5 - Population ecology and introduced plants  pp. 120-146

Population ecology and introduced plants

By Judith H. Myers and Dawn Bazely

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Why study plant populations?

In this book we have thus far focussed on introduced plant species and their impacts on and relationships to native plant communities. We are interested in the patterns of spread, the stability of established populations, and the impact of control procedures particularly biological control. For all of these considerations environmental and biological heterogeneity are major perturbing factors. Land managers are confronted with serious questions about interactions among populations of plant species, particularly those between native and introduced species. Therefore it becomes imperative to measure, predict and interpret changes in populations.

When plant species move into new communities their dynamics create challenges for population ecologists. That introduced species are able to establish and invade a new plant community indicates either: 1) the presence of empty niches in the native community, 2) that the introduced species itself creates a new niche, or 3) that the introduced species is a superior competitor able to respond to disturbance or utilize resources better than existing species. The introduced plant species will probably also differ from species in the native community by having less herbivore and disease pressure (Chapter 3). During establishment and spread, the introduced species will increase in density and distribution. Following the invasion, the dynamics of the invader may not be very different from those of the native species other than that densities will be higher and therefore intraspecific competition will be strong.

5

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Abrahamson, W. (1980) Demography and vegetative reproduction. In Demography and Evolution in Plant Populations. Solbrig, O. (ed). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 89–106
Abrams, M., Orwig, D., and Dockry, M. (1997) Dendroecology and successional status of two contrasting old-growth oak forests in the Blue Ridge Mountains, U.S.A. Candian Journal of Forest Research 27: 994–1002
Aiken, S., Newroth, P., and Wile, D. (1979) The biology of Canadian weeds. 34. Myriophyllum spicatum L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 59: 201–215
Akbay, K., Howell, F., and Wooten, J. (1991) A computer simulation model of water hyacinth and weevil interactions. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 29: 15–20
Allen, L., Sinclair, T., and Bennett, J. (1997) Evapotranspiration of vegetation of Florida: perpetuated misconceptions versus mechanistic processes. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings 56: 1–10
Ambika, S. (2002) Allelopathic plants. 5. Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson. Allelopathy Journal 9: 35–41
Anderson, G., Delfosse, E. S., Spencer, N., Prosser, C., and Richard, R. (2000) Biological control of leafy spurge: an emerging success story. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 15–25
Anderson, M. (1995) Interaction between Lythrum salicaria and native organisms: a critical review. Environmental Management 19: 225–231
Andres, L., and Coombs, E. (1992) Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Leguminosae). In Biological Control in the U.S. Western Region: Accomplishments and Benefits of Regional Research Project W-84 (1964–1989). Nechols, J., Andres, L., Beardsley, J., Goeden, R., and Jackson, C. (eds). Berkeley, CA: Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, pp. 303–305
Anonymous (1999) Eradication of Pennisetum setaceum on the island of La Palma. In Medio Ambiente Canarias, Magazine of the Regional Ministry for Territorial Policy and the Environment, Government of the Canary Islands
Arnold, G. W. (1995) Incorporating landscape pattern into conservation programs. In Mosaic Landscapes and Ecological Processes. Hansson, L., Fahrig, L., and Merriam, G. (eds). London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 309–337
Aronson, J., Ovalle, J., Avendano, R., and Ovalle, M. (1992) Early growth rate and nitrogen fixation potential in forty-four legume species grown in an acid and a neutral soil from central Chile. Forest Ecology and Management 47: 225–244
Arroyo, M. T. K., Marticorena, C., Matthei, O., and Cavieres, O. M. (2000) Plant invasions in Chile: present patterns and future predictions. In Invasive Species in a Changing World. Mooney, H. A., and Hobbs, R. J. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 385–421
Auld, B., Menz, K., and Monaghan, N. (1978–79) Dynamics of weed spread: implications for policies of public control. Protection Ecology 1: 141–148
Austin, D. (1978) Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5: 25–34
Bailey, K., Boyetchko, S., Derby, J., Hall, W., Sawchyn, K., Nelson, T., and Johnson, D. (2000) Evaluation of fungal and bacterial agents for biological control of Canada thistle. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium of Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 203–208
Baker, B. (2001) National management plan maps strategy for controlling invasive species. Bioscience 51: 92
Baker, H. (1974) The evolution of weeds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 1–24
Barbour, M., Burk, J., and Pitts, W. (1999) Terrestrial Plant Ecology. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin Cummings
Barlow, N. (1999) Models in biological control. In Theoretical Approaches to Biological Control. Hawkins, B. A., and Cornell, H. (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 43–70
Baskin, C., and Baskin, J. (1998) Seeds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Bazely, D. R., and Jefferies, R. L. (1997) Trophic interactions in arctic ecosystems and the occurrence of a terrestrial trophic cascade. In Ecology of Arctic Environments. Woodin, S. J., and Marquiss, M. (eds). Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 183–207
Becker, E., De La Bastide, P., Hahn, R., Shamoun, S., and Hintz, W. (2000) Molecular markers for monitoring mycoherbicides. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, 301 pp
Beerling, D. J., Bailey, J. P., and Connolly, A. P. (1994) Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene. Journal of Ecology 82: 959–979
Begon, M., Mortimer, M., and Thompson, D. (1996) Population Ecology: A Unified Study of Animals and Plants. Oxford: Blackwell Science
Belnap, J., and Phillips, S. L. (2001) Soil biota in an ungrazed grassland: response to annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion. Ecological Applications 11: 1261–1275
Benton, M. J. (1995) Diversification and extinction in the history of life. Science 268: 52–58
Benton, T., and Grant, A. (1999) Elasticity analysis as an important tool in evolutionary and population ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 467–471
Berube, D., and Myers, J. (1982) Suppression of knapweed invasion by crested wheat grass in the dry interior of British Columbia. Journal of Range Management 35: 459–461
Bérubé, J., and Carisse, O. (2000) Endophytic fungal flora from eastern white pine needles and apple tree leaves as a means of biological control for white pine blister rust. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, 241 pp
Billyard, E. (1996) Relationships between landscape structure and the distribution patterns of exotic herbs. Toronto: Department of Biology, York University, 164 pp
Binggeli, P., Hall, J. B., and Healey, J. R. (1998) An overview of invasive woody plants in the Tropics. Bangor, Wales: School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, 83 pp
Blossey, B., and Nötzold, R. (1995) Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive non-indigenous plants: a hypothesis. Journal of Ecology 83: 887–889
Blossey, B., Skinner, L., and Taylor, J. (2001) Impact and management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 1787–1807
Bossard, C. C., Randall, J. M., and Hoshovsky, M. C. (eds) (2000) Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. The University of California Press
Boyette, C., Walker, H., and Abbas, H. (2002) Biological control of Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) with an isolate of Myrothecium verrucaria. Biocontrol Science and Technology 12: 75–82
Bradshaw, A. D. (1993) Introduction: understanding the fundamentals of succession. In Primary Succession on Land. Miles, J., and Walton, D. H. W. (eds). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 1–3
Braiser, C. (2001) Rapid evolution of introduced plant pathogens via interspecific hybridization. Bioscience 51: 123–133
Braithwaite, R. W., Lonsdale, W. M., and Estbergs, J. A. (1989) Alien vegetation and native biota in Tropical Australia: the impact of Mimosa pigra. Biological Conservation 48: 189–210
Brewer, L. (1995) Ecology of survival and recovery from blight in American chestnut trees (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) in Michigan. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 122: 40–57
Briese, D. (1999) Classical biological control. In Australian Weed Management Systems. Sindel, B. (ed). Melbourne: RG and RF Richardson Publications
Brooks, M. L. (1999) Alien annual grasses and fire in the Mojave Desert. Madroño 46: 13–19
Brooks, M. L. (2000) Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert. American Midland Naturalist 144: 92–108
Brothers, T. S., and Spingarn, A. (1992) Forest fragmentation and alien plant invasion of Central Indiana old-growth forests. Conservation Biology 6: 91–100
Broughton, S. (2000) Review and evaluation of lantana biocontrol programs. Biological Control 17: 272–286
Brown, J. H., and Lomolino, M. V. (2000) Concluding remarks: historical perspective and the future of island biogeography theory. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9: 87–92
Buchan, L., and Padilla, D. (2000) Predicting the likelihood of Eurasian watermilfoil presence in lakes, a macrophyte monitoring tool. Ecological Applications 10: 1442–1455
Buchan, L. A. J., and Padilla, D. K. (1999) Estimating the probability of long-distance overland dispersal of invading aquatic species. Ecological Applications 9: 254–265
Burdon, J., and Marshall, D. (1981) Biological control and the reproductive mode of weeds. Journal of Applied Ecology 18: 49–58
Burdon, J., Groves, R. H., and Cullen, J. (1981) The impact of biological control on the distribution and abundance of Chondrilla juncea in south-eastern Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 18: 957–966
Burke, M. J. W., and Grime, J. P. (1996) An experimental study of plant community invasibility. Ecology 77: 776–790
Burton, D. (2000) Rhododendrons. In Exotic and invasive species: should we be concerned? Bradley, P. (ed). Proceedings 11th Conference of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management. Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management
Caley, M., and Schluter, D. (1997) The relationship between local and regional diversity. Ecology 78: 70–80
Callaway, R. M., and Aschehoug, E. (2000) Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion. Science 290: 521–524
Campbell, F. (2001) The science of risk assessment for phytosanitary regulation and the impact of changing trade regulations. Bioscience 51: 148–153
Canham, C. D., and Loucks, O. L. (1984) Catastrophic windthrow in the presettlement forests of Wisconsin. Ecology 65: 803–809
Carlton, J. T. (1996) Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77: 1653–1655
Carpenter, S., Kitchell, J. F., and Hodgson, J. (1985) Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. Bioscience 35: 634–639
Case, T. (1990) Invasion resistance arises in strongly interacting species-rich model competition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87: 9610–9614
Caswell, H. (2000a) Prospective and retrospective perturbation analyses: their roles in conservation biology. Ecology 81: 619–627
Caswell, H. (2000b) Matrix Population Models. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates
Caughley, G., and Lawton, J. H. (1981) Plant–herbivore systems. In Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications. May, R. M. (ed). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, pp. 132–166
Chaboudez, P., and Sheppard, A. (1995) Are particular weeds more amenable to biological control? A reanalysis of mode of reproduction and life history. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 95–102
Chapin, F. S. (1993) Physiological controls over plant establishment in primary succession. In Primary Succession on Land. Miles, J., and Walton, D. H. W. (eds). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 161–178
Chapin, F. S., Zavaleta, E. S., Eviners, V. T., Naylor, R. L., Vitousek, P. M., Reynolds, H. L. et al. (2000) Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405: 234–242
Chapin, F. S., Sala, O. S., Burke, I. C., Grime, J. P., Hooper, D. U., Lauenroth, W. K. et al. (1998) Ecosystem consequences of changing biodiversity. Bioscience 48: 45–52
Charudattan, R. (1991) The mycoherbicide approach with plant pathogens. In Microbial Control of Weeds. TeBeest, D. (ed). New York: Chapman & Hall, pp. 24–57
Chesson, P., and Murdoch, W. (1986) Aggregation of risk: relationships among host–parasitoid models. American Naturalist 127: 696–715
Chippendale, J. (1995) The biological control of Noogoora Burr (Xanthium occidentale) in Queensland: an economic perspective. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 185–192
Clements, E. J., and Foster, M. C. (1994) Alien Plants of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles
Clements, F. E. (1916) Plant Succession: an Analysis of the Development of Vegetation. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington
Clinton, W. J. (1999) Executive Order: Invasive Species. Cited in Peterson and Vieglais (2001)
Clout, M., and Lowe, S. (2000) Invasive species and environmental changes in New Zealand. In Invasive Species in a Changing World. Mooney, H. A., and Hobbs, R. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 369–383
Cloutier, D., and Watson, A. (1990) Application of modeling to biological weed control. In VII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Rome, Italy, pp. 5–12
Coleshaw, T. (ed) 2001 The Practical Solutions Handbook for Removal of Invasive Plant Species: FACT project/English Nature
Collier, M., Vankat, J., and Hughes, M. (2002) Diminished plant richness and abundance below Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub. American Midland Naturalist 147: 60–71
Collins, S. L. (2000) Disturbance frequency and community stability in native tallgrass prairie. American Naturalist 155: 311–325
Collins, S., Glenn, S., and Gibson, D. (1995) Experimental analysis of intermediate disturbance and initial floristic composition: decoupling cause and effect. Ecology 76: 486–492
Colton, T. F., and Alpert, P. (1998) Lack of public awareness of biological invasions by plants. Natural Areas Journal 18: 262–266
Commoner, B. (2002) Unraveling the DNA myth. In Harper's Magazine, February 2002, pp. 39–47
Connell, J. H., and Slatyer, R. O. (1977) Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. American Naturalist 111: 1119–1144
Cory, J., and Myers, J. (2000) Direct and indirect ecological effects of biological control. Trends Ecology and Evolution 15: 137–139
COSEWIC (2002). Red mulberry, Morus rubra. URL http://cosewic.ec.gc.ca/eng/sct1/searchdetail_e.cfm
Costanza, R. (2001) Visions, values, valuation, and the need for an ecological economics. Bioscience 51: 459–468
Couch, R., and Nelson, E. (1985) Myriophyllum spicatum in North America. In Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and related Haloragaceae species. Anderson, L. (ed). Vancouver, British Columbia: The Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc., pp. 36–39
Cousens, R., and Croft, A. (2000) Weed populations and pathogens. Weed Research 40: 63–82
Cousens, R., and Mortimer, M. (1995) Dynamics of Weed Populations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cox, G. (2001) General Ecology: Laboratory Manual. New York: McGraw-Hill
Crawley, M. J. (1983) Herbivory, the Dynamics of Animal–Plant Interactions. Berkeley: University of California Press
Crawley, M. (1987) What makes a community invasible? In Colonization, Succession, and Stability — the 26th Symposium of the British Ecological Society held jointly with the Linnean Society of London. Gray, M., Crawley, M., and Edwards, P. (eds). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 429–453
Crawley, M. (1989) The success and failures of weed biocontrol using insects. Biocontrol News and Information 10: 213–223
Crawley, M. (1990a) The population dynamics of plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 330: 125–140
Crawley, M. (1990b) Plant life-history and the success of weed biological control projects. In Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Rome: Istituto Sperimentale par la Patologia Vegetale, pp. 17–26
Crawley, M. (1997a) Life history and environment. In Plant Ecology. Crawley, M. (ed). Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 73–131
Crawley, M. (1997b) The structure of plant communities. In Plant Ecology. Crawley, M. (ed). Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 475–471
Crawley, M., Harvey, P., and Purvis, A. (1996) Comparative ecology of the native and alien floras of the British Isles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 351: 1251–1259
Cronk, Q., and Fuller, J. (1995) Plant Invaders. London: Chapman & Hall
Crosby, A. (1986) Ecological Imperialism: the Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cullen, J. (1995) Predicting effectiveness: fact and fantasy. In Proceedings VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 103–109
Cullen, J., and Delfosse, E. S. (1985) Echium plantagineum: catalyst for conflict and change in Australia. In Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Ottawa: Agriculture Canada, pp. 249–292
Cullen, J., and Whitten, M. (1995) Economics of classical biological control: a research perspective. In Biological Control: Benefits and Risks. Hokkanen, H. M. T., and Lynch, J. (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 270–276
Cullen, J., Kable, P., and Catt, M. (1973) Epidemic spread of a rust imported for biological control. Nature 244: 462–464
Daehler, C. (2001) Two ways to be an invader, but one is more suitable for ecology. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 82: 101–102
Dafni, A., and Heller, D. (1990) Invasions of adventitive plants in Israel. In Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. di Castri, F., Hansen, A. J., and Debussche, M. (eds). Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 135–160
Daily, G. (1997) Introduction: what are ecosystem services? In Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Daily, G. (ed). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 3–10
D'Antonio, C., and Vitousek, P. M. (1992) Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 63–87
Darwin, C. (1859) On the Origin of Species. London: Murray
Daubenmire, R. (1959) A canopy-coverage method of vegetational analysis. Northwest Science 33: 43–64
David, P. G. (1999) Response of exotics to restored hydroperiod at Dupuis Reserve, Florida. Restoration Ecology 7: 407–410
Davis, M., and Thompson, K. (2000) Eight ways to be a colonizer; two ways to be an invader: a proposed nomenclature scheme for invasion ecology. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, July: 226–230
Davis, M., Grime, J. P., and Thompson, K. (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. Journal of Ecology 88: 528–534
Dawson, D. (1994) Are habitat corridors conduits for animals and plants in a fragmented landscape? A review of the scientific evidence. Peterborough, UK: English Nature, 88 pp
Dawson, F. H., and Holland, D. (1999) The distribution in bankside habitats of three alien invasive plants in the U.K. in relation to the development of control strategies. Hydrobiologia 415: 193–201
de Jong, T., and Klinkhamer, P. (1988) Population ecology of the biennials Cirsium vulgare and Cynoglossum officinale in a coastal sand-dune area. Journal of Ecology 76: 366–382
DeAngelis, D. (1992) Dynamics of Nutrient Cycling and Food Webs. New York: Chapman & Hall
Debinski, D., and Holt, R. D. (2000) A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments. Conservation Biology 14: 342–355
DeLoach, C. (1990) Prospects for biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in riparian habitats of the southwestern United States. In Proceedings VII International Symposium Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Rome, Italy: Instituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, pp. 307–314
DeLoach, C., and Lewis, P. (2000) Petition to release into the field the weevil Coniatus tamarisci from France for biological control of Tamarix ramosissima and T. parviflora weeds of riparian areas of the western United States and northern Mexico. Temple, TX: Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, 114 pp
Dennill, G. B., and Moran, V. C. (1989) On insect–plant associations in agriculture and the selection of agents for weed biocontrol. Annals of Applied Biology 114: 157–166
Denoth, M., Frid, L., and Myers, J. H. (2002) Multiple agents in biological control: improving the odds? Biological Control 24: 20–30
DeRouw, A. (1991) The invasion of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (ex. Eupatorium odoratum), and competition with the native flora, in a rain forest zone, southwest Ivory Coast. Journal of Biogeography 18: 13–23
di Castri, F. (1989) History of biological invasions. In Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. Drake, J. A., Mooney, H. A., di Castri, F., Groves, R. H., Kruger, F. J., Rejmánek, M., and Williamson, M. (eds). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 1–30
di Castri, F., Hansen, A. J., and Debussche, M. (eds) (1990) Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Dordrecht: Kluwer
Diamond, J. M. (1989) The present, past and future of human-caused extinctions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 325: 469–477
Dodd, A. (1940) The Biological Campaign Against Prickly Pear. Brisbane: Commonwealth Prickly Pear Board
Downey, P., and Smith, J. (2000) Demography of the invasive shrub Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) at Barrington Tops, New South Wales: insights for management. Austral Ecology 25: 477–485
Dozier, H., Gaffney, J. F., McDonald, S. K., Johnson, R. R. L., and Shilling, D. G. (1998) Cogon grass in the United States: history, ecology, impacts and management. Weed Technology 12: 737–743
Duchesne, L. C. (1994) Fire and diversity in Canadian ecosystems. In Biodiversity, Temperate Ecosystems, and Global Change. Boyle, J. B., and Boyle, E. B. (eds). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 247–263
Dunn, S. T. (1905) Alien Flora of Britain. London: West, Newman and Co
Dunster, K (1989). Exotic plant species management plan. Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario, Parks Canada, Ontario Region. 131 pp
Ehler, L. E. (1995) Evolutionary history of pest–enemy associations. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 83–91
Ehler, L. E. (1998) Invasion biology and biological control. Biological Control 13: 127–133
Ehrenfeld, J. G., and Scott, N. (2001) Invasive species and the soil: effects on organisms and ecosystems processes. Ecological Applications 11: 1259–1266
Ehrenfeld, J. G., Kourtev, P., and Huang, W. (2001) Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. Ecological Applications 11: 1287–1300
Eldredge, N. (1997) Extinction and the evolutionary process. In Biodiversity: An Ecological Perspective. Abe, T., Levin, S. A., and Higashi, M. (eds). New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 59–73
Elton, C. (1958) The Ecology of Invasion by Animals and Plants. London: Meuthuen
Enquist, B., Brown, J. H., and West, G. (1998) Allometric scaling of plant energetics and population density. Nature 395: 163–165
EPA (2002) Beneficial Landscaping: What, Why, Where and How? URL http://yosemite.epa.gov/R10/ECOCOMM.NSF/webpage/+BLWWW
Eriksson, O., and Ehrlén, J. (1992) Seed and microsite limitation of recruitment in plant populations. Oecologia 91: 360–364
Espiau, C., Riviere, D., Burdon, J. J., Gartner, S., Daclinat, B., Hasan, S., and Chaboudez, P. (1998) Host–pathogen diversity in a wild system: Chondrilla juncea–Puccinia chondrillina. Oecologia 113: 133–139
Evans, H. (2002) Plant pathogens for biological control. In Plant Pathologist's Pocketbook. Waller, J., Lenné, J., and Waller, S. (eds). Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, pp. 366–378
Evans, R. D., Rimer, R., Sperry, L., and Belnap, J. (2001) Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland. Ecological Applications 11: 1301–1310
Fagan, W. F., Lewis, M. A., Neubert, M. G., and van den Driessche, P. (2002) Invasion theory and biological control. Ecology Letters 5: 148–157
Fernald, M. L. (1950) Gray's Manual of Botany. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press
Finlayson, C. M., and Mitchell, D. S. (1999) Australian wetlands: the monitoring challenge. Wetlands Ecology and Management 7: 105–112
Flanagan, G., Hills, L., and Wilson, C. (2000) The successful biological control of spinyhead Sida, Sida acuta [Malvaceae], by Calligrapha pantherina (Col: Chrysomelidae) in Australia's Northern Territory. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on the Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 35–41
Force, D. C. (1972) r- and K-strategists in endemic host–parasitoid communities. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 18: 135–137
Forcella, F., and Harvey, S. (1983) Relative abundance in an alien weed flora. Oecologia 59: 292–294
Forman, R. T. T., and Godron, M. (1986). Landscape Ecology. New York, Wiley
Fowler, S. (2000) Trivial and political reasons for the failure of classical biological control of weeds: a personal view. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 169–172
Fowler, S., Syrett, P., and Jarvis, P. (2000) Will expected and unexpected non-target effects, and the new hazardous substances and new organisms act, cause biological control of broom to fail in New Zealand. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 173–186
Fox, M. D. (1990) Mediterranean weeds: exchanges of invasive plants between the five mediterranean regions of the world. In Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. di Castri, F., Hansen, A. J., and Debussche, M. (eds). Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 179–200
Fox, M., and Fox, B. (1986) The susceptibility of natural communities to invasion. In Ecology of Biological Invasions. Groves, R. H., and Burdon, J. J. (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 57–66
Freckleton, R., and Watkinson, A. (1998) How does temporal variability affect predictions of weed population numbers. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 340–344
French, K., and Eardley, K. (1997) The impact of weed infestations on litter invertebrates in coastal vegetation. In Frontiers in Ecology: Building the Links. Klomp, N., and Lunt, I. (eds). Oxford: Elsevier Science
Fukami, T., Naeem, S., and Wardle, D. (2001) On similarity among local communities in biodiversity experiments. Oikos 95: 340–348
Garbelotto, M., Svihra, P., and Rizzo, D. (2001) Sudden oak death syndrome fells 3 oak species. California Agriculture 55: 9–19
Gentle, C., and Duggin, J. (1998) Interference of Choricarpia leptopetala by Lantana camara with nutrient enrichment in mesic forests on the central coast of NSW. Plant Ecology 136: 205–211
Gergel, S., and Turner, M. (2000) Learning Landscape Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag
Gerlach, J. (2001) Predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 545
Ghisalberti, E. (2000) Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Fitoterapia 71: 467–486
Gilpin, M. (1990) Ecological prediction. Science 248: 88–89
Gitay, H., and Noble, I. R. (1997) What are functional types and how should we seek them? In Plant Functional Types: their Relevance to Ecosystem Properties and Global Change. Smith, T. M., Shugart, H. H., and Woodward, F. I. (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge Unversity Press, pp. 3–19
Gleason, H. A. (1926) The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 53: 7–26
Godron, M., and Forman, R. T. T. (1983) Landscape modifications and changing ecological characteristics. In Disturbance and Ecosystems: Components of Response. Mooney, H. A., and Godron, M. (eds). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 12–28
Goeden, R. (1983) Critique and revision of Harris' scoring system for selection of insect agents in biological control of weeds. Protection Ecology 5: 287–301
Goeden, R., and Kok, L. (1986) Comments on a proposed “new” approach for selecting agents for the biological control of weeds. Canadian Entomologist 118: 51–58
Goodall, J., and Erasmus, D. (1996) Review of the status and integrated control of the invasive alien weed, Chromolaena odorata, in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 56: 151–164
Gordon, D. R. (1998) Effects of invasive, non-indigenous plant species on ecosystem processes: lessons from Florida. Ecological Applications 8: 975–989
Gosling, L. M., and Baker, S. J. (1989) The eradication of muskrats and coypus from Britain. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 38: 39–51
Gould, A., and Gorchov, D. (2000) Effects of the exotic invasive shrub Lonicera maackii on the survival and fecundity of three species of native annuals. American Midland Naturalist 144: 36–50
Grace, J., and Tilman, D. (eds) (1990) Perspectives on Plant Competition. New York: Academic Press
Greaves, M. (1996) Microbial herbicides — factors in development. In Crop Protection Agents from Nature. Copping, L. (ed). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, pp. 444–467
Greaves, M., Auld, B., and Holloway, P. (1998) Formulation of microbial herbicides. In Formulation of Biopesticides, Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes and Seed Treatments. Burges, H. (ed). London: Kluwer, pp. 203–233
Green, E., and Galatowitsch, S. (2002) Effects of Phalaris arundinacea and nitrate-N addition on the establishment of wetland communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 134–144
Green, W. (2000) Biosecurity threats to indigenous biodiversity in New Zealand. Auckland: Report to New Zealand Government, 61 pp
Greer, G. (1995) Economics and the biological control of weeds. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 177–184
Grigulis, K., Sheppard, A., Ash, J., and Groves, R. H. (2001) The comparative demography of the pasture weed Echium plantagineum between its native and invaded ranges. Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 281–290
Grime, J. P. (1974) Vegetation classification by reference to strategies. Nature 250: 26–31
Grime, J. P. (1979) Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons
Grime, J., Thompson, K., Hunt, R., Hodgson, J., Cornelissen, J., Rorison, I. et al. (1997) Integrated screening validates primary axes of specialisation in plants. Oikos 79: 259–281
Gross, K., and Werner, P. (1982) Colonizing abilities of “biennial” plant species in relation to ground cover: implications for their distributions in a successional sere. Ecology 63: 921–931
Groves, R. (1986a) Invasion of mediterranean ecosystems by weeds. In Resilience in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems. Dell, B., Hopkins, A., and Lamont, B. (eds). Dordrecht: Junk, pp. 129–145
Groves, R. H. (1986b) Plant invasions of Australia: an overview. In Ecology of Biological Invasions: An Australian Perspective. Groves, R. H., and Burdon, J. (eds). Canberra: Australian Academy of Science, pp. 137–149
Hairston, N., Smith, F., and Slobodkin, L. (1960) Community structure, population control and competition. American Naturalist 94: 421–425
Hall, D. W., Currey, W. L., and Orsenigo, J. R. (1998) Weeds from other places: the Florida beachhead is established. Weed Technology 12: 720–725
Hansard (1999) Hansard (House of Commons Daily Debates) |web page|. URL http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199899/cmhansrd/vo991103debtext/91103–08.htm
Hara, T., van der Toorn, J., and Mook, J. (1993) Growth dynamics and size structure of shoots of Pharagmites australis, a clonal plant. Journal of Ecology 81: 47–60
Harper, J. (1965) Establishment, aggression, and cohabitation in weedy species. In The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Baker, H., and Stebbins, G. (eds). New York: Academic Press
Harper, J. (1977) Population Biology of Plants. New York: Academic Press
Harris, L. D., and Sanderson, J. (2000) The remembered landscape. In Landscape Ecology: A Top-Down Approach. Sanderson, J., and Harris, L. D. (eds). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 91–112
Harris, P. (1974) The selection of effective agents for the biological control of weeds. Canadian Entomologist 105: 1495–1503
Harris, P. (1981) Stress as a strategy in the biological control of weeds. In Beltsville Symposia in Agricultural Research. 5. Biological Control in Crop Production. Papavizas, G. (ed). Beltsville, MD: Allanheld, Osmun, Totowa, pp. 333–340
Harris, P. (1984) Carduus nutans L., nodding thistle and C. acanthoides L., plumeless thistle (Compositae). In Biological Control Programs Against Insects and Weeds in Canada 1969–1980. Kelleher, J., and Hulme, M. (eds). Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, pp. 115–126
Harrison, S. (1999) Native and alien species diversity at the local and regional scales in a grazed California grass-land. Oecologia 121: 99–106
Harrison, S., and Fahrig, L. (1995) Landscape pattern and population conservation. In Mosaic Landscapes and Ecological Processes. Hansson, L., Fahrig, L., and Merriam, G. (eds). London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 293–308
Hartley, K. (1985) Suppression of reproduction of woody weeds using insects which destroy flowers or seeds. In Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Ottawa: Agriculture Canada, pp. 749–756
Hartley, K., and Forno, I. (1992) Biological Control of Weeds: a Handbook for Practitioners and Students. Melbourne: Inkata Press
Hassell, M. P., and May, R. M. (1974) Aggregation in predators and insect parasites and its effects on stability. Journal of Animal Ecology 43: 567–594
Hazard, W. (1988) Introducing crop, pasture and ornamental species into Australia — the risk of introducing new weeds. Australian Plant Introduction Review 19: 19–26
Heaney, L. R. (2000) Dynamic disequilibrium: a long-term, large-scale perspective on the equilibrium model of island biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9: 59–74
Hector, A., Schmid, B., Beierkuhnlein, C., Caldeira, M., Diemer, M., Dimitrakopoulos, P. et al. (1999) Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science 286: 1123–1127
Hermy, H. (1994) Effects of former land use of plant species diversity and pattern in European deciduous woodlands. In Biodiversity, Temperate Ecosystems, and Global Change. Boyle, J. B., and Boyle, E. B. (eds). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 123–144
Heywood, V. H. (1989) Patterns, extents and modes of invasion by terrestrial plants. In Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. Drake, J. A., Mooney, H. A., di Castri, F., Groves, R. H., Kruger, F. J., Rejmánek, M., and Williamson, M. (eds). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 31–60
Higgins, S. I., Richardson, D. M., and Cowling, R. M. (1996) Modeling invasive plant spread: the role of plant–environment interactions and model structure. Ecology 77: 2043–2054
Hill, R., Gourlay, A., and Fowler, S. (2000) The biological control program against gorse in New Zealand. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 909–917
Hitchmough, J., and Woudstra, J. (1999) The ecology of exotic herbaceous perennials grown in managed, native grassy vegetation in urban landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 45: 107–121
Hobbs, R. J. (1989) The nature and effect of disturbance relative to invasion. In Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. Drake, J. A., Mooney, H. A., di Castri, F., Groves, R. H., Kruger, F. J., Rejmánek, M., and Williamson, M. (eds). Chichester, UK: John Wiley, pp. 389–405
Hobbs, R. J., and Atkins, L. (1988) Effect of disturbance and nutrient addition on native and introduced annuals in plant communities in the Western Australia wheatbelt. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 171–179
Hodkinson, D., and Thompson, K. (1997) Plant dispersal: the role of man. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1484–1496
Hoffmann, J. (1990) Interactions between three weevil species in the biocontrol of Sesbania punicea (Fabaceae): the role of simulation models in evaluation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 32: 77–87
Hoffman, J., and Moran, V. (1995) Biological control of Sesbania punicea with Trichapion lativentre: diminished seed production reduces seeding but not the density of a perennial weed. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, p. 203
Hoffmann, J., and Moran, V. (1998) The population dynamics of an introduced tree, Sesbania punicea, in South Africa, in response to long-term damage caused by different combinations of three species of biological control agents. Oecologia 114: 343–348
Hokkanen, H., and Pimentel, D. (1984) New approach for selecting biological control agents. Canadian Entomologist 116: 1109–1171
Hokkanen, H., and Pimentel, D. (1989) New associations in biological control: theory and practice. Canadian Entomologist 121: 829–840
Holland, D. G. (2000) Giant Hogweed and Japanese Knotweed. In Exotic and invasive species: should we be concerned? Bradley, P. (ed). Proceedings 11th Conference of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management. Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management
Holmes, P. M., Richardson, D. M., Van Wilgen, B. W., and Gelderbloom, C. (2000) Recovery of South African fynbos vegetation following alien woody plant clearing and fire: implications for restoration. Austral Ecology 25: 631–639
Huenneke, L., Hamburg, S., Koide, R., Mooney, H., and Vitousek, P. (1990) Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland. Ecology 71: 478–491
Hurlbert, S. (1971) The non-concept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52: 577–586
Johnstone, I., Coffey, B., and Howard-Williams, C. (1985) The role of recreational boat traffic in interlake dispersal of macrophytes: a New Zealand case study. Journal of Environmental Management 20: 263–280
Julien, M. H. (ed) (1992) Biological Control of Weeds: A World Catalogue of Agents and their Target Weeds, 3rd edn. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Julien, M. H., and Griffiths, M. (eds) (1998) Biological Control of Weeds: A World Catalogue of Agents and their Target Weeds, 4th edn. Wallingford, UK: CAB International
Kan-Rice, P. (2001) Oak killer found in rhododendrons. California Agriculture 55: 7–8
Kareiva, P. (1990) Population dynamics in spatially complex environments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 330: 175–190
Kaufman, S., and Smouse, P. (2001) Comparing indigenous and introduced populations of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake: response of seedlings to water and pH levels. Oecologia 127: 487–494
Kelly, D., and McCallum, K. (1995) Evaluating the impact of Rhinocyllus conicus on Carduus nutans in New Zealand. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 205–211
Kendall, K., and Keane, R. (2001) Whitebark pine decline: infection, mortality, and population trends. In Whitebark Pine Communities. Tomback, D., Arno, S., and Keane, R. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 222–242
Kendle, A. D., and Rose, J. E. (2000) The aliens have landed! What are the justifications for ‘native only’ policies in landscape plantings? Landscape and Urban Planning 47: 19–31
Kennedy, T., Naeem, S., Howe, K., Knops, J., Tilman, D., and Reich, P. (2002) Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion. Nature 417: 636–638
Kinbacher, K. (2000) The tangled story of Kudzu. In The Vulcan Historical Review, p. 25
Klironomos, J. (2002) Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities. Nature 417: 67–70
Kloot, P. (1991) Invasive plants of southern Australia. In Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions. Groves, R. H., and di Castri, F. (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 131–144
Klotzli, F., and Grootjans, A. (2001) Restoration of natural and semi-natural wetland systems in Central Europe: progress and predictability of developments. Restoration Ecology 9: 209–219
Kluge, R. (2000) The future of biological control of weeds with insects: no more ‘paranoia’, no more ‘honeymoon’. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 459–467
Knops, J., Tilman, D., Haddad, N., Naeem, S., Mitchell, C., Haarstad, J., et al. (1999) Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances and diversity. Ecology Letters 2: 286–293
Koh, S., Watt, T. A., Bazely, D. R., Pearl, D. L., Tang, M., and Carleton, T. J. (1996) Impact of herbivory of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on plant community composition. Aspects of Applied Biology 44: 445–450
Kok, L., and Surles, W. (1975) Successful biological control of musk thistle by an introduced weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus. Environmental Entomology 4: 1025–1027
Kolar, C. S., and Lodge, D. M. (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 199–204
Kornas, J. (1988) Speirochoric weeds in arable fields: from ecological specialization to extinction. Flora 180: 83–91
Kornas, J. (1990) Plant invasions in central Europe: historical and ecological aspects. In Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. di Castri, F., Hansen, A. J., and Debussche, M. (eds). Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 19–36
Kot, M., Lewis, M., and Van den Driessche, P. (1996) Dispersal data and the spread of invading organisms. Ecology 77: 2027–2042
Krebs, C. (1999) Ecological Methodology. Menlo Park, CA: Addison Wesley Longman
Krebs, C. J. (2001) Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings
Kriticos, D., and Randall, R. (2001) A comparison of systems to analyze potential weed distributions. In Weed Risk Assessment. Groves, R. H., Panetta, F., and Virtue, J. (eds). Collingwood, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO, pp. 181–213
Lande, R. (1999) Extinction risks from anthropogenic, ecological and genetic factors. In Genetics and the Extinction of Species. Landweber, L. F., and Dobson, A. P. (eds). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 1–22
Landolt, E. (1993) Über Pflanzenarten, die sich in den letzten 150 Jahren in der Stadt Zürich stark ausgebreitet haben. Phytocoenologia 23: 651–663
Laroche, F., and Ferriter, A. (1992) The rate of expansion of Melaleuca in South Florida. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 30: 62–65
Laroche, F. B. (1998) Managing Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) in the Everglades. Weed Technology 12: 726–732
Lavorel, S., Prieur-Richard, A., and Grifulis, K. (1999) Invasibility and diversity of plant communities: from patterns to processes. Diversity and Distributions 5: 41–49
Lawton, J. H. (1999) Are there general rules in ecology? Oikos 84: 177–192
Lawton, J. H., and May, R. M. (eds) (1995) Extinction Rates. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Le Floc'h, E., Le Houerou, H. N., and Mathez, J. (1990) History and patterns of plant invasions in Northern Africa. In Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. di Castri, F., Hansen, A. J., and Debussche, M. (eds). Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 105–133
Le Maitre, D., van Wilgen, B., Gelderblom, C., Bailey, C., Chapman, R., and Nel, J. (2002) Invasive alien trees and water resources in South Africa: case studies of the costs and benefits of management. Forest Ecology and Management 160: 143–159
Lehman, C. L., and Tilman, D. (2000) Biodiversity, stability, and productivity in competitive communities. American Naturalist 156: 534–552
Leishman, M., and Westoby, M. (1998) Seed size and shape are not related to persistence in soil in Australia in the same way as in Britain. Functional Ecology 12: 480–485
Levine, J. (2000) Species diversity and biological invasions: relating local process to community pattern. Science 288: 852–854
Levine, J. M., and D'Antonio, C. (1999) Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invasibility. Oikos 87: 15–26
Levins, R. (1970) Extinction. In Some Mathematical Questions in Biology. Lectures on Mathematics in the Life Sciences. Gerstenhaber, M. (ed). Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, pp. 77–107
Lewis, M. (2000) Spread rate for a nonlinear stochastic invasion. Journal of Mathematical Biology 41: 430–545
Lewis, M., and Kareiva, P. (1993) Allee dynamics and the spread of invading organisms. Theoretical Population Biology 43: 141–158
Lockhart, C., Austin, D., and Aumen, N. (1999a) Water level effects on growth of Melaleuca seedlings from Lake Okeechobee (Florida, USA) littoral zone. Environmental Management 23: 507–518
Lockhart, C. S., Austin, D. F., Jones, W. E., and Downey, L. A. (1999b) Invasion of Carrotwood (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) in Florida Natural Areas (USA). Natural Areas Journal 19: 254–262
Lomolino, M. V. (2000) A call for a new paradigm of island biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9: 1–6
Lonsdale, W. M. (1990) The self-thinning rule: dead or alive? Ecology 71: 1373–1385
Lonsdale, W. M. (1994). Inviting trouble: introduced pasture species in Northern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 19: 345–354
Lonsdale, W. M. (1996) Plant population processes and weed control. In Proceedings of the IX International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Moran, V. C., and Hoffman, J. (eds). Cape Town, SA: University of Cape Town, pp. 33–37
Lonsdale, W. M. (1999) Global patterns of plant invasions, and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80: 1522–1536
Lonsdale, W. M., Farrell, G., and Wilson, C. (1995) Biological control of a tropical weed: a population model and an experiment for Sida acuta. Journal of Applied Ecology 32: 391–399
Loope, L. L., Sanchez, P. G., Tarr, P. W., Loope, W. L., and Anderson, R. L. (1988) Biological invasions of arid land nature reserves. Biological Conservation 44: 95–118
Loreau, M., and Hector, A. (2001) Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments. Nature 412: 72–76
Losos, J., and Schluter, D. (2000) Analysis of an evolutionary species–area relationship. Nature 408: 847–850
Louda, S. (1998) Population growth of Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on two species of native thistles in prairie. Environmental Entomology 27: 834–841
Louda, S. M. (1999) Negative ecological effects of the musk thistle biocontrol agent, Rhinocyllus conicus Foel. In Nontarget Effects of Biological Control. Follett, P. A., and Duan, J. J. (eds). The Netherlands: Kluwer
Louda, S. (2000) Rhinocyllus conicus — insights to improve predictability and minimize risk of biological control of weeds. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 187–194
Louda, S. (2001) Discovering an effect of insect floral herbivory on plant population density and distribution in a “green world”. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, October: 229–231
Louda, S., Kendall, D., Connor, J., and Simberloff, D. (1997) Ecological effects of an insect introduced for the biological control of weeds. Science 277: 1088–1090
Lovett Doust, L. (1981) Population dynamics and local specialization in a clonal perennial (Ranunculus repens). Journal of Ecology 69: 743–755
Lovich, J. E., and Bainbridge, J. E. (1999) Anthropogenic degradation of the southern California desert ecosystem and prospects for natural recovery and restoration. Environmental Management 24: 309–326
Lozon, J. D., and MacIsaac, H. J. (1997) Biological invasions: are they dependent on disturbance? Environmental Review 5: 131–141
MacArthur, R. H., and Wilson, E. O. (1963) An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17: 373–387
MacArthur, R. H., and Wilson, E. O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
MacDonald, I., Loope, L., Usher, M., and Hamann, O. (1989) Wildlife conservation and the invasion of nature reserves by introduced species: a global perspective. In Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. Drake, J. A., Mooney, H. A., di Castri, F., Groves, R. H., Kruger, F. J., Rejmánek, M., and Williamson, M. (eds). Chichester, UK: John Wiley
Mack, R. N. (1996) Predicting the identity and fate of plant invaders: emergent and emerging approaches. Biological Conservation 78: 107–121
Mack, R. N. (2000) Assessing the extent, status, and dynamism of plant invasions: current and emerging approaches. In Invasive Species in a Changing World. Mooney, H. A., and Hobbs, R. J. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 141–168
Mack, R., and Lonsdale, W. (2001) Humans as global plant dispersers: getting more than we bargained for. Bioscience 51: 95–102
Mack, R., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W., Evans, H., Clout, M., and Bazzaz, F. (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications 10: 689–710
Magurran, A. E. (1988) Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Mahoro, S. (2002) Individual flowering schedule, fruit set, and flower and seed predation in Vaccinium hirtum Thunb. (Ericaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 82–92
Maillet, J., and Lopez-Garcia, C. (2000) What criteria are relevant for predicting the invasive capacity of a new agricultural weed? The case of invasive American species in France. Weed Research 40: 11–26
Malecki, R., Blossey, B., Hight, S., Schroeder, D., Kok, L., and Coulson, R. (1993) Biological control of purple loosestrife. Bioscience 43: 680–686
Maltby, L., and Mack, C. (2002) Draft report of the National Workshop on Invasive Alien Species. Ottawa: Environment Canada, 40 pp
Mann, J. (1970) Cacti Naturalised in Australia and Their Control. Brisbane: Department of Lands, Queensland
Maron, J., and Gardner, S. (2000) Consumer pressure, seed versus safe-site limitation, and plant population dynamics. Oecologia 124: 260–269
Maron, J., and Vilà, M. (2001) When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence for the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses. Oikos 95: 361–373
Martin, R., and Carnahan, J. (1983) A population model for Noogoora burr (Xanthium occidentale). Australian Rangeland Journal 5: 54–62
Mauchamp, A. (1997) Threats from alien plant species in the Galápagos. Conservation Biology 11: 260–263
May, R. M. (1973) Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
McCann, K. (2000) The diversity–stability debate. Nature 405: 228–233
McCartney, J. (1999) Gardening blossoms into year-round category |web page|. URL http://www.icsc.org/srch/sct/current/index.html
McDonald, G., and Hoff, R. (2001) Blister rust: an introduced plague. In Whitebark Pine Communities. Tomback, D., Arno, S., and Keane, R. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 193–220
McEvoy, P., and Coombs, E. (1999) Biological control of plant invaders: regional patterns, field experiments, and structured population models. Ecological Applications 9: 387–401
McEvoy, P., Rudd, N., Cox, C., and Huso, M. (1993) Disturbance, competition and herbivory effects on ragwort, Senecio jacobaea populations. Ecological Monographs 63: 55–75
McFadyen, R. (2000) Successes in biological control of weeds. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 3–14
McFadyen, R. E. (1998) Biological control of weeds. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 369–393
McLachlan, S. M., and Bazely, D. R. (2001) Recovery patterns of understory herbs and their use as indicators of deciduous forest regeneration. Conservation Biology 15: 98–110
McNeely, J. A. (2000) The future of alien invasive species: changing social views. In Invasive Species in a Changing World. Mooney, H. A., and Hobbs, R. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 171–189
Meijden, E. v. d., and Waals-kooi, R. E. v. d. (1979) The population ecology of Senecio jacobaea in a sand dune system. Journal of Ecology 67: 131–153
Meijden, E. v. d., Klinkhamer, P., de Jong, T., and van Wijk, C. (1992) Meta-population dynamics of biennial plants: how to exploit temporary habitats. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 41: 249–270
Memmott, J., Fowler, S., Paynter, Q., Sheppard, A., and Syrett, P. (2000) The invertebrate fauna on broom, Cytisus scoparius, in two native and two exotic habitats. Acta Oecologia 21: 213–222
Merriam, G. (1991) Corridors and connectivity: animal populations in heterogeneous environments. In The Role of Corridors. Saunders, D., and Hobbs, R. J. (eds). Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty, pp. 133–142
Mesdaghi, M. (2002) Laboratory and Field Methods for Vegetation Measurement. Gorgan, Iran: University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Mielke, J. (1943) White pine blister rust in western North America. New Haven, CT: Yale University, School of Forestry
Milchunas, D. G., and Lauenroth, W. K. (1995) Inertia in plant community structure: state changes after cessation of nutrient-enrichment stress. Ecological Applications 5: 452–458
Miles, J., and Walton, D. H. W. (1993) Primary succession revisited. In Primary Succession on Land. Miles, J., and Walton, D. H. W. (eds). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 295–302
Monro, J. (1967) The exploitation and conservation of resources by populations of insects. Journal of Animal Ecology 36: 531–547
Moody, M., and Mack, R. (1988) Controlling the spread of plant invasions: the importance of nascent foci. Journal of Applied Ecology 25: 1009–1021
Moran, V., and Zimmerman, H. (1991) Biological control of jointed cactus, Opuntia aurantiaca (Cactaceae), in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 37: 5–27
Morin, L. (1996) Different countries, several potential bioherbicides, but always the same hurdles. In Proceedings of the IX International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Moran, V. (ed). Cape Town, SA: University of Cape Town, p. 546
Morris, M. (1997) Impact of the gall-forming rust fungus Uromycladium tepperianum on the invasive tree Acacia saligna in South Africa. Biological Control 10: 75–82
Morrison, R. G., and Yarranton, G. A. (1974) Vegetational heterogeneity during a primary sand dune succession. Canadian Journal of Botany 52: 397–410
Mullahey, J. J., Shilling, D. G., Mislevy, P., and Akanda, R. A. (1998) Invasion of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) into the U.S.: lessons learned. Weed Technology 12: 733–736
Müller-Schärer, H., Scheepens, P., and Greaves, M. (1999) Biological control of weeds in European crops: recent achievements and future work. Weed Research 40
Mullin, B. H., Anderson, L. W. J., DiTomaso, J. M., Eplee, R. E., and Getsinger, K. D. (2000) Invasive Plant Species. US Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 18 pp
Murali, K., and Setty, R. (2001) Effect of weeds Lantana camara and Chromelina odorata growth on the species diversity, regeneration and stem density of tree and shrub layer in BRT sanctuary. Current Science 80: 675–678
Murdoch, W. (1990) The relevance of pest–enemy models to biological control. In Critical Issues in Biological Control. Mackauer, M., Ehler, L. E., and Roland, J. (eds). Andover, UK: Intercept, pp. 1–24
Murdoch, W., and Briggs, C. (1996) Theory for biological control. Ecology 77: 2001–2013
Murdoch, W., and Stewart-Oaten, A. (1989) Aggregation by parasitoids and predators: effects on equilibrium and stability. American Naturalist 134: 7–13
Myers, J. H. (1976) Distribution and dispersal in populations capable of resource depletion: a simulation model. Oecologia 23: 255–269
Myers, J. H. (1980) Is the insect or the plant the driving force in the cinnabar moth–tansy ragwort system? Oecologia 47: 16–21
Myers, J. H. (1985) How many insect species are necessary for successful biocontrol of weeds? In Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed): Ottawa: Agriculture Canada, pp. 77–82
Myers, J. H. (1995) Long-term studies and predictive models in the biological control of diffuse knapweed. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 221–224
Myers, J. H. (2000) Why reduced seed production is not necessarily translated into successful biological weed control. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 151–154
Myers, J. H. (2001) Predicting the outcome of biological control. In Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies. Fox, C., Roff, D., and Fairbairn, D. (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 361–370
Myers, J. H., and Bazely, D. (1991) Thorns, spines, prickles, and hairs: are they stimulated by hebivory and do they deter herbivores. In Phytochemical Induction by Herbivores. Tallamy, D. (ed). New York: Wiley, pp. 325–344
Myers, J. H., and Campbell, B. (1976) Distribution and dispersal in populations capable of resource depletion: a field study. Oecologia 24: 7–20
Myers, J. H., and Hosking, G. (2002) Eradication. In Invasive Arthropods in Agriculture: Problems and Solutions. Hallman, G. J., and C. P. Schwalbe (eds). Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, Inc
Myers, J. H., and Risley, C. (2000) Why reduced seed production is not necessarily translated into successful biological weed control. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 569–581
Myers, J. H., and Ware, J. (2002) Setting priorities for the biological control of weeds: What to do and how to do it. In Proceedings, Hawaii Biological Control Workshop. Technical Report # 129. Denslow, J. E., Hight, S. D., and Smith, C. W. (ed). Honolulu: Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, pp. 62–74
Myers, J. H., Monro, J., and Murray, N. (1981) Egg clumping, host plant selection and population regulation in Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera). Oecologia 51: 7–13
Myers, J. H., Risley, C., and Eng, R. (1990) The ability of plants to compensate for insect attack: Why biological control of weeds with insects is so difficult. In Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Rome: Inst. Sper. Patol. Veg., pp. 67–73
Myers, J. H., Simberloff, D., Kuris, A., and Carey, J. (2000) Eradication revisited: dealing with exotic species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 316–320
Myers, N. (1976) An expanded approach to the problem of disappearing species. Science 193: 198–202
NAS (2002a) Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. URL http://books.nap.edu/books/0309082641/html/index.html
NAS (2002b) Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: The Scope and Adequacy of Regulation. URL http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309082633/html
National Invasive Species Council (2001) Meeting the Invasive Species Challenge: National Invasive Species Management Plan. Washington, DC: US Government, 89 pp
Naylor, R. (2000) The economics of alien species invasions. In Invasive Species in a Changing World. Mooney, H. A., and Hobbs, R. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 241–259
Neubert, M., and Caswell, H. (2000) Demography and dispersal: calculation and sensitivity analysis of invasion speed for structured populations. Ecology 81: 1613–1628
New Zealand Government (1993) Biosecurity Act. Http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/biosecurity.html
Nicholson, A. (1933) The balance of animal populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 2: 132–178
Noble, I., and Weiss, P. (1989) Movement and modeling of buried seed of the invasive perennial Chrysanthemoides monilifera in coastal dunes and biological control. Australian Journal of Ecology 14: 55–64
Norgrove, L., Hauser, S., and Weise, S. (2000) Response of Chromolaena odorata to timber tree densities in an agrisilvicultural system in Cameroon: aboveground biomass, residue decomposition and nutrient release. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 81: 191–207
Noss, R. F. (1996) Ecosystems as conservation targets. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 351
Novak, S. J., and Mack, R. N. (2001) Tracing plant introductions and spread: genetic evidence from Bromus tectorum (Cheatgrass). Bioscience 51: 114–122
Nuzzo, V. A. (1991) Experimental control of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande) in northen Illinois using fire, herbicide, and cutting. Natural Areas Journal 11: 158–167
Olckers, T., and Hill, M. (eds) (1999) Biological Control of Weeds in South Africa (1990–1998). Johannesburg, SA: Entomological Society of Southern Africa
OTA (1993) Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States. Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress
Paine, R. (1966) Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100: 65–75
Palmer, M., and Maurer, T. (1997) Does diversity beget diversity? A case study in crops and weeds. Journal of Vegetation Science 8: 235–240
Panetta, F. (1993) A system for assessing proposed plant introductions for weed potential. Plant Protection Quarterly 8: 10–14
Parendes, L., and Jones, J. (2000) Role of light availability and dispersal in exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Conservation Biology 14: 64–75
Parker, I. (2000) Invasion dynamics of Cytisus scoparius: a matrix model approach. Ecological Applications 10: 726–743
Parker, I., and Kareiva, P. (1996) Assessing the risks of invasion for genetically engineered plants: acceptable evidence and reasonable doubt. Biological Conservation 78: 193–203
Parker, K. (1979) Density estimation by variable area transect. Journal of Wildlife Management 43: 484–492
Pastor, J., and Naiman, R. J. (1992) Selective foraging and ecosystem processes in boreal forests. American Naturalist 139: 690–705
Paynter, Q., Fowler, S., Hinz, H., Memmott, J., Shaw, R., Sheppard, A., and Syrett, P. (1996) Are seed-feeding insects of use for the biological control of broom? In Proceedings of the IX International Symposium Biological Control of Weeds. Moran, V., and Hoffmann, J. (eds). Cape Town, SA: University of Cape Town, pp. 495–501
Paynter, Q., Fowler, S., Memmott, J., and Sheppard, A. (1998) Factors affecting the establishment of Cytisus scoparius in southern France. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 582–595
Pekrun, C., Hewitt, J., and Hewitt, P. (1998) Cultural control of volunteer rape. Journal of Agricultural Science 130: 150–163
Pemberton, R., and Cordo, H. (2001) Potential and risks of biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America. Florida Entomologist 84: 513–526
Pemberton, R. W. (1995) Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the United States: an immigrant biological control agent or an introduction of the nursery industry? American Entomologist 41: 230–232
Pemberton, R. W. (2000a) Naturalization pattern of horticultural plants in Florida. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, p. 881
Pemberton, R. W. (2000b) Predictable risk to native plants in weed biological control. Oecologia 125: 489–494
Perrins, J., Fitter, A., and Williamson, M. (1993) Population biology and rates of invasion of three introduced Impatiens species in the British Isles. Journal of Biogeography 20: 33–44
Peschken, D., and McClay, A. (1995) Picking the target: a revision of McClay's scoring system to determine the suitability of a weed for classical biological control. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 137–143
Peterson, A. T., and Vieglas, D. A. (2001) Predicting species invasions using ecological niche modeling: new approaches from bioinformatics attack a pressing problem. Bioscience 51: 363–371
Petraitis, P. S., Latham, R. E., and Niesenbaum, R. A. (1989) The maintenance of species diversity by disturbance. Quarterly Review of Biology 64: 393–418
Pettit, N. E., Ladd, P. G., and Froend, R. H. (1998) Passive clearing of native vegetation: livestock damage to remnant jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) woodlands in western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 81: 95–106
Pheloung, P., Williams, P., and Halloy, S. (1999) A weed risk assessment model for use as a biosecurity tool evaluating plant introductions. Journal of Environmental Management 57: 239–251
Pielou, E. (1977) Mathematical Ecology. New York: Wiley
Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R., and Morrison, D. (2000) Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience 50: 53–66
Pimm, S. L., Russell, G. J., Gittleman, J. L., and Brooks, T. M. (1995) The future of biodiversity. Science 269: 347–350
Pitcairn, M., Woods, D., Joley, D., Turner, C., and Balciunas, J. (1999) Population buildup and combined impact of introduced insects on yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis, in California. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 747–751
Porter, W. (2001). City Gardening: Gardening a growing business but climatic predictions dubious. URL http://www.rittenhouse.ca/hortmag/Sly/City%20Gardener/Articles%202000/October2000CleanUpTime.htm
Powell, R. (1990a) The functional forms of density-dependent birth and death rates in diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) explain why it has not been controlled by Urophora affinis, U. quadrifasciata and Sphenoptera jugoslavica. In Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Rome: Ist. Sper. Patol. Veg. (MAF), pp. 195–202
Powell, R. (1990b) The role of spatial pattern in the population biology of Centaurea diffusa. Journal of Ecology 78: 374–388
Pyke, D. (1990) Comparative demography of co-occurring introduced and native tussock grasses: persistence and potential expansion. Oecologia 82: 537–543
Quezel, P., Barbero, M., Bonin, G., and Loisel, R. (1990) Recent plant invasions in the Circum-Mediterranean region. In Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. di Castri, F., Hansen, A. J., and Debussche, M. (eds). Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 51–60
Quist, D., and Chapela, I. (2001) Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico. Nature 414: 541–543
Quist, D., and Chapela, I. (2002) Reply. Nature 416: 602
Rachich, J., and Reader, R. (1999) An experimental study of wetland invasibility by purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Canadian Journal of Botany 77: 1499–1503
Raup, D. M. (1979) Size of the Permo-Triassic bottleneck and its evolutionary implications. Science 206: 217–218
Rea, N., and Storrs, M. J. (1999) Weed invasions in wetlands of Australia's Top End: reasons and solutions. Wetlands Ecology and Management 7: 47–62
Reader, R. (1993) Control of seedling emergence by ground cover and seed predation in relation to seed size for some old-field species. Journal of Ecology 81: 169–175
Rees, M. (1993) Trade-offs among dispersal strategies in British plants. Nature 336: 150–152
Rees, M. (1997) Seed dormancy. In Plant Ecology. Crawley, M. (ed). Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 214–238
Rees, M., and Paynter, Q. (1997) Biological control of Scotch broom: modeling the determinants of abundance and the potential impact of introduced insect herbivores. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1203–1221
Reever Morghan, K. J., and Seastedt, T. R. (1999) Effects of soil nitrogen reduction on nonnative plants in restored grasslands. Restoration Ecology 7: 51–55
Regal, P. J. (1986) Models of genetically engineered organisms and their ecological impact. In Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii. Mooney, H. A., and Drake, J. A. (eds). New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 111–129
Regan, H. M., Lupia, R., Drinnan, A. N., and Burgman, M. A. (2001) The currency and tempo of extinction. American Naturalist 157: 1–10
Reichard, S., and Campbell, F. (1996) Invited but unwanted. American Nurseryman: 39–45
Reichard, S., and Hamilton, C. (1997) Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced into North America. Conservation Biology 11: 1993–1203
Reichard, S., and White, P. (2001) Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the United States. Bioscience 51: 103–113
Rejmánek, M. (1996) A theory of seed plant invasiveness: the first sketch. Biological Conservation 78: 171–181
Rejmánek, M. (2000) Invasive plants: approaches and predictions. Austral Ecology 25: 497–506
Rejmánek, M., and Randall, J. (1994) Invasive alien plants in California: 1993 summary and comparison with other areas in North America. Madroño 41: 161–177
Rejmánek, M., and Reichard, S. (2001) Predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 545
Rejmánek, M., and Richardson, D. M. (1996) What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77: 1655–1661
Reznik, S., Belokbyl'skiy, S., and Lobanov, A. (1994) Weed and herbivorous insect population densities at the broad spatial scale: Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Zymogramma suturalis F. (Col. Chrysomelidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 118: 1–9
Ricciardi, A., Steiner, W. W. M., Mack, R. N., and Simberloff, D. (2000) Toward a global information system for invasive species. Bioscience 50: 239–252
Richards, J. (1984) Root growth response to defoliation in two Agropyron bunchgrasses: field observations with an improved root periscope. Oecologia 64: 21–25
Richardson, D. (1998) Forestry trees as invasive aliens. Conservation Biology 12: 18–26
Richardson, D., and Higgins, S. (1998) Pines as invaders in the southern hemisphere. In Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Richardson, D. (ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 450–473
Rieger, M., Lamond, M., Preston, C., Powles, S., and Roush, R. (2002) Pollen-mediated movement of herbicide resistance between commercial canola fields. Science 296: 2386–2388
Roder, W., Phengchanh, S., and Keobulapha, B. (1997) Weeds in slash-and-burn rice fields in northern Laos. Weed Research 37: 111–119
Roelfs, A. (1982) Effects of barberry eradication on stem rust in the United States. Plant Disease 66: 177–181
Room, P. (1983) “Falling apart” as a lifestyle: the rhizome architecture and population growth of Salvinia molesta. Journal of Ecology 71: 349–365
Room, P. (1990) Ecology of a simple plant–herbivore system: biological control of Salvinia. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 74–79
Rosenzweig, M. L. (1995) Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Rotherham, I. (2000) Himalayan balsam — the human touch. In Exotic and invasive species: Should we be concerned? 11th Conference the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management. Mieem, P. (ed). Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, pp. 41–47
Royal Society of Canada (2001) Report of the Expert Panel on the Future of Food Biotechnology. Ottawa: The Royal Society of Canada
Sala, O. E. (2001) Price put on biodiversity. Nature 412: 34–36
Salisbury, E. (1942) The Reproductive Capacity of Plants. London: G. Bell
Sanderson, J., and Harris, L. D. (2000) Brief history of landscape ecology. In Landscape Ecology: A Top-Down Approach. Sanderson, J., and Harris, L. D. (eds). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3–18
Sands, D., and Schotz, M. (1985) Control or no control: a comparison of the feeding strategies of two Salvinia weevils. In Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Ottawa: Agriculture Canada, pp. 551–556
Santha, C., Grant, W., Neill, W., and Strawn, R. (1991) Biological control of aquatic vegetation using grass carp: simulation of alternative strategies. Ecological Modeling 59: 229–245
Savidge, J. A. (1987) Extinction of an island forest avifauna by an introduced snake. Ecology 68: 660–668
Schaffner, U. (2000) Seedling establishment of invasive and non-invasive populations of sulphur cinquefoil, Potentilla recta L. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, pp. 600–601
Schemske, D. (1984) Population structure and local selection in Impatiens pallida (Balsaminaceae), a selfing annual. Evolution 38: 817–832
Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Elend, A., Nollert, S., and Schuze, E.-D. (2000) Plant invasions in Germany: general aspects and impact of nitrogen deposition. In Invasive Species in a Changing World. Mooney, H. A., and Hobbs, R. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 351–368
Schultz, S., Dunham, A., Root, K., Soucy, S., and Ginzburgh, L. (1999) Conservation Biology with RAMAS EcoLab. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates
Scott, N. A., Saggar, S., and McIntrosh, P. D. (2001) Biogeochemical impact of Hieracium invasion in New Zealand's grazed tussock grasslands: sustainability implications. Ecological Applications 11: 1311–1322
SER, Society for Ecological Restoration Science and Policy Working Group (2002) The SER Primer on Ecological Restoration. URL www.ser.org
Sharma, R., and Verma, T. (2000) Effect of long-term addition of lantana biomass on crop yields and N uptake in rice-wheat cropping in Himalayan acid Alfisols. Tropical Agriculture 77: 71–75
Sharov, A., and Liebhold, A. (1998) Bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones. Ecological Applications 8: 833–845
Shea, K., and Kelly, D. (1998) Estimating biocontrol agent impact with matrix models: Carduus nutans in New Zealand. Ecological Applications 8: 824–832
Shea, K., and Chesson, P. (2002) Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 170–176
Sheail, J. (1987) Seventy-five years in Ecology: The British Ecological Society. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific
Sheppard, A., Cullen, J., and Aeschlimann, J. (1994) Predispersal seed predation on Carduus nutans (Asteraceae) in southern Europe. Acta Oecologica 15: 529–541
Silori, C., and Mishra, B. (2001) Assessment of livestock grazing pressure in and around the elephant corridors in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, south India. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 2181–2195
Silvertown, J., and Lovett Doust, J. (1993) Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications
Silvertown, J. (1983) Why are biennials sometimes not so few? American Naturalist 121: 148–453
Simberloff, D., Farr, J., Cox, J., and Mehlman, D. (1992) Movement corridors: conservation bargains or poor investments? Conservation Biology 6: 493–504
Simmons, F., and Bennett, F. (1966) Biological control of Opuntia sp by Cactoblastis cactorum in the Leeward Islands (West Indies). Entomphaga 11: 183–189
Singh, S. C., and Srivastava, G. N. (1999) Exotic medicinal plants of Lucknow district, U.P., India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 23: 223–235
Skellam, J. (1951) Random dispersal in theoretical populations. Biometrika 38: 196–218
Smith, B., and Wilson, J. (1996) A consumer's guide to evenness indices. Oikos 76: 70–82
Smith, F. D. M., May, R. M., Pellew, R., Johnson, T. H., and Walter, K. S. (1993) Estimating extinction rates. Nature 364: 494–496
Smith, L., Ravlin, F., Kok, L., and Mays, W. (1984) Seasonal model of the interaction between Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its weed host, Carduus thoermeri (Campanulatae: Asteraceae). Environmental Entomology 13: 1417–1426
Smith, M., and Holt, J. (1993) A population model for the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Scrophulariaceae) to investigate the potential of Smicronyx umbrinus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for biological control in Mali. Crop Protection 12: 470–476
Smith, M. D., and Knapp, A. K. (1999) Exotic plant species in a C4-dominated grassland: invasibility, disturbance, and community structure. Oecologia 120: 605–612
Snow, A., Uthus, K., and Culley, T. (2001) Fitness of hybrids between weedy and cultivated radish: implications for weed evolution. Ecological Applications 11: 934–943
Srivastava, D. (1999) Using local-regional richness plots to test for species saturation: pitfalls and potential. Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 1–16
Stadler, J., Trefflich, A., Klotz, S., and Brandl, R. (2000) Exotic plant species invade diversity hotspots: the alien flora of northwestern Kenya. Ecography 23: 169–176
Steadman, D. W. (1995) Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific Island birds: biodiversity meets zooarchaeology. Science 267: 1123–1131
Stearns, S. (1992) The Evolution of Life-Histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Stephenson, S. (1986) Changes in a former chestnut-dominated forest after a half century of succession. American Midland Naturalist 116: 173–179
Stephenson, S., and Fortney, R. (1998) Changes in forest overstory composition on the southwest-facing slope of Beanfield Mountain in south western Virginia. Castanea 63: 482–488
Stewart, C., All, J., Raymer, P., and Ramachndran, S. (1997) Increased fitness of transgenic insecticidal rapeseed under selection pressure. Molecular Ecology 6: 773–779
Stiling, P., and Moon, D. (2001) Protecting rare Florida cacti from attack by the exotic cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Florida Entomologist 84: 506–512
Stöcklin, J., and Fischer, M. (1999) Plants with longer-lived seeds have lower local extinction rates in grassland remnants 1950–1985. Oecologia 120: 539–543
Stohlgren, T., Schell, L., and Vanden Heuvel, B. (1999) How grazing and soil quality affect native and exotic plant diversity in Rocky Mountain grasslands. Ecological Applications 9: 45–64
Straw, N., and Sheppard, A. (1995) The role of plant dispersion pattern in the success and failure of biological control. In Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E., and Scott, R. (eds). Melbourne: DSIR/CSIRO, pp. 161–168
Stromme, I., Cole, D., Tansey, J., McClay, A., Richardson, C., and de Valois, J. (2000) Long-term monitoring of the impact of Aphthona nigriscutis on leafy spurge: the Beverly Bridge sites. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Spencer, N. R. (ed). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, p. 778
Tatter, T., Berman, P., Gonzalez, E., Mount, M., and Dolloff, A. (1996) Biocontrol of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Arboricultural Journal 20: 449–469
Taylor, H. (2001) Reading, TV, spending time with family, gardening and fishing top list of favorite leisure-time activities [web page]. URL http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/index.asp?PID=249
Taylor, R. L., and MacBryde, B. (1977) Vascular Plants of British Columbia: A Descriptive Inventory. University of British Columbia Press
Templeton, G., and Trujillo, E. (1981) The use of plant pathogens in the biological control of weeds. In Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture. Pimental, D. (ed). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 345–350
Tewksbury, L., Casagrande, R., Blossey, B., Häfliger, P., and Schwarzländer, M. (2002) Potential for biological control of Phragmites australis in North America. Biological Control 23: 191–212
Thébaud, C., and Simberloff, D. (2001) Are plants really larger in their introduced ranges? American Naturalist 157: 231–236
Thomas, M. B., and Willis, A. (1998) Biocontrol — risky but necessary. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 325–329
Thompson, K. (1994) Predicting the fate of temperate species in response to human disturbance and global change. In Biodiversity, Temperate Ecosystems, and Global Change. Boyle, J. B., and Boyle, E. B. (eds). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 61–76
Thompson, K., Bakker, J., Bekker, R., and Hodgson, J. (1998) Ecological correlates of seed persistence in soil in the north-west European flora. Journal of Ecology 86: 163–169
Thompson, K., Band, S., and Hodgson, J. (1993) Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7: 236–241
Thompson, W. (1930) The utility of mathematical methods in relation to work on biological control. Annals of Applied Biology 17: 641–648
Tilman, D. (1997) Community invasibility, recruitment limitation, and grassland biodiversity. Ecology 78: 81–92
Tilman, D., Knops, J., Wedin, D., Reich, P., Ritchie, M., and Siemann, E. (1997) The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. Science 277: 1300–1302
Tilman, D., Wedin, D., and Knops, J. A. N. L. (1996) Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems. Nature 379: 718–720
Tomback, D., and Kendall, K. (2001) Biodiversity losses: the downward spiral. In White Bank Pine Communities. Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 242–262
Torres, J.-L., Sosa, V., Equihua, M., and Torres, L. (2001) On the conceptual basis of the self-thinning rule. Oikos 95: 544–548
Trabaud, L. (1990) Fire as an agent of plant invasion? A case study in the French Mediterranean region. In Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. di Castri, F., Hansen, A. J., and Debussche, M. (eds). Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 417–437
Trombulak, S., and Frissell, C. (2000) Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conservation Biology 14: 18–30
Tuljapurkar, S., and Caswell, H. (eds) (1997) Structured Population Models in Marine, Terrestrial and Freshwater Systems. New York: Chapman & Hall
Turkington, R., and Mehrhoff, L. A. (1990) The role of competition in structuring pasture communities. In Perspectives on Plant Competition. Grace, J., and Tilman, D. (eds). New York: Academic Press, pp. 308–335
Turnbull, L., Crawley, M., and Rees, M. (2000) Are plant populations seed-limited? A review of seed sowing experiments. Oikos 88: 225–238
Turner, C. E., Center, T. D., Burrows, D. W., and Buckingham, G. R. (1998) Ecology and management of Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invader of wetlands in Florida, U.S.A. Wetlands Ecology and Management 5: 165–178
Turner, I. M., Chua, K. S., Ong, J. S. Y., Soong, B. C., and Tan, H. T. W. (1996) A century of plant species loss from an isolated fragment of lowland tropical rainforest. Conservation Biology 10: 1229–1244
Turner, I. M., and Corlett, R. T. (1996) The conservation value of small, isolated fragments of lowland tropical rain forest. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 330–333
Turner, I. M., Tan, H. T. W., Wee, Y. C., Ibrahim, A. B., Chew, P. T., and Corlett, R. T. (1994) A study of plant species extinction in Singapore: lessons for the conservation of tropical biodiversity. Conservation Biology 8: 705–712
UNEP (1992) The Convention on Biodiversity. United Nations Environment Program. http://www.biodiv.org/convention/articles.asp
UNF (1999) URL (http://www.unfoundation.org/grants/4_3_invasives.asp
Ussery, J. G., and Krannitz, P. G. (1998) Control of Scot's broom (Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link.): the relative conservation merits of pulling versus cutting. Northwest Science 72: 268–273
van Kleunen, M. (2001) Evolution of clonal life-history of Ranunculus reptans. In Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät. Zurich: Universität Zürich, 173 pp
van Kleunen, M., and Fischer, M. (2001) Adaptive evolution of plastic foraging responses in a clonal plant. Ecology 82: 3309–3319
van Kleunen, M., Fischer, M., and Schmid, B. (2001) Effects of intraspecific competition on size variation and reproductive allocation in a clonal plant. Oikos 94: 515–524
Vandiver, V., Hall, D. W., and Westbrooks, R. (1992) Discovery of Oryza rufipogon (Poaceae: Oryzeae), new to the United States, with its implications. Sida Contributions to Botany 15: 105–109
Varley, G., and Gradwell, G. (1960) Key factors in populations studies. Journal of Animal Ecology 29: 399–401
Vil'a, M., Garcia-Berthou, G., Sol, D., and Pino, J. (2001) Survery of the naturalised plants and vertebrates in peninsular Spain. Ecologia Mediterranea 27: 55–67
Vitousek, P., D'Antonio, C., Loope, L., and Westbrooks, R. (1996) Biological invasions as global environmental change. American Scientist 84: 468–478
Vitousek, P. M. (1986) Biological invasions and ecosystem properties. In Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii. Mooney, H. A., and Drake, J. A. (eds). New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 163–176
Vitousek, P. M. (1990) Biological invasions and ecosystem process — towards an integration of population biology and ecosystem studies. Oikos 57: 7–13
Vivrette, N. J., and Muller, C. H. (1977) Mechanism of invasion and dominance of coastal grassland by Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Ecological Monographs 47: 301–318
Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., and Sohmer, S. H. (1990) Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vol. 1. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press and Bishop Museum Press
Walker, L. R. (1993) Nitrogen fixers and species replacements in primary succession. In Primary Succession on Land. Miles, J., and Walton, D. H. W. (eds). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 249–272
Waloff, N., and Richards, O. (1977) The effect of insect fauna on growth mortality and natality of broom, Sarothamnus scoparius. Journal of Applied Ecology 14: 787–798
Walters, C. (1986) Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: Macmillan
Wapshere, A. (1985) Effectiveness of biological control agents for weeds: present quandaries. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 18: 261–280
Wardle, D. (2001) Experimental demonstration that plant diversity reduces invasibility — evidence of a biological mechanism or a consequence of sampling effect? Oikos 95: 161–170
Wardle, D., Nicholson, K., Ahmed, M., and Rahman, A. (1995) Influence of pasture forage species on seedling emergence, growth and development of Carduus nutans. Journal of Applied Ecology 32: 225–233
Watkinson, A. (1985) On the abundance of plants along an environmental gradient. Journal of Ecology 73: 569–578
Watt, A. S. (1981a) A comparison of grazed and ungrazed grassland in East Anglian Breckland. Journal of Ecology 69: 449–508
Watt, A. S. (1981b) Further observations on the effects of excluding rabbits from Grassland A in East Anglian Breckland: the pattern of change and factors affecting it (1936–73). Journal of Ecology 69: 509–536
Watt, T. A. (1997) Introductory Statistics for Biology Students. London: Chapman & Hall
Weber, E. (1999) Gebietsefremde Arten der Schwiezer Flora — Ausmass und Bedeutung. Bauhinia 13: 1–10
Wegman, E. (1972) Non-parametric probability density estimation. I. A summary of available methods. Technometrics 14: 533–546
Weller, D. (1987) A reevaluation of the -3/2 power rule of plant self-thinning. Ecological Monographs 57: 23–43
Welling, C., and Becker, R. (1990) Seed bank dynamics of Lythrum salicaria L.: implications for control of this species in North America. Aquatic Botany 38: 303–309
Westbrooks, R. G. (1991) Plant protection issues. I. A commentary on new weeds in the United States. Weed Technology 5: 232–237
Westbrooks, R. G., Otteni, L., and Eplee, R. E. (1997) New strategies for weed prevention. In Exotic Pests of Eastern Forests. Britton, K. O. (ed). Nashville, TN: USDA Forest Service & TN Exotic Pest Plant Council
White, J. (1981) The allometric interpretation of the self-thinning rule. Journal of Theoretical Biology 89: 475–500
White, P., and Schwarz, A. (1998) Where do we go from here: the challenges of risk assessment for invasive plants. Weed Technology 12: 744–751
Whittaker, R. H. (1970) Communities and Ecosystems. London: Macmillan
Whittaker, R. J. (2000) Scale, succession and complexity in island biogeography: are we asking the right questions? Global Ecology and Biogeography 9: 75–85
Wiegert, R. (1962) The selection of an optimum quadrat size for sampling the standing crop of grasses and forbs. Ecology 43: 125–129
Wiens, J. A. (1995) Landscape mosaics and ecological theory. In Mosaic Landscapes and Ecological Processes. Hansson, L., Fahrig, L., and Merriam, G. (eds). London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 1–26
Wilcove, D. S., Rothstein, D., Dubow, J., Phillips, A., and Losos, E. (1998) Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience 48: 607–615
Williams, G. (1975) Sex and Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Williams, J. A., and West, C. J. (2000) Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to management. Austral Ecology 25: 425–444
Williamson, M. (2002) Costs and consequences of non-indigenous plants in the British Isles. URL www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/ben281.html
Williamson, M., and Fitter, A. (1996a) The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77: 1661–1666
Williamson, M. H., and Fitter, A. (1996b) The characters of successful invaders. Biological Conservation 78: 163–170
Willis, A., and Blossey, B. (1999) Benign climates don't explain the increased plant size of non-indigenous plants: a cross-continental transplant experiment. Biocontrol Science and Technology 9: 567–577
Willis, A., Thomas, M., and Lawton, J. H. (1999) Is the increased vigour of invasive weeds explained by a trade-off between growth and herbivore resistance? Oecologia 120: 632–640
Willis, A., Memmott, J., and Forrester, R. (2000) Is there evidence for the post-invasion evolution of increased size among invasive plant species? Ecology Letters 3: 275–283
Wilson, E. O. (1985) The biological diversity crisis: a challenge to science. Issues in Science and Technology 2: 20–29
Wilson, E. O., and Peters, F. M. (eds) (1988) Biodiversity. Washington DC: National Academy Press
Yarranton, G. A., and Morrison, R. G. (1974) Spatial dynamics of a primary succession: nucleation. Journal of Ecology 62: 417–428
Young, B. (2000) Invasive species and other priorities for English Nature. In Exotic and Invasive Species: Should we be Concerned? Bradley, P. (ed). Proceedings 11th Conference of Inst. of Ecology and Environmental Management: Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, pp. 2–11
Zavaleta, E., Hobbs, R., and Mooney, H. (2001) Viewing invasive species in a whole-ecosystem context. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 454–459
Zavaleta, E. S. (2000a) Valuing ecosystem services lost to Tamarix invasion in the United States. In Invasive Species in a Changing World. Mooney, H. A., and Hobbs, R. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 261–300
Zavaleta, E. S. (2000b) The economic value of controlling an invasive shrub. Ambio 29: 462–467
Zavaleta, E. S., and Royval, J. L. (2002) Climate change and the susceptibility of U.S. ecosystems to biological invasions: two cases of expected range expansion. In Wildife Response to Climate Change. Schnieder, S. H., and Root, T. L. (eds). Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 277–341
Zeevalking, H., and Fresco, L. (1977) Rabbit grazing and diversity in a dune area. Vegetatio 35
Zwölfer, H., and Harris, P. (1984) Biology and host specificity of Rhinocyllus conicus (Frol.) (Col. Curculionidae), a successful agent for biocontrol of the thistle, Carduus nutans L. Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 97: 36–62
Zwölfer, H. (1973) Competition and coexistence in phytophagous insects attacking the heads of Carduus nutans L. In Proceedings of the II International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, pp. 74–80
Zwölfer, H. (1985) Insects and thistle heads: resource utilization and guild structure. In Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Delfosse, E. (ed). Ottawa: Agriculture Canada, pp. 407–416