Introduction  pp. 1-14

Introduction

By Johanna Oksala

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Freedom is a concept that it is repeatedly used today in discourses ranging from political philosophy and rhetoric to self-help guides, yet it seems that it has never been less clear what it means. This is not only due to conceptual confusion or lack of philosophical precision. The effects of the rapid process of economic and cultural globalization have made many of our traditional ways of thinking and living redundant, and have raised critical questions about our ‘freedom’ to command our lives. On the other hand, neo-liberalism and the extreme individualism characterizing our culture have made ‘freedom’ itself a contestable value.

One strand in this present ‘crisis’ of freedom is the critique of an autonomous subject which characterizes post-structuralist thinking. Michel Foucault's thought – and post-structuralist thinking as a whole – is often read as a rejection of the subject. This ‘rejection’ is interpreted in varying terms. The subject cannot ground knowledge, meanings or morality. It is not the agent of social or epistemic changes, but rather the effect of them. There is no subject in itself prior to the normalizing cultural coding that turns the human being into a subject. All possible ways to comprehend oneself and to act in a coherent fashion are conditioned by a historically varying cultural matrix.

The charges against Foucault's thought in contemporary debates often focus on the question of the freedom of the subject and the notions that are understood as intrinsically tied to or dependent on it: autonomy, authenticity, responsibility, political agency.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Ashbery, John (1986), ‘Introduction: On Raymond Roussel’, in Michel Foucault, Death and the Labyrinth: The World of Raymond Roussel. New York: Doubleday, ⅹⅲ–ⅹⅹⅷ
Bachelard, Gaston (1934/1949), Le nouvel esprit scientifique. Paris: Presses Universitaire de France
Bachelard, Gaston (1940/1949), La philosophie de non, essai d'une philosophie du nouvel esprit scientifique. Paris: Presses Universitaire de France
Bailhache, Gérard (1994), Le sujet chez Emmanuel Levinas. Fragilité et subjectivité. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France
Beauvoir, Simone de (1949/1988), The Second Sex. London: Pan Books
Benhabib, Seyla (1986), Critique, Norm and Utopia. A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory. New York: Columbia University Press
Benhabib, Seyla (1987), ‘The Generalized and the Concrete Other: The Kohlberg–Gilligan Controversy and Feminist Theory’, in Seyla Benhabib and Drucilla Cornell (eds.), Feminism as Critique. Essays on the Politics of Gender in Late Capitalist Societies. Cambridge: Polity Press, 77–95
Bernasconi, Robert (1991), ‘Scepticism in the Face of Philosophy’, in Robert Bernasconi and Simon Critchley (eds.), Re-reading Levinas. London: Athlone Press, 149–61
Bernauer, James and Mahon, Michel (1994), ‘The Ethics of Michel Foucault’, in Gary Gutting (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 141–58
Bernet, Rudolf (1998), ‘Encounter with the Stranger: Two Interpretations of the Vulnerability of the Skin’, in Ernest Wolfgang Orth and Chain-Fai Cheung (eds.), Phenomenology of Interculturality and Life-World. Freiburg: Verlag Karl Alber, 89–111
Bigwood, Carol (1991), ‘Renaturalizing the Body’, Hypatia 6. 3, 54–72
Bordo, Susan (1989), ‘The Body and the Reproduction of Femininity: A Feminist Appropriation of Foucault’, in Allison Jaggar and Susan Bordo (eds.), Gender/Body/Knowledge. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 13–33
Bordo, Susan (1993), ‘Feminism, Foucault and the Politics of the Body’, in Caroline Ramazanoglu (ed.), Up Against Foucault. London and New York: Routledge, 179–203
Boothroyd, David (1996), ‘Foucault's Alimentary Philosophy: Care of the Self and Responsibility for the Other’, Man and World 29, 361–86
Braidotti, Rosi (1991), Patterns of Dissonance: A Study of Women in Contemporary Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press
Braidotti, Rosi (1994), Nomadic Subjects, Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary Feminist Thought. New York: Columbia University Press
Brown, Wendy (1998), ‘Genealogical Politics’, in Jeremy Moss (ed.), The Later Foucault: Politics and Philosophy. London: Sage, 33–49
Bruzina, Ronald (1995), ‘Translator's Introduction’, in Eugene Fink, Sixth Cartesian Meditation, The Idea of a Transcendental Theory of Method. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ⅶ–ⅼⅹⅷ
Butler, Judith (1989), ‘Sexual Ideology and Phenomenological Description’, in Jeffner Allen and Iris Marion Young (eds.), The Thinking Muse. Feminism and Modern French Philosophy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 85–100
Butler, Judith (1990), Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London and New York: Routledge
Butler, Judith (1993), Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex. London and New York: Routledge
Butler, Judith (1997), The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Canguilhem, Georges (1994a), A Vital Rationalist: Selected Writings from Georges Canguilhem, ed. François Delaporte. New York: Zone Books
Canguilhem, Georges (1994b), ‘The Death of Man, or Exhaustion of the Cogito?’, in Gary Gutting (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 71–91
Carr, David (1999), The Paradox of Subjectivity. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Cavaillès, Jean (1947/1994), Sur la logique et la théorie de la science, in Œuvres complètes de philosophie des sciences. Paris: Hermann, 473–560
Caws, Peter (1988), Structuralism. The Art of the Intelligible. New Jersey: Humanities Press
Cohen, Paul M. (1997), Freedom's Moment: An Essay on the French Idea of Liberty from Rousseau to Foucault. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Cousins, Mark and Hussain, Athar (1984), Michel Foucault. London: Macmillan
Critchley, Simon (1991), ‘Bois – Derrida's Final Word on Levinas’, in Robert Bernasconi and Simon Critchley (eds.), Re-reading Levinas. London: Athlone Press, 162–89
Critchley, Simon (1992), The Ethics of Deconstruction. Levinas and Derrida. Oxford: Blackwell
Critchley, Simon (2002), ‘Introduction’, in Simon Critchley and Robert Bernasconi (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Levinas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1–32
Crossley, Nick (1994), The Politics of Subjectivity: Between Foucault and Merleau-Ponty. Aldershot: Avebury Press
Davidson, Arnold (1986), ‘Archaelogy, Genealogy, Ethics’, in David Couzens Hoy (ed.), Foucault: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 221–33
Davidson, Arnold (1994), ‘Ethics as Aesthetics: Foucault, the History of Ethics, and Ancient Thought’, in Gary Gutting (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 115–40
Davidson, Arnold (1997a), ‘Introductory Remarks to Pierre Hadot’, in Arnold I. Davidson (ed.), Foucault and his Interlocutors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 195–202
Davidson, Arnold (1997b), ‘Structures and Strategies of Discourse: Remarks Towards a History of Foucault's Philosophy of Language’, in Arnold I. Davidson (ed.), Foucault and his Interlocutors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1–17
Deleuze, Gilles (1986/1988), Foucault. London: Athlone Press
Deleuze, Gilles (1994), ‘Désir et plaisir’, Magazine Littéraire 325, 58–65
Deleuze, Gilles (1994/1997), ‘Desire and Pleasure’, in Arnold I. Davidson (ed.), Foucault and his Interlocutors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 183–92
Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari (1980/1987), A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
Derrida, Jacques (1962/1989), ‘Introduction to The Origin of Geometry’, in Edmund Husserl, The Origin of Geometry. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 25–153
Derrida, Jacques (1967/1978), Writing and Difference. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Deveaux, Monique (1996), ‘Feminism and Empowerment: A Critical Reading of Foucault’, in Susan J. Hekman (ed.), Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 211–38
Dews, Peter (1989), ‘The Return of the Subject in Late Foucault’, Radical Philosophy 51, 37–41
Diamond, I. and Quinby, L. (eds.) (1988), Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on Resistance. Evanston, Il.: Northeastern University Press
Dillon, Martin (1988), Merleau-Ponty's Ontology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Dosse, François (1991), Histoire du structuralisme, vol. ⅰ, Le champ du signe, 1945–1966. Paris: Éditions le Découverte
Dosse, François (1992), Histoire du structuralisme, vol. ⅱ, Le chant dy cygne, 1966 à nos jours. Paris: Éditions le Découverte
Dreyfus, Hubert L. and Rabinow, Paul (1982), Michel Foucault, Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf
Drummond, John J. (1990), Husserlian Intentionality and Non-Foundational Realism: Noema and Object. Dordrecht: Kluwer
Edie, James M. (1976), Speaking and Meaning. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Elden, Stuart (2001), Mapping the Present. Heidegger, Foucault and the Project of a Spatial History. London: Continuum
Eribon, Didier (1989/1991), Michel Foucault. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press
Fink, Eugen (1932/1988), VI Cartesianische Meditation. Die Idee Einer Transzendentalen Methodenlehre, in Husserliana documente, Dordrecht: Kluwer
Fink, Eugen (1932/1995), Sixth Cartesian Meditation. The Idea of a Transcendental Theory of Method. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Fink, Eugen (1933), ‘Die phänomenologische Philsosophie Edmund Husserls in der gegenwärtigen Kritik’, Kant-Studien 1. 1, 229–383
Flynn, Thomas (1989), ‘Foucault and the Politics of Postmodernity’, Noûs 23, 187–98
Flynn, Thomas (1991), ‘Foucault a Parrhesiast: His Last Course at the Collège de France’, in James Bernauer and David Rasmussen (ed.), The Final Foucault. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 102–18
Flynn, Thomas (1994), ‘Foucault's Mapping of History’, in Gary Gutting (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 28–46
Flynn, Thomas (1997), Sartre, Foucault, and Historical Reason, vol. ⅰ, Toward an Existentialist Theory of History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Frank, Manfred (1989/1992), ‘On Foucault's Concept of Discourse’, in Michel Foucault, Philosopher: Essays Translated from the French and German by Timothy J. Armstrong. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 99–115
Fraser, Nancy (1989), Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press
Gatens, Moira (1983/1991), ‘A Critique of the Sex/Gender Distinction’, in Senja Gunew (ed.), A Reader in Feminist Knowledge. London and New York: Routledge, 139–57
Gatens, Moira (1996), Imaginary Bodies. London and New York: Routledge
Goldstein, Jan (ed.) (1994), Foucault and the Writing of History. Oxford: Blackwell
Grimshaw, Jean (1993), ‘Practices of Freedom’, in Caroline Ramazanoglu (ed.), Up Against Foucault. London and New York: Routledge, 51–72
Grimshaw, Jean (1999), ‘Working out with Merleau-Ponty’, in Jane Arthurs and Jean Grimshaw, (eds.), Women's Bodies. Discipline and Transgression. London: Cassell, 91–116
Gros, Frédéric (2001), ‘Situation du cours’, in Michel Foucault, L'herméneutique du sujet. Cours au Collège de France (1981–1982), ed. Frédéric Gros. Paris: Seuil/Gallimard, 497–526
Grosz, Elizabeth (1994), Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Grosz, Elizabeth (1995), Space, Time, and Perversion: Essays on the Politics of Bodies. London and New York: Routledge
Gutting, Gary (1989), Michel Foucault's Archaeology of Scientific Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Gutting, Gary (1994), ‘Introduction. Michel Foucault: A User's Manual’, in Gary Gutting (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1–27
Gutting, Gary (2001), French Philosophy in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Haaparanta, Leila (1994), ‘Intentionality, Intuition and the Computational Theory of Mind’, in Leila Haaparanta (ed.), Mind, Meaning and Mathematics. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 211–33
Habermas, Jürgen (1985/1987), The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press
Hacking, Ian (1984), ‘Five Parables’, in Richard Rorty, Julius Schneewind and Quentin Skinner (eds.), Philosophy in History: Essays on the Historiography of Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 103–24
Hacking, Ian (2002), Historical Ontology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press
Hadot, Pierre (1983/1997), ‘Forms of Life and Forms of Discourse in Ancient Philosophy’, in Arnold I. Davidson (ed.), Foucault and his Interlocutors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 203–24
Hall, Stuart (1996), ‘Introduction: Who Needs ‘Identity’?’, in Stuart Hall and Paul du Gay (eds.), Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage, 1–17
Halperin, David M. (1995), Saint Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Han, Beatrice (1998/2002), Foucault's Critical Project. Between the Transcendental and the Historical. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Haraway, Donna (1991), Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London and New York: Routledge
Heidegger, Martin (1952/1977), ‘The Age of the World Picture’, in The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. New York: Harper & Row, 115–54
Heinämaa, Sara (1996), ‘Woman – Nature, Product, Style? Rethinking the Foundations of Feminist Philosophy of Science’, in Lynn Hankinson Nelson and Jack Nelson (eds.), A Dialog Concerning Feminism, Science and Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 289–308
Heinämaa, Sara (1997), ‘What is a Woman? Butler and Beauvoir on the Foundations of Sexual Difference’, Hypatia 12. 1, 20–39
Heinämaa, Sara (2002), ‘From Decisions to Passions: Merleau-Ponty's Interpretation of Husserl's Reduction’, in Ted Toadvine and Lester Embree (eds.), Merleau-Ponty's Reading of Husserl. Dordrecht: Kluwer
Heinämaa, Sara (2003), Toward a Phenomenology of Sexual Difference. Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Beauvoir. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield
Heinämaa, Sara and Oksala, Johanna (2000), ‘The Philosophical Practice of Thinking: Between Husserl and Foucault’. Unpublished manuscript
Hekman, Susan (1990), Gender and Knowledge: Elements of Postmodern Feminism. Cambridge: Polity Press
Himanka, Juha (1999), ‘Reduction in concreto. Two Readings of the Idea of Phenomenology’, Recherches Husserliennes 11, 51–78
Himanka, Juha (2001), ‘Before and After the Reduction’, Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 32. 2, 188–204
Hindes, Barry (1998), ‘Politics and Liberation’, in Jeremy Moss (ed.), The Later Foucault. Politics and Philosophy. London: Sage, 50–63
Hoeller, Keith (1993), ‘Editor's Forword’, in Michel Foucault and Ludwig Binswanger, Dream and Existence. New Jersey: Humanities Press, 7–17
Holenstein, Elmar (1985/1999), ‘The Zero-Point of Orientation: The Placement of the I in Perceived Space’, in Don Welton (ed.), The Body. Classic and Contemporary Readings. Oxford: Blackwell, 57–94
Hoy, David Couzens (1986), ‘Introduction’, in David Couzens Hoy (ed.), Foucault: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1–25
Hoy, David Couzens (1998), ‘Foucault and Critical Theory’, in Jeremy Moss (ed.), The Later Foucault. Politics and Philosophy. London: Sage, 18–32
Hoy, David Couzens (1999), ‘Critical Resistance: Foucault and Bourdieu’, in Gail Weiss and Honi Fern Haber (eds.), Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersections of Nature and Culture. London and New York: Routledge, 3–22
Husserl, Edmund (1911/1965), ‘Philosophy as Rigorous Science’, in Phenomenology and the Crisis of Philosophy. New York: Harper, 79–122
Husserl, Edmund (1913/2001), Logical Investigations, vols. ⅰ and ⅱ. London and New York: Routledge
Husserl, Edmund (1939/1989), The Origin of Geometry, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press
Husserl, Edmund (1954/1962), Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenshaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie, Husserliana, vol. ⅵ, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff
Husserl, Edmund (1954/1970a), The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press
Husserl, Edmund (1954/1970b), ‘The Vienna Lecture’, in The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press, 269–99
Hutcheson, Peter (1981), ‘Husserl and Private Language’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 42, 118–28
Irigaray, Luce (1977/1985), This Sex Which Is Not One. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Irigaray, Luce (1984/1993), An Ethics of Sexual Difference. London: Athlone Press
Judovitz, Dalia (2001), The Culture of the Body. Genealogies of Modernity. Michigan: University of Michigan Press
Kant, Immanuel (1784/1997), ‘Was ist Aufklärung?’, in Sylvere Lotringer and Lysa Hochroth (eds.), The Politics of Truth: Michel Foucault. New York: Semiotext(e), 7–20
Kaufman, Walter (1950/1974), Nietzsche. Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Kruks, Sonia (1990), Situation and Human Existence: Freedom, Subjectivity and Society. London and New York: Routledge
Kusch, Martin (1991), Foucault's Strata and Fields: An Investigation into Archaelogical and Genealogical Science Studies. Dordrecht: Kluwer
Lebrun, Gérard (1989/1992), ‘Notes on Phenomenology in Les Mots et les Choses’, in Michel Foucault, Philosopher: Essays Translated from the French and German by Timothy J. Armstrong. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 20–37
Levin, David Michel (1991), ‘Visions of Narcissism: Intersubjectivity and the Reversals of Reflection’, in M. C. Dillon (ed.), Merleau-Ponty Vivant. Albany: State University of New York Press, 47–9
Levinas, Emmanuel (1947/1987), Time and the Other. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press
Levinas, Emmanuel (1961/1969), Totality and Infinity. An Essay on Exteriority. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press
Levinas, Emmanuel (1963), Difficile liberté. Essais sur le judaisme. Paris: Albin Michel
Levinas, Emmanuel (1968), Quatre lectures talmudique. Paris: Éditions de Minuit
Levinas, Emmanuel (1974), Autrement qu' être ou au-delà de l'essence. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff
Levinas, Emmanuel (1974/1981), Otherwise than Being, or Beyond Essence. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff
Levinas, Emmanuel (1982/1985), Ethics and Infinity. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press
Levinas, Emmanuel (1986/1998), Of God Who Comes To Mind. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Levinas, Emmanuel (1987/1994), Outside the Subject. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Levinas, Emmanuel (1989), The Levinas Reader. Ed. Sean Hand. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Lingis, Alphonso (1981), ‘Translator's Introduction’, in Emmanuel Levinas, Otherwise than Being or Beyond Essence. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, ⅺ–ⅹⅼⅱ
Machado, Roberto (1989/1992), ‘Archaeology and Epistemology’, in Michel Foucault, Philosopher: Essays Translated from the German and the French by Timothy J. Armstrong. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 3–19
McNay, Lois (1991), ‘The Foucauldian Body and the Exclusion of Experience’, Hypatia 6. 3, 125–40
McNay, Lois (1992), Foucault and Feminism. Cambridge: Polity Press
McWhorter, Ladelle (1999), Bodies and Pleasures: Foucault and the Politics of Sexual Normalization. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1945/1972), Phénoménologie de la perception. Paris: Gallimard
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1945/1994), Phenomenology of Perception. London and New York: Routledge
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1960/1964), Signs. Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1964), The Primacy of Perception and Other Essays on Phenomenological Psychology, the Philosophy of Art, History and Politics. Ed. James M. Edie. Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press
Miller, Jacques-Alain (1989/1992), ‘Michel Foucault and Psychoanalysis’, in Michel Foucault, Philosopher: Essays Translated from the French and German by Timothy J. Armstrong. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 58–64
Mohanty, J. N. (1976), Edmund Husserl's Theory of Meaning. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff
Mohanty, J. N. (1989), Transcendental Phenomenology, An Analytic Account. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Mohanty, J. N. (1997), Phenomenology: Between Essentialism and Transcendental Philosophy. Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press
Moss, Jeremy (1998), ‘Introduction: The Later Foucault’, in Jeremy Moss (ed.), The Later Foucault, Politics and Philosophy. London: Sage, 1–17
Nicholson, Linda (ed.) (1990), Feminism/Postmodernism. London and New York: Routledge
Nietzsche, Friedrich (1887/1974), The Gay Science. New York: Vintage
Nietzsche, Friedrich (1889/1990), Twilight of the Idols/The Anti-Christ. Harmondsworth: Penguin
O'Farrell, Clare (1989), Foucault, Historian or Philosopher? London: Macmillan
O'Leary, Timothy (2002), Foucault and the Art of Ethics. London: Continuum
Oksala, Johanna (2003), ‘The Birth of Man’, in Dan Zahavi, Sara Heinämaa and Hans Ruin (eds.), Metaphysics, Facticity, Interpretation. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 139–63
Oksala, Johanna (2004), ‘What is Feminist Phenomenology? Thinking Birth Philosophically’, Radical Philosophy 126, 16–22
Patton, Paul (1998), ‘Foucault's Subject of Power’, in Jeremy Moss (ed.), The Later Foucault, Politics and Philosophy. London: Sage, 64–77
Peperzak, Adrian (1993), To the Other. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas. Indiana: Purdue University Press
Pheng, Cheah (1996), ‘Mattering’, Diacritics 26. 1, 108–39
Pulkkinen, Tuija (1996/2000), The Postmodern and Political Agency. Jyväskylä: SoPhi, University of Jyväskylä
Rabinow, Paul (1984), ‘Introduction’, in Paul Rabinow (ed.), The Foucault Reader. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 3–29
Rabinow, Paul (1994), ‘Introduction: A Vital Rationalist’, in Georges Canguilhem, A Vital Rationalist, Selected Writings from Georges Canguilhem, ed. François Delaporte. New York: Zone Books, 11–22
Rajchman, John (1985), Michel Foucault: The Freedom of Philosophy. New York: Columbia University Press
Reuter, Martina (2000), Questions of the Body, Sexual Difference and Equality in Cartesian Philosophy. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino
Rouse, Joseph (1994), ‘Power/knowledge’, in Gary Gutting (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 92–114
Sawicki, Jana (1991), Disciplining Foucault: Feminism, Power and the Body. London and New York: Routledge
Sawicki, Jana (1994), ‘Foucault, Feminism, and Questions of Identity’, in Gary Gutting (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 286–313
Sawicki, Jana (1996), ‘Feminism, Foucault and “Subjects” of Power and Freedom’, in Susan J. Hekman (ed.), Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 159–78
Shepherdson, Charles (2000), Vital Signs, Nature, Culture, Psychoanalysis. London and New York: Routledge
Smart, Barry (1997), ‘Foucault, Levinas and the Subject of Responsibility’, in Jeremy Moss (ed.), The Later Foucault: Politics and Philosophy. London: Sage, 78–92
Soper, Kate (1993), ‘Productive Contradictions’, in Caroline Ramazanoglu (ed.), Up Against Foucault. London and New York: Routledge, 29–5
Steinbock, Anthony J. (1995), Home and Beyond: Generative Phenomenology after Husserl. Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press
Stoller, Silvia (2000), ‘Reflections on Feminist Merleau-Ponty Skepticism’, Hypatia 15. 1, 173–82
Sullivan, Shannon (1997), ‘Domination and Dialogue in Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception’, Hypatia 12. 1, 1–19
Taylor, Charles (1986), ‘Foucault on Freedom and Truth’, in David Couzens Hoy (ed.), Foucault: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 69–102
Turner, William (2000), A Genealogy of Queer Theory. Philadelphia: Temple University Press
Veyne, Paul (1971/1997), ‘Foucault Revolutionizes History’, in Arnold I. Davidson (ed.), Foucault and his Interlocutors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 146–82
Veyne, Paul (1986/1997), ‘The Final Foucault and his Ethics’, in Arnold I. Davidson (ed.), Foucault and his Interlocutors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 225–3
Vintges, Karen (1992), Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Visker, Rudi (1995), ‘Raw Being and Violent Discourse: Foucault, Merleau-Ponty and the (Dis-)Order of Things’, in Patrick Burke and Jan Van Der Veken (eds.), Merleau-Ponty in Contemporary Perspectives. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 109–32
Visker, Rudi (1999), Truth and Singularity: Taking Foucault into Phenomenology. Dordrecht: Kluwer
Waldenfels, Bernhard (1993), ‘Interrogative Thinking: Reflections on Merleau-Ponty's later Philosophy’, in Patrick Burke and Jan van der Veken (eds.), Merleau-Ponty in Contemporary Perpectives. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 3–12
Waldenfels, Bernhard (1998), Grenzen der Normalisierung. Frankfurt-on-Main: Suhrkamp
Waltzer, Michel (1986), ‘The Politics of Michel Foucault’, in David Couzens Hoy (ed.), Foucault: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 51–68
Webb, David (2003), ‘Cavaillès, Husserl and the Historicity of Science’, Angelaki 8. 3, 59–71
Weil, Simon (1952/1997), Gravity and Grace. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press
Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1922/1961), Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. London and New York: Routledge
Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1965), ‘A Lecture on Ethics’, Philosophical Review 74, 3–12
Wolin, Richard (1986), ‘Foucault's Aesthetic Decisionism’, Telos 67, 71–86
Young, Iris Marion (1990), Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Zahavi, Dan (1994), ‘The Self-Pluralisation of the Primal Life: A Problem in Fink's Husserl-Interpretation’, Recherches Husserliennes 2, 3–18
(1996), ‘Husserl's Intersubjective Transformation of Transcendental Philosophy’, Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 27. 3, 228–45
Zahavi, Dan (1996/2001), Husserl and Transcendental Intersubjectivity, A Response to the Linguistic-Pragmatic Critique. Athens, Oh.: Ohio University Press
Zahavi, Dan (2001), ‘Anonymity and First-Personal Giveness. An Attempt at Reconciliation’, in David Carr and Christian Lotz (eds.), Subjektivität – Verantwortung – Wahrheit. Neue Aspekte der Husserlschen Phänomenologie. Frankfurt-on-Main: Peter Lang, 61–72