13 - Mammals: comparisons and contrasts  pp. 210-227

Mammals: comparisons and contrasts

By Andrew F. Russell

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Working on birds has two major logistical advantages over mammals: their observation need not rely on habituation, and they can be individually marked more easily. It is therefore not surprising that despite the studies summarized in Solomon and French (1997), work on cooperative breeding in vertebrates has been markedly bird-biased (Emlen 1991), with the result that theory on the evolution of cooperative breeding has been primarily developed for birds (Chapters 1 and 3). Such theory has addressed three questions: (1) Why do individuals delay dispersal? (2) Why do they delay breeding? (3) Why do they help? The answers to these questions do not form a linear progression of results that will lead us to understand the evolution of cooperative breeding, for both birds and mammals may be cooperative without delaying either dispersal or breeding, and may be non-cooperative whilst delaying both. Nevertheless, these questions remain a useful framework for understanding cooperative breeding in the majority of cases (Emlen 1995), and will form the structure of this chapter.

DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY

Cooperative breeding arises when three or more individuals cooperate to provide care to offspring, and hence some individuals inevitably care for offspring that are not their own. Following Cockburn (1998), I encompass a broad number of circumstances in which individuals may knowingly provide care to others, including when individuals have not bred (helpers-at-the-nest) as well as when they have bred (plural, communal, cooperative polygamous systems).

In birds, cooperative species are usually characterized by individuals incubating and/or feeding non-descendant offspring.

13

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Abbott, D. H. (1984). Behavioral and physiological suppression of fertility in subordinate marmoset monkeys. Am. J. Primatol., 6, 169–186
Alexander, R. D. (1974). The evolution of social behavior. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 5, 325–383
Allee, W. C. (1931). Animal Aggregations: a Study in General Sociology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Alonso, J. A. and Alonso, J. C. (1993). Age-related differences in time budgets and parental care in wintering common cranes. Auk, 110, 78–88
Amos, B., Schlotterer, C. and Tautz, D. (1993). Social structure of pilot whales revealed by analytical DNA profiling. Science, 260, 670–672
Anava, A. (1998). Seasonal water and energy fluxes in Arabian babblers (Turdoides squamiceps), a passerine that inhabits extreme deserts. Ph. D. dissertation, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Anava, A., Kam, M., Shkolnik, A. and Degen, A. A. (2000). Seasonal field metabolic rate and dietary intake in Arabian babblers (Turdoides squamiceps) inhabiting extreme deserts. Funct. Ecol., 14, 607–613
Anava, A., Kam, M., Shkolnik, A. and Degen, A. A. (2001a). Growth rate and energetics of Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps) nestlings. Auk, 118, 519–524
Anava, A., Kam, M., Shkolnik, A. and Degen, A. A. (2001b). Effect of group size on field metaolic rate of Arabian babblers provisioning nestlings. Condor, 103, 376–380
Anava, A., Kam, M., Shkolnik, A. and Degen, A. A. (2001c). Does group size affect field metabolic rate of Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps) nestlings? Auk, 118, 525–528
Anderson, A. H. and Anderson, A. (1972). The Cactus Wren. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press
Andersson, M. (1984). Brood parasitism within species. In: Producers and Scroungers, ed. C. J. Barnard. London: Croom-Helm. pp. 195–228
Andersson, M. (1994) Sexual Selection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Andersson, M. (2001). Relatedness and the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism. Am. Nat., 158, 599–614
Andersson, M. and Åhlund, M. (2000). Host-parasite relatedness shown by protein fingerprinting in a brood parasitic bird. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 13188–13193
Ankney, C. D. (1982). Sex ratio varies with egg sequence in lesser snow geese. Auk, 99, 662–666
Arcese, P. (1989). Intrasexual competition, mating system, and natal dispersal in song sparrows. Anim. Behav., 38, 958–979
Armitage, K. B. (1981). Sociality as a life-history tactic of ground-squirrels. Oecologia, 48, 36–49
Armitage, K. B. (1999). Evolution of sociality in marmots. J. Mammal., 80, 1–10
Armstrong, E. A. and Whitehouse, H. L. K. (1977). Behavioral adaptations of the wren (Troglodytes troglodytes). Biol. Rev., 52, 235–294
Arnold, K. E. and Owens, I. P. F. (1998). Cooperative breeding in birds: a comparative test of the life history hypothesis. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 265, 739–745
Arnold, K. E. and Owens, I. P. F. (1999). Cooperative breeding in birds: the role of ecology. Behav. Ecol., 10, 465–471
Arnold, K. E., Griffith, S. C. and Goldizen, A. W. (2001). Sex-biased hatching sequences in the cooperatively breeding noisy miner. J. Avian Biol., 32, 219–223
Arnold, W. (1990a). The evolution of marmot sociality. 1. Why disperse late? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 27, 229–237
Arnold, W. (1990b). The evolution of marmot sociality. 2. Costs and benefits of joint hibernation. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 27, 239–246
Asa, C. S. (1997). Hormonal and experiential factors in the expression of social and parental behavior in canids. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 129–149
Baglione, V., Canestrari, D., Marcos, J. M., Griesser, M. and Ekman, J. (2002a). History, environment and social behaviour: experimentally induced cooperative breeding in the carrion crow. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 1247–1251
Baglione, V., Marcos, J. M. and Canestrari, D. (2002b). Cooperatively breeding groups of the carrion crow Corvus corone corone in northern Spain. Auk, 119, 790–799
Bailey, R. E. (1952). The incubation patch of passerine birds. Condor, 54, 121–136
Baker, A. J. and Woods, F. (1992). Reproduction of the emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator) in captivity, with comparisons to cotton-top and golden lion tamarins. Am. J. Primatol., 26, 1–10
Baker, A. J., Dietz, J. M. and Kleiman, D. G. (1993). Behavioural evidence for monopolization of paternity in multi-male groups of golden lion tamarins. Anim. Behav., 46, 1091–1103
Balcombe, J. P. (1989). Non-breeder asymmetry in Florida scrub jays. Evol. Ecol., 3, 77–79
Balda, R. P. and Bateman, G. C. (1971). Flocking and the annual cycle of the pinyon jay. Condor, 73, 287–302
Bales, K., O'Herron, M., Baker, A. J. and Dietz, J. M. (2001). Sources of variability in numbers of live births in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J. Primatol., 54, 211–221
Ball, G. F. (1983). Functional incubation in male barn swallows. Auk, 100, 998–1000
Ball, G. F. (1991). Endocrine mechanisms and the evolution of avian parental care. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 20, 984–991
Ball, G. F. (1993). The neural integration of environmental information by seasonally breeding birds. Am. Zool., 33, 185–199
Balthazart, J. (1983). Hormonal correlates of behavior. In: Avian Biology, vol. 7, ed. D. S. Farner and K. C. Parkes. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 221–365
Barkan, C. P. L., Craig, J. L., Strahl, S. D., Stewart, A. M. and Brown, J. L. (1986). Social dominance in communal Mexican jays Aphelocoma ultramarina. Anim. Behav., 34, 175–187
Barker, F. K., Barrowclough, G. F. and Groth, J. G. (2002). A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds: taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 295–308
Barrett, G. W., Ford, H. A. and Recher, H. F. (1994). Conservation of woodland birds in a fragmented rural landscape. Pacific Cons. Biol., 1, 245–256
Barrett, S. C. H. and Charlesworth, B. (1991). Effects of a change in the level of inbreeding on the genetic load. Nature, 352, 522–524
Bartholomew, G. A. and Trost, C. H. (1970). Temperature regulation in the speckled mousebird (Colius striatus). Condor, 72, 141–146
Bateson, P. P. G. (1982). Preferences for cousins in Japanese quail. Nature, 295, 236–237
Beauchamp, G. (1999). The evolution of communal roosting in birds: origin and secondary losses. Behav. Ecol., 10, 675–687
Bednarz, J. C. (1988). Cooperative hunting in Harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus). Science, 239, 1525–1527
Bednarz, J. C. (1995). Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus). In: The Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' Union
Bednarz, J. C. and Hayden, T. J. (1991). Skewed brood sex ratio and sex-biased hatching sequence in Harris's hawks. Am. Nat., 137, 116–132
Bednekoff, P. (1997). Mutualism among safe, selfish sentinels: a dynamic game. Am. Nat., 150, 373–392
Beletsky, L. D. and Orians, G. H. (1987). Territoriality among red-winged blackbirds. II. Removal experiments and site domiance. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 20, 339–349
Beletsky, L. D. and Orians, G. H. (1989). Familiar neighbors enhance breeding success in birds. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 7933–6
Beletsky, L. D. and Orians, G. H. (1996). Red-Winged Blackbirds: Decision-Making and Reproductive Success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Beletsky, L. D., Gori, D. F., Freeman, S. and Wingfield, J. C. (1995). Testosterone and polygyny in birds. Curr. Ornithol., 12, 1–41
Bengtsson, B. O. (1978). Avoiding inbreeding: at what cost? J. Theor. Biol., 73, 439–444
Bennett, N. C. and Faulkes, C. G. (2000). African Mole-Rats: Ecology and Eusociality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Bennett, N. C., Jarvis, J. U. M., Faulkes, C. G. and Millar, R. P. (1993). LH responses to single doses of exogenous GnRH by freshly captured Damaraland mole-rats, Cryptomys damarensis. J. Repro. Fert., 99, 81–86
Bennett, N. C., Jarvis, J. U. M., Millar, R. P., Sasano, H. and Ntshinga, K. V. (1994). Reproductive suppression in eusocial Cryptomys damarensis colonies: socially-induced infertility in females. J. Zool., 233, 617–630
Bennett, N. C., Faulkes, C. G. and Molteno, A. J. (1996). Reproductive suppression in subordinate, non-breeding female Damaraland mole-rats: two components to a lifetime of socially-induced infertility. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 263, 1599–1603
Bennett, N. C., Faulkes, C. G. and Spinks, A. C. (1997). LH responses to single doses of exogenous GnRH by social Mashona mole-rats: a continuum of socially induced infertility in the family Bathyergidae. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 264, 1001–1006
Bennett, N. C., Molteno, A. J. and Spinks, A. C. (2000). Pituitary sensitivity to exogenous GnRH in giant Zambian mole-rats, Cryptomys mechowi (Rodentia: Bathyergidae): support for the ‘socially induced infertility continuum’. J. Zool., 252, 447–452
Bennett, P. M. and Owens, I. P. F. (2002). Evolutionary Ecology of Birds. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Bensch, S. (1999). Sex allocation in relation to parental quality. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 451–466
Bensch, S., Hasselquist, D., Nielsen, B. and Hansson, B. (1998). Higher fitness for philopatric than for immigrant males in a semi-isolated population of great reed warblers. Evolution, 528, 877–883
Bertram, B. C. R. (1978). Living in groups: predators and prey. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 64–96
Bertram, B. C. R. (1992). The Ostrich Communal Nesting System. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Birkhead, T. R. (1991). The Magpies: the Ecology and Behaviour of Black-billed and Yellow-billed Magpies. London: Poyser
Birkhead, T. R., Hatchwell, B. J. and Davies, N. B. (1991). Sperm competition and the reproductive organs of the male and female dunnock Prunella modularis. Ibis, 133, 306–311
Bishop, R. P. and Groves, A. L. (1991). The social structure of Arabian babbler, Turdoides squamiceps, roosts. Anim. Behav., 42, 323–325
Black, J. M. and Owen, M. (1987). Determinant factors of social rank in goose flocks: acquisition of social rank in young geese. Behaviour, 102, 129–146
Black, J. M. and Owen, M. (1989). Parent–offspring relationships in wintering barnacle geese. Anim. Behav., 37, 187–198
Blackwell, P. and Bacon, P. J. (1993). A critique of the territory inheritance hypothesis. Anim. Behav., 46, 821–823
Blanchard, L. (2000). An investigation of the communal breeding system of the smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani). M.Sc. dissertation, McMaster University, Canada
Blumstein, D. T. and Armitage, K. B. (1999). Cooperative breeding in marmots. Oikos, 84, 369–382
Boal, C. W. and Spaulding, R. L. (2000). Helping at a Cooper's hawk nest. Wilson Bull., 112, 275–277
Bock, C. E. (1970). The ecology and behavior of the Lewis woodpecker (Asyndesmus lewis). Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 92, 1–91
Boix-Hinzen, C. and Lovegrove, B. G. (1998). Circadian metabolic and thermoregulatory patterns of red-billed woodhoopoes (Phoeniculus purpureus): the influence of huddling. J. Zool., 244, 33–41
Boland, C. R. J. and Cockburn, A. (2002). Short sketches from the long history of cooperative breeding in Australian birds. Emu, 102, 9–17
Boland, C. R. J., Heinsohn, R. G. and Cockburn, A. (1997a). Experimental manipulation of brood reduction and parental care in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. J. Anim. Ecol., 66, 683–691
Boland, C. R. J., Heinsohn, R. G. and Cockburn, A. (1997b). Deception by helpers in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs and its experimental manipulation. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 41, 251–256
Bortolotti, G. R. (1986). Influence of sibling competition on nestling sex ratios of sexually dimorphic birds. Am. Nat., 127, 495–507
Bowen, B. S. (2002). Groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris). In: Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' Union
Bowen, B. S., Koford, R. L. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1989). Dispersal in communally nesting groove–billed anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Condor, 91, 52–64
Bowen, B. S., Koford, R. R. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1991). Seasonal pattern of reverse mounting in the groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Condor, 93, 159–163
Bowen, B. S., Koford, R. R. and Brown, J. L. (1995). Genetic evidence for undetected alleles and unexpected parentage in the gray-breasted jay. Condor, 97, 503–511
Brant, C. L., Schwab, T. M., Vandenbergh, J. G., Schaefer, R. L. and Solomon, N. G. (1998). Behavioural suppression of female pine voles after replacement of the breeding male. Anim. Behav., 55, 615–627
Braude, S. (2000). Dispersal and new colony formation in wild naked mole-rats: evidence against inbreeding as the system of mating. Behav. Ecol., 11, 7–12
Breininger, D. R. (1999). Florida scrub-jay demography and dispersal in a fragmented landscape. Auk, 116, 520–527
Breininger, D. R., Larson, V. L., Duncan, B. W., Smith, R. B., Oddy, D. M. and Goodchild, M. (1995). Landscape patterns in Florida scrub-jay habitat preference and demography. Conserv. Biol., 9, 1142–1153
Breuner, C. W. and Orchinik, M. (2002). Plasma binding proteins as mediators of corticosteroid action in vertebrates. J. Endocrinol., 175, 99–112
Briskie, J. V., Montgomerie, R., Pöldmaa, T. and Boag, P. T. (1998). Paternity and paternal care in the polygynandrous Smith's longspur. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 43, 181–190
Brooker, M. G., Rowley, I., Adams, M. and Baverstock, P. R. (1990). Promiscuity: an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in a socially monogamous species? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 26, 191–200
Brooks, T. and Thompson, H. S. (2001). Current bird conservation issues in Africa. Auk, 118, 575–582
Brosset, A. and Fry, C. H. (1988). Order Musophagiformes, Musophagidae, turacos, go-away birds and plantain-eaters. In: The Birds of Africa, vol. 3, ed. C. H. Fry, S. Keith and E. K. Urban. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 26–57
Brotherton, P. N. M., Clutton-Brock, T. H., O'Riain, M. J., Gaynor, D., Sharpe, L., Kansky, R. and McIlrath, G. M. (2001). Offspring food allocation by parents and helpers in a cooperative mammal. Behav. Ecol., 12, 590–599
Brown, C. R. (1984). Laying eggs in a neighbor's nest: benefit and cost of colonial nesting in swallows. Science, 224, 518–519
Brown, C. R. (1988). Enhanced foraging efficiency through information centers: a benefit of coloniality in cliff swallows. Ecology, 69, 602–613
Brown, C. R. and Foster, G. G. (1992). The thermal and energetic significance of clustering on the speckled mousebird (Colius striatus). J. Comp. Physiol. B, 162, 664–685
Brown, J. L. (1969). Territorial behavior and population regulation in birds, a review and re-evaluation. Wilson Bull., 81, 293–329
Brown, J. L. (1974). Alternate routes to sociality in jays – with a theory for the evolution of altruism and communal breeding. Am. Zool., 64, 63–80
Brown, J. L. (1978). Avian communal breeding systems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 9, 123–155
Brown, J. L. (1980). Fitness in complex avian social systems. In: Evolution of Social Behavior: Hypotheses and Empirical Tests, ed. H. Markl. Weinheim: Dahlem Konferenzen Verlag Chemie. pp. 115–128
Brown, J. L. (1982). Optimal group size in territorial animals. J. Theor. Biol., 95, 793–810
Brown, J. L. (1985). The evolution of helping behavior – an ontogenetic and comparative perspective. In: The Evolution of Adaptive Skills: Comparative and Ontogenetic Approaches, ed. E. S. Gollin. Hillsdale, NJ: Erbaus. pp. 137–171
Brown, J. L. (1986). Cooperative breeding and the regulation of numbers. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 18, 774–782
Brown, J. L. (1987). Helping and Communal Breeding in Birds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Brown, J. L. (1994). Mexican jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina). In: The Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' Union
Brown, J. L. and Brown, E. R. (1984). Parental facilitation: parent offspring relations in communally breeding birds. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 14, 203–209
Brown, J. L. and Brown, E. R. (1990). Mexican jays: uncooperative breeding. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–288
Brown, J. L. and Brown, E. R. (1998). Are inbred offspring less fit? Survival in a natural population of Mexican jays. Behav. Ecol., 9, 60–63
Brown, J. L. and Vleck, C. M. (1998). Prolactin and helping in birds: has natural selection strengthened helping behavior? Behav. Ecol., 9, 541–545
Brown, J. L., Brown, E. R., Brown, S. D. and Dow, D. D. (1982). Helpers: effects of experimental removal on reproductive success. Science, 215, 421–422
Bruener, C. W. and Orchinik, M. (2001). Seasonal regulation of membrane and intracellular corticosteroid receptors in the house sparrow brain. J. Neuroendocrinol., 13, 412–420
Bruener, C. W. and Orchinik, M. (2002). Plasma binding proteins as mediators of corticosteroid action in vertebrates. J. Endocrinol., 175, 99–112
Bruning, D. F. (1974). Social structure and reproductive behavior of the greater rhea. Living Bird, 13, 251–294
Bull, J. J. and Charnov, E. L. (1988). How fundamental are Fisherian sex ratios? Oxford Surv. Evol. Biol., 5, 96–135
Bulmer, M. G. and Taylor, P. D. (1980). Dispersal and the sex ratio. Nature, 284, 448–449
Buntin, J. D. (1996). Neural and hormonal control of parental behavior in birds. Adv. Study Behav., 25, 161–213
Burda, H. (1995). Individual recognition and incest avoidance in eusocial common mole-rats rather than reproductive suppression by parents. Experientia, 51, 411–413
Burke, T., Davies, N. B., Bruford, M. W. and Hatchwell, B. J. (1989). Parental care and mating behaviour of polyandrous dunnocks Prunella modularis related to paternity by DNA fingerprinting. Nature, 338, 249–251
Burley, N. (1981). The evolution of sexual indistinguishability. In: Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory, ed. R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle. New York: Chiron Press. pp. 121–137
Burney, D. A., James, H. F., Burney, L. P., Olson, S. L., Kikuchi, W., Wagner, W. L., Burney, M., McCloskey, D., Kikuchi, D., Grady, F., Gage, R. I. and Nishek, R. (2001). Holocene lake sediments in the Maha'ulepu caves of Kaua'i: evidence for a diverse biotic assemblage from the Hawaiian lowlands and its transformation since human arrival. Ecol. Monogr., 71, 615–642
Burt, D. B. (1996). Phylogenetic and ecological aspects of cooperative breeding in the bee-eaters (Aves: Meropidae). Ph. D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Burt, D. B. (2001). Evolutionary stasis, constraint and other terminology describing evolutionary patterns. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 72, 509–517
Burt, D. B. (2002). Social and breeding biology of bee-eaters in Thailand. Wilson Bull., 114, 275–279
Burt, D. B. and Peterson, A. T. (1993). Biology of cooperative-breeding scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) of Oaxaca, Mexico. Auk, 110, 207–214
Caffrey, C. (2000). Correlates of reproductive success in cooperatively breeding western American crows: if helpers help, it's not by much. Condor, 102, 333–341
Cant, M. A. (1998). A model for the evolution of reproductive skew without reproductive suppression. Anim. Behav., 55, 163–169
Cant, M. A. and Field, J. (2001). Helping effort and future fitness in cooperative animal societies. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 1959–1964
Cant, M. A. and Johnstone, R. A. (1999). Costly young and reproductive skew in animal societies. Behav. Ecol., 10, 178–184
Cant, M. A. and Reeve, H. K. (2002). Female control of the distribution of paternity in cooperative breeders. Am. Nat., 160, 602–611
Cariello, M. O., Schwabl, H. G., Lee, R. W. and Macedo, R. H. F. (2002). Individual female clutch identification through yolk protein electrophoresis in the communally breeding guira cuckoo (Guira guira). Mol. Ecol., 11, 2417–2424
Carlson, A. A., Young, A. J., Bennett, N. C., Russell, A. F., McNeilly, A. S. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (in press). Hormonal correlates of dominance in cooperative meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Hormones and Behavior, in press
Carmen, W. J. (2004). Behavioral ecology of the California scrub-jay (Aphelocoma californica): a noncooperative breeder with close cooperative relatives. Stud. Avian Biol., in press
Carrick, R. (1963). Ecological significance of territory in the Australian magpie, Gymnorhina tibicen. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 13, 740–753
Carrick, R. (1972). Population ecology of the black-backed magpie, royal penguin and silver gull. US Dept. Int. Wildl. Res. Rep., 2, 41–99
Carter, C. S. and Roberts, R. L. (1997). The psychobiological basis of cooperative breeding in rodents. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 231–266
Castro, I., Minot, E. O., Fordham, R. A. and Birkhead, T. R. (1996). Polygynandry, face-to-face copulation and sperm competition in the hihi Notiomystis cincta (Aves: Meliphagidae). Ibis, 138, 765–771
Caughley, G. (1994). Directions in conservation biology. J. Anim. Ecol., 63, 215–244
Chao, L. (1997). Evolution of polyandry in a communal breeding system. Behav. Ecol., 8, 668–674
Chaplin, S. B. (1982). The energetic significance of huddling behavior in common bushtits (Psaltriparus minimus). Auk, 99, 424–430
Charnov, E. L. (1982). The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Cheeseman, C. L., Mallinson, P. J., Ryan, J. and Wilesmith, J. W. (1993). Recolonisation by badgers in Gloucestershire. In: The Badger, ed. T. J. Hayden. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. pp. 78–93
Chen, J. and Franklin, J. F. (1990). Microclimate pattern and basic biological responses at the clearcut edges of old-growth Douglas fir stands. Northwest Environ. J., 6, 424–425
Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. (1985). Vervet monkey alarm calls: manipulation through shared information? Behaviour, 94, 150–166
Cisek, D. (2000). New colony formation in the “highly inbred” eusocial naked mole-rat: outbreeding is preferred. Behav. Ecol., 11, 1–6
Clark, A. B. (1978). Sex ratio and local resource competition in a prosimian primate. Science, 201, 163–165
Clark, M. M. and Galef, B. G. (2000). Why some male Mongolian gerbils may help at the nest: testosterone, asexuality and alloparenting. Anim. Behav., 59, 801–806
Clarke, F. M. and Faulkes, C. G. (1999). Kin discrimination and female mate choice in the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 1995–2002
Clarke, M. F. (1988). The reproductive behaviour of the bell miner Manorina melanophrys. Emu, 88, 88–100
Clarke, M. F. (1989). The pattern of helping in the bell miner (Manorina melanophrys). Ethology, 80, 292–306
Clarke, M. F. (1995). Co-operative breeding in Australasian birds: a review of hypotheses and evidence. Corella, 19, 73–90
Clarke, M. F and Fitz-Gerald, G. F. (1994). Spatial organisation of the cooperatively breeding bell miner Manorina melanophrys. Emu, 94, 96–105
Clarke, M. F., Jones, D. A., Ewne, J. G., Robertson, R. J., Griffiths, R., Painter, J., Boag, P. T. and Crozier, R. (2002). Male-biased sex ratios in broods of the cooperatively breeding bell miner Manorina melanophrys. J. Avian Biol., 33, 71–76
Clotfelter, E. D. (1996). Mechanisms of facultative sex-ratio variation in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Auk, 113, 441–449
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1986). Sex ratio variation in birds. Ibis, 128, 317–329
Clutton-Brock, T. H. ed. (1988). Reproductive Success. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1989a). Mammalian mating systems. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 236, 339–372
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1989b). Female transfer and inbreeding avoidance in social mammals. Nature, 337, 70–72
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1991). The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1998). Reproductive skew, concessions and limited control. Trends Ecol. Evol., 13, 288–292
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2002). Breeding together: kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates. Science, 296, 69–72
Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Harvey, P. H. (1977). Primate ecology and social organization. J. Zool., 183, 1–39
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1978). Mammals, resources and reproductive strategies. Nature, 273, 191–195
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D. and Guinness, F. E. (1981). Parental investment in male and female offspring in polygynous mammals. Nature, 289, 487–489
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1984). Maternal dominance, breeding success, and birth sex ratios in red deer. Nature, 308, 358–360
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1989). Fitness costs of gestation and lactation in wild mammals. Nature, 337, 260–262
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Gaynor, D., Kansky, R., MacColl, A. D. C., McIlrath, G., Chadwick, P., Brotherton, P. N. M., O'Riain, M. J., Manser, M. and Skinner, J. D. (1998). Costs of cooperative behaviour in suricates (Suricata suricatta). Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 265, 185–190
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Gaynor, D., McIlrath, G. M., MacColl, A. D. C., Kansky, R., Chadwick, P., Manser, M., Skinner, J. D. and Brotherton, P. N. M. (1999a). Predation, group size and mortality in a cooperative mongoose, Suricata suricatta. J. Anim. Ecol., 68, 672–683
Clutton-Brock, T. H., O'Riain, M. J., Brotherton, P. N. M., Gaynor, D., Kansky, R., Griffin, A. S. and Manser, M. (1999b). Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals. Science, 284, 1640–1644
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Brotherton, P. N. M., O'Riain, M. J., Griffin, A. S., Gaynor, D., Sharpe, L., Kansky, R., Manser, M. B. and McIlrath, G. M. (2000). Individual contributions to babysitting in a cooperative mongoose, Suricata suricatta. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 301–305
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Brotherton, P. N. M., O'Riain, M. J., Griffin, A. S., Gaynor, D., Kansky, R., Sharpe, L. and McIlrath, G. M. (2001a). Contributions to cooperative rearing in meerkats. Anim. Behav., 61, 705–710
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Brotherton, P. N. M., Russell, A. F., O'Riain, M. J., Gaynor, D., Kansky, R., Griffin, A., Manser, M., Sharpe, L., McIlrath, G. M., Small, T., Moss, A. and Monfort, S. (2001b). Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups. Science, 291, 478–481
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Russell, A. F., Sharpe, L. L., Brotherton, P. N. M., McIlrath, G. M., White, S. and Cameron, E. Z. (2001c). Effects of helpers on juvenile development and survival in meerkats. Science, 293, 2446–2449
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Russell, A. F., Sharpe, L. L., Young, A. J., Balmforth, Z. and McIlrath, G. M. (2002). Evolution and development of sex differences in cooperative behavior in meerkats. Science, 297, 253–256
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Russell, A. F. and Sharpe, L. L. (2003). Meerkat helpers do not specialize on particular activities. Anim. Behav., 66, 531–540
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Russell, A. F. and Sharpe, L. L. (2004). Behavioural tactics of breeders in cooperative meerkats. Anim. Behav., in press
Cockburn, A. (1990). Sex ratio variation in marsupials. Aust. J. Zool., 37, 467–479
Cockburn, A. (1996). Why do so many Australian birds cooperate: social evolution in the Corvida? In: Frontiers of Population Ecology, ed. R. B. Floyd, A. W. Sheppard and P. J. De Barro. East Melbourne: CSIRO. pp. 451–472
Cockburn, A. (1998). Evolution of helping behavior in cooperatively breeding birds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29, 141–177
Cockburn, A., Legge, S. and Double, M. C. (2002). Sex ratios in birds and mammals: can the hypotheses be disentangled? In: The Sex Ratio Handbook, ed. I. C. W. Hardy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 266–286
Cockburn, A., Osmond, H. L., Mulder, R. A., Green, D. J. and Double, M. C. (2003). Divorce, dispersal, density-dependence and incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus. J. Anim. Ecol., 72, 189–202
Coddington, C. L. and Cockburn, A. (1995). The mating system of free-living emus. Aust. J. Zool., 43, 365–372
Codenotti, T. L. and Alvarez, F. (1997). Cooperative breeding between males in the greater rhea Rhea americana. Ibis, 139, 568–571
Conner, R. N. and Rudolph, D. C. (1991). Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations. Wilson Bull., 103, 446–457
Conner, R. N., Rudolph, D. C. and Walters, J. R. (2001). The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: Surviving in a Fire-Maintained Ecosystem. Austin: University of Texas Press
Connor, R. C. (1995). Altruism among non-relatives: alternatives to the ‘prisoner's dilemma’. Trends Ecol. Evol., 10, 84–86
Conrad, K. F., Clarke, M. F., Robertson, R. J. and Boag, P. T. (1998). Paternity and the relatedness of helpers in the cooperatively breeding bell miner. Condor, 100, 343–349
Cooney, R. and Bennett, N. C. (2000). Inbreeding avoidance and reproductive skew in a cooperative mammal. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 801–806
Cooper, C. B. (2000). Behavioral ecology and conservation of the Australian brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus). Ph. D. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA
Cooper, C. B. and Walters, J. R. (2002a). Experimental evidence of disrupted dispersal causing decline of an Australian passerine in fragmented habitat. Conserv. Biol., 16, 471–478
Cooper, C. B. and Walters, J. R. (2002b). Independent effects of woodland loss and fragmentation on brown treecreeper distribution. Biol. Conserv., 105, 1–10
Cooper, C. B., Walters, J. R. and Ford, H. A. (2002a). Effects of remnant size and connectivity on the response of brown treecreepers to habitat fragmentation. Emu, 102, 249–256
Cooper, C. B., Walters, J. R. and Priddy, J. A. (2002b). Landscape patterns and dispersal success: simulated population dynamics in the brown treecreeper. Ecol. Appl., 12, 1576–1587
Copeyon, C. K., Walters, J. R. and Carter, J. H. I. (1991). Induction of red-cockaded woodpecker group formation by artificial cavity construction. J. Wildl. Manage., 55, 549–556
Coyne, J. A. and Price, T. D. (2000). Little evidence for sympatric speciation in island birds. Evolution, 54, 2166–2171
Craig, J. L. (1979). Habitat variation in the social organization of a communal gallinule, the pukeko, Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 5, 331–358
Craig, J. L. (1980). Pair and group breeding behaviour of a communal gallinule, the pukeko Porphyrio porphyrio. Anim. Behav., 32, 23–32
Craig, J. L. and Jamieson, I. G. (1988). Incestuous mating in a communal bird: a family affair. Am. Nat., 131, 58–70
Craig, J. L. and Jamieson, I. G. (1990). Pukeko: different approaches and some different answers. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 385–412
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C. M. (1993). The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 7: Flycatchers to Shrikes. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Creel, S. R. (2001). Social dominance and stress hormones. Trends Ecol. Evol., 16, 491–497
Creel, S. R. and Creel, N. M. (1991). Energetics, reproductive suppression and obligate communal breeding in carnivores. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 28, 263–270
Creel, S. R. and Creel, N. M. (1995). Communal hunting and pack size in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Anim. Behav., 50, 1325–1339
Creel, S. R. and Creel, N. M. (2001). The African Wild Dog. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Creel, S. R. and Macdonald, D. (1995). Sociality, group size, and reproductive suppression among carnivores. Adv. Study Behav., 24, 203–257
Creel, S. R. and Waser, P. M. (1994). Inclusive fitness and reproductive strategies in dwarf mongooses. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 5, 339–348
Creel, S. R. and Waser, P. M. (1997). Variation in reproductive suppression among dwarf mongooses: interplay between mechanisms and evaluation. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 150–170
Creel, S. R., Monfort, S. L., Wildt, D. E. and Waser, P. M. (1991). Spontaneous lactation is an adaptive result of pseudopregnancy. Nature, 351, 660–662
Creel, S. R., Creel, N. M., Wildt, D. E. and Monfort, S. L. (1992). Behavioural and endocrine mechanisms of reproductive suppression in Serengeti dwarf mongooses. Anim. Behav., 43, 231–245
Creel, S. R., Wildt, D. E. and Monfort, S. L. (1993). Aggression, reproduction, and androgens in wild dwarf mongooses: a test of the challenge hypothesis. Am. Nat., 141, 816–825
Crespi, B. J. and Ragsdale, J. E. (2000). A skew model for the evolution of sociality via manipulation: why it is better to be feared than loved. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 821–828
Crick, H. Q. P. (1992). Load-lightening in cooperatively breeding birds and the cost of reproduction. Ibis, 134, 56–61
Crick, H. Q. P. and Fry, C. H. (1986). Effects of helpers on parental condition in red-throated bee-eaters (Merops bullocki). J. Anim. Ecol., 55, 893–905
Crome, F. H. J. (1976). Some observations on the biology of the cassowary in northern Queensland. Emu, 76, 8–14
Curry, R. L. (1988a). Influence of kinship on helping behavior in Galápagos mockingbirds. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 22, 141–152
Curry, R. L. (1988b). Group structure, within-group conflict and reproductive tactics in cooperatively breeding Galápagos mockingbirds, Nesomimus parvulus. Anim. Behav., 36, 1708–1728
Curry, R. L. and Grant, P. R. (1989). Demography of the cooperatively breeding Galápagos mockingbird, Nesomimus parvulus, in a climatically variable environment. J. Anim. Ecol., 58, 441–464
Curry, R. L. and Grant, P. R. (1990). Galápagos mockingbirds: territorial cooperative breeding in a climatically variable environment. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 289–331
Daniels, S. J. (1997). Female Dispersal and Inbreeding in the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. M.S. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA
Daniels, S. J. and Walters, J. R. (1999). Inbreeding depression and its effects on natal dispersal in red-cockaded woodpeckers. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2492–2498
Daniels, S. J. and Walters, J. R. (2000a). Inbreeding depression and its effects on natal dispersal in red-cockaded woodpeckers. Condor, 103, 482–491
Daniels, S. J. and Walters, J. R. (2000b). Between-year breeding dispersal in red-cockaded woodpeckers: multiple causes and estimated cost. Ecology, 81, 2473–2484
Daniels, S. J., Priddy, J. A. and Walters, J. R. (2000). Inbreeding in small populations of red-cockaded woodpeckers: insights from a spatially explicit individual-based model. In: Genetics, Demography, and Viability of Fragmented Populations, ed. A. G. Young and G. M. Clarke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 129–147
Darwin, C. (1871). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: John Murray
Davies, N. B. (1983). Polyandry, cloaca-pecking and sperm competition in dunnocks. Nature, 302, 334–336
Davies, N. B. (1985). Cooperation and conflict among dunnocks, Prunella modularis, in a variable mating system. Anim. Behav., 33, 628–648
Davies, N. B. (1989). Sexual conflict and the polygamy threshold. Anim. Behav., 38, 226–234
Davies, N. B. (1990). Dunnocks: cooperation and conflict among males and females in a variable mating system. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 455–485
Davies, N. B. (1992). Dunnock Behaviour and Social Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Davies, N. B. and Hatchwell, B. J. (1992). The value of male parental care and its influence on reproductive allocation by male and female dunnocks. J. Anim. Ecol., 61, 259–272
Davies, N. B. and Lundberg, A. (1984). Food distribution and a variable mating system in the dunnock, Prunella modularis. J. Anim. Ecol., 53, 895–912
Davies, N. B., Hatchwell, B. J., Robson, T. and Burke, T. (1992). Paternity and parental effort in dunnocks Prunella modularis: how good are chick-feeding rules? Anim. Behav., 43, 729–745
Davies, N. B., Hartley, I. R., Hatchwell, B. J., De srochers, A., Skeer, J. and Nebel, D. (1995). The polygynandrous mating system of the alpine accentor, Prunella collaris. 1. Ecological causes and reproductive conflicts. Anim. Behav., 49, 769–788
Davies, N. B., Hartley, I. R., Hatchwell, B. J. and Langmore, N. E. (1996). Female control of copulations to maximize male help: a comparison of polygynandrous alpine accentors, Prunella collaris, and dunnocks, P. modularis. Anim. Behav., 51, 27–47
Davis, D. E. (1940). Social nesting habits of the smooth-billed ani. Auk, 57, 197–218
Davis, D. E. (1942). The phylogeny of social nesting habits in the Crotophaginae. Q. Rev. Biol., 17, 115–134
Dawkins, R. (1979). Twelve misunderstandings of kin selection. Z. Tierpsychol., 51, 184–200
Dawson, J. W. and Mannan, R. W. (1991). Dominance hierarchies and helper contributions in Harris' hawks. Auk, 108, 649–660
Dean, W. R. J. and Williams, J. B. (1999). Sunning behaviour and its possible influence on digestion in the white-backed mousebird Colius colius. Ostrich, 70, 239–241
Decoux, J. P. (1988a). Order Coliiformes, Coliidae, mousebirds or colies. In: The Birds of Africa, vol. 3, ed. C. H. Fry, S. Keith and E. K. Urban. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 243–254
Decoux, J. P. (1988b). Régime comportement alimentaire et régulation écologique du métabolisme chez Colius striatus. Terre et la Vie, 30, 395–420
DeGange, A. R., Fitzpatrick, J. W., Layne, J. N. and Woolfenden, G. E. (1989). Acorn harvesting by Florida scrub jays. Ecology, 70, 348–356
del Hoya, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J. and Cabot, J. (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions
DeLay, L. S., Faaborg, J., Naranjo, J., Paz, S. M., DeVries, T. and Parker, P. G. (1996). Paternal care in the cooperatively polyandrous Galápagos hawk. Condor, 98, 300–311
Dement, M. W. and van Soest, P. J. (1983). Body Size, Digestive Capacity and Feeding Strategies of Herbivores. Morilton, AR: Winrock International
Dhondt, A. A. and Hochachka, W. M. (2001). Adaptive sex ratios and parent–offspring conflict. Trends Ecol. Evol., 16, 61–62
Dickinson, J. L. (2001). Extrapair copulations in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana): female receptivity favors older males. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 50, 423–429
Dickinson, J. L. (2004). Facultative sex ratio adjustment by western bluebird mothers with stay-at-home helpers at the nest. Anim Behav., in press
Dickinson, J. L. and Akre, J. J. (1998). Extrapair paternity, inclusive fitness, and within-group benefits of helping in western bluebirds. Mol. Ecol., 7, 95–105
Dickinson, J. L. and Weathers, W. W. (1999). Replacement males in the western bluebird: opportunity for parentage, chick-feeding rules, and the importance of male parental care. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 45, 201–209
Dickinson, J. L., Haydock, J., Koenig, W. D., Stanback, M. T. and Pitelka, F. A. (1995). Genetic monogamy in single-male groups of acorn woodpeckers, Melanerpes formicivorus. Mol. Ecol., 4, 765–769
Dickinson, J. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1996). Fitness consequences of helping behavior in the western bluebird. Behav. Ecol., 7, 168–177
Dietz, J. M. and Baker, A. J. (1993). Polygyny and female reproductive success in golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Anim. Behav., 46, 1067–1078
Dijkstra, C., Daan, S. and Pen, I. (1998). Fledgling sex ratios in relation to brood size in size-dimorphic altricial birds. Behav. Ecol., 9, 287–296
Dixon, A. F. (1992). Prolactin and parental behaviour in a male new world primate. Nature, 299, 551–553
Dobson, F. S., Chesser, R. K., Hoogland, J. L., Sugg, D. W. and Foltz, D. W. (1997). Do black-tailed prairie dogs minimize inbreeding? Evol. Ecol., 51, 970–978
Doerr, V. A. J. and Doerr, E. D. (2001). Brown treecreeper. In: Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, vol. 5, ed. P. J. Higgins, J. M. Peter and W. K. Steele. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Doncaster, C. P. and Woodroffe, R. (1993). Den site can determine shape and size of badger territories: implications for group-living. Oikos, 66, 88–93
Double, M. C. and Cockburn, A. (2000). Pre-dawn infidelity: females control extra-pair mating in superb fairy-wrens. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 465–470
Double, M. C. and Cockburn, A. (2003). Subordinate superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) parasitize the reproductive success of attractive dominant males. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 270, 379–384
Dow, D. D. (1980). Communally breeding Australian birds with an analysis of distributional and environmental factors. Emu, 80, 121–140
Dow, D. D. and Whitmore, M. J. (1990). Noisy miners: variations on the theme of communality. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 561–592
Du Plessis, M. A. (1989). Behavioural ecology of the red-billed woodhoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus in South Africa. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Du Plessis, M. A. (1992). Obligate cavity-roosting as a constraint on dispersal of green (red-billed) woodhoopoes: consequences for philopatry and the likelihood of inbreeding. Oecologia, 90, 205–11
Du Plessis, M. A. (1993). Helping behaviour in cooperatively-breeding green woodhoopoes: selected or unselected trait? Behaviour, 127, 49–65
Du Plessis, M. A. and Williams, J. B. (1994). Communal cavity roosting in green woodhoopoes: consequences for energy expenditure and the seasonal pattern of mortality. Auk, 111, 292–299
Du Plessis, M. A., Weathers, W. W. and Koenig, W. D. (1994). Energetic benefits of communal roosting by acorn woodpeckers during the nonbreeding season. Condor, 96, 631–637
Du Plessis, M. A., Siegfried, W. R. and Armstrong, A. J. (1995). Ecological and life-history correlates of cooperative breeding in South African birds. Oecologia, 102, 180–188
Dunford, C. (1977). Kin selection for ground squirrel alarm calls. Am. Nat., 111, 782–785
Dunn, P. O. and Cockburn, A. (1996). Evolution of male parental care in a bird with almost complete cuckoldry. Evolution, 50, 2542–2548
Dunn, P. O. and Cockburn, A. (1999). Extrapair mate choice and honest signaling in cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wrens. Evolution, 53, 938–946
Dunn, P. O., Cockburn, A. and Mulder, R. A. (1995). Fairy-wren helpers often care for young to which they are unrelated. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 259, 339–343
Dyer, M. (1983). Effect of nest helpers on growth of red-throated bee-eaters. Ostrich, 54, 43–46
Eden, S. F. (1987). When do helpers help? Food availability and helping in the moorhen, Gallinula chloropus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 21, 191–195
Edwards, S. V. and Boles, W. E. (2002). Out of Gondwana: the origin of passerine birds. Trends Ecol. Evol., 17, 347–349
Edwards, S. V. and Naeem, S. (1993). The phylogenetic component of cooperative breeding in perching birds. Am. Nat., 141, 754–789
Edwards, S. V. and Naeem, S. (1994). Homology and comparative methods in the study of avian cooperative breeding. Am. Nat., 143, 723–733
Edwards, T. C., Jr. (1986). Ecological distribution of the grey-breasted jay. Condor, 88, 456–460
Ekman, J. and Griesser, M. (2002). Why offspring delay dispersal: experimental evidence for a role of parental tolerance. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 1709–1714
Ekman, J. and Hake, M. K. (1990). Monitoring starvation risk: adjustments of greenfinches' body reserves during periods of unpredictable foraging success. Behav. Ecol., 1, 62–67
Ekman, J. and Lilliendahl, K. (1993). Using priority to food access: fattening strategies in dominance-structured willow tit (Parus montanus) flocks. Behav. Ecol., 4, 232–238
Ekman, J. and Rosander, B. (1992). Survival enhancement through food sharing: a means for parental control of natal dispersal. Theor. Pop. Biol., 42, 117–129
Ekman, J., Sklepkovych, B. and Tegelström, H. (1994). Offspring retention in the Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus): the prolonged brood care hypothesis. Behav. Ecol., 5, 245–253
Ekman, J., Bylin, A. and Tegelström, H. (1999). Increased lifetime reproductive success for Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus males with delayed dispersal. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 911–915
Ekman, J., Bylin, A. and Tegelström, H. (2000). Parental nepotism enhances survival of retained offspring in the Siberian jay. Behav. Ecol., 11, 416–420
Ekman, J., Baglione, V., Eggers, S. and Griesser, M. (2001a). Delayed dispersal: living under the reign of nepotistic parents. Auk, 118, 1–10
Ekman, J., Eggers, S., Griesser, M. and Tegelstrom, H. (2001b). Queuing for preferred territories: delayed dispersal of Siberian jays. J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 317–324
Ekman, J., Eggers, S. and Griesser, M. (2002). Fighting to stay: the role of sibling rivalry for delayed dispersal. Anim. Behav., 64, 453–459
Eltzroth, E. K. and Robertson, S. R. (1984). Violet-green swallows help western bluebirds at the nest. J. Field Ornithol., 55, 259–261
Emlen, S. T. (1982a). The evolution of helping. I. An ecological constraints model. Am. Nat., 119, 29–39
Emlen, S. T. (1982b). The evolution of helping. II. The role of behavioral conflict. Am. Nat., 119, 40–53
Emlen, S. T. (1984). Cooperative breeding in birds and mammals. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 2nd edn., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 305–339
Emlen, S. T. (1990). White-fronted bee-eaters: helping in a colonially nesting species. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 489–526
Emlen, S. T. (1991). Evolution of cooperative breeding in birds and mammals. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 3rd edn., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 301–337
Emlen, S. T. (1995). An evolutionary theory of the family. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 8092–8099
Emlen, S. T. (1996). Reproductive sharing in different types of kin associations. Am. Nat., 148, 756–763
Emlen, S. T. (1997a). Predicting family dynamics in social vertebrates. In Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 4th edn., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 228–253
Emlen, S. T. (1997b). When mothers prefer daughters over sons. Trends Ecol. Evol., 12, 291–292
Emlen, S. T. (1999). Reproductive skew in cooperatively breeding birds: an overview of the issues. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2922–2931
Emlen, S. T. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1983). Cooperative breeding strategies among birds. In: Perspectives in Ornithology, ed. A. Brush. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 93–120
Emlen, S. T. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1985). Cooperative breeding strategies among birds. In: Experimental Behavioral Ecology, ed. B. Hölldobler and M. Lindauer. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer. pp. 359–374
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1986). Forced copulations and intraspecific parasitism: two costs of social living in the white-fronted bee-eater. Ethology, 71, 2–29
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1988). The role of kinship in helping decisions among white-fronted bee-eaters. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 23, 305–316
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1989). A test of alternate hypotheses for helping behavior in white-fronted bee-eaters of Kenya. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 25, 303–320
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1991). Breeding biology of white-fronted bee-eaters at Nakuru: the influence of helpers on breeder fitness. J. Anim. Ecol., 60, 309–326
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1992). Parent–offspring conflict and the recruitment of helpers among bee-eaters. Nature, 356, 331–333
Emlen, S. T., Emlen, J. M. and Levin, S. A. (1986). Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers-at-the-nest. Am. Nat., 127, 1–8
Emlen, S. T., Reeve, H. K., Sherman, P. W. and Wrege, P. H. (1991). Adaptive versus non-adaptive explanations of behavior: the case of alloparental helping. Am. Nat., 138, 259–270
Emlen, S. T., Reeve, H. K. and Keller, L. (1998). Reproductive skew: disentangling concessions from control. Trends Ecol. Evol., 13, 458–459
Engh, A. L., Esch, K., Smale, L. and Holekamp, K. E. (2000). Mechanisms of maternal rank “inheritance” in the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Anim. Behav., 60, 323–332
Engh, A. L., Funk, S. M., Van Horn, R. C., Scribner, K. T., Bruford, M. W., Libants, S., Szykman, M., Smale, L. and Holekamp, K. E. (2002). Reproductive skew among males in a female-dominated mammalian society. Behav. Ecol., 13, 193–200
Ens, B. J., Safriel, U. N. and Harris, M. P. (1993). Divorce in the long-lived and monogamous oystercatcher, Haematopus estralegus: incompatibility or choosing the better option? Anim. Behav., 45, 1199–1217
Ericson, P. G. P., Christidis, L., Cooper, A., Irestedt, M., Jackson, J., Johansson, U. S. and Norman, J. A. (2002). A Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic New Zealand wrens. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 235–241
Evans, P. G. H. (1988). Intraspecific nest parasitism in the European starling Sturnus vulgaris. Anim. Behav., 36, 1282–1294
Ewen, J. G. (2001). Primary sex ratio variation in the Meliphagidae (honeyeaters). Ph. D. dissertation, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
Ewen, J. G. and Armstrong, D. P. (2000). Male provisioning is negatively correlated with attempted extrapair copulation frequency in the stitchbird (or hihi). Anim. Behav., 60, 429–433
Ewen, J. G. and Armstrong, D. P. (2002). Unusual sexual behaviour in the stitchbird (or hihi) Notiomystis cincta. Ibis, 144, 530–531
Ewen, J. G., Armstrong, D. P. and Lambert, D. M. (1999). Floater males gain reproductive success through extrapair fertilizations in the stitchbird. Anim. Behav., 58, 321–328
Ewen, J. G., Clarke, R. H., Moysey, E., Boulton, R. L., Crozier, R. H. and Clarke, M. F. (2001). Primary sex ratio bias in an endangered cooperatively breeding bird, the black-eared miner, and its complications for conservation. Biol. Conserv., 101, 137–145
Ewen, J. G., Crozier, R. H., Cassey, P., Ward-Smith, T., Painter, J. N., Robertson, R. J., Jones, D. A. and Clarke, M. F. (2003). Facultative control of offspring sex in the cooperatively breeding bell miner, Manorina melanophrys. Behav. Ecol., 14, 157–164
Faaborg, J. and Bednarz, J. C. (1990). Galápagos and Harris' hawks: divergent causes of sociality in two raptors. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 359–383
Faaborg, J. and Patterson, C. B. (1981). The characteristics and occurrence of cooperative polyandry. Ibis, 123, 477–484
Faaborg, J., Parker, P. G., DeLay, L., DeVries, T., Bednarz, J. C., Paz, S. M., Naranjo, J. and Waite, T. A. (1995). Confirmation of cooperative polyandry in the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 36, 83–90
Faaborg, J., Thompson, F. R., III, Robinson, S. R., Donovan, T. M., Whitehead, D. R. and Brawn, J. D. (1998). Understanding fragmented Midwestern landscapes: the future. In: Avian Conservation: Research and Management, ed. J. M. Marzluff and R. Sallabanks. Washington, DC: Island Press. pp. 193–207
Fahrig, L. (2001). How much habitat is enough? Biol. Conserv., 100, 65–74
Farley, G. H. (1995). Thermal, social and distributional consequences of nighttime cavity roosting in Campylorhynchus wrens. Ph. D. dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM
Faulkes, C. G. and Abbott, D. H. (1991). Social control of reproduction in both breeding and non-breeding male naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber. J. Repro. Fert., 93, 427–435
Faulkes, C. G. and Abbott, D. H. (1997). The physiology of a reproductive dictatorship: regulation of male and female reproduction by a single breeding female in colonies of naked mole-rats. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 302–334
Faulkes, C. G. and Bennett, N. C. (2001). Family values: group dynamics and social control of reproduction in African mole-rats. Trends Ecol. Evol., 16, 184–190
Faulkes, C. G., Abbott, D. H., Jarvis, J. U. M. and Sherriff, F. E. (1990a). LH responses of female naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber, to single and multiple doses of exogenous GnRH. J. Repro. Fert., 89, 317–323
Faulkes, C. G., Abbott, D. H. and Mellor, A. L. (1990b). Investigation of genetic diversity in wild colonies of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) by DNA fingerprinting. J. Zool., 221, 87–97
Faulkes, C. G., Abbott, D. H. and Jarvis, J. U. M. (1991). Social suppression of reproduction in male naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber. J. Repro. Fert., 91, 593–604
Faulkes, C. G., Trowell, S. N., Jarvis, J. U. M. and Bennett, N. C. (1994). Investigation of numbers and motility of spermatozoa in reproductively active and socially suppressed males of two eusocial African mole-rats, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and the Damaraland mole-rat (Cryptomys damarensis). J. Repro. Fert., 100, 411–416
Faulkes, C. G., Bennett, N. C., Bruford, M. W., O'Brien, H. P., Aguilar, G. H. and Jarvis, J. U. M. (1997). Ecological constraints drive social evolution in the African mole-rats. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 264, 1619–1627
Feduccia, A. (1996). The Origin and Evolution of Birds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Fernández, G. J. and Reboreda, J. C. (1998). Effects of clutch size and timing of breeding on reproductive success of greater rheas. Auk, 115, 340–348
Fessl, B., Kleindorfer, S., Hoi, H. and Lorenz, K. (1996). Extra male parental behaviour: evidence for an alternative mating strategy in the moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon. J. Avian Biol., 27, 88–91
Festa-Bianchet, M. (1996). Offspring sex ratio studies of mammals: does publication depend on the quality of the research or the direction of the results? Ecoscience, 3, 42–44
Ficken, M. S., Weise, C. M. and Popp, J. W. (1990). Dominance rank and resources access in winter flocks of black-capped chickadees. Wilson Bull., 102, 623–633
Firestone, K. B., Thompson, K. V. and Carter, C. S. (1991). Female–female interactions and social stress in prairie voles. Behav. Neural Biol., 55, 31–41
Fisher, R. A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Ford, H. A., Bell, H., Nias, R. and Noske, R. (1988). The relationship between ecology and the incidence of cooperative breeding in Australian birds. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 22, 239–250
Ford, H. A., Barrett, G. W., Saunders, D. A. and Recher, H. F. (2001). Why have birds in the woodlands of southern Australia declined? Biol. Conserv., 97, 71–88
Forsgren, E., Karlsson, A. and Kvarnemo, C. (1996). Female sand gobies gain direct benefits by choosing males with eggs in their nests. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 39, 91–96
Fraga, R. M. (1979). Helpers at the nest in passerines from Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Auk, 96, 606–608
Frank, S. A. (1987). Individual and population sex allocation patterns. Theor. Pop. Biol., 31, 47–74
Frank, S. A. (1990). Sex allocation theory for birds and mammals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 21, 13–56
Franklin, J. F. and Forman, R. T. T. (1987). Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: ecological consequences and principles. Landscape Ecol., 1, 5–18
French, J. A. (1997). Proximate regulation of singular breeding in callitrichid primates. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 34–75
French, J. A., Abbott, D. H. and Snowdon, C. T. (1984). The effects of social environment on estrogen excretion, scent marking, and sociosexual behavior in tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Am. J. Primatol., 6, 155–167
French, J. A., Inglett, B. J. and Dethlefs, T. M. (1989). The reproductive status of nonbreeding group members in captive golden lion tamarin social groups. Am. J. Primatol., 18, 73–86
French, J. A., Degraw, W. A., Hendricks, S. E., Wegner, F. and Bridson, W. E. (1992). Urinary and plasma gonadotropin concentrations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus r. rosalia). Am. J. Primatol., 26, 53–59
Frith, C. B., Frith, D. W. and Jansen, A. (1997). The nesting biology of the chowchilla, Orthonyx spaldingii (Orthonychidae). Emu, 97, 18–30
Frith, H. J. and Davies, S. J. J. F. (1961). Ecology of the magpie goose Anseranas semipalmata. CSIRO Wildl. Res., 113, 555–557
Fry, C. H. (1977). The evolutionary significance of cooperative breeding in birds. In: Evolutionary Ecology, ed. B. Stonehouse and C. M. Perrins. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. pp. 127–136
Fry, C. H. (1980). Survival and longevity among tropical land birds. Proc. Pan-African Ornithol. Congr., 4, 333–343
Fry, C. H., Keith, S. and Urban, E. K. (1988). The Birds of Africa, vol. 3. New York, NY: Academic Press
Garland, T., Jr., Midford, P. E. and Ives, A. R. (1999). An introduction to phylogenetically based statistical methods, with a new method for confidence intervals on ancestral values. Am. Zool., 39, 374–388
Gaston, A. J. (1973). The ecology and behaviour of the long-tailed tit. Ibis, 115, 330–351
Gaston, A. J. (1977). Social behaviour within groups of jungle babblers (Turdoides striatus). Anim. Behav., 25, 828–848
Gaston, A. J. (1978). The evolution of group territorial behavior and cooperative breeding. Am. Nat., 112, 1091–1100
Gayou, D. C. (1986). The social system of the Texas green jay. Auk, 103, 540–547
Getz, L. L., McGuire, B., Pizzuto, T., Hofmann, J. E. and Frase, B. (1993). Social organization of the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). J. Mammal., 74, 44–58
Getz, L. L., McGuire, B., Hofmann, J. E., Pizzuto, T. and Frase, B. (1994). Natal dispersal and philopatry in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster): settlement, survival, and potential reproductive success. Ethol. Ecol. Evol., 6, 267–284
Gibbons, D. W. (1986). Brood parasitism and cooperative breeding in the moorhen, Gallinula chloropus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 19, 221–232
Gibbs, H. L., Goldizen, A. W., Bullough, C. and Goldizen, A. R. (1994). Parentage analysis of multi-male social groups of Tasmanian native hens (Tribonyx mortierii): genetic evidence for monogamy and polyandry. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 35, 363–371
Gilchrist, J. S. (2001). Reproduction and pup care in the communal breeding banded mongoose. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Cambridge
Gill, F. B. (1995). Ornithology, 2nd edn. New York: W. H. Freeman
Ginther, A. J., Ziegler, T. E. and Snowdon, C. T. (2001). Reproductive biology of captive male cottontop tamarin monkeys as a function of social environment. Anim. Behav., 61, 65–78
Ginther, A. J., Carlson, A. A., Ziegler, T. E. and Snowdon, C. T. (2002). Neonatal and pubertal development in males of a cooperatively breeding primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Biol. Repro., 66, 282–290
Gittleman, J. L. (1989). Carnivore group living: comparative trends. In: Carnivore Behavior, Ecology and Evolution, ed. J. L. Gittleman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 183–207
Goldizen, A. W. (1987). Facultative polyandry and the role of infant-carrying in wild saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 20, 99–109
Goldizen, A. W. and Terborgh, J. (1989). Demography and dispersal patterns of a tamarin population: possible causes of delayed breeding. Am. Nat., 134, 208–224
Goldizen, A. W., Putland, D. A. and Goldizen, A. R. (1998). Variable mating patterns in Tasmanian native hens (Gallinula mortierii): correlates of reproductive success. J. Anim. Ecol., 67, 307–317
Goldizen, A. W., Buchan, J. C., Putland, D. A., Goldizen, A. R. and Krebs, E. A. (2000). Patterns of mate-sharing in a population of Tasmanian native hens Gallinula mortierii. Ibis, 142, 40–47
Gompper, M. E., Gittleman, J. L. and Wayne, R. K. (1997). Genetic relatedness, coalitions and social behaviour of white-nosed coatis, Nasua nirica. Anim. Behav., 53, 781–797
Gorman, M. L., Mills, M. G., Raath, J. P. and Speakman, J. R. (1998). High hunting costs make African wild dogs vulnerable to kleptoparasitism by hyaenas. Nature, 391, 479–481
Gould, S. J. and Vrba, E. S. (1982). Exaptation – a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology, 8, 4–15
Gowaty, P. A. (1993). Differential dispersal, local resource competition, and sex ratio variation in birds. Am. Nat., 141, 263–280
Gowaty, P. A. (1996a). Field studies of parental care in birds: new data focus questions on variation among females. Adv. Study Behav., 26, 477–531
Gowaty, P. A. (1996b). Multiple mating by females selects for males that stay: another hypothesis for social monogamy in passerine birds. Anim. Behav., 51, 482–484
Gowaty, P. A. and Lennartz, M. R. (1985). Sex ratios of nestling and fledgling red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) favor males. Am. Nat., 126, 347–353
Gowaty, P. A. and Plissner, J. H. (1998). Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis). In: The Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' Union
Grant, B. R. and Grant, P. R. (1996). Cultural inheritance of song and its role in the evolution of Darwin's finches. Evolution, 50, 2471–2487
Greeff, J. M. and Bennett, N. C. (2000). Causes and consequences of incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding mole-rat, Cryptomys darlingi (Bathyergidae). Ecol. Lett., 3, 318–328
Green, D. J. and Cockburn, A. (2001). Post-fledging care, philopatry and recruitment in brown thornbills. J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 505–514
Green, D. J., Cockburn, A., Hall, M. L., Osmond, H. L. and Dunn, P. O. (1995). Increased opportunities for cuckoldry may be why dominant male fairy-wrens tolerate helpers. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 262, 297–303
Green, D. J., Osmond, H. L., Double, M. C. and Cockburn, A. (2000). Display rate by male fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) during the fertile period of females has little influence on extra-pair mate choice. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 48, 438–446
Greenwood, P. J. (1980). Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Anim. Behav., 28, 1140–1162
Griesser, M. (2003). Nepotistic vigilance behavior in Siberian jay parents. Behav. Ecol., 14, 246–250
Griesser, M. and Ekman, J. (2004). Nepotistic alarm calling in the Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus). Anim. Behav., in press
Griffith, S. C. (2000). High fidelity on islands: a comparative study of extrapair paternity in passerine birds. Behav. Ecol., 11, 265–273
Griffiths, R., Daan, S. and Dijkstra, C. (1996). Sex identification in birds using two CHD genes. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 263, 1251–1256
Griffiths, R., Double, M. C., Orr, K. and Dawson, R. J. G. (1998). A DNA test to sex most birds. Mol. Ecol., 7, 1071–1075
Grimes, L. G. (1976). The occurrence of cooperative breeding behaviour in African birds. Ostrich, 47, 1–15
Grimes, L. G. (1980). Observations of group behaviour and breeding biology of the yellow-billed shrike Corvinella corvina. Ibis, 122, 166–192
Grindstaff, J. L., Buerkle, C. A., Casto, J. M., Nolan, V., Jr. and Ketterson, D. (2001). Offspring sex ratio is unrelated to male attractiveness in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 50, 312–316
Hager, R. (2003). Reproductive skew models applied to primates. In: Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Primates: New Perspectives and Directions, ed. C. B. Jones. Norman, OK: American Society of Primatologists. pp. 65–101
Haig, D. (2000). Genomic imprinting, sex-biased dispersal, and social behavior. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 907, 149–163
Haig, S. M., Walters, J. R. and Plissner, J. H. (1994). Genetic evidence for monogamy in the cooperatively breeding red-cockaded woodpecker. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 34, 295–303
Hailman, J. P., McGowan, K. J. and Woolfenden, G. E. (1994). Role of helpers in the sentinel behaviour of the Florida scrub jay (Aphelocoma c. coerulescens). Ethology, 97, 119–140
Hamilton, W. D. (1963). The evolution of altruistic behavior. Am. Nat., 97, 354–356
Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I, II. J. Theor. Biol., 7, 1–52
Hamilton, W. D. (1967). Extraordinary sex ratios. Science, 156, 477–488
Hamilton, W. D. (1971). Geometry for the selfish herd. J. Theor. Biol., 31, 295–311
Hammel, E. A., McDaniel, C. K. and Wachter, K. W. (1979). Demographic consequences of incest tabus: a microsimulation analysis. Science, 205, 972–977
Handford, P. and Mares, M. A. (1985). The mating systems of ratites and tinamous: an evolutionary perspective. J. Linn. Soc., 25, 77–104
Hannon, S. J., Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1985). Replacement of breeders and within-group conflict in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 17, 303–312
Hardy, I. C. W. (1997). Possible factors influencing vertebrate sex ratios: an introductory overview. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 51, 217–241
Harrison, C. J. O. (1969). Helpers at the nest in Australian passerine birds. Emu, 69, 30–40
Harshman, J. (1994). Reweaving the tapestry: what can we learn from Sibley and Ahlquist (1990)? Auk, 111, 377–388
Hartley, I. R. and Davies, N. B. (1994). Limits to cooperative polyandry in birds. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 257, 67–73
Hartley, I. R., Davies, N. B., Hatchwell, B. J., Desrochers, A., Nebel, D. and Burke, T. (1995). The polygynandrous mating system of the alpine accentor, Prunella collaris. 2. Multiple paternity and parental effort. Anim. Behav., 49, 789–803
Hartley, I. R., Griffith, S. C., Wilson, K., Shepherd, M. and Burke, T. (1999). Nestling sex ratios in the polygynously breeding corn bunting, Miliaria calancra. J. Avian Biol., 30, 7–14
Hasselquist, D. and Kempenaers, B. (2002). Parental care and adaptive brood sex ratio manipulation in birds. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B, 357, 363–372
Hasselquist, D. and Sherman, P. W. (2001). Social mating systems and extrapair fertilizations in passerine birds. Behav. Ecol., 12, 457–466
Hatchwell, B. J. (1999). Investment strategies of breeders in avian cooperative breeding systems. Am. Nat., 154, 205–219
Hatchwell, B. J. and Davies, N. B. (1992). An experimental study of mating competition in monogamous and polyandrous dunnocks, Prunella modularis. II. Influence of removal and replacement experiments on mating systems. Anim. Behav., 43, 611–622
Hatchwell, B. J. and Komdeur, J. (2000). Ecological constraints, life history traits and the evolution of cooperative breeding. Anim. Behav., 59, 1079–1086
Hatchwell, B. J. and Russell, A. F. (1996). Provisioning rules in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus: an experimental study. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 263, 83–88
Hatchwell, B. J., Russell, A. F., Fowlie, M. K. and Ross, D. J. (1999). Reproductive success and nest-site selection in a cooperative breeder: effect of experience and a direct benefit of helping. Auk, 116, 355–363
Hatchwell, B. J., Russell, A. F., Ross, D. J. and Fowlie, M. K. (2000). Divorce in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: a consequence of inbreeding avoidance? Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 813–819
Hatchwell, B. J., Anderson, C., Ross, D. J., Fowlie, M. K. and Blackwell, P. G. (2001a). Social organization of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: kinship and spatial dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 820–830
Hatchwell, B. J., Ross, D. J., Fowlie, M. K. and McGowan, A. (2001b). Kin discrimination in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 885–890
Hatchwell, B. J., Ross, D. J., Chaline, N., Fowlie, M. K. and Burke, T. A. (2002). Parentage in the cooperative breeding system of long-tailed tits, Aegithalos caudatus. Anim. Behav., 64, 55–63
Hatchwell, B. J., Russell, A. F., MacColl, A. D. C., Ross, D. J., Fowlie, M. K. and McGowan, A. (2003). Helpers increase long-term but not short-term productivity in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits. Behav. Ecol., in press
Haydock, J. (1993). Cooperative breeding in bicolored wrens, Campylorhynchus griseus. Ph. D. dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Haydock, J. and Koenig, W. D. (2002). Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 7178–7183
Haydock, J. and Koenig, W. D. (2003). Patterns of reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker. Am. Nat., 162, 277–289
Haydock, J., Parker, P. G. and Rabenold, K. N. (1996). Extra-pair paternity uncommon in the cooperatively breeding bicolored wren. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 38, 1–16
Haydock, J., Koenig, W. D. and Stanback, M. T. (2001). Shared parentage and incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Mol. Ecol., 10, 1515–1525
Hedrick, P. W. (1994). Purging inbreeding depression and the probability of extinction. Heredity, 73, 363–372
Heer, L. (1996). Cooperative breeding by alpine accentors Prunella collaris: polygynandry, territoriality and multiple paternity. J. Ornithol., 137, 35–51
Hegner, R. E. and Emlen, S. T. (1987). Territorial organization of the white-fronted bee-eater in Kenya. Ethology, 76, 189–222
Heinsohn, R. G. (1991a). Kidnapping and reciprocity in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Anim. Behav., 41, 1097–1100
Heinsohn, R. G. (1991b). Slow learning of foraging skills and extended parental care in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Am. Nat., 137, 864–881
Heinsohn, R. G. (1991c). Evolution of obligate cooperative breeding in white-winged choughs: a statistical approach. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 20, 1309–1316
Heinsohn, R. G. (1992). Cooperative enhancement of reproductive success in white-winged choughs. Evol. Ecol., 6, 97–114
Heinsohn, R. G. (1995). Hatching asynchrony and brood reduction in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs Corcorax melanorhamphos. Emu, 95, 252–258
Heinsohn, R. G. and Cockburn, A. (1994). Helping is costly to young birds in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 256, 293–298
Heinsohn, R. G. and Legge, S. (1999). The cost of helping. Trends Ecol. Evol., 14, 53–57
Heinsohn, R. G. and Legge, S. (2003). Breeding biology of the reverse-dichromatic, cooperative parrot, Eclectus roratus. J. Zool., 259, 197–208
Heinsohn, R. G., Cockburn, A. and Cunningham, R. B. (1988). Foraging, delayed maturity and cooperative breeding in white-winged choughs (Corcorax melanorhamphos). Ethology, 77, 177–186
Heinsohn, R. G., Cockburn, A. and Mulder, R. A. (1990). Avian cooperative breeding: old hypotheses and new directions. Trends Ecol. Evol., 5, 403–407
Heinsohn, R. G., Legge, S. and Barry, S. (1997). Extreme bias in sex allocation in eclectus parrots. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 264, 1325–1329
Heinsohn, R. G., Legge, S. and Dunn, P. O. (1999). Extreme reproductive skew in cooperatively-breeding birds: tests of theory in white-winged choughs. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2858–2878
Heinsohn, R. G., Dunn, P. O., Legge, S. and Double, M. C. (2000). Coalitions of relatives and reproductive skew in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 243–249
Heistermann, M., Kleis, E., Prove, E. and Wolters, H. J. (1989). Fertility status, dominance, and scent marking behavior of family-housed female cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in absence of their mothers. Am. J. Primatol., 18, 177–189
Helsper, J. P. F. G., van Loon, Y. P. J. and Kwakkel, R. P. (1996). Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of faba bean (Vicia faba). J. Agron. Food Sci., 44, 1070–1075
Heppell, S. S., Walters, J. R. and Crowder, L. B. (1994). Evaluating management alternatives for red-cockaded woodpeckers: a modeling approach. J. Wildl. Manage., 58, 479–487
Herbst, M. and Bennett, N. C. (2001). Recrudescence of sexual activity in a colony of the Mashona mole-rat (Cryptomys darlingi): an apparent case of incest avoidance. J. Zool., 254, 163–175
Higgins, P. J., Peter, J. M. and Steele, W. K. (2001). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, vol. 5. Tyrant-Flycatchers to Chats. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hillis, D. M., Huelsenbeck, J. P. and Cunningham, C. W. (1994). Application and accuracy of molecular phylogenies. Science, 264, 671–677
Hodge, S. J. (2003). Evolution of cooperation in the communal breeding banded mongoose. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Cambridge
Hodges, K. E., Mech, S. and Wolff, J. O. (2002). Sex and the single vole: effects of social grouping on prairie vole reproductive success. Ethology, 108, 871–884
Holmes, W. G. and Sherman, P. W. (1983). Kin recognition in animals. Am. Sci., 71, 46–55
Hooge, P. N. (1995). Dispersal dynamics of the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Ph. D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA
Hoogland, J. L. (1983). Nepotism and alarm calling in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Anim. Behav., 31, 472–479
Hoogland, J. L. (1995). The Black-Tailed Prairie Dog. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Horn, P. L., Rafalski, J. A. and Whitehead, P. J. (1996). Molecular genetic (RAPD) analysis of breeding magpie geese. Auk, 113, 552–557
Hubrecht, R. C. (1989). The fertility of daughters in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) family groups. Primates, 30, 423–432
Hurxthal, L. M. (1979). Breeding behaviour of the ostrich, Struthio camelus massaicus, in Nairobi National Park. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Innes, K. E. and Johnston, R. E. (1996). Cooperative breeding in the white-throated magpie-jay. How do auxiliaries influence nesting success? Anim. Behav., 51, 519–533
IUCN (2000). Red List of Threatened Species. Cambridge: IUCN, the World Conservation Union. www.redlist.org
Jakobsson, S. (1988). Territorial fidelity of willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) males and success in competition over territories. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 22, 79–84
James, P. C. and Oliphant, L. W. (1986). Extra birds and helpers at the nest of Richardson's merlin. Condor, 88, 533–534
James, W. H. (1993). Continuing confusion. Nature, 365, 8
Jamieson, I. G. (1989). Behavioral heterochrony and the evolution of birds' helping at the nest: an unselected consequence of communal breeding? Am. Nat., 133, 394–406
Jamieson, I. G. (1991). The unselected hypothesis for the evolution of helping behavior: too much or too little emphasis on natural selection? Am. Nat., 138, 271–282
Jamieson, I. G. (1997). Testing reproductive skew models in a communally breeding bird, the pukeko, Porphyrio porphyrio. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 264, 335–340
Jamieson, I. G. (1999). Reproductive skew models and inter-species variation in adjustment of individual clutch sizes in joint-nesting birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2894–2909
Jamieson, I. G. and Craig, J. L. (1987a). Critique of helping behaviour in birds: a departure from functional explanations. In: Perspectives in Ethology, vol. 7, ed. P. P. G. Bateson and P. Klopfer. New York, NY: Plenum. pp. 79–98
Jamieson, I. G. and Craig, J. L. (1987b). Dominance and mating in a communal polygynandrous bird: cooperation or indifference towards mating competitors? Ethology, 75, 317–327
Jamieson, I. G. and Craig, J. L. (1987c). Male–male and female–female courtship and copulation behaviour in a communally breeding bird. Anim. Behav., 35, 1251–1253
Jamieson, I. G., Quinn, J. S., Rose, P. A. and White, B. N. (1994). Shared paternity among non-relatives is a result of an egalitarian mating system in a communally breeding bird, the pukeko. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 257, 271–277
Jansen, A. (1999). Home ranges and group-territoriality in chowchillas Orthonyx spaldingii. Emu, 99, 280–290
Jarman, P. J. (1974). The social organisation of antelopes in relation to their ecology. Behaviour, 48, 215–267
Jarvis, J. U. M. and Bennett, N. C. (1993). Eusociality has evolved independently in two genera of bathyergid mole-rats – but occurs in no other subterranean mammal. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 33, 353–360
Jarvis, J. U. M., Oriain, M. J., Bennett, N. C. and Sherman, P. W. (1994). Mammalian eusociality: a family affair. Trends Ecol. Evol., 9, 47–51
Jarvis, J. U. M., Bennett, N. C. and Spinks, A. C. (1998). Food availability and foraging by wild colonies of Damaraland mole-rats (Cryptomys damarensis): implications for sociality. Oecologia, 113, 290–298
Jennions, M. D. and Macdonald, D. W. (1994). Cooperative breeding in mammals. Trends Ecol. Evol., 9, 89–93
Jennions, M. D. and Petrie, M. (2000). Why do females mate multiply? A review of the genetic benefits. Biol. Rev., 75, 21–64
Johnson, K. J. (2001). Taxon sampling and the phylogenetic position of passeriformes: evidence from 916 avian cytochrome b sequences. Syst. Biol., 50, 128–136
Johnson, M. L. and Gaines, M. S. (1990). Evolution of dispersal: theoretical models and empirical tests using birds and mammals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 21, 449–480
Johnstone, R. A. (2000). Models of reproductive skew: a review and synthesis. Ethology, 106, 5–26
Johnstone, R. A. and Cant, M. A. (1999). Reproductive skew and the threat of eviction: a new perspective. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 275–279
Johnstone, R. A., Woodroffe, R., Cant, M. A. and Wright, J. (1999). Reproductive skew in multimember groups. Am. Nat., 153, 315–331
Jones, C. S., Lessells, C. M. and Krebs, J. R. (1991). Helpers-at-the-nest in European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster): a genetic analysis. In: DNA Fingerprinting Approaches and Applications, ed. T. Burke, G. Dolf, A. J. Jeffreys and R. Wolff. Basel: Birkhauser. pp. 169–192
Jones, D. A. (1998). Parentage, mate removal experiments and sex allocation in the co-operatively breeding bell miner, Manorina melanophrys. M.Sc. dissertation, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada
Jones, R. E. (1969). Hormonal control of incubation patch development in the California quail, Lophortyx californicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 13, 1–13
Jones, R. E. (1971). The incubation patch of birds. Biol. Rev., 46, 315–339
Joste, N. E., Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L. and Pitelka, F. A. (1982). Intra-group dynamics of a cooperative breeder: an analysis of reproductive roles in the acorn woodpecker. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 11, 195–201
Kattan, G. (1988). Food habits and social organization of acorn woodpeckers in Colombia. Condor, 90, 100–106
Keane, B., Waser, P. M., Creel, S. R., Creel, N. M., Elliott, L. F. and Minchella, D. J. (1994). Subordinate reproduction in dwarf mongooses. Anim. Behav., 47, 65–75
Keane, B., Creel, S. R. and Waser, P. M. (1996). No evidence of inbreeding avoidance or inbreeding depression in a social carnivore. Behav. Ecol., 7, 480–489
Keller, L. (1997). Indiscriminate altruism: unduly nice parents and siblings. Trends Ecol. Evol., 12, 99–103
Keller, L. and Chapuisat, M. (1999). Cooperation among selfish individuals in insect societies. BioScience, 49, 899–909
Keller, L. and Reeve, H. K. (1994). Partitioning of reproduction in animal societies. Trends Ecol. Evol., 9, 98–102
Keller, L. F. (1998). Inbreeding and its fitness effects in an insular population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Evolution, 52, 240–250
Keller, L. F. and Arcese, P. (1998). No evidence for inbreeding avoidance in a natural population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Am. Nat., 152, 380–392
Kemp, A. C. (2001). Family Bucerotidae (Hornbills). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6, ed. J. del Hey, A. Elliott and J. Sargatal. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 436–523
Kempenaers, B., Congdon, B., Boag, P. and Robertson, R. J. (1999). Extrapair paternity and egg hatchability in tree swallows: evidence for the genetic compatibility hypothesis? Behav. Ecol., 10, 304–311
Ketterson, E. D. and Nolan, V. (1994). Male parental behavior in birds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 25, 601–628
Khan, M. Z. and Walters, J. R. (1997). Is helping a beneficial learning experience for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) helpers? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 41, 69–73
Khan, M. Z. and Walters, J. R. (2002). Effects of helpers on breeder survival in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 52, 336–344
Khan, M. Z., McNabb, F. M. A., Walters, J. R. and Sharp, P. J. (2001). Patterns of testosterone and prolactin concentrations and reproductive behavior of helpers and breeders in the cooperatively breeding red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Horm. Behav., 40, 1–13
Kilner, R. (1998). Primary and secondary sex ratio manipulation by zebra finches. Anim. Behav., 56, 155–164
Kimwele, C. N. and Graves, J. A. (2003). A molecular genetic analysis of the communal nesting of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Mol. Ecol., 12, 229–236
King, D. I., Champlin, T. B. and Champlin, P. J. (2000). An observation of cooperative breeding in the ovenbird. Wilson Bull., 112, 287–288
Knapp, R. A. and Kovach, J. T. (1991). Courtship as an honest indicator of male parental quality in the bicolor damselfish, Stegaster partitus. Behav. Ecol., 2, 295–300
Koenig, W. D. (1981). Space competition in the acorn woodpecker: power struggles in a cooperative breeder. Anim. Behav., 29, 396–409
Koenig, W. D. (1990). Opportunity of parentage and nest destruction in polygynandrous acorn woodpeckers, Melanerpes formicivorus. Behav. Ecol., 1, 55–61
Koenig, W. D. (1991). The effects of tannins and lipids on digestion of acorns by acorn woodpeckers. Auk, 108, 79–88
Koenig, W. D. and Benedict, L. S. (2002). Size, insect parasitism and energetic value of acorns stored by acorn woodpeckers. Condor, 104, 539–547
Koenig, W. D. and Dickinson, J. L. (1996). Nestling sex-ratio variation in western bluebirds. Auk, 113, 902–910
Koenig, W. D. and Heck, M. K. (1988). Ability of two species of oak woodland birds to subsist on acorns. Condor, 90, 705–708
Koenig, W. D. and Mumme, R. L. (1987). Population Ecology of the Cooperatively Breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Koenig, W. D. and Mumme, R. L. (1990). Levels of analysis and the functional significance of helping behavior. In: Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior. Vol. 2: Explanation, Evolution, and Adaptation, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. pp. 268–303
Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1979). Relatedness and inbreeding avoidance: counterploys in the communally nesting acorn woodpecker. Science, 206, 1103–1105
Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1981). Ecological factors and kin selection in the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds. In: Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory, ed. R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle. New York, NY: Chiron Press. pp. 261–280
Koenig, W. D. and Stacey, P. B. (1990). Acorn woodpeckers: group living and food storage under contrasting ecological conditions. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 413–454
Koenig, W. D. and Walters, J. R. (1999). Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers at the nest: the repayment model revisited. Am. Nat., 153, 124–130
Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L. and Pitelka, F. A. (1983). Female roles in cooperatively breeding acorn woodpeckers. In: Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates, ed. S. K. Wasser. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 235–261
Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L. and Pitelka, F. A. (1984). The breeding system of the acorn woodpecker in central coastal California. Z. Tierpsychol., 65, 289–308
Koenig, W. D., Pitelka, F. A., Carmen, W. J., Mumme, R. L. and Stanback, M. T. (1992). The evolution of delayed dispersal in cooperative breeders. Q. Rev. Biol., 67, 111–150
Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L., Stanback, M. T. and Pitelka, F. A. (1995). Patterns and consequences of egg destruction among joint-nesting acorn woodpeckers. Anim. Behav., 50, 607–621
Koenig, W. D., Van Vuren, D. and Hooge, P. N. (1996). Detectability, philopatry, and the distribution of dispersal distances in vertebrates. Trends Ecol. Evol., 11, 514–517
Koenig, W. D., Haydock, J. and Stanback, M. T. (1998). Reproductive roles in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker: incest avoidance versus reproductive competition. Am. Nat., 151, 243–255
Koenig, W. D., Stanback, M. T. and Haydock, J. (1999). Demographic consequences of incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Anim. Behav., 57, 1287–1293
Koenig, W. D., Hooge, P. N., Haydock, J. and Stanback, M. T. (2000). Natal dispersal in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Condor, 102, 492–502
Koenig, W. D., Stanback, M. T., Haydock, J. and Kraaijeveld-Smit, F. (2001). Nestling sex ratio variation in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 49, 357–365
Koford, R. R., Bowen, B. S. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1986). Habitat saturation in groove–billed anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Am. Nat., 127, 317–337
Koford, R. R., Bowen, B. S. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1990). Groove-billed anis: joint nesting in a tropical cuckoo. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 333–356
Kokko, H. (1999). Cuckoldry and the stability of biparental care. Ecol. Lett., 2, 247–255
Kokko, H. (2003). Are reproductive skew models evolutionarily stable? Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 270, 265–270
Kokko, H. and Ekman, J. (2002). Delayed dispersal as a route to breeding: territorial inheritance, safe havens, and ecological constraints. Am. Nat., 160, 468–484
Kokko, H. and Johnstone, R. A. (1999). Social queuing in animal societies: a dynamic model of reproductive skew. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 571–578
Kokko, H. and Lundberg, P. (2001). Dispersal, migration, and offspring retention in saturated habitats. Am. Nat., 157, 188–202
Kokko, H., Johnstone, R. A. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2001). The evolution of cooperative breeding through group augmentation. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 187–196
Kokko, H., Johnstone, R. A. and Wright, J. (2002). The evolution of parental and alloparental effort in cooperatively breeding groups: when should helpers pay to stay? Behav. Ecol., 13, 291–300
Kölliker, M., Heeb, P., Werner, I., Mateman, A. C., Lessells, C. M. and Richner, H. (1999). Offspring sex ratio is related to male body size in the great tit (Parus major). Behav. Ecol., 10, 68–72
Komdeur, J. (1992). Importance of habitat saturation and territory quality for evolution of cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler. Nature, 358, 493–495
Komdeur, J. (1994a). The effect of kinship on helping in the cooperative breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 256, 47–52
Komdeur, J. (1994b). Experimental evidence for helping and hindering by previous offspring in the cooperative-breeding Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 34, 175–186
Komdeur, J. (1996). Influence of helping and breeding experience on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler: a translocation experiment. Behav. Ecol., 7, 326–333
Komdeur, J. (1998). Long-term fitness benefits of egg sex modification by the Seychelles warbler. Ecol. Lett., 1, 56–62
Komdeur, J. (2001). Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 2103–2111
Komdeur, J. and Edelaar, P. (2001a). Evidence that helping at the nest does not result in territory inheritance in the Seychelles warbler. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 2007–2012
Komdeur, J. and Edelaar, P. (2001b). Male Seychelles warblers use territory budding to maximize lifetime fitness in a saturated environment. Behav. Ecol., 12, 706–715
Komdeur, J. and Hatchwell, B. J. (1999). Kin recognition: function and mechanism in avian societies. Trends Ecol. Evol., 14, 237–241
Komdeur, J. and Pen, I. (2002). Adaptive sex allocation in birds: the complexities of linking theory and practice. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B, 357, 373–380
Komdeur, J., Huffstadt, A., Prast, W., Castle, G., Mileto, R. and Wattel, J. (1995). Transfer experiments of Seychelles warblers to new islands: changes in dispersal and helping behaviour. Anim. Behav., 49, 695–708
Komdeur, J., Daan, S., Tinbergen, J. and Mateman, A. C. (1997). Extreme adaptive modification in sex ratio of Seychelles warbler's eggs. Nature, 385, 522–525
Komdeur, J., Magrath, M. J. L. and Krackow, S. (2002). Pre-ovulation control of hatchling sex ratio in the Seychelles warbler. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 1067–1072
Komdeur, J., Piersma, T., Kraaijeveld, K., Kraaijeveld-Smit, F. and Richardson, D. S. (2004). Why Seychelles warblers fail to recolonize nearby islands: unwilling or unable to fly there? Ibis, in press
Kossenko, S. M. and Fry, C. H. (1998). Competition and coexistence of the European bee-eater Merops apiaster and the blue-cheeked bee-eater Merops persicus in Asia. Ibis, 140, 2–13
Köster, F. (1971). Zum Nistverhalten des Ani, Crotophaga ani. Bonn. Zool. Beitr., 22, 4–27
Kraaijeveld, K. and Dickinson, J. L. (2001). Family-based winter territoriality in western bluebirds: the structure and dynamics of winter groups. Anim. Behav., 61, 109–117
Krackow, S. (1995). Potential mechanisms for sex ratio adjustment in mammals and birds. Biol. Rev., 70, 225–241
Krackow, S. (1999). Avian sex ratio distortions: the myth of maternal control. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 425–433
Krebs, J. R. (1982). Territorial defense in the great tit (Parus major): do residents always win? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 11, 185–194
Krebs, J. R. and Davies, N. B., eds. (1993). An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology, 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell
Kruuk, H. (1975). Functional aspects of social hunting in carnivores. In: Function and Evolution in Behavior, ed. G. Baerends, C. Beer and A. Manning. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 119–141
Lacey, E. A. and Sherman, P. W. (1997). Cooperative breeding in naked mole-rats: implications for vertebrate and invertebrate sociality. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–301
Lack, D. (1968). Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds. London: Chapman and Hall
Lacy, R. C. and Ballou, J. D. (1998). Effectiveness of selection in reducing the genetic load in populations of Peromyscus polionotus during generations of inbreeding. Evol. Ecol., 52, 900–909
Lambert, D. M., Millar, C. D., Jack, K., Anderson, S. and Craig, J. L. (1994). Single- and multilocus DNA fingerprinting of communally breeding pukeko: do copulations or dominance ensure reproductive success? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91, 9641–9645
Lancaster, D. A. (1964a). Biology of the brushland tinamou, Nothoprocta cinerascens. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 127, 269–314
Lancaster, D. A. (1964b). Life history of the Boucard tinamou in British Honduras: II. breeding biology. Condor, 66, 253–276
Langen, T. A. (1996a). The mating system of the white-throated magpie-jay Calocitta formosa and Greenwood's hypothesis for sex-biased dispersal. Ibis, 138, 506–513
Langen, T. A. (1996b). Skill acquisition and the timing of natal dispersal in the white-throated magpie-jay, Calocitta formosa. Anim. Behav., 51, 575–588
Langen, T. A. (2000). Prolonged offspring dependence and cooperative breeding in birds. Behav. Ecol., 11, 367–377
Langen, T. A. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1999). How white-throated magpie-jay helpers contribute during breeding. Auk, 116, 131–140
Langham, G. M., Hite, J. M. and DaCosta, J. M. (2003). Sex-biased territoriality, movement patterns, and helping behavior in rufous-tailed jacamars. Auk, 120 (2, suppl.), 34AA
Legge, S. (2000a). The effect of helpers on reproductive success in the laughing kookaburra. J. Anim. Ecol., 69, 714–724
Legge, S. (2000b). Helper contributions in the cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburra: feeding young is no laughing matter. Anim. Behav., 59, 1009–1018
Legge, S. and Cockburn, A. (2000). Social and mating system of cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburras (Dacelo novaeguineae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 47, 220–229
Legge, S., Heinsohn, R. G., Double, M. C., Griffiths, R. and Cockburn, A. (2001). Complex sex allocation in the laughing kookaburra. Behav. Ecol., 12, 524–533
Leimar, O. (1996). Life-history analysis of the Trivers and Willard sex-ratio problem. Behav. Ecol., 7, 316–325
Leonard, M. L., Horn, A. G. and Eden, S. F. (1989). Does juvenile helping enhance breeder reproductive success? A removal experiment on moorhens. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 25, 357–361
Lessells, C. M. (1990). Helping at the nest in European bee-eaters: who helps and why? In: Population Biology of Passerine Birds, an Integrated Approach, ed. J. Blondel, A. Gosler, J. D. Lebreton and R. McCleery. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 357–368
Lessells, C. M. (1991). The evolution of life histories. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 3rd edn., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 32–68
Lessells, C. M. and Avery, M. I. (1987). Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers at the nest: some extensions of the repayment model. Am. Nat., 129, 610–620
Lessells, C. M. and Mateman, A. C. (1996). Molecular sexing of birds. Nature, 383, 761–762
Lessells, C. M. and Mateman, A. C. (1998). Sexing birds using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Mol. Ecol., 7, 187–195
Lessells, C. M. and Quinn, J. S. (1999). Primary sex ratios: variation, causes and consequences. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 422–424
Lessells, C. M., Avery, M. I. and Krebs, J. R. (1994). Nonrandom dispersal of kin: why do European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) brothers nest close together? Behav. Ecol., 5, 105–113
Lessells, C. M., Mateman, A. C. and Visser, J. (1996). Great tit hatchling sex ratios. J. Avian Biol., 27, 135–142
Letcher, B. H., Priddy, J. A., Walters, J. R. and Crowder, L. B. (1998). An individual-based, spatially-explicit simulation model of the population dynamics of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Biol. Conserv., 86, 1–14
Lewis, D. M. (1982). Cooperative breeding in a population of white-browed sparrow-weavers. Ibis, 124, 511–522
Lewis, S. E. and Pusey, A. E. (1997). Factors influencing the occurrence of communal care in plural breeding mammals. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 335–363
Li, S.-H. and Brown, J. L. (2000). High frequency of extrapair fertilization in a plural breeding bird, the Mexican jay, revealed by DNA microsatellites. Anim. Behav., 60, 867–877
Li, S.-H. and Brown, J. L. (2002). Reduction of maternal care: a new benefit of multiple mating? Behav. Ecol., 13, 87–93
Lifson, N. and McClintock, R. (1966). Theory of use of the turnover rates of body water for measuring energy and material balance. J. Theor. Biol., 180, 803–811
Ligon, J. D. (1970). Behavior and breeding biology of the red-cockaded woodpecker. Auk, 87, 255–278
Ligon, J. D. (1978). Reproductive interdependence of pinyon jays and pinyon pines. Ecol. Monogr., 48, 111–126
Ligon, J. D. (1981). Demographic patterns and communal breeding in the green woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus). In: Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory, ed. R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle. New York, NY: Chiron Press. pp. 231–243
Ligon, J. D. (1985). [Book review] The Florida scrub jay: demography of a cooperative-breeding bird. Science, 227, 1573–1574
Ligon, J. D. (1993). The role of phylogenetic history in the evolution of contemporary avian mating and parental care systems. Curr. Ornithol., 10, 1–46
Ligon, J. D. (1999). The Evolution of Avian Breeding Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Ligon, J. D. (2001). Family Phoeniculidae (Woodhoopoes). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6, ed. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott and J. Sargatal. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 412–435
Ligon, J. D. and Davidson, N. K. (1988). Order Coraciiformes, Phoeniculidae, Woodhoopoes. In: The Birds of Africa, vol. 3, ed. E. K. Urban, C. H. Fry and S. Keith. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 356–370
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1978a). Communal breeding in green woodhoopoes as a case for reciprocity. Nature, 276, 496–498
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1978b). The communal social system of the green woodhoopoe in Kenya. Living Bird, 17, 159–197
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1983). Reciprocity in the green woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus). Anim. Behav., 31, 480–489
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1988). Territory quality: key determinant of fitness in the group-living green woodhoopoe. In: The Ecology of Social Behavior, ed. C. Slobodchikoff. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 229–254
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1990a). Female-biased sex ratio at hatching in the green woodhoopoe. Auk, 107, 765–771
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1990b). Green woodhoopoes: life history traits and sociality. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 31–66
Ligon, J. D. and Stacey, P. B. (1989). On the significance of helping behavior in birds. Auk, 106, 700–705
Ligon, J. D. and Stacey, P. B. (1991). The origin and maintenance of helping behavior in birds. Am. Nat., 138, 254–258
Ligon, J. D. and Stacey, P. B. (1996). Land use, lag times and the detection of demographic change: the case of the acorn woodpecker. Conserv. Biol., 10, 840–846
Ligon, J. D., Carey, C. and Ligon, S. H. (1988). Cavity roosting, philopatry and cooperative breeding in the green woodhoopoe may reflect a physiological trait. Auk, 105, 123–127
Ligon, J. D., Ligon, S. H. and Ford, H. A. (1991). An experimental study of the basis of male philopatry in the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus. Ethology, 87, 134–148
Lindström, E. (1986). Territory inheritance and the evolution of group-living in carnivores. Anim. Behav., 34, 1825–1835
Loflin, R. K. (1983). Communal behaviors of the smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani). Ph. D. dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
Lucas, J. R., Creel, S. R. and Waser, P. M. (1997). Dynamic optimization and cooperative breeding: an evaluation of future fitness effects. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–198
Lundy, K. J., Parker, P. G. and Zahavi, A. (1998). Reproduction by subordinates in cooperatively breeding Arabian babblers is uncommon but predictable. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 43, 173–180
Lyon, B. E. (1993a). Conspecific brood parasitism as a flexible female reproductive tactic in American coots. Anim. Behav., 46, 911–928
Lyon, B. E. (1993b). Tactics of parasitic American coots: host choice and the pattern of egg dispersion among host nests. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 33, 87–100
MacColl, A. and Hatchwell, B. J. (2002). Temporal variation in fitness payoffs promotes cooperative breeding in long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus. Am. Nat., 160, 186–194
Macedo, R. H. F. (1992). Reproductive patterns and social organization of the communal guira cuckoo (Guira guira) in central Brazil. Auk, 109, 786–799
Macedo, R. H. F. and Bianchi, C. A. (1997). Communal breeding in tropical guira cuckoos Guira guira: sociality in the absence of a saturated habitat. J. Avian Biol., 28, 207–215
Macedo, R. H. F. and Melo, C. (1999). Confirmation of infanticide in the communally breeding guira cuckoo. Auk, 116, 847–851
Macedo, R. H. F., Cariello, M. and Muniz, L. (2001). Context and frequency of infanticide in communally breeding guira cuckoos. Condor, 103, 170–175
Macgregor, N. A. and Cockburn, A. (2002). Sex differences in parental response to begging nestlings in superb fairy-wrens. Anim. Behav., 63, 923–932
Macnamee, M. C., Sharp, P. J., Lea, R. W., Sterling, R. J. and Harvey, S. (1986). Evidence that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide is a physiological prolactin-releasing factor in the bantam hen. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 62, 470–478
MacRoberts, M. H. and MacRoberts, B. R. (1976). Social organization and behavior of the acorn woodpecker in central coastal California. Ornithol. Monogr., 21, 1–115
Maddison, D. R. and Maddison, W. P. (2000). MacClade 4: Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates
Maddison, W. P. (1990). A method for testing the correlated evolution of two binary characters: are gains or losses concentrated on certain branches of a phylogenetic tree? Evolution, 44, 539–557
Maddison, W. P. (1995). Calculating the probability distribution of ancestral states reconstructed by parsimony on phylogenetic trees. Syst. Biol., 44, 474–481
Magrath, R. D. (1999). Problems of distinguishing among models of reproductive skew within populations of cooperatively-breeding birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2879–2893
Magrath, R. D. (2001). Group breeding dramatically increases reproductive success of yearling but not older female scrubwrens: a model for cooperatively breeding birds? J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 370–385
Magrath, R. D. and Heinsohn, R. G. (2000). Reproductive skew in birds: models, problems and prospects. J. Avian Biol., 31, 247–258
Magrath, R. D. and Whittingham, L. A. (1997). Subordinate males are more likely to help if unrelated to the breeding female in cooperatively breeding white-browed scrubwrens. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 41, 185–192
Magrath, R. D. and Yezerinac, S. M. (1997). Facultative helping does not influence reproductive success or survival in cooperatively breeding white-browed scrubwrens. J. Anim. Ecol., 66, 658–670
Malan, G. (1998). Solitary and social hunting in pale chanting goshawk (Melierax canorus) families: why use both strategies? J. Raptor Res., 32, 195–201
Malan, G., Crowe, T. M., Biggs, R. and Herholdt, J. J. (1997). The social system of the pale chanting goshawk Melierax canorus, monogamy vs. polyandry and delayed dispersal. Ibis, 139, 313–321
Maney, D. L., Hahn, T. P., Schoech, S. J., Sharp, P. J., Morton, M. L. and Wingfield, J. C. (1999). Effects of ambient temperature on photo-induced prolactin secretion in three subspecies of white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 113, 445–456
Manser, M. B. (1999). Response of foraging group members to sentinel calls in suricates Suricata suricatta. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 1013–1019
Marchant, S. and Higgins, P. J. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Martín-Vivaldi, M., Martínez, J. G., Palomino, J. J. and Soler, M. (2002). Extrapair paternity in the hoopoe Upupa epops: an exploration of the influence of interactions between breeding pairs, non-pair males and strophe length. Ibis, 144, 236–247
Marzluff, J. M. and Balda, R. P. (1990). Pinyon jays: making the best of a bad situation by helping. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 199–237
Marzluff, J. M., Woolfenden, G. E., Fitzpatrick, J. W. and Balda, R. P. (1996). Breeding partnerships of two New World jays. In: Partnerships in Birds: the Study of Monogamy, ed. J. M. Black. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 138–161
Maswanganye, K. A., Bennett, N. C., Brinders, J. and Cooney, R. (1999). Oligospermia and azoospermia in non-reproductive male Damaraland mole-rats Cryptomys damarensis (Rodentia: Bathyergidae). J. Zool., 248, 411–418
Mateo, J. M. (2002). Kin-recognition abilities and nepotism as a function of sociality. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 721–727
Matthysen, E. (1999). Nuthatches (Sitta europaea: Aves) in forest fragments: demography of a patchy population. Oecologia, 119, 501–509
Maynard Smith, J. (1979). Game theory and the evolution of behaviour. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 205, 475–488
Maynard Smith, J. and Parker, G. A. (1976). The logic of asymmetric contests. Anim. Behav., 24, 159–175
Mayr, G. (2000). Tiny hoopoe-like birds from the middle Eocene of Messel (Germany). Auk, 117, 964–970
Mayr, G. (2001). A new specimen of the tiny middle Eocene bird Gracilitarsus mirabilis (New Family: Gracilitarsidae). Condor, 103, 78–84
Mays, N. A., Vleck, C. M. and Dawson, J. (1991). Plasma luteinizing hormone, steroid hormones, behavioral role, and nest stage in cooperatively breeding Harris' hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus). Auk, 108, 619–637
McGowan, K. J. and Woolfenden, G. E. (1989). A sentinel system in the Florida scrub jay. Anim. Behav., 37, 1000–1006
McGuire, B., Getz, L. L., Hofmann, J. E., Pizzuto, T. and Frase, B. (1993). Natal dispersal and philopatry in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) in relation to population density, season, and natal social environment. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 32, 293–302
McKechnie, A. E. and Lovegrove, B. G. (2001a). Thermoregulation and the energetic significance of clustering behavior in the white-backed mousebird (Colius colius). Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 74, 238–249
McKechnie, A. E. and Lovegrove, B. G. (2001b). Heterothermic responses in the speckled mousebird (Colius striatus). J. Comp. Physiol. B, 171, 507–518
McLennan, D. A. and Brooks, D. R. (1993). The phylogenetic component of cooperative breeding in perching birds: a commentary. Am. Nat., 141, 790–795
McNamara, J. C. and Houston, A. I. (1990). The value of fat reserves and the trade-off between starvation and predation. Acta Biotheor., 38, 37–61
McRae, S. B. (1995). Temporal variation in responses to intraspecific brood parasitism in the moorhen. Anim. Behav., 49, 1073–1088
McRae, S. B. (1996a). Brood parasitism in the moorhen: brief encounters between parasites and hosts and the significance of an evening laying hour. J. Avian Biol., 27, 311–320
McRae, S. B. (1996b). Family values: costs and benefits of communal nesting in the moorhen. Anim. Behav., 52, 225–245
McRae, S. B. (1997). A rise in nest predation enhances the frequency of intraspecific brood parasitism in a moorhen population. J. Anim. Ecol., 66, 143–153
McRae, S. B. and Amos, W. (1999). Can incest within cooperative breeding groups be detected using DNA fingerprinting? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 47, 104–107
McRae, S. B. and Burke, T. (1996). Intraspecific brood parasitism in the moorhen: parentage and parasite-host relationships determined by DNA fingerprinting. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 38, 115–129
Meng, H. (1951). The Cooper's hawk. Ph. D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Messier, F. and Barrette, C. (1982). The social system of the coyote (Canis latrans) in a forested habitat. Can. J. Zool., 60, 1743–1753
Millar, C. D., Anthony, I., Lambert, D. M., Stapleton, P. M., Bergmann, C. C., Bellamy, A. R. and Young, E. C. (1994). Patterns of reproductive success determined by DNA fingerprinting in a communally breeding oceanic bird. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 52, 31–48
Miller, A. H. (1964). Social parasites among birds. Sci. Monthly, 42, 238–246
Mindell, D. P., Sorenson, M. D., Dimcheff, D. E., Hasegawa, M., Ast, J. C. and Yuri, T. (1999). Interordinal relationships of birds and other reptiles based on whole mitochondrial genomes. Syst. Biol., 48, 138–152
Moehlman, P. D. and Hofer, H. (1997). Cooperative breeding, reproductive suppression, and body mass in canids. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 76–128
M⊘ller, A. P. (1987). Intraspecific nest parasitism and anti-parasite behaviour in swallows, Hirundo rustica. Anim. Behav., 35, 247–254
M⊘ller, A. P. (1992). Frequency of female copulations with multiple males and sexual selection. Am. Nat., 139, 1089–1101
Moore, F. L. and Zoeller, R. T. (1985). Stress-induced inhibition of reproduction: evidence of suppressed secretion of LH-RH in an amphibian. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 60, 252–258
Moore, J. and Ali, R. (1984). Are dispersal and inbreeding avoidance related? Anim. Behav., 34, 94–112
Moore, M. C., Thompson, C. W. and Marler, C. A. (1991). Reciprocal changes in corticosterone and testosterone levels following acute and chronic handling stress in the tree lizard, Urosaurus ornatus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 81, 217–226
Mota, M. T. and Sousa, M. B. C. (2000). Prolactin levels of fathers and helpers related to alloparental care in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Folia Primatol., 71, 22–26
Mulder, R. A. (1995). Natal and breeding dispersal in a co-operative, extra-group-mating bird. J. Avian Biol., 26, 234–240
Mulder, R. A. (1997). Extra-group courtship displays and other reproductive tactics of superb fairy-wrens. Aust. J. Zool., 45, 131–143
Mulder, R. A. and Cockburn, A. (1993). Sperm competition and the reproductive anatomy of male superb fairy-wrens. Auk, 110, 588–593
Mulder, R. A. and Langmore, N. E. (1993). Dominant males punish helpers for temporary defection in superb fairy-wrens. Anim. Behav., 45, 830–833
Mulder, R. A., Dunn, P. O., Cockburn, A., Lazenby-Cohen, K. A. and Howell, M. J. (1994). Helpers liberate female fairy-wrens from constraints on extra-pair mate choice. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 255, 223–229
Mumme, R. L. (1992a). Delayed dispersal and cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler. Trends Ecol. Evol., 7, 330–331
Mumme, R. L. (1992b). Do helpers increase reproductive success? An experimental analysis in the Florida scrub jay. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 31, 319–328
Mumme, R. L. (1997). A bird's-eye view of mammalian cooperative breeding. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 364–388
Mumme, R. L. and de Queiroz, A. (1985). Individual contributions to cooperative behaviour in the acorn woodpecker: effects of reproductive status, sex, and group size. Behaviour, 95, 290–313
Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1983a). Reproductive competition in the communal acorn woodpecker: sisters destroy each other's eggs. Nature, 305, 583–584
Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1983b). Mate guarding in the acorn woodpecker: within-group reproductive competition in a cooperative breeder. Anim. Behav., 31, 1094–1106
Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Ratnieks, F. L. W. (1989). Helping behaviour, reproductive value, and the future component of indirect fitness. Anim. Behav., 38, 331–343
Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1990). Individual contributions to cooperative nest care in the acorn woodpecker. Condor, 92, 360–368
Myers, J. H. (1978). Sex ratio adjustment under food stress: maximization of quality or numbers of offspring. Am. Nat., 112, 381–388
Nagy, K. A., Girard, I. A. and Brown, T. K. (1999). Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles and birds. Annu. Rev. Nutrition, 19, 247–277
Nakamura, M. (1990). Cloacal protuberance and copulatory behavior of the alpine accentor (Prunella collaris). Auk, 107, 284–295
Nakamura, M. (1998a). Multiple mating and cooperative breeding in polygynandrous alpine accentors. I. Competition among females. Anim. Behav., 55, 257–273
Nakamura, M. (1998b). Multiple mating and cooperative breeding in polygynandrous alpine accentors. II. Male mating tactics. Anim. Behav., 55, 275–287
Nakamura, M., Yamagishi, S. and Nishiumi, I. (2001). Cooperative breeding of the white-headed vanga Leptopterus viridis, and endemic species in Madagascar. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol., 33, 1–14
Negro, J. J., Villarroel, M., Tella, J. L., Kuhnlein, U., Hiraldo, F., Donazar, J. A. and Bird, D. M. (1996). DNA fingerprinting reveals a low incidence of extra-pair fertilizations in the lesser kestrel. Anim. Behav., 51, 935–943
Newton, I., ed. (1989). Lifetime Reproduction in Birds. New York, NY: Academic Press
Nilsson, J.-A. (1989). Causes and consequences of natal dispersal in the marsh tit, Parus palustris. J. Anim. Ecol., 58, 619–636
Nocedal, J. and Ficken, M. S. (1998). Bridled titmouse, Baeolophus wollweberi (Passeriformes; Paridae). In Check-List of North American Birds, 7th edn. Washington, DC: American Ornithologists' Union. p. 466
Nolan, J. V. and Thompson, C. F. (1975). The occurrence and significance of anomalous reproductive activities in two North American non-parasitic cuckoos Coccyzus spp. Ibis, 117, 496–503
Noske, R. A. (1991). A demographic comparison of cooperatively breeding and non-cooperative treecreepers (Climacteridae). Emu, 91, 73–86
Oddie, K. R. (1998). Sex discrimination before birth. Trends Ecol. Evol., 13, 130–131
Oddie, K. R. (2000). Size matters: competition between male and female great tit offspring. J. Anim. Ecol., 69, 903–912
O'Riain, M. J. and Braude, S. (2001). Inbreeding versus outbreeding in captive and wild populations of naked mole-rats. In: Dispersal, ed. J. Clobert, E. Danchin, A. A. Dhondt and J. D. Nichols. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 143–154
O'Riain, M. J., Jarvis, J. U. M. and Faulkes, C. G. (1996). A dispersive morph in the naked mole-rat. Nature, 380, 619–621
O'Riain, M. J., Bennett, N. C., Brotherton, P. N. M., McIlrath, G. M. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2000a). Reproductive suppression and inbreeding avoidance in wild populations of co-operatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 48, 471–477
O'Riain, M. J., Jarvis, J. U. M., Alexander, R., Buffenstein, R. and Peeters, C. (2000b). Morphological castes in a vertebrate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 13194–13197
Ostlund, S. and Ahnesjo, I. (1998). Female fifteen-spined sticklebacks prefer better fathers. Anim. Behav., 56, 1177–1183
Otter, K., Ramsay, S. M. and L., R. (1999). Enhanced reproductive success of female black-capped chickadees mated to high-ranking males. Auk, 116, 345–354
Owens, D. D. and Owens, M. J. (1984). Helping behaviour in brown hyenas. Nature, 308, 843–845
Owens, I. P. F. and Bennett, P. M. (1995). Ancient ecological diversification explains life-history variation among living birds. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 261, 227–232
Packer, C. and Pusey, A. E. (1982). Cooperation and competition within coalitions of male lions: kinship or game theory? Nature, 55, 163–169
Packer, C. and Ruttan, L. (1988). The evolution of cooperative hunting. Am. Nat., 132, 159–198
Packer, C., Scheel, D. and Pusey, A. E. (1990). Why lions form groups: food is not enough. Am. Nat., 136, 1–19
Packer, C., Gilbert, D. A., Pusey, A. E. and O'Brian, S. J. (1991). A molecular genetic analysis of kinship and cooperation in African lions. Nature, 351, 562–565
Packer, C., Pusey, A. E. and Eberly, L. E. (2001). Egalitarianism in female African lions. Science, 293, 690–693
Pagliani, A. C., Lee, P. L. M. and Bradbury, R. B. (1999). Molecular determination of sex ratio in yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella offspring. J. Avian Biol., 30, 239–244
Painter, J. N., Crozier, R. H., Poiani, A., Robertson, R. J. and Clarke, M. F. (2000). Complex social organization reflects genetic structure and relatedness in the cooperatively breeding bell miner, Manorina melanophrys. Mol. Ecol., 9, 1339–1347
Palmer, A. R. (2000). Quasireplication and the contract of error: lessons from sex ratios, heritabilities and fluctuating asymmetry. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 31, 441–480
Parker, G. A. (1974). Assessment strategy and the evolution of animal conflicts. J. Theor. Biol., 47, 223–243
Parker, P. G., Jones, T. C., Haydock, J., Dickinson, J. L. and Worden, B. D. (1999). Multilocus minisatellite DNA fingerprinting and cooperative breeding. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 47, 108–111
Pärt, T. (1996). Problems with testing inbreeding avoidance: the case of the collared flycatcher. Evolution, 50, 1625–1630
Partridge, L. (1989). Lifetime reproductive success and life-history evolution. In Lifetime Reproduction in Birds, ed. I. Newton. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 421–440
Pasinelli, G. and Walters, J. R. (2002). Social and environmental factors affect natal dispersal and philopatry of male red-cockaded woodpeckers. Ecology, 83, 2229–2239
Payne, R. B. (1991). Natal dispersal and population structure in a migratory songbird, the indigo bunting. Evolution, 45, 49–62
Payne, R. B., Payne, L. L. and Rowley, I. (1985). Splendid wren Malurus splendens response to cuckoos: an experimental test of social organization in a communal bird. Behaviour, 94, 108–127
Pearson, A. K. and Pearson, O. P. (1955). Natural history and breeding behavior of the tinamou, Nothoprocta ornata. Auk, 72, 113–127
Pen, I. (2000). Sex allocation in a life history context. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Pen, I. and Weissing, F. J. (2000). Sex-ratio optimization with helpers at the nest. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 539–543
Pen, I. and Weissing, F. J. (2002). Optimal sex allocation: steps towards a mechanistic theory. In: The Sex Ratio Handbook, ed. I. C. W. Hardy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–45
Pen, I., Weissing, F. J. and Daan, S. (1999). Seasonal sex ratio trend in the European kestrel: an ESS analysis. Am. Nat., 153, 384–397
Peters, A. (2000). Testosterone treatment is immunosuppressive in superb fairy-wrens, yet free-living males with high testosterone are more immunocompetent. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 883–889
Peters, A. (2003). To court or not to court: testosterone and the trade-off between mating and paternal effort in extra-pair mating superb fairy-wrens. Anim. Behav., 64, 103–112
Peters, A., Astheimer, L. B., Boland, C. R. J. and Cockburn, A. (2000). Testosterone is involved in acquisition and maintenance of sexually selected male plumage in superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 47, 438–445
Peters, A., Astheimer, L. B. and Cockburn, A. (2001). The annual testosterone profile in cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, reflects their extreme infidelity. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 50, 519–527
Peters, A., Cockburn, A. and Cunningham, R. (2002). Testosterone treatment suppresses paternal care in superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, despite their concurrent investment in courtship. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 51, 538–547
Peterson, A. T. and Burt, D. B. (1992). Phylogenetic history of social evolution and habitat use in the Aphelocoma jays. Anim. Behav., 44, 859–866
Petrie, M. (1983). Female moorhens compete for small fat males. Science, 220, 413–415
Petrie, M. (1984). Territory size in the moorhen (Gallinula chloropus): an outcome of RHP asymmetry between neighbours. Anim. Behav., 32, 861–870
Petrie, M. and Kempenaers, B. (1998). Extra-pair paternity in birds: explaining variation between species and populations. Trends Ecol. Evol., 13, 52–58
Petrie, M. and Lipsitch, M. (1994). Avian polygyny is most likely in populations with high variability in heritable male fitness. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 256, 275–280
Petrie, M. and M⊘ller, A. P. (1991). Laying eggs in others' nests: intraspecific brood parasitism in birds. Trends Ecol. Evol., 6, 315–320
Petrie, M., Doums, C. and M⊘ller, A. P. (1998). The degree of extra-pair paternity increases with genetic variability. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 9390–9395
Petrie, M., Krupa, A. and Burke, T. (1999). Peacocks lek with relatives even in the absence of social and environmental cues. Nature, 401, 155–157
Pettifor, R. A., Perrins, C. M. and McCleery, R. H. (1988). Individual optimization of clutch size in great tits. Nature, 336, 160–162
Piper, W. H. (1994). Courtship, copulation, nesting behavior and brood parasitism in the Venezuelan stripe-backed wren. Condor, 96, 654–671
Piper, W. H. and Slater, G. (1993). Polyandry and incest avoidance in the cooperative stripe-backed wren of Venezuela. Behaviour, 124, 227–247
Piper, W. H., Parker, P. G. and Rabenold, K. N. (1995). Facultative dispersal by juvenile males in the cooperative stripe-backed wren. Behav. Ecol., 6, 337–342
Place, N. J., Holekamp, K. E., Sisk, C. L., Weldele, M. L., Coscia, E. M., Drea, C. M. and Glickman, S. E. (2002). Effects of prenatal treatment with antiandrogens on luteinizing hormone secretion and sex steroid concentrations in adult spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta. Biol. Repro., 67, 1405–1413
Poiani, A. and Fletcher, T. (1994). Plasma levels of androgens and gonadal development of breeders and helpers in the bell miner (Manorina melanophrys). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 34, 31–41
Poiani, A. and Jermin, L. S. (1994). A comparative analysis of some life-history traits between cooperatively and non-cooperatively breeding Australian passerines. Evol. Ecol., 8, 471–488
Pöldmaa, T., Montgomerie, R. and Boag, P. (1995). Mating system of the cooperatively breeding noisy miner Manorina melanocephala, as revealed by DNA profiling. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 37, 137–143
Pottinger, T. G. (1999). The impact of stress on animal reproductive activities. In: Stress Physiology in Animals, ed. P. H. M. Balm. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 130–177
Powell, R. A. and Fried, J. J. (1992). Helping by juvenile pine voles (Microtus pinetorum), growth and survival of younger siblings, and the evolution of pine vole sociality. Behav. Ecol., 3, 325–333
Pravosudova, E. V. (1999). Forest fragmentation and the social and genetic structure of a permanent-resident bird. M.S. dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
Pravosudova, E. V. and Grubb, T. C. (2001). An experimental test of the prolonged brood care model in the tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor). Behav. Ecol., 11, 309–314
Price, E. C. (1992). The costs of infant carrying in captive cotton-top tamarins. Am. J. Primatol., 26, 23–33
Prinzinger, R. (1988). Energy metabolism, body temperature and breathing parameters in non-torpid blue-naped mousebirds (Urocolius macrourus). J. Comp. Physiol. B, 157, 801–806
Prinzinger, R., Goppel, R., Lorenz, A. and Kulzer, E. (1981). Body temperature and metabolism in the red-backed mousebird (Colius castanotus) during fasting and torpor. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A, 69, 689–692
Pruett-Jones, S. G. and Lewis, M. J. (1990). Sex ratio and habitat limitation promote delayed dispersal in superb fairy-wrens. Nature, 348, 541–542
Pulliam, H. R. (1973). On the advantages of group living. J. Theor. Biol., 38, 419–422
Pusey, A. E. and Packer, C. (1994). Non-offspring nursing in social carnivores: minimizing the costs. Behav. Ecol., 5, 362–374
Pusey, A. E. and Wolf, M. (1996). Inbreeding avoidance in animals. Trends Ecol. Evol., 11, 201–206
Putland, D. (2001). Has sexual selection been overlooked in the study of avian helping behaviour? Anim. Behav., 62, 811–814
Questiau, S., Escaravage, N., Eybert, M. C. and Taberlet, P. (2000). Nestling sex ratios in a population on bluethroats Luscinia svecica inferred from AFLPTM analysis. J. Avian Biol., 31, 8–14
Quinn, J. S. and Startek-Foote, J. (2000). Smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani). In: Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' Union
Quinn, J. S., Macedo, R. and White, B. N. (1994). Genetic relatedness of communally breeding guira cuckoos. Anim. Behav., 47, 515–529
Quinn, J. S., Woolfenden, G. E., Fitzpatrick, J. W. and White, B. N. (1999). Multi-locus DNA fingerprinting supports genetic monogamy in Florida scrub-jays. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 45, 1–10
Rabenold, K. N. (1984). Cooperative enhancement of reproductive success in tropical wren societies. Ecology, 65, 871–885
Rabenold, K. N. (1990). Campylorhynchus wrens: the ecology of delayed dispersal and cooperation in the Venezuelan savanna. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 157–196
Rabenold, P. P., Rabenold, K. N., Piper, W. H., Haydock, J. and Zack, S. N. (1990). Shared paternity revealed by genetic analysis in cooperatively breeding tropical wrens. Nature, 348, 538–540
Rabinowitz, D., Cairns, S. and Dillon, T. (1986). Seven forms of rarity and their frequency in the flora of the British Isles. In: Conservation Biology: the Science of Scarcity and Diversity, ed. M. E. Soulé. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. pp. 182–204
Radford, A. N. and Blakey, J. K. (2000). Is variation in brood sex ratios adaptive in the great tit (Parus major)? Behav. Ecol., 11, 294–298
Ragsdale, J. E. (1999). Reproductive skew theory extended: the effect of resource inheritance on social organization. Evol. Ecol. Res., 1, 859–874
Ralls, K., Harvey, P. H. and Lyles, A. M. (1986). Inbreeding in natural populations of birds and mammals. In: Conservation Biology: the Science of Scarcity and Diversity, ed. M. E. Soulé. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. pp. 35–56
Rasa, O. A. E. (1986). Coordinated vigilence in dwarf mongoose family groups: the “watchman's song” hypothesis and the cost of guarding. Z. Tierpsychol., 71, 340–344
Recher, H. F. and Lim, L. (1990). A review of current ideas of the extinction, conservation and management of Australia's terrestrial vertebrate fauna. Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust., 16, 287–301
Reed, J. M., Boulinier, T., Danchin, E. and Oring, L. W. (1999). Informed dispersal: prospecting by birds for breeding sites. Curr. Ornithol., 15, 189–259
Reeve, H. K. (1998). Game theory, reproductive skew, and nepotism. In: Game Theory and Animal Behavior, ed. L. Dugatkin and H. K. Reeve. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 118–145
Reeve, H. K. (2000). A transactional theory of within-group conflict. Am. Nat., 155, 365–382
Reeve, H. K. and Emlen, S. T. (2000). Reproductive skew and group size: an N-person staying incentive model. Behav. Ecol., 11, 640–647
Reeve, H. K. and Keller, L. (1995). Partitioning of reproduction in mother-daughter versus sibling associations: a test of optimal skew theory. Am. Nat., 145, 119–132
Reeve, H. K. and Keller, L. (1996). Relatedness asymmetry and reproductive sharing in animal societies. Am. Nat., 148, 764–769
Reeve, H. K. and Keller, L. (1997). Reproductive bribing and policing as evolutionary mechanisms for the suppression of within-group selfishness. Am. Nat., 150, S42–S58
Reeve, H. K. and Keller, L. (2001). Tests of reproductive-skew models in social insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 46, 347–385
Reeve, H. K. and Ratnieks, F. L. W. (1993). Queen–queen conflicts in polygynous societies: mutual tolerance and reproductive skew. In: Queen Number and Sociality in Insects, ed. L. Keller. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 45–85
Reeve, H. K. and Sherman, P. W. (1993). Adaptation and the goals of evolutionary research. Q. Rev. Biol., 68, 1–31
Reeve, H. K., Westneat, D. F., Noon, W. A., Sherman, P. W. and Aquadro, C. F. (1990). DNA “fingerprinting” reveals high levels of inbreeding in colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87, 2496–2500
Reeve, H. K., Emlen, S. T. and Keller, L. (1998). Reproductive sharing in animal societies: reproductive incentives or incomplete control by dominant breeders? Behav. Ecol., 9, 267–278
Reid, B. and Williams, G. R. (1975). The kiwi. In: Biogeography and Ecology in New Zealand, ed. G. Kuschel. The Hague: W. Junk. pp. 301–220
Restrepo, C. and Mondragón, M. L. (1998). Cooperative breeding in the frugivorous toucan barbet (Semnornis ramphastinus). Auk, 115, 4–15
Reyer, H.-U. (1980). Flexible helper structure as an ecological adaptation in the pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis rudis L.). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 6, 219–227
Reyer, H.-U. (1984). Investment and relatedness: a cost/benefit analysis of breeding and helping in the pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis). Anim. Behav., 32, 1163–1178
Reyer, H.-U. (1990). Pied kingfishers: ecological causes and reproductive consequences of cooperative breeding. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 527–557
Reyer, H.-U. and Westerterp, K. (1985). Parental energy expenditure: a proximate cause of helper recruitment in the pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 17, 363–369
Reyer, H.-U., Dittami, J. P. and Hall, M. R. (1986). Avian helpers at the nest: are they psychologically castrated? Ethology, 71, 216–228
Richardson, D. S., Jury, F. L., Blaakmeer, K., Komdeur, J. and Burke, T. (2001). Parentage assignment and extra-group paternity in a cooperative breeder: the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). Mol. Ecol., 10, 2263–2273
Richardson, D. S., Burke, T. and Komdeur, J. (2002). Direct benefits and the evolution of female-biased cooperative breeding in Seychelles warblers. Evolution, 56, 2313–2321
Richardson, D. S., Komdeur, J. and Burke, T. (2003). Avian behaviour: altruism and infidelity among warblers. Nature, 422, 580
Richner, H. (1990). Helpers-at-the-nest in carrion crows Corvus corone corone. Ibis, 132, 105–108
Ricklefs, R. E. (1968). Patterns of growth in birds. Ibis, 110, 419–451
Ricklefs, R. E. (1976). Growth rates of birds in the humid New World tropics. Ibis, 118, 179–207
Ricklefs, R. E. and Starck, J. M. (1998). The evolution of the development mode in birds. In: Avian Growth and Development: Evolution Within the Altricial–Precocial Spectrum, ed. J. M. Starck and R. E. Ricklefs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 366–380
Ridley, A. R. (2003). The causes and consequences of helping behaviour in the cooperatively breeding Arabian babbler. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Cambridge
Ridpath, M. G. (1972). The Tasmanian native hen, Tribonyx mortierii. I-III. CSIRO Wildl. Res., 17, 1–118
Roberts, R. L., Zullo, A., Gustafson, E. A. and Carter, C. S. (1996). Perinatal steroid treatments alter alloparental and affiliative behavior in prairie voles. Horm. Behav., 30, 576–582
Robinson, D. and Traill, B. J., Jr. (1996). Conserving Woodland Birds in the Wheat and Sheep Belts of Southern Australia. Royal Australasian Ornithologist's Union Conservation Statement No. 10
Robinson, S. K., Thompson, F. R. I., Donovan, T. M., Whitehead, D. R. and Faaborg, J. (1995). Regional forest fragmentation and the nesting success of migratory birds. Science, 267, 1987–1990
Robinson, T. R. (2000). Factors affecting natal dispersal by song wrens (Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus): ecological constraints and demography. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL
Rood, J. P. (1986). Ecology and social evolution in the mongooses. In: Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution, ed. D. I. Rubenstein and R. W. Wrangham. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 131–152
Rood, J. P. (1990). Group size, survival, reproduction, and routes to breeding in dwarf mongooses. Anim. Behav., 39, 566–572
Rosenfield, R. N., Bielefeldt, J., Anderson, J. L. and Beckmann, D. J. (1985). Sex ratios in broods of Cooper's hawk. Wilson Bull., 97, 113–115
Rosenfield, R. N., Bielefeldt, J. and Vos, S. M. (1996). Skewed sex ratios in Cooper's hawk offspring. Auk, 113, 957–960
Rowan, M. K. (1967). A study of the colies of southern Africa. Ostrich, 38, 63–115
Rowley, I. (1965). The life history of the superb blue wren, Malurus cyaneus. Emu, 64, 251–297
Rowley, I. (1968). Communal species of Australian birds. Bonn. Zool. Beitr., 19, 362–368
Rowley, I. (1976). Co-operative breeding in Australian birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 16, 657–666
Rowley, I. (1978). Communal activities among white-winged choughs Corcorax melanorhamphos. Ibis, 120, 178–197
Rowley, I. and Russell, E. M. (1990). Splendid fairy-wrens: demonstrating the importance of longevity. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–30
Rowley, I. and Russell, E. M. (1995). The breeding biology of the white-winged fairy-wren Malurus leucopterus leuconotus in a Western Australian coastal heathland. Emu, 95, 175–184
Rowley, I. and Russell, E. M. (1997). Fairy-Wrens and Grasswrens. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Rowley, I., Russell, E. M. and Brooker, M. G. (1986). Inbreeding: benefits may outweigh costs. Anim. Behav., 34, 939–941
Rowley, I., Russell, E. M., Payne, R. B. and Payne, L. L. (1989). Plural breeding in the splendid fairy-wren, Malurus splendens (Aves: Maluridae), a cooperative breeder. Ethology, 83, 229–247
Rowley, I., Russell, E. M. and Brooker, M. G. (1993). Inbreeding in birds. In: The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding, ed. N. W. Thornhill. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 304–328
Russell, A. F. (1999). Ecological constraints and the cooperative breeding systems of the long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Sheffield
Russell, A. F. (2001). Dispersal costs set the scene for helping in an atypical avian cooperative breeder. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 95–99
Russell, A. F. and Hatchwell, B. J. (2001). Experimental evidence for kin-biased helping in a cooperatively breeding vertebrate. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 2169–2174
Russell, A. F., Clutton-Brock, T. H., Brotherton, P. N. M., Sharpe, L. L., McIlrath, G. M., Dalerum, F. D., Cameron, E. Z. and Barnard, J. A. (2002). Factors affecting pup growth and survival in co-operatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta. J. Anim. Ecol., 71, 700–709
Russell, A. F., Brotherton, P. N. M., McIlrath, G. M., Sharpe, L. L. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2003a). Breeding success in cooperative meerkats: effects of helper number and maternal state. Behav. Ecol., 14, 486–492
Russell, A. F., Sharpe, L. L., Brotherton, P. N. M. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2003b). Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 3333–3338
Russell, E. M. (1989). Co-operative breeding: a Gondwanan perspective. Emu, 89, 61–62
Russell, E. M. (2000). Avian life histories: is extended parental care the southern secret? Emu, 100, 377–399
Russell, E. M. and Rowley, I. (1988). Helper contributions to reproductive success in the splendid fairy-wren, Malurus splendens. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 22, 131–140
Russell, E. M. and Rowley, I. (1993a). Demography of the cooperatively breeding splendid fairy-wren, Malurus splendens (Maluridae). Aust. J. Zool., 41, 475–505
Russell, E. M. and Rowley, I. (1993b). Philopatry or dispersal: competition for territory vacancies in the splendid fairy-wren, Malurus splendens. Anim. Behav., 45, 519–539
Russell, E. M. and Rowley, I. (2000). Demography and social organisation of the red-winged fairy-wren, Malurus elegans. Aust. J. Zool., 48, 161–200
Russo, C. A. M., Takezaki, N. and Nei, M. (1996). Efficiencies of different genes and different tree-building methods in recovering a known vertebrate phylogeny. Mol. Biol. Evol., 13, 525–536
Rylands, A. B. (1996). Habitat and the evolution of social and reproductive behavior in callitrichidae. Am. J. Primatol., 38, 5–18
Saether, B.-E. (1990). Age-specific variation in reproductive performance in birds. Curr. Ornithol., 7, 251–283
Salo, A. L. and French, J. A. (1989). Early experience, reproductive success, and development of parental behaviour in Mongolian gerbils. Anim. Behav., 38, 693–702
Sanchez, S., Pelaez, F., Gil-Burmann, C. and Kaumanns, W. (1999). Costs of infant-carrying in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Am. J. Primatol., 48, 99–111
Sanderson, M. J. and Kim, J. (2000). Parametric phylogenetics? Syst. Biol., 49, 817–829
Sapolsky, R. M. (1992). Neuroendocrinology of the stress-response. In: Behavioral Endocrinology, ed. J. B. Becker, S. M. Breedlove and D. Crews. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 287–324
Scantlebury, M., Russell, A. F., Mcllrath, G. M., Speakman, J. R. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2002). The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 2147–2153
Schaffner, C. M. and French, J. A. (1997). Group size and aggression: “recruitment incentives” in a cooperatively breeding primate. Anim. Behav., 54, 171–180
Schiegg, K., Walters, J. R. and Priddy, J. A. (2002). The consequences of disrupted dispersal in fragmented red-cockaded woodpecker populations. J. Anim. Ecol., 71, 710–721
Schleicher, B., Hoi, H., Valera, F. and Hoi-Leitner, M. (1997). The importance of different paternity guards in the polygynandrous penduline tit (Remiz pendulinus). Behaviour, 134, 941–959
Schlinger, B. A., Lane, N. I., Grisham, W. and Thompson, L. (1999). Androgen synthesis in a songbird: a study of cyp17 (17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17, 20-lyase) activity in the zebra finch. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 113, 46–58
Schmidt, L. G., Bradshaw, S. D. and Follett, B. K. (1991). Plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and androgens in relation to age and breeding status among cooperatively breeding Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen Latham). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 83, 48–55
Schoech, S. J. (1996). The effect of supplemental food on body condition and the timing of reproduction in a cooperative breeder, the Florida scrub jay. Condor, 98, 234–244
Schoech, S. J., Mumme, R. L. and Moore, M. C. (1991). Reproductive endocrinology and mechanisms of breeding inhibition in cooperatively breeding Florida scrub jays (Aphelocoma c. coerulescens). Condor, 93, 354–364
Schoech, S. J., Mumme, R. L. and Wingfield, J. C. (1996a). Delayed breeding in the cooperatively breeding Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens): inhibition or the absence of stimulation? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 39, 77–90
Schoech, S. J., Mumme, R. L. and Wingfield, J. C. (1996b). Prolactin and helping behaviour in the cooperatively breeding Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). Anim. Behav., 52, 445–456
Schoech, S. J., Mumme, R. L. and Wingfield, J. C. (1997). Corticosterone, reproductive status, and body mass in a cooperative breeder, the Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). Physiol. Zool., 70, 68–73
Schoech, S. J., Ketterson, E. D., Nolan Jr., V., Sharp, P. J. and Buntin, J. D. (1998). The effect of exogenous testosterone on parental behavior, plasma prolactin and prolactin binding sites in dark-eyed juncos. Horm. Behav., 34, 1–10
Schradin, C. and Anzenberger, G. (2001). Costs of infant carrying in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus: an experimental analysis. Anim. Behav., 62, 289–295
Schultz, T. R., Cocroft, R. B. and Churchill, G. A. (1996). The reconstruction of ancestral character states. Evolution, 50, 504–511
Scott, D. K. (1980). Functional aspects of prolonged parental care in Bewick's swans. Anim. Behav., 28, 938–952
Selander, R. K. (1964). Speciation in wrens of the genus Campylorynchus. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 74, 1–305
Selye, H. (1978). The Stress of My Life. New York, NY: Van Nostrand-Reinhold
Shaffer, M. L. (1981). Minimum population sizes for species conservation. BioScience, 31, 131–134
Shaffer, M. L. (1987). Minimum viable populations: coping with uncertainty. In: Viable Populations for Conservation, ed. M. E. Soulé. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 69–86
Sheldon, B. C. (1998). Recent studies of avian sex ratios. Heredity, 80, 397–402
Shellman-Reev e, J. S. and Reeve, H. K. (2000). Extra-pair paternity as the result of reproductive transactions between paired mates. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 2543–2546
Sherley, G. H. (1989). Benefits of courtship-feeding for rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris) parents. Behaviour, 109, 309–318
Sherley, G. H. (1990). Co-operative breeding in rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris) benefits to parents, offspring and helpers. Behaviour, 112, 1–22
Sherman, P. T. (1995a). Breeding biology of white-winged trumpeters (Psophia leucoptera) in Peru. Auk, 112, 285–295
Sherman, P. T. (1995b). Social organization of cooperatively polyandrous white-winged trumpeters (Psophia leucoptera). Auk, 112, 296–309
Sherman, P. W. (1977). Nepotism and the evolution of alarm calls. Science, 197, 1246–1253
Sherman, P. W. (1985). Alarm calls of Belding's ground squirrels to aerial predators: nepotism or self-preservation? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 17, 313–323
Sherman, P. W. (1988). The levels of analysis. Anim. Behav., 36, 616–619
Sherman, P. W., Jarvis, J. U. M. and Alexander, R. D., eds. (1991). The Biology of the Naked Mole-Rat. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Sherman, P. W., Braude, S. and Jarvis, J. U. M. (1999). Litter sizes and mammary numbers of naked mole-rats: breaking the one-half rule. J. Mammal., 80, 720–733
Sherry, D. F. (1985). Food storage by birds and mammals. Adv. Study Behav., 15, 153–188
Shields, W. M. (1982). Philopatry, Inbreeding and the Evolution of Sex. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press
Shields, W. M. (1987). Dispersal and mating systems: investigating their causal connections. In: Mammalian Dispersal Patterns: the Effects of Social Structure on Population Genetics, ed. B. D. Chepko-Sade and Z. T. Halpin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 3–24
Short, L. L. and Horne, J. F. M. (1988). Order Piciformes, family Capitonidae. In: The Birds of Africa, vol. 3, ed. E. K. Urban, C. H. Fry and S. Keith. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 413–486
Shy, M. M. (1982). Interspecific feeding among birds: a review. J. Field Ornithol., 53, 370–393
Sibley, C. G. and Ahlquist, J. E. (1985). The phylogeny and classification of the Australo–Papuan passerine birds. Emu, 85, 1–14
Sibley, C. G. and Ahlquist, J. E. (1990). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: a Study in Molecular Evolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Sibley, C. G. and Monroe, B. L., Jr. (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Sibley, C. G. and Monroe, B. L., Jr. (1993). A Supplement to Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Sick, H. (1964). Tinamou. In: A New Dictionary of Birds, ed. A. L. Thomson. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 821–822
Sick, H. (1993). Birds in Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Sillero-Zubir i, C., Gottelli, D. and MacDonald, D. W. (1996). Male philopatry, extra-pack copulations and inbreeding avoidance in Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 38, 331–340
Siriwardena, G. M., Baillie, S. R. and Wilson, J. D. (1998). Variation in the survival rates of some British passerines with respect to their population trends on farmland. Bird Study, 45, 276–292
Skutch, A. F. (1935). Helpers at the nest. Auk, 52, 257–273
Skutch, A. F. (1957). The incubation patterns of birds. Ibis, 99, 69–93
Skutch, A. F. (1959). Life history of the groove-billed ani. Auk, 76, 281–317
Skutch, A. F. (1961). Helpers among birds. Condor, 63, 198–226
Skutch, A. F. (1976). Parent Birds and Their Young. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press
Skutch, A. F. (1999). Helpers at Birds' Nests. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press
Smith, J. (1992). Cooperative breeding in the chestnut-crowned babbler Pomatostomus ruficeps. Aust. Birds, 25, 64–66
Smith, J. N. M. (1990). Summary. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 593–611
Smith, S. M. (1978). The “underworld” in a territorial sparrow: adaptive strategy for floaters. Am. Nat., 112, 571–582
Solomon, N. G. (1991). Current indirect fitness benefits associated with philopatry in juvenile prairie voles. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 29, 277–282
Solomon, N. G. (1993). Body size and social preferences of male and female prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. Anim. Behav., 45, 1031–1033
Solomon, N. G. (1994). Effect of the preweaning environment on subsequent reproduction in prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. Anim. Behav., 48, 331–341
Solomon, N. G. and French, J. A., eds. (1997). Cooperative Breeding in Mammals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Soltis, J. and McElreath, R. (2001). Can females gain extra paternal investment by mating with multiple males? A game theoretic approach. Am. Nat., 158, 519–529
Soma, K. K., Sullivan, K. A., Tramontin, A. D., Saldanha, C. J., Schlinger, B. A. and Wingfield, J. C. (2000). Acute and chronic effects of an aromatase inhibitor on territorial aggression in breeding and nonbreeding male song sparrows. J. Comp. Physiol. A, 186, 759–769
Specht, R. L. (1981). Major vegetation formations in Australia. In: Ecological Biogeography of Australia, ed. A. Keast. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk. pp. 163–297
Spinks, A. C., Bennett, N. C., Faulkes, C. G. and Jarvis, J. U. M. (2000a). Circulating LH levels and the response to exogenous GnRH in the common mole-rat: implications for reproductive regulation in this social, seasonal breeding species. Horm. Behav., 37, 221–228
Spinks, A. C., Jarvis, J. U. M. and Bennett, N. C. (2000b). Comparative patterns of philopatry and dispersal in two common mole-rat populations: implications for the evolution of mole-rat sociality. J. Anim. Ecol., 69, 224–234
Stacey, P. B. (1979a). Habitat saturation and communal breeding in the acorn woodpecker. Anim. Behav., 27, 1153–1166
Stacey, P. B. (1979b). Kinship, promiscuity, and communal breeding in the acorn woodpecker. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 6, 53–66
Stacey, P. B. and Koenig, W. D. (1984). Cooperative breeding in the acorn woodpecker. Sci. Am., 251(2), 114–121
Stacey, P. B. and Koenig, W. D. eds. (1990a). Cooperative Breeding in Birds: Long-Term Studies of Ecology and Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Stacey, P. B. and Koenig, W. D. (1990b). Introduction. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. ⅸ–ⅹⅷ
Stacey, P. B. and Ligon, J. D. (1987). Territory quality and dispersal options in the acorn woodpecker, and a challenge to the habitat saturation model of cooperative breeding. Am. Nat., 130, 654–676
Stacey, P. B. and Ligon, J. D. (1991). The benefits-of-philopatry hypothesis for the evolution of cooperative breeding: variation in territory quality and group size effects. Am. Nat., 137, 831–846
Stacey, P. B. and Taper, M. (1992). Environmental variation and the persistence of small populations. Ecol. Appl., 2, 18–29
Stallcup, J. A. and Woolfenden, G. E. (1978). Family status and contributions to breeding by Florida scrub jays. Anim. Behav., 26, 1144–1156
Stamps, J. A. (1990). When should avian parents differentially provision sons and daughters? Am. Nat., 135, 671–685
Stanback, M. T. (1994). Dominance within broods of the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Anim. Behav., 47, 1121–1126
Stanback, M. T., Richardson, D. S., Boix-Hinzen, C. and Mendelsohn, J. (2002). Genetic monogamy in Monteiro's hornbill, Tockus monteiri. Anim. Behav., 63, 787–793
Starck, J. M. and Ricklefs, R. E. (1998). Patterns of development: the altricial-precocial spectrum. In: Avian Growth and Development: Evolution Within the Altricial–Precocial Spectrum, ed. J. M. Starck and R. E. Ricklefs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3–30
Steadman, D. W. (1995). Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific island birds: biodiversity meets zooarchaeology. Science, 267, 1123–1131
Stearns, S. C. (1992). The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Stevens, B. A. and Sutherland, W. J. (1999). Consequences of the Allee effect for behaviour, ecology, and conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol., 14, 405–410
Stevens, E. E. and Wiley, R. H. (1995). Genetic consequences of restricted dispersal and incest avoidance in a cooperatively breeding wren. J. Theor. Biol., 175, 423–436
Stiles, F. G. and Skutch, A. F. (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. London: Christopher Helm
Stiles, F. G. and Wolf, L. (1979). Ecology and evolution of a lek mating system in the long-tailed hermit hummingbird. Ornithol. Monogr., 27, 1–78
Stith, B. M., Fitzpatrick, J. W., Woolfenden, G. E. and Pranty, B. (1996). Classification and conservation of metapopulations: a case study of the Florida scrub-jay. In: Metapopulations and Wildlife Conservation, ed. D. R. McCullough. Washington, DC: Island Press. pp. 187–215
Stouffer, P. and Bierregaard, R. O. J. (1995). Use of Amazonian forest fragments by understory insectivorous birds. Ecology, 76, 2429–2445
Strahl, S. D. (1985). The behavior and socio-ecology of the hoatzin, Opisthocomus hoazin, in the llanos of Venezuela. Ph. D. dissertation, State University of New York, Albany, NY
Strahl, S. D. (1988). The social organization and behaviour of the hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin in central Venezuela. Ibis, 130, 483–502
Strahl, S. D. and Schmitz, A. (1990). Hoatzins: cooperative breeding in a folivorous neotropical bird. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–155
Strickland, D. (1991). Juvenile dispersal in gray jays: dominant brood member expels siblings from natal territory. Can. J. Zool., 69, 2935–2945
Strickland, D. and Waite, T. A. (2001). Does initial suppression of allofeeding in small jays help to conceal their nests? Can. J. Zool., 79, 2128–2146
Sydeman, W. J. (1989). Effects of helpers on nestling care and breeder survival in pygmy nuthatches. Condor, 91, 147–155
Taborsky, B. and Taborsky, M. (1991). Social organization of North Island brown kiwi: long-term pairs and three types of male spacing behaviour. Ethology, 89, 47–62
Taborsky, B. and Taborsky, M. (1992). Spatial organization of the North Island brown kiwi Apteryx australis mantelli: sex, pairing status and territoriality. Ibis, 134, 1–10
Taborsky, M. (1984). Broodcare helpers in the cichlid fish Lamprologus brichardi: their costs and benefits. Anim. Behav., 32, 1236–1252
Tardif, S. D. (1997). The bioenergetics of parental behavior and the evolution of alloparental care in marmosets and tarmarins. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–33
Tardif, S. D. and Bales, K. (1997). Is infant-carrying a courtship strategy in callitrichid primates? Anim. Behav., 53, 1001–1007
Tardif, S. D. and Harrison, M. L. (1990). Estimates of the energetic cost of infant transport in tamarins. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 81, 306
Tarof, S. A. and Stutchbury, B. J. (1996). A case of cooperative breeding in the hooded warbler. Wilson Bull., 108, 382–384
Tatner, P. (1990). Energetic demands during brood rearing in the wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe. Ibis, 132, 423–435
Taylor, B. and van Perlo, B. (1998). Rails: a Guide to the Rails, Gallinules and Coots of the World. Sussex: Pica Press
Thaxton, J. E. and Hingtgen, T. M. (1996). Effects of suburbanization and habitat fragmentation on Florida scrub-jay dispersal. Florida Field Nat., 24, 25–60
Thorneycroft, H. B. (1976). A cytogenetic study of the white-throated sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin). Evolution, 29, 611–621
Tobias, J. A., Züchner, T. and de Melo-Júnior, T. A. (2002). Family Galbulidae (Jacamars). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 7, ed. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott and J. Sargatal. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 74–101
Torres, R. and Drummond, H. (1999). Variably male-biased sex ratio in a marine bird with females larger than males. Oecologia, 118, 16–22
Trainor, B. C. and Marler, C. A. (2001). Testosterone, paternal behavior, and aggression in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Horm. Behav., 40, 32–42
Trainor, B. C. and Marler, C. A. (2002). Testosterone promotes paternal behaviour in a monogamous mammal via conversion to oestrogen. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 823–829
Treganza, T. and Wedell, N. (2000). Genetic compatibility, mate choice and patterns of parentage. Mol. Ecol., 9, 1013–1027
Treisman, M. (1975). Predation and the evolution of gregariousness. I. Models for concealment and evasion. Anim. Behav., 23, 779–800
Trewick, S. A. (1997). Flightlessness and phylogeny amongst endemic rails (Aves: Rallidae) of the New Zealand region. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B, 352, 429–446
Trivers, R. L. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In: Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, ed. B. Campbell. Chicago: Aldine. pp. 136–179
Trivers, R. L. (1974). Parent–offspring conflict. Am. Zool., 14, 249–264
Trivers, R. L. and Hare, H. (1976). Haplo-diploidy and the evolution of the social insects. Science, 191, 249–263
Trivers, R. L. and Willard, D. E. (1973). Natural selection of parental ability to vary the sex ratio of offspring. Science, 179, 90–92
Tsuji, K. and Tsuji, N. (1998). Indices of reproductive skew depend on average reproductive success. Evol. Ecol., 12, 141–152
Tuttle, E. M. and Pruett-Jones, S. (2003). Estimates of extreme sperm production. Morphological and experimental evidence from reproductively promiscuous fairy wrens (Malurus). Anim. Behav., in press
Tuttle, E. M., Pruett-Jones, S. and Webster, M. S. (1996). Cloacal protuberances and extreme sperm production in Australian fairy-wrens. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 263, 1359–1364
Urban, E. K., Fry, C. H. and Keith, S. (1997). The Birds of Africa, vol. 5. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
van der Jeugd, H. (1999). Life history decisions in a changing environment. Ph. D. dissertation, Uppsala University, Sweden
van Hoof, J. A. R. A. M. and van Schaik, C. P. (1994). Male bonds: affiliative relationships among non-human primate males. Behaviour, 130, 309–337
Vander Wall, S. B. and Balda, R. P. (1981). Ecology and evolution of food-storage behaviour in conifer-seed-caching corvids. Z. Tierpsychol., 56, 217–242
Vehrencamp, S. L. (1977). Relative fecundity and parental effort in communally nesting anis, Crotophaga sulcirostris. Science, 197, 403–405
Vehrencamp, S. L. (1978). The adaptive significance of communal nesting in groove-billed anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 4, 1–33
Vehrencamp, S. L. (1979). The roles of individual, kin, and group selection in the evolution of sociality. In: Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology: Social Behavior and Communication, ed. P. Marler and J. G. Vendenbergh. New York, NY: Plenum Press. pp. 351–394
Vehrencamp, S. L. (1980). To skew or not to skew? Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 17, 869–874
Vehrencamp, S. L. (1982). Body temperatures of incubating versus non-incubating roadrunners. Condor, 84, 203–207
Vehrencamp, S. L. (1983a). A model for the evolution of despotic versus egalitarian societies. Anim. Behav., 31, 667–682
Vehrencamp, S. L. (1983b). Optimal degree of skew in cooperative societies. Am. Zool., 23, 327–335
Vehrencamp, S. L. (2000). Evolutionary routes to joint-female nesting in birds. Behav. Ecol., 11, 334–344
Vehrencamp, S. L. and Bradbury, J. W. (1984). Mating systems and ecology. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 2nd ed., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 251–278
Vehrencamp, S. L., Bowen, B. S. and Koford, R. R. (1986). Breeding roles and pairing patterns within communal groups of groove-billed anis. Anim. Behav., 34, 347–366
Vehrencamp, S. L., Koford, R. L. and Bowen, B. S. (1988). Effects of breeding unit size on fitness components in groove–billed anis. In: Reproductive Success, ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. pp. 291–304
Veltman, C. J. (1989). Flock, pair and group living lifestyles without cooperative breeding by Australian magpies Gymnorhina tibicen. Ibis, 131, 601–608
Verbeek, N. A. M. (1973). The exploitation system of the yellow-billed magpie. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 99, 1–58
Vleck, C. M. and Brown, J. L. (1999). Testosterone and social and reproductive behaviour in Aphelocoma jays. Anim. Behav., 58, 943–951
Vleck, C. M. and Patrick, D. J. (1999). Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on prolactin secretion in three species of passerine birds. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 113, 146–154
Vleck, C. M., Mays, N. A., Dawson, J. W. and Goldsmith, A. R. (1991). Hormonal correlates of parental and helping behavior in cooperatively breeding Harris' hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus). Auk, 108, 638–648
Wagner, R. H. (1998). Hidden leks: sexual selection and the clustering of avian territories. Ornithol. Monogr., 49, 123–145
Waite, T. A. and Strickland, D. (1997). Cooperative breeding in gray jays: philopatric offspring provision juvenile siblings. Condor, 99, 523–525
Walls, S. S. and Kenward, R. E. (1998). Movements of radio-tagged buzzards Buteo buteo in early life. Ibis, 140, 561–568
Walters, J. R. (1990). Red-cockaded woodpeckers: a “primitive” cooperative breeder. In Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–102
Walters, J. R. (1998). The ecological basis of avian sensitivity to habitat fragmentation. In: Avian Conservation: Research and Management, ed. J. M. Marzluff and R. Sallabanks. Washington, DC: Island Press. pp. 181–192
Walters, J. R., Doerr, P. D. and Carter, J. H., III. (1988). The cooperative breeding system of the red-cockaded woodpecker. Ethology, 78, 275–305
Walters, J. R., Copeyon, C. K. and Carter, J. H., III. (1992a). Test of the ecological basis of cooperative breeding in red-cockaded woodpeckers. Auk, 109, 90–97
Walters, J. R., Doerr, P. D. and Carter, J. H., III. (1992b). Delayed dispersal and reproduction as a life-history tactic in cooperative breeders: fitness calculations from red-cockaded woodpeckers. Am. Nat., 139, 623–643
Walters, J. R., Ford, H. A. and Cooper, C. B. (1999). Variation in population structure and ecology of brown treecreepers between contiguous and fragmented woodland: a preliminary assessment. Biol. Conserv., 90, 13–20
Walters, J. R., Crowder, L. B. and Priddy, J. A. (2002). Population viability analysis for red-cockaded woodpeckers using an individual-based model. Ecol. Appl., 12, 249–260
Warkentin, I. G., Curzon, A. D., Carter, R. E., Wetton, J. H., James, P. C., Oliphant, L. W. and Parkin, D. T. (1994). No evidence for extrapair fertilizations in the merlin revealed by DNA fingerprinting. Mol. Ecol., 3, 229–234
Waser, P. M. (1981). Sociality of territorial defense? The influence of resource renewal. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 8, 231–237
Waser, P. M. and Waser, M. S. (1985). Ichneumia albicauda and the evolution of viverrid gregariousness. Z. Tierpsychol., 68, 137–151
Waser, P. M., Austad, S. N. and Keane, B. (1986). When should animals tolerate inbreeding? Am. Nat., 128, 529–537
Waser, P. M., Creel, S. R. and Lucas, J. R. (1994). Death and disappearance: estimating mortality risks associated with philopatry and dispersal. Behav. Ecol., 5, 135–141
Waser, P. M., Elliot, L. F., Creel, N. M. and Creel, S. R. (1995). Habitat variation and mongoose demography. In: Serengeti II. Dynamics, Management and Conservation of an Ecosystem, ed. A. R. E. Sinclair and P. Arcese. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. pp. 421–448
Washabaugh, K. F., Snowdon, C. T. and Ziegler, T. E. (2002). Variations in care for cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, infants as a function of parental experience and group size. Anim. Behav., 63, 1163–1174
Watson, A., Moss, R., Parr, R., Mountford, M. D. and Rothery, P. (1994). Kin land ownership, differential aggression between kin and non-kin, and population fluctuations in red grouse. J. Anim. Ecol., 63, 39–50
Weatherhead, P. J. and Forbes, M. R. L. (1994). Natal philopatry in passerine birds: genetic or ecological influences? Behav. Ecol., 5, 426–433
Weathers, W. W., Koenig, W. D. and Stanback, M. T. (1990). Breeding energetics and thermal ecology of the acorn woodpecker in central coastal California. Condor, 92, 341–359
Webber, T. and Cox, J. A. (1987). Breeding and behavior of scrub jays Aphelocoma coerulescens in captivity. Avicult. Mag., 93, 6–14
Webster, M. S., Pruett-Jones, S., Westneat, D. F. and Arnold, S. J. (1995). The effects of pairing success, extra-pair copulations and mate quality on the opportunity for sexual selection. Evolution, 49, 1147–1157
Webster, M. S., Tarvin, K. A., Tuttle, E. M. and Pruett-Jones, S. (2003). Reproductive promiscuity in the splendid fairy-wren: effects of group size and reproduction by helpers. Behav. Ecol., in press
Wegner, W. A. (1976). Extra-parental assistance by male American kestrel. Wilson Bull., 88, 670
Welty, J. C. and Baptista, L. (1988). The Life of Birds, 4th edn. New York, NY: Saunders
Westerdahl, H., Bensch, S., Hansson, B., Hasselquist, D. and von Schantz, T. (1997). Sex ratio variation among broods of great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Mol. Ecol., 6, 543–548
White, F. N., Bartholomew, G. A. and Howell, T. R. (1975). The thermal significance of the nest of the sociable weaver Philetairus socius: winter observations. Ibis, 117, 171–179
Whitehead, H. (1996). Babysitting, dive synchrony, and indications of alloparental care in sperm whales. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 38, 237–244
Whitehead, P. J. (1999). Aspects of the nesting biology of the magpie goose Anseranas semipalmata: incubation period, hatching synchrony and patterns of nest attendance and defence. Emu, 99, 121–134
Whitehead, P. J. and Saalfeld, K. (2000). Nesting phenology of magpie geese (Anseranas semipalmata) in monsoonal northern Australia: responses to antecedent rainfall. J. Zool., 251, 495–508
Whitehead, P. J. and Tschirner, K. (1990a). Eggs and hatchlings of the magpie goose Anseranas semipalmata. Emu, 90, 154–160
Whitehead, P. J. and Tschirner, K. (1990b). Magpie goose, Anseranas semipalmata, nesting on the Mary River floodplain, Northern territory, Australia: extent and frequency of flooding losses. Aust. Wildl. Res., 17, 147–157
Whitehead, P. J. and Tschirner, K. (1991). Patterns of egg-laying and variation in egg size in the magpie goose Anseranas semipalmata: evidence for intra-specific nest parasitism. Emu, 91, 26–31
Whittingham, L. A. and Dunn, P. O. (1998). Male parental effort and paternity in a variable mating system. Anim. Behav., 55, 629–640
Whittingham, L. A., Dunn, P. O. and Magrath, R. D. (1997). Relatedness, polyandry and extra-group paternity in the cooperatively-breeding white-browed scrubwren (Sericornis frontalis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 40, 261–270
Widowski, T. M., Ziegler, T. E., Elowson, A. M. and Snowdon, C. T. (1990). The role of males in the stimulation of reproductive function in female cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus o. oedipus. Anim. Behav., 40, 731–741
Wiens, J. J. and Servedio, M. R. (1998). Phylogenetic analysis and intraspecific variation: performance of parsimony, likelihood, and distance methods. Syst. Biol., 47, 228–253
Wiley, R. H. and Rabenold, K. N. (1984). The evolution of cooperative breeding by delayed reciprocity and queuing for favorable social positions. Evolution, 38, 609–621
Wilkinson, R. (1988). Long-tailed glossy starlings Lamrotornis caudatus in field and aviary with observations on co-operative breeding in captivity. Avicult. Mag., 94, 143–154
Williams, D. A., Lawton, M. F. and Lawton, R. O. (1994). Population growth, range expansion, and competition in the cooperatively breeding brown jay, Cyanocorax morio. Anim. Behav., 48, 309–322
Williams, G. C. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Williams, G. C. (1979). On the question of adaptive sex ratio in outcrossed vertebrates. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 205, 567–580
Williams, G. C. (1992). Natural Selection: Domains, Levels, and Challenges. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Williams, J. B. and Du Plessis, M. A. (1996). Field metabolism and water flux of sociable weavers Philetairus socius in the Kalahari Desert. Ibis, 138, 168–171
Williams, J. B., Du Plessis, M. A. and Siegfried, W. R. (1991). Green woodhoopoes (Phoeniculus purpureus) and obligate cavity roosting provide a test of the thermoregulatory insufficiency hypothesis. Auk, 108, 285–293
Wilson, F. E. and Follett, B. K. (1975). Corticosterone-induced gonadosuppression in photostimulated tree sparrows. Life Sci., 17, 1451–1456
Wilson, K. and Hardy, I. C. W. (2002). Statistical analysis of sex ratios: an introduction. In: The Sex Ratio Handbook, ed. I. C. W. Hardy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 48–92
Wingfield, J. C. (1988). Changes in reproductive function of free-living birds in direct response to environmental perturbations. In: Processing of Environmental Information in Vertebrates, ed. M. H. Stetson. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 121–148
Wingfield, J. C. and Lewis, D. M. (1993). Hormonal and behavioural responses to simulated territorial intrusion in the cooperatively breeding white-browed sparrow weaver, Plocepasser mahali. Anim. Behav., 45, 1–11
Wingfield, J. C. and Soma, K. K. (2002). Spring and autumn territoriality in song sparrows: same behavior different mechanisms? Int. Comp. Biol., 42, 11–20
Wingfield, J. C., Hegner, R. E., Dufty, A. M. and Ball, G. F. (1990). The “challenge hypothesis”: theoretical implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating systems, and breeding strategies. Am. Nat., 136, 829–845
Wingfield, J. C., Hegner, R. E. and Lewis, D. M. (1991). Circulating levels of luteinizing hormone and steroid hormones in relation to social status in the cooperatively breeding white-browed sparrow weaver, Plocepasser mahali. J. Zool., 225, 43–58
Wingfield, J. C., Hegner, R. E. and Lewis, D. M. (1992). Hormonal responses to removal of a breeding male in the cooperatively breeding white-browed sparrow weaver, Plocepasser mahali. Horm. Behav., 26, 145–155
Winkler, H., Christie, D. A. and Nurney, D. (1995). Woodpeckers. Sussex: Pica Press
Winterbottom, M., Burke, T. and Birkhead, T. R. (1999). A stimulatory phalloid organ in a weaver bird. Nature, 399, 28
Winterbottom, M., Burke, T. and Birkhead, T. R. (2001). The phalloid organ, orgasm and sperm competition in a polygynandrous bird: the red-billed buffalo weaver (Bubalornis niger). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 50, 474–482
With, K. A. and King, A. W. (1999). Extinction thresholds for species in fractal landscapes. Conserv. Biol., 13, 314–326
Witmer, M. C. (1993). Cooperative breeding by rufous hornbills on Mindanao Island, Philippines. Auk, 110, 933–936
Witter, M. S. and Cuthill, I. E. (1993). The ecological costs of avian fat storage. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 340, 73–90
Woolfenden, G. E. (1975). Florida scrub jay helpers at the nest. Auk, 92, 1–15
Woolfenden, G. E. (1978). Growth and survival of young Florida scrub jays. Wilson Bull., 90, 1–18
Woolfenden, G. E. and Fitzpatrick, J. W. (1984). The Florida Scrub Jay: Demography of a Cooperative-Breeding Bird. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Woolfenden, G. E. and Fitzpatrick, J. W. (1986). Sexual asymmetries in the life history of the Florida scrub jay. In: Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution, ed. D. Rubenstein and R. W. Wrangham. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 87–107
Woolfenden, G. E. and Fitzpatrick, J. W. (1990). Florida scrub jays: a synopsis after 18 years of study. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 241–266
Woolfenden, G. E. and Fitzpatrick, J. W. (1996). Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). In: The Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' Union
Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour, 75, 262–300
Wright, J. (1997). Helping-at-the-nest in Arabian babblers: signalling social status or sensible investment in chicks, Anim. Behav., 54, 1439–1448
Wright, J., Parker, P. G. and Lundy, K. J. (1999). Relatedness and chick-feeding effort in the cooperatively breeding Arabian babbler. Anim. Behav., 58, 779–785
Wright, J., Malkakov, A. A. and Khazin, V. (2000). State-dependent sentinels: an experimental study in the Arabian babbler. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 821–826
Wright, J., Berg, E., De Kort, S., Khazin, V. and Malkakov, A. A. (2001). Cooperative sentinel behaviour in the Arabian babbler. Anim. Behav., 62, 973–979
Yamashina, M. (1938). A sociable breeding unit habit among timaliine birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 9, 453–456
Yates, C. J. and Hobbs, R. J. (1996). Woodland restoration in the Western Australian wheatbelt: a conceptual framework using a state and transition model. Restor. Ecol., 5, 28–35
Yezerinac, S. M. (1999). Sex allocation in co-operatively breeding birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 467–482
Yom-Tov, Y. (1980). Intraspecific nest parasitism in birds. Biol. Rev., 55, 93–108
Yom-Tov, Y. (1987). The reproductive rates of Australian passerines. Aust. Wildl. Res., 14, 319–330
Yom-Tov, Y. and Ollason, J. G. (1976). Sexual dimorphism and sex ratios in wild birds. Oikos, 27, 81–85
Young, A. J. (2003). Subordinate tactics in cooperative meerkats: helping, breeding and dispersal. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Cambridge
Young, E. C. (1999). The Millennium Bird: Cooperative Breeding in Chatham Island Skuas. Privately published
Zack, S. W. (1990). Coupling delayed breeding with short-distance dispersal in cooperatively breeding birds. Ethology, 86, 265–289
Zack, S. W. (1995). Cooperative breeding in Lanius shrikes. III. A reply in hindsight to Zack and Ligon I, II. Proc. West. Found. Vert. Zool., 6, 34–38
Zack, S. W. and Ligon, J. D. (1985). Cooperative breeding in Lanius shrikes. I. Habitat and demography of two sympatric species. Auk, 102, 754–765
Zack, S. W. and Rabenold, K. N. (1989). Assessment, age and proximity in dispersal contests among cooperative wrens: field experiments. Anim. Behav., 38, 235–247
Zahavi, A. (1974). Communal nesting by the Arabian babbler: a case of individual selection. Ibis, 116, 84–87
Zahavi, A. (1990). Arabian babblers: the quest for social status in a cooperative breeder. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 103–130
Zahavi, A. (1995). Altruism as a handicap: the limitations of kin selection and reciprocity. J. Avian Biol., 26, 1–3
Zahavi, A. and Zahavi, A. (1997). The Handicap Principle: a Missing Piece of Darwin's Puzzle. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Zanette, L. and Jenkins, B. (2000). Nesting success and nest predators in forest fragments: a study using real and artificial nests. Auk, 117, 445–454
Zhang, D. Y., Jiang, X. H. and Zhao, S. L. (1996). Evolutionary stable reproductive strategies in sexual organisms. II. Dioecy and optimal resource allocation. Am. Nat., 147, 1115–1123
Zimmer, K. J. and Whittaker, A. (2000). The rufous cacholote (Furnariidae: Pseudoseisura) is two species. Condor, 102, 409–422
Zink, A. G. (2000). The evolution of intraspecific brood parasitism in birds and insects. Am. Nat., 155, 395–405