Paul
O'Huallacháin, C. (1991) The Irish Language in Society. Coleraine: University of Ulster
O'Huallacháin, C. (1994) The Irish and Irish: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of the Relationship Between a People and their Language. Baile Átha Cliath: Irish Franciscan Provincial Office
Ó Murchú, H. (1994) ‘There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio …’ Paper presented at the international conference of the Irish Association for Applied Linguistics: Language Education and Society in a Changing World, Dublin, Ireland, June 1994
Ong, W. (1982) Orality and Literacy: The Technologising of the Word. London: Routledge
Ó Riagáin, P. (1997) Language Policy and Social Reproduction: Ireland, 1893–1993. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Ó Riagáin, P. and M. Ó Gliasáin (1984) The Irish language in the Republic of Ireland 1983: Preliminary Report of a National Survey. Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann
Ó Riagáin, P. and M. Ó Gliasáin (1994) National Survey on Languages 1993: Preliminary Report. Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann
Osgood, C. A., G. J. Suci and P. H. Tannenbaum (1957) The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press
Oviedo, A. (1996) Bilingual deaf education in Venezuela: Linguistic comments on the current situation. In C. Lucas (ed.), Multicultural Aspects of Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Padden, C. (1987) American Sign Language. In J. van Cleve (ed.), Gallaudet Encyclopaedia of Deaf People and Deafness. London: McGraw-Hill
Padden, C. (1988) Interaction of Morphology and Syntax in American Sign Language. New York: Garland
Padden, C. (1990) Rethinking fingerspelling. Signpost 4, 2–4
Padden, C. (1991) Rethinking fingerspelling: Part two. Signpost. Winter, 2–4
Padden, C. (1998) From the cultural to the bicultural: The modern Deaf community. In I. Parasnis (ed.), Cultural and Language Diversity and the Deaf Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 79–98
Padden, C. and T. Humphries (1988) Deaf in America: Voices from a Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Paget, L. G. and P. Gorman (1976) The Paget–Gorman Sign System. London: Association for Experiment in Deaf Education
Paget, R. (1951) The New Sign Language. London: Wellcome Foundation
Pakir, A. (1994) Education and invisible language planning: The case of English in Singapore. In T. Kandiah and J. Kwan-Terry (eds.), English and Language Planning: A Southeast Asian Contribution. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 158–181
Parasnis, I. (ed.) (1998) Cultural and Language Diversity and the Deaf Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Patrick, P. (1999) Urban Jamaican Creole. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Patrick, P. and M. Metzger (1996) Sociolinguistic factors in sign language research. In J. Arnold, R. Blake, B. Davidson, S. Schwenter and J. Solomon (eds.), Sociolinguistic Variation: Data, Theory, and Analysis. Selected papers from New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) 23. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information, 229–240
Patrie, C. J. and R. E. Johnson (in preparation) Fingerspelled Word Recognition: A Rapid Serial Visual Processing Approach. San Diego, CA: Dawn Sign Press
Paul, P. and D. Jackson (1993) Toward a Psychology of Deafness: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon
Paul, P. and S. Quigley (1990) Education and Deafness. New York: Longman
Pedersen, L., S. Leas, G. Bailey and M. Bassett (1981) LAGS: The Basic Materials. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms
Pelissier, M. (1856) Des Sourds-Muets. Paris: Paul Dupont
Peltz, R. (1991) Ethnic identity and aging. In J. R. Dow (ed.), Language and Ethnicity: Focusschrift in Honour of J. A. Fishman, Vol 2. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 183–205
Peng, L. and J. Ann (2001) Stress and duration in three varieties of English. World Englishes 20(1)
Penn, C. (ed.) (1992–94) Dictionary of Southern African Signs. 5 vols. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council and the South African National Council for the Deaf
Penn, C. and T. Reagan (1990) How do you sign ‘apartheid’? The politics of South African Sign Language. Language Problems and Language Planning 14, 91–103
Penn, C. and T. Reagan (1991) Toward a national policy for deaf education in the ‘new’ South Africa. South African Journal of Communication Disorders 38, 19–24
Penn, C. and T. Reagan (1994) The properties of South African Sign Language: Lexical diversity and syntactic unity. Sign Language Studies 85, 319–327
Penn, C. and T. Reagan (1995) On the other hand: Implications of the study of South African Sign Language for the education of the deaf in South Africa. South African Journal of Education 15, 92–96
Penn, C. and T. Reagan (1999) Linguistic, social and cultural perspectives on sign language in South Africa. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics 25, 49–69
Pennycook, A. (1994) The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. London: Longman
Pennycook, A. (1998) English and the Discourses of Colonialism. London: Routledge
Perlmutter, D. (1992) Sonority and syllable structure in American Sign Language. In G. Coulter (ed.), Phonetics and Phonology, Vol. 3: Current Issues in American Sign Language Phonology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 227–261
Phillipson, R. (1992) Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Phillipson, R., M. Rannut and T. Skutnabb-Kangas (1995) Introduction. In T. Skutnabb-Kangas and R. Phillipson, in conjunction with M. Rannut (eds.), Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1–22
Pizzuto, E. and V. Volterra (1996) Sign language lexicon: Cross-linguistic and cross-cultural comparisons. Report prepared for the Commission of the European Communities, Human Capital and Mobility Programme Project: Intersign: Multi professional study of sign language and the deaf community in Europe (Network)
Poplack, S. (1979) Function and process in a variable phonology. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
Poplack, S. (1980) ‘Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish and termino en espaÑol’: Towards a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18, 581–618
Poplack, S. and S. Tagliamonte (1989) There's no tense like the present: Verbal -s inflection in early Black English. Language Variation and Change 1, 47–84
Poulin, C. and C. Miller (1995) On narrative discourse and point of view in Québec Sign Language. In (K. Emmorey and J. Reilly (eds.), Language, Gesture, and Space. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 117–131
Quay, S. (1998) Monastic sign language in the Far East. Paper presented to the 12th Sociolinguistics Symposium, London, March 1998
Quigley, S. and P. E. Kretschmer (1982) The Education of Deaf Children. London: Edward Arnold
Radutzky, E. (1990) The changing handshape in Italian Sign Language. In W. H. Edmondson and F. Karlsson (eds.), SLR 1987: Papers from the Fourth International Symposium on Sign Language Research. Hamburg: Signum
Radutzky, E. (1992) Dizionario bilingue elementare della lingua italiana dei segni. Roma: Edizioni Kappa
Rampton, B. (1997) Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents. London: Longman
Ramsey, C. L. (1989) Language planning in deaf education. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 123–146
Ramsey, C. L. (1993) A description of classroom language and literacy learning among deaf children in a mainstreaming program. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA
Ramsey, C. L. (1997) Deaf Children in the Public Schools. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Reagan, T. (1983) The economics of language: Implications for language planning. Language Problems and Language Planning 7, 148–161
Reagan, T. (1984) Language policy, politics and ideology: The case of South Africa. Issues in Education 2, 155–164
Reagan, T. (1985) The deaf as a linguistic minority: Educational implications. Harvard Educational Review 55, 265–277
Reagan, T. (1986) ‘Language ideology’ in the language planning process: Two African case studies. South African Journal of African Languages 6, 94–97
Reagan, T. (1987) The politics of linguistic apartheid: Language policies in black education in South Africa. Journal of Negro Education 56, 299–312
Reagan, T. (1988) Multiculturalism and the deaf: An educational manifesto. Journal of Research and Development in Education 22, 1–6
Reagan, T. (1989) Nineteenth century conceptions of deafness: Implications for contemporary educational practice. Educational Theory 39, 39–46
Reagan, T. (1990) The development and reform of sign languages. In I. Fodor and C. Hagège (eds.), History and Future, Vol. 5: Language Reform. Hamburg: Buske Verlag, 253–267
Reagan, T. (1991) Responding to linguistic diversity in South Africa: The contribution of language planning. South African Journal of Linguistics 8, 178–184
Reagan, T. (1995a) Language planning and language policy in South Africa: A perspective on the future. In R. Mesthrie (ed.), Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguistics. Cape Town: David Philip, 319–328
Reagan, T. (1995b) Neither easy to understand nor pleasing to see: The development of manual sign codes as language planning activity. Language Problems and Language Planning 19, 133–150
Reagan, T. (1997) When is a language not a language? Challenges to ‘linguistic legitimacy’ in educational discourse. Educational Foundations 11, 5–28
Reagan, T. (in press) Language rights and the deaf: Compensatory and empowerment approaches in language policy. In P. Benson, P. Grundy, H. Itakura and T. Skutnabb-Kangas (eds.), Access to Language Rights. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Reagan, T. and C. Penn (1997) Language policy, South African Sign Language, and the deaf: Social and educational implications. Southern African Journal of Applied Language Studies 5, 1–13
Rée, J. (1999) I See a Voice: Deafness, Language and the Senses: A Philosophical History. New York: Metropolitan Books
Reilly, J. and M. McIntire (1980) American Sign Language and Pidgin Sign English: What's the difference? Sign Language Studies 27, 151–192
Rhodes, N. (1980) Attitudes toward Guaraní and Spanish: A survey. Linguistic Reporter 22, 4–5
Ricento, T. and B. Burnaby (eds.) (1998) Language and Politics in the United States and Canada: Myths and Realities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Richey, M. (2000) Interactional aspects in a religious setting. Unpublished manuscript, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC
Roberts, C., E. Davies and T. Jupp (1992) Language and Discrimination: A Study of Communication in Multi-Ethnic Workplaces. London: Longman
Roberts, J. (1997) Acquisition of variable rules: A study of (-t, d) deletion in preschool children. Journal of Child Language 24, 351–372
Romaine, S. (1989) Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell
Rosenthal, M. (1974) The magic boxes: Pre-school children's attitudes toward Black and Standard English. Florida Foreign Language Reporter 12, 55–62, 92–93
Roush, D. (1999) Indirectness in American Sign Language: Requests and Refusals. Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics and Interpretation Working Papers 1999. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University
Rousseau, P. and D. Sankoff (1978) Advances in variable rule methodology. In D. Sankoff (ed.), Linguistic Variation: Models and Methods. New York: Academic Press, 57–69
Roy, C. (1989a) A sociolinguistic analysis of the interpreter's role in the turn exchanges of an interpreted event. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington DC
Roy, C. (1989b) Features of Discourse in an American Sign Language Lecture. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego: Academic Press, 231–251
Rubin, D. L. (1992) Non-language factors affecting undergraduates' judgements of non-native English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education 33, 511–531
Rubin, D. L. and K. A. Smith (1990) Effects of accent, ethnicity and lecture topic on undergraduates' perceptions of non-native English-speaking teaching assistants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 14, 337–353
Rubin, J. (1968) National Bilingualism in Paraguay. The Hague: Mouton
Rubin, J. and B. Jernudd (eds.) (1971) Can Language be Planned? Sociolinguistic Theory and Practice for Developing Nations. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii
Ryazanova-Clarke, L. and T. Wade (1999) The Russian Language Today. London: Routledge
Sacks, H., E. Schegloff and G. Jefferson (1974) A simplest systematics for the organization of turntaking in conversation. Language 50, 696–735
Sacks, O. (1989) Seeing Voices: A Journey into the World of the Deaf. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Sáenz-Badillos, A. (1993) A History of the Hebrew Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Safford, P. and E. Safford (1996) A History of Childhood and Disability. New York: Teachers College Press
Sandler, W. (1992) Linearization of phonological tiers in American Sign Language. In G. Coulter (ed.), Phonetics and Phonology, Vol. 3: Current Issues in American Sign Language Phonology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 103–129
Sanheim, L. (2000) Turn exchange in an interpreted medical encounter. Unpublished manuscript, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC
Sankoff, D. (1988) Variable rules. In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar and K. J. Mattheier (eds.), Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society, Vol. 2. Berlin: de Gruyter, 984–997
Sankoff, D. and P. Rousseau (1978) Advances in variable rule methodology. In D. Sankoff (ed.), Linguistic Variation: Models and Methods. New York: Academic
Santa Ana, O. (1992) Chicano English and the exponential hypothesis. Language Variation and Change 4, 275–288
Sarnoff, I. (1970) Social attitudes and the resolution of motivational conflict. In (M. Jahoda and N. Warren (eds.), Attitudes. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Saville-Troike, M. (1989) The Ethnography of Communication. 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell
Schaller, S. (1991) A Man Without Words. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Schecter, S. and R. Bayley (1997) Language socialization practices and cultural identity: Case studies of Mexican-descent families in California and Texas. TESOL Quarterly 31, 513–541
Schegloff, E. (1972) Sequencing in conversational openings. In (J. Gumperz and D. Hymes (eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 346–380
Schegloff, E., G. Jefferson and H. Sacks (1977) The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation. Language 53, 361–382
Schegloff, E. and H. Sacks (1973) Opening up closings. Semiotica 7, 289–327
Schein, J. D. (1984) Speaking the Language of Sign: The Art and Science of Signing. New York: Doubleday
Schein, J. D. (1987) The demography of deafness. In P. C. Higgins and J. Nash (eds.), Understanding Deafness Socially. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 3–28
Schein, J. D. (1989) At Home Among Strangers: Exploring the Deaf Community in the United States. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Schein, J. D. and M. T. Delk (1974) The Deaf Population of the United States. Silver Spring, MD: National Association for the Deaf
Schein, J. D. and D. Stewart (1995) Language in Motion: Exploring the Nature of Sign. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Schermer, T. (1990) In Search of Language: Influences from Spoken Dutch on Sign Language of the Netherlands. Delft: Eburon
Schiffman, H. (1996) Linguistic Culture and Language Policy. London: Routledge
Schiffrin, D. (1987) Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Schiffrin, D. (1994) Approaches to Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Blackwell
Schilling-Estes, N. (1999) Situated ethnicities: Constructing and reconstructing identity in the sociolinguistic interview. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 6(2), 137–151
Schmaling, C. (2000) Maganar Hannu: Language of the Hands: A Descriptive Analysis of Hausa Sign Language. Hamburg: Signum
Schuchman, J. (1988) Hollywood Speaks: Deafness and the Film Entertainment Industry. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press
Scott, D. A., R. Carmi, K. Elbedour, S. Yosefsberg, E. M. Stone and V. C. Sheffield (1996) An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic-hearing-loss locus identified by DNA pooling using two inbred Bedouin kindreds. American Journal of Human Genetics 59, 385–391
Searle, J. (1962) What is a speech act? In M. Black (ed.), Philosophy in America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 221–239
Searle, J. (1969) Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Seligman, C., G. R. Tucker and W. E. Lambert (1972) The effects of speech style and other attributes on teachers' attitudes toward pupils. Language in Society 1, 131–142
Serpell, R. and M. Mbewe (1990) Dialectal flexibility in sign language in Africa. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sign Language Research. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 275–287
Shapiro, E. (1993) Socioeconomic variation in American Sign Language. In E. Winston (ed.), Communication Forum 1993. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of American Sign Language, Linguistics, and Interpretation, 150–175
Shapiro, J. (1993) No Pity: People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement. New York: Times Books
Shorish, M. (1984) Planning by decree: The Soviet language policy in Central Asia. Language Problems and Language Planning 8, 35–49
Shroyer, E. and S. Shroyer (1984) Signs Across America: A Look at Regional Differences in American Sign Language. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Press
Shuy, R., W. Wolfram and W. Riley (1968) Linguistic Correlates of Social Stratification in Detroit Speech. Washington, dc: US Office of Education Final Report No. 6–1347
Sibayan, B. (1974) Language policy, language engineering and literacy in the Philippines. In J. Fishman (ed.), Advances in Language Planning. The Hague: Mouton, 221–254
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1994) Linguistic human rights: A prerequisite for bilingualism. In (I. Ahlgren and K. Hyltenstam (eds.), Bilingualism in Deaf Education. Hamburg: Signum, 139–159
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2000) Linguistic Genocide in Education: Or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and R. Phillipson (eds.) (1995) Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
Smith, D. (1993) Conversational analysis of American Sign Language in a second language classroom. In E. Winston (ed.), Gallaudet University Communication Forum, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University School of Communication Student Forum, 176–188
Smith, W. (1977) A history of the development of education of the deaf in the Republic of China. Unpublished manuscript, California State University, Northridge, CA
Smith, W. (1989) The Morphological Characteristics of Verbs in Taiwan Sign Language. Unpublished dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Smith, W. and L. Ting (1979) Shou Neng Shen Chyau [Your Hands can Become a Bridge], Vol. 1. Taipei: Deaf Sign Language Research Association of the Republic of China
Smith, W. and L. Ting (1984) Shou Neng Shen Chyau [Your Hands can Become a Bridge], Vol. 2. Taipei: Deaf Sign Language Research Association of the Republic of China
Srivastava, R. (1988) Societal bilingualism and bilingual education: A study of the Indian situation. In C. Paulston (ed.), International Handbook of Bilingualism and Bilingual education. New York: Greenwood Press, 247–274
Stachlewitz, J. and B. Rundfunk (1995) German television programmes for the Deaf and its viewers' reactions and developments. In Proceedings of Equal Partnership in the Media. A Seminar Organised by the Irish Deaf Society and the European Union of the Deaf, Dublin, November
Stevenson, P. (1997) The German-Speaking World: A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistic Issues. London: Routledge
Steyn, J. (1980) Tuiste in Eie Taal [At Home in One's Language]. Cape Town: Tafelberg
Stokoe, W. (1960) Sign Language Structure: An Outline of Visual Communication Systems of the American Deaf. Studies in Linguistics: Occasional Paper No. 8. Buffalo, NY: University of Buffalo
Stokoe, W. (1969) Sign language diglossia. Studies in Linguistics 21, 27–41
Stokoe, W. (1990) An historical perspective on sign language research: A personal view. In C. Lucas (ed.), Sign Language Research: Theoretical Issues. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Stokoe, W. (1994) A sign language dictionary. In C. Erting, R. Johnson, D. Smith and B. Snider (eds.), The Deaf Way: Perspectives from the International Conference on Deaf Culture. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Stokoe, W., D. C. Casterline and C. G. Croneberg (1965) A Dictionary of American Sign Language on Linguistic Principles. Silver Spring, MD: Linstock Press
Stubbs, M. (1983) Discourse Analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Sutcliffe, R. (1975) A Study of Language as a Determinant of Group Cohesiveness. Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
Sutton, V. (1999) Available on the internet at: http://www.signwriting.org
Sutton-Spence, R. (1998) Grammatical constraints on fingerspelled English verb loans in British Sign Language. In C. Lucas (ed.), Pinky Extension and Eye Gaze: Language Use in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 41–58
Sutton-Spence, R. and B. Woll (1999) The Linguistics of British Sign Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Swadesh, M. (1972) The Origin and Diversification of Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Swisher, M. V. and D. McKee (1989) The sociolinguistic situation of natural sign language. Applied Linguistics 10, 294–312
Tabouret-Keller, A. (1997) Language and identity. In F. Coulmas (ed.), The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. London: Blackwell
Tai, J. (1988) Bilingualism and bilingual education in the People's Republic of China. In C. Paulston (ed.), International Handbook of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. New York: Greenwood Press, 185–201
Tannen, D. (1984) Conversational Style: Analyzing Talk Among Friends. Norwood, NJ: Ablex
Tannen, D. (1986) That's Not What I Meant. New York: Ballantine
Tannen, D. (1989) Talking Voices: Repetition, Dialogue and Imagery in Conversational Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Tannen, D. (1993) What's in a frame? Surface evidence for underlying expectations. In Tannen (ed.), Framing in Discourse. New York: Oxford University Press, 14–56
Taylor, G. and C. Mason (1991) Deaf Futures. Milton Keynes: The Open University
Tennant, R. and M. Brown (1998) The American Sign Language Handshape Dictionary. Washington, DC: Clerc Books, Gallaudet University Press
Tervoort, B. (1978) Bilingual Interference. In I. M. Schlesinger and L. Namir (eds.), Sign Language of the Deaf: Psychological, Linguistic and Sociological Perspectives. New York: Academic Press, 169–239
Thibeault, A. (1993) Overlap in Filipino Sign Language discourse. In E. Winston (ed.), Gallaudet University Communication Forum, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University School of Communication Student Forum, 207–218
Thomas, L. (1999) Attitudes to language. In (L. Thomas and S. Wareing (eds.), Language, Society and Power: An Introduction. London: Routledge
Todd, L. (1984) Modern Englishes: Pidgins and Creoles. London: Basil Blackwell
Tollefson, J. (1991) Planning Language, Planning Inequality: Language Policy in the Community. London: Longman
Tomkins, W. (1969) Indian Sign Language. New York: Dover Publications
Trudgill, P. (1974) The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Trudgill, P. (1983) Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society. Revised edition. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Trudgill, P. (1999) The Dialects of England. Oxford: Blackwell
Turner, G. (1995) Contact signing and language shift. In (H. Bos and T. Schermer (eds.), Sign Language Research 1994. Hamburg: Signum, 211–229
Turner, G. H., M. Brennan, D. Brien, F. A. Elton and J. M. Collins (1998) Sociolinguistic issues in the making of ‘The Dictionary of British Sign Language/English’. In M. K. Vermon (ed.), Sociolinguistics, Language and Society. London: Sage
Valli, C. (1994) Poetics of American Sign Language poetry. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH
Valli, C. (1995) American Sign Language poetry: Selected works of Clayton Valli. (Video) San Diego, CA: Dawn Sign Press
Valli, C. (1996) Poetics of American Sign Language poetry. In Visions of the Past, Visions of the Future: Proceedings of the 4th Gallaudet University College for Continuing Education Deaf Studies Conference, April 1995. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University, 253–264
Valli, C. and C. Lucas (1992) ASL PAH! Deaf Students' Perspectives on their Language. Burtonsville, MD: Linstok Press
Valli, C. and C. Lucas (2000) Linguistics of American Sign Language: An Introduction. 3rd edition. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. 1st edition 1992; 2nd edition 1995
van Cleve, J. (ed.) (1993) Deaf History Unveiled: Interpretations from the New Scholarship. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
van Dijk, T. (1995) Discourse analysis as ideology analysis. In C. Schäffner and A. Wenden (eds.), Language and Peace. Aldershot: Harwood Academic Publishers, 17–33
van Dijk, T. (1997a) Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, Vol. 1: Discourse as Structure and Process. London: Sage
van Dijk, T. (1997b) Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, Vol. 2: Discourse as Social Interaction. London: Sage
van Hoek, K. (1992) Conceptual spaces and pronominal reference in American Sign Language. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 15, 183–199
van Hoek, K. (1996) Conceptual locations for reference in American Sign Language. In (G. Fauconnier and E. Sweetser (eds.), Spaces, Worlds, and Grammar. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 334–350
van Hoek, K., F. Norman and L. O'Grady (1989) Development of spatial and nonspatial referential cohesion in American Sign Language narrative. Unpublished paper presented at Stanford Child Research Forum, Stanford, CA
van Uden, A. (1986) Sign languages of Deaf people and psycholinguistics: A critical evaluation. Reprinted In (S. Gregory and G. Hartley (eds.), (1991) Constructing Deafness. Milton Keynes: The Open University, 192–199
van Zijl, J. (1987) Teacher education for a multi-cultural society: Seven strategies. South African Journal of Education 7, 187–190
Veltman, C. (1996) The English language in Québec, 1940–1990. In J. A. Fishman, A. Rubal-Lopez and A. W. Conrad (eds.), Post-imperial English: Status Changes in Former British and American Colonies, 1940–1990. Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyer, 232–233
Voegelin, C. and F. Voegelin (1977) Classification and Index of the World's Languages. New York and Oxford: Elsevier
Walworth, M., D. Moores and T. J. O'Rourke (eds.) (1992) A Free Hand: Enfranchising the Education of Deaf Children. Silver Spring, MD: T. J. Publishers
Wardhaugh, R. (1998) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell
Ward Trotter, J. (1989) An examination of language attitudes of teachers of the deaf. In C. Lucas (ed.), The Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 211–228
Washabaugh, W. (1981) The Deaf of Grand Cayman, British West Indies. Sign Language Studies 31, 117–133
Washabaugh, W. (1986) Five Fingers for Survival. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma
Wassink, A. B. (1999) Historic low prestige and seeds of change: Attitudes toward Jamaican Creole. Language in Society 28, 57–92
Weinberg, J. (1992) The History of the Residential School for Jewish Deaf Children. London: Reunion of the Jewish Deaf School Committee
Weinreich, U., W. Labov and M. Herzog (1968) Empirical foundations for a theory of language change. In (W. Lehmann and Y. Malkiel (eds.), Directions for Historical Linguistics: A Symposium. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 95–188
Weinstein, B. (1980) Language planning in francophone Africa. Language Problems and Language Planning 4, 55–77
Weinstein, B. (ed.) (1990) Language Policy and Political Development. Norwood, NJ: Ablex
Wilbur, R. (1979) American Sign Language and Sign Systems. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press
Wilcox, S. (ed.) (1988) Academic Acceptance of American Sign Language. Special issue of Sign Language Studies 59. Burtonsville, MD: Linstok Press
Wilcox, S. and P. Wilcox (1997) Learning to See: American Sign Language as a Second Language. 2nd edn. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Wilkinson, W. (1875) Eleventh Report of the Board of Directors and Officers of the California Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Blind. Sacramento, CA: D. W. Gelwicks, State printer
Williams, F. (1973) Some research notes on dialect, attitudes and stereotypes. In (R. Shuy and R. Fasold (eds.), Language Attitudes: Current Trends and Prospects. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 113–128
Williams, F. (1974) The identification of linguistic attitudes. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 9, 43–47
Williams, G. (1992) Sociolinguistics: A Sociological Critique. London: Routledge
Wilson, J. (1996) The tobacco story: Narrative structure in an American Sign Language story. In C. Lucas (ed.), Multicultural Aspects of Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 152–180
Wilson, J. and A. Henry (1998) Parameter setting within a socially realistic linguistics. Language in Society 27, 1–22
Winefield, R. (1987) Never the Twain Shall Meet: Bell, Gallaudet, and the Communications Debate. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Winston, E. (1991) Spatial referencing and cohesion in an American Sign Language text. Sign Language Studies 73, 397–410
Winston, E. (1992) Space and involvement in an American Sign Language lecture. In J. Plant-Moeller (ed.), Expanding Horizons: Proceedings of the 12th National Convention of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. Silver Spring, MD: RID Publications, 93–105
Winston, E. (1993) Spatial mapping in comparative discourse frames in an American Sign Language lecture. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC
Winston, E. (1994) Space and reference in American Sign Language. In B. Johnstone (ed.), Repetition in Discourse. Norwood, NJ: Ablex
Winston, E. (1995) Spatial mapping in comparative discourse frames. In (K. Emmorey and J. Reilly (eds.), Language, Gesture, and Space. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 87–114
Winston, E. (1998) Contextualizing prosody in American Sign Language. Unpublished paper presented at Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research (TISLR) 6. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University
Winston, E. (ed.) (1999) Storytelling and Conversation: Discourse in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Wolfram, W. (1969) A Sociolinguistic Description of Detroit Negro Speech. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics
Wolfram, W. (1989) Structural variability in phonological development: Final nasals in vernacular Black English. In R. W. Fasold and D. Schiffrin (eds.), Language Change and Variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 301–332
Wolfram, W. (1991) Dialects and American English. Englewood Cliff, NJ and Washington, DC: Prentice Hall and Center for Applied Linguistics
Wolfram, W. (1993) Identifying and interpreting variables. In D. Preston (ed.), American Dialect Research. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, 193–221
Wolfram, W. (1997) Dialect in society. In F. Coulmas (ed.), The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, 107–126
Wolfram, W. and D. Christian (1976) Appalachian Speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics
Wolfram, W. and R. Fasold (1974) The Study of Social Dialects in the United States. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Wolfram, W. and N., Schilling-Estes (1998) American English. Oxford: Blackwell
Wolfram, W., C. Dannenberg and N., Schilling-Estes (2000) Constructing ethnolinguistic identity in a tri-ethnic context. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Chicago, IL
Wolfson, N. (1979) The conversational historical present alternation. Language 55, 168–182
Woll, B. (1991) Variation and Recent Change in British Sign Language. Final report to Economic and Social Research Council. University of Bristol: Centre for Deaf Studies
Woll, B. (1994) The influence of television on the Deaf community in Britain. In I. Ahlgren, B. Bergman and M. Brennan (eds.), Perspectives on Sign Language Usage: Papers from the 5th International Symposium on Sign Language Research, Vol. 2. Durham: University of Durham, Deaf Studies Research Unit: The International Sign Linguistics Association
Woodward, J. C. (1972) Implications for sociolinguistic research among the Deaf. Sign Language Studies 1, 1–7
Woodward, J. C. (1973a) Implicational lects on the deaf diglossic continuum. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC
Woodward, J. C. (1973b) Interrule implication in American Sign Language. Sign Language Studies 3, 47–56
Woodward, J. C. (1973c) Some characteristics of Pidgin Sign English. Sign Language Studies 3, 39–46
Woodward, J. C. (1976) Black southern signing. Language in Society 5, 211–218
Woodward, J. C. (1978) Historical bases of American Sign Language. In P. Siple (ed.), Understanding Language through Sign Language Research. New York: Academic Press, 333–348
Woodward, J. C. (1982) How You Gonna Get to Heaven if You Can't Talk with Jesus: On Depathologizing Deafness. Silver Spring, MD: T. J. Publishers
Woodward, J. C. (1987) Sociolinguistics. In J. van Cleve (ed.), Gallaudet Encyclopedia of Deaf People and Deafness, Vol. 3. London: McGraw-Hill, 152–157
Woodward, J. C. and S. DeSantis (1977a) Negative incorporation in French and American Sign Language. Language in Society 6(3), 379–388
Woodward, J. C. and S. DeSantis (1977b) Two to one it happens: Dynamic phonology in two sign languages. Sign Language Studies 17, 329–346
Woodward, J. C. and H. Markowicz (1975) Some handy new ideas of pidgins and creoles: Pidgin sign languages. Unpublished paper presented at the Conference on Pidgin and Creole Languages, Honolulu, HI
Woodward, J. C. and H. Markowicz (1980) Pidgin sign languages. In W. C. Stokoe (ed.), Sign and Culture: A Reader for Students of American Sign Language. Silver Spring, MD: Linstok Press, 55–76
Woodward, J. C., C. Erting and S. Oliver (1976) Facing and hand(1)ing variation in American Sign Language. Sign Language Studies 10, 43–52
Woodward, R. (1978) Historical bases of American Sign Language. In P. Siple (ed.), Understanding Language through Sign Language Research. London: Academic Press
Woolard, K. A. (1985) Catalonia: The dilemma of language rights. In (N. Wolfson and J. Manes (eds.), Language of Inequality. Berlin: Mouton, 91–109
Woolard, K. A. and T. J. Gahng (1990) Changing language policies and attitudes in autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society 19, 311–330
Woolley, M. (1981) Deaf broadcasting campaign. Reprinted in R. Lee (ed.) (1992), Deaf Liberation: A Selection of National Union of the Deaf papers, 1976–1986. Feltham, UK: National Union of the Deaf
World Federation of the Deaf (1975) Gestuno: International Sign Language of the Deaf. Carlisle: The British Deaf Association
World Federation of the Deaf (1993) The World Federation of the Deaf report on the status of sign languages. Helsinki: World Federation of the Deaf
Wrigley, O. (1997) The Politics of Deafness. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press
Wulf, A., P. Dudis, R. Bayley and C. Lucas (1999) Null subject variation in American Sign Language narratives. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) conference, Toronto
Yau, S. and J. He (1990) How do deaf children get their name signs during their first month in school? In W. H. Edmondson and F. Karlsson (eds.), SLR 1987: Papers from the Fourth International Symposium on Sign Language Research, Lappeenranta, Finland, 15–19 July 1987. Hamburg: Signum Press, 243–254
Young, D. (1988) Bilingualism and bilingual education in a divided South African society. In C. Paulston (ed.), International Handbook of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. New York: Greenwood Press, 405–428
Young, R. and R. Bayley (1996) VARBRUL analysis for second language acquisition research. In R. Bayley and D. R. Preston (eds.), Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Variation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, 253–306
Zentella, A. C. (1997) Growing Up Bilingual: Puerto Rican Children in New York. Oxford: Blackwell
Zeshan, U. (forthcoming 2001): Gebärdensprachen des indischen Subkontinents. Munich: LINCOM Europa