8 - Clientelism and portfolio diversification: a model of electoral investment with applications to Mexico  pp. 182-205

Clientelism and portfolio diversification: a model of electoral investment with applications to Mexico

By Beatriz Magaloni, Alberto Diaz-Cayeros and Federico Estévez

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter

Interest in the study of clientelism has reawakened in recent years. While the sociological and anthropological frameworks developed in the 1960s and 1970s still provide important insights into the logic of patron–client exchanges, a reckoning with the underlying political process that makes those forms of political linkage so prevalent is in order. Clientelism was then viewed as a phenomenon typical of underdeveloped political systems, usually at early phases of institutionalization, often under authoritarian or colonial regimes. Indeed, the literature suggested that clientelism was the most characteristic form of political exchange occurring in backward agrarian societies. Presumably, as societies became more developed, social structures more differentiated, and political systems more institutionalized, clientelism was bound to disappear. Yet it has not. Throughout most of the developing world and even in many parts of the developed one, clientelism remains a political and electoral fact of life.

The defining trait of clientelism is that it involves direct exchanges between patrons and clients in which political support is traded for excludable benefits and services. Under what conditions do politicians attempt to buy votes through the provision of particularistic, excludable private goods, rather than through universalistic, non-excludable public goods? To answer this question, this chapter develops a portfolio theory of electoral investment and demonstrates its usefulness in the context of the erosion of hegemonic party rule in Mexico.

Our theory proposes that the relative importance of clientelism vis-à-vis public goods provision depends upon the extent of poverty, political competition, and the level of electoral risk.


Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Abós, Alvaro. 1986. El posperonismo. Buenos Aires: Editorial Legasa.
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon and Robinson, James A. 2001. “The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation,” American Economic Review 91: 1369–401.
Adserà, Alicia, and Boix, Carles. 2002. “Trade, democracy, and the size of the public sector: The political underpinnings of openness,” International Organization 56: 229–62.
Afanas'ev, M. N. 1997. Klientelizm i Rossiiskaia Gosudarstvennost'. Moscow: Moscow Social Science Foundation.
Aghion, Philippe and Wilkinson, Jeffrey G. 1998. Growth, inequality, and globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Alarcón-Olguín, Victor. 1994. “The PRI under Salinas de Gortari's presidency,” Paper prepared for the XVIII International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association, Atlanta, GA, 10–12 March.
Aldrich, John H. 1993. “Rational choice and turnout,” American Journal of Political Science 37: 246–78.
Aldrich, John H. 1995. Why parties? The origin and transformation of party politics in America. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Alesina, Alberto, and Perotti, R. 1996. “Income distribution, political instability, and investment,” European Economic Review 40: 1203–28.
Alesina, Alberto and Rodrik, Dani. 1994. “Distributive politics and economic growth,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 109: 465–91.
Alesina, Alberto and Tabellini, Guido. 1990. “A positive theory of fiscal deficits and government debt,” Review of Economic Studies 57: 403–14.
Alesina, Alberto, Baquir, R. and Easterly, William 1999. “Public goods and ethnic divisions,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114: 143–84.
Allum, A. 1973. Politics and society in post-war Naples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Almond, Gabriel and Verba, Sidney. 1965. The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Boston: Little, Brown.
Alvarez, Norma. 1999. “Nuevos estilos – viejas costumbres: Las prácticas electorales de la UCR y el PJ en Misiones 1955–1995,” Unpublished manuscript, Department of History, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Posadas, Argentina.
Amatori, Franco. 2000. “Beyond state and market: Italy's futile search for a third way,” in The rise and fall of state-owned enterprise in the western world (ed.) Pier Angelo Tonninelli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 128–56.
Ames, Barry. 1970. “Bases of support for Mexico's dominant party,” American Political Science Review 64:153–67.
Ames, Barry. 1987. Political survival: Politicians and public policy in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ames, Barry. 2001. The deadlock of democracy in Brazil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Amorim Neto, Octavio, and Santos, Fabiano. 2001, Fabiano G. M. “The executive connection: Presidentially defined factions and party discipline in Brazil,” Party Politics 7: 213–34.
Apter, David. 1966. The politics of modernization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ashworth, Scott and Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan. Forthcoming. “Delivering the goods: Legislative particularism in different electoral and institutional settings,” Journal of Politics 68.
Auyero, Javier. 1998. “Re-membering Peronism: An ethnographic account of the relational character of political memory,” Paper delivered at the XⅪ International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association, Chicago, 24–26 December.
Auyero, Javier. 2000. Poor people's politics. Peronist survival networks and the legacy of Evita. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Bailey, Frederick G. 1957. Caste and the economic frontier. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bailey, Frederick G. 1960. Tribe, caste and nation: A study of political activity and political change in highland Orissa. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bajpai, Nirupam and Jeffrey D. Sachs. 1999. “The state of state government finances in India.” Harvard Institute for International Development. Development Discussion Paper No. 719, September. www.cid.harvard.edu/hiid/719.pdf.
Bako-Arifari, Nassirou. 2001. “La corruption au port de Cotonou: Douaniers et intermédiares,” Politique Africaine 83: 38–58.
Banégas, Richard. 1998. “Marchandisation du vote, citoyenneté et consolidation démocratique au Bénin,” Politique Africaine 69: 75–88.
Banfield, Edward C. 1958. The moral basis of a backward society. New York: Free Press.
Banfield, Edward C. and Wilson, James Q. 1963. City politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1965.
Barrett, Patrick S. 2001. “Labour policy, labour-business relations and the transition to democracy in Chile,” Journal of Latin American Studies 33: 561–97.
Barro, Robert J. 1997. Determinants of economic growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Barth, Frederik. 1969. “Introduction,” in Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of cultural difference, ed. Frederik Barth. Boston: Little, Brown and Company: 9–38.
Bates, Robert H. 1981. Markets and states in tropical Africa: The political basis of agricultural policies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bates, Robert H. 1983. “Modernization, ethnic competition and the rationality of politics in contemporary Africa,” in State versus ethnic claims: African policy dilemmas, ed. Donald Rothchild and Victor Olorunsola. Boulder: Westview. 152–71.
Bayart, Jean-François. 1979. L'État au Cameroun. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques.
Bayart, Jean-François. 1989. L'Etat en Afrique: la politique du ventre. Paris: Fayard.
Bayly, C. A. 1988. Indian society and the making of the British empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Belloni, Frank, Caciagli, Mario, and Mattina, Liborio. 1979. “The mass clientelism party: The Christian Democratic Party in Catania and in Southern Italy,” European Journal of Political Research 7: 235–75.
Benton, Allyson Lucinda. 2001. “The stability of provincial party systems in Argentina: Regional economies, revenue sharing, and provinical politics during economic reform,” in “Patronage games: Economic reform, political institutions, and the decline of party stability in Latin America,” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles.
Berger, Gordon Mark. 1977. Parties out of power in Japan, 1931–1941. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bezerra, Marcos Otávio. 1999. Em nome das “Bases”, política, favor e dependéncia Pessoal. Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumará.
Bienen, Henry. 1967. Tanzania: Party transformation and economic development. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bienen, Henry. 1974. Kenya: The politics of participation and control. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bienen, Henry. 1979. Armies and parties in Africa. New York: Africana Publishing.
Billiet, Jaak and Huyse, Luc. 1984. “Verzorgingsstaat en Verzuiling: Een Dubbelzinnige Relatie,” Tijdschrift voor Sociologie 5: 129–51.
Blondel, Jean. 1996. “Britain. A textbook case of government – supporting party relationship,” in Party and government: An inquiry into the relationship between governments and supporting parties in liberal democracies, ed. Jean Blondel and Maurizio Cotta. Houndmills: Macmillan.
Blondel, Jean and Cotta, Maurizio (eds.) 1996. Party and government: An inquiry into the relationship between governments and supporting parties in liberal democracies. Houndmills: Macmillan.
Bodie, Zvi, Kane, Alex, and Marcus, Alan. 2001. Investments, 5th edn. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Boissevain, Jeremy. 1977. “When the saints go marching out: Reflections on the decline of patronage in Malta,” in Patrons and clients in Mediterranean societies, ed. Ernest Gellner and John Waterbury. London: Duckworth.
Boix, Carles. 2003. Democracy and redistribution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boix, Carles and Stokes, Susan C. 2003. “Endogenous democratization,” World Politics 55: 517–49.
Brass, Paul 1994. The politics of India since independence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bratton, Michael and Lambright, Gina. 2001. “Uganda's referendum 2000: The silent boycott,” African Affairs 100: 429–52.
Bratton, Michael and van de Walle, Nicolas. 1997. Democratic experiments in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bräutigam, Deborah. 1997. “Institutions, economic reform, and democratic consolidation in Mauritius,” Comparative Politics 30: 45–62.
Brown, Judith. 2003. Nehru: A political life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brown, Marguerite. 1988. Local politics: The law of the fishes: Development through political change in Medak District, Andhra Pradesh (South India). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bruhn, Kathleen. 1996. “Social spending and political support: The ‘lessons’ of the National Solidarity Program in Mexico,” Comparative Politics 26: 151–77.
Bruhn, Kathleen. 1997. Taking on Goliath: The emergence of a new left party and the struggle for democracy in Mexico. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Buchanan, James M. and Tullock, Gordon. 1962. The calculus of consent. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Budge, Ian, Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Volkens, Andrea, Bara, Judith, and Tanenbaum, Eric. 2001. Mapping policy preferences. Estimates for parties, electors, and governments 1945–1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Buijtenhuijs, Robert. 1994. “Les partis politiques Africains, ont-ils des projets de société? L'Exemple du Tchad,” Politique Africaine 56.
Bunsha, Dionne. 2002. “The rise of print,” Frontline, July 6–19.
Burgess, Katrina. 1998. “Alliances under stress: Economic reform and party–union relations in Mexico, Spain, and Venezuela,” Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Political Science, Princeton University.
Burgess, Katrina. 2004. Choosing sides: Party–union relations under stress in a globalizing world. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Burgwal, Gerrit. 1993. Caciquismo, paralelismo and clientelismo: The history of a Quito squatter settlement. Amsterdam: Institute of Cultural Anthropology/Sociology of Development, Vrije Universiteit Urban Research Working Papers no. 3.
Burgwal, Gerrit. 1995. “Struggle of the poor. Neighborhood organization and clientelist practice in a Quito Ecuador squatter settlement,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Amsterdam.
Burnell, Peter. 2001. “The party system and party politics in Zambia: Continuities past, present and future,” African Affairs 100: 239–63.
Burstein, Paul. 1976. “Political patronage and party choice among Israeli voters,” Journal of Politics 38: 1023–32.
Cain, Bruce, Ferejohn, John, and Fiorina, Morris. 1987. The personal vote: Constituency service and electoral independence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Calderón Alzati and Cazés, Daniel. 1996. Las elecciones presidenciales de 1994. Mexico City: La Jornada Ediciones.
Callaghy, Thomas. 1984. The state–society struggle: Zaire in comparative perspective. New York: Columbia University Press.
Callahan, William A. and McCargo, Duncan. 1996. “Vote-buying in Thailand's northeast: The July 1995 general election,” Asian Survey 36: 376–92.
Callow, Alexander. 1976. The city boss in America: An interpretive reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Calvo, Ernesto and Murillo, Maria Victoria. 2004. “Who delivers? Partisan clients in the Argentine electoral market?” American Journal of Political Science 48: 742–57.
Cameron, David. 1978. “The expansion of the political economy: A comparative analysis,” American Political Science Review 72: 1243–61.
Cantón, Dario. 1986. El pueblo legislador: Las elecciones de 1983. Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de América Latina.
Carey, John M. 2000. “Parchment, equilibria, and institutions,” Comparative Political Studies 33: 735–61.
Carey, John M. 2005. “Political institutions, competing principals, and party unity in legislative voting,” Berkeley, CA: Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley, working paper #2.
Carey, John M. and Shugart, Matthew Soberg. 1995. “Incentives to cultivate a personal vote: A rank ordering of electoral formulas,” Electoral Studies 14: 414–39.
Carlile, Lonny E. and Tilton, Mark C. 1998a. “Regulatory reform and the developmental state,” in Is Japan really changing its ways?, ed. Lonny E. Carlile and Mark C. Tilton. Washington, DC: Brookings. 1–15.
Carlile, Lonny E. and Tilton, Mark C. 1998b. “Is Japan really changing?” In Is Japan really changing its ways?, ed. Lonny E. Carlile and Mark C. Tilton. Washington, DC: Brookings. 197–218.
Cassese, Sabino. 1994. “Italy: Privatization announced, semi-privatizations and pseudoprivatizations,” in Privatization in Western Europe, ed. Vincent Wright. London: Pinter. 122–37.
Castells, Manuel and Portes, Alejandro. 1989. “World underneath: The origins, dynamics, and effects of the informal economy,” in The informal economy: Studies in advanced and less developed countries, ed. Alejandro Portes, Manuel Castells, and Lauren A. Benton. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Castles, Francis G. (ed.) 1982. The impact of parties: Politics and policies in democratic capitalist states. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Catterberg, Edgardo. 1991. Argentina confronts politics: Political culture and public opinion in the Argentine transition to democracy. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Catterberg, Edgardo and Braun, Maria. 1989. “Las elecciones presidenciales Argentinas del 14 de Mayo de 1989: La ruta a la normalidad,” Desarrollo Económico 115: 361–74.
Chabal, Patrick and Daloz, Jean Pierre. 1999. Africa works. London: James Currey.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2004. Why ethnic parties succeed: Patronage and ethnic headcounts in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chubb, Judith. 1981. “The social bases of an urban political machine: The case of Palermo,” Political Science Quarterly 96: 107–25.
Chubb, Judith. 1982. Patronage, power, and poverty in Southern Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clapham, Christopher. 1982. “Clientelism and the state,” in Private patronage and public power, ed. Clapham. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 1–36.
Collier, Ruth Berins. 1982. Regimes in tropical Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Collier, Ruth Berins. 1992. The contradictory alliance: State–labor relations and regime change in Mexico. Berkeley: International and Area Studies.
Consejo Nacional de Población. 1993. Indicadores socioeconómicos e indice de marginación municipal, 1990. Mexico: CONAPO-CNA.
Cooper, Joseph, Brady, David W., and Hurley, Patricia A. 1977. “The electoral basis of party voting: Patterns and trends in the U.S. House of Representatives,” in The impact of the electoral process, ed. Louis Maisel and Joseph Cooper. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Coppedge, Michael. 1988. “La politica interna de Acción Democrática durante la crisis economica,” Cuadernos del CENDES 7: 159–79.
Coppedge, Michael. 1994. Strong parties and lame ducks: Presidential partyarchy and factionalism in Venezuela. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Cornelius, Wayne. 1975. Poverty and politics of the migrant poor in Mexico City. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Cornelius, Wayne. 1977. “Leaders, followers, and official patrons in urban Mexico,” in Friends, followers and factions: Readings in political clientelism, ed. Steffen Schmidt, James C. Scott, and Carl Lande. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cornelius, Wayne. 1996. Mexican politics in transition: The breakdown of a one-party dominant regime. San Diego: Center for US-Mexican Studies.
Cornelius, Wayne A., Craig, Ann L., and Fox, Jonathan (eds.) 1994. Transforming state–society relations in Mexico: The national solidarity strategy. Center for US-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego.
Coulon, Christophe. 1988. “Senegal: Development and fragility of a semi democracy,” in Democracy in developing countries: Volume Two, Africa, eds. Larry Diamond, Juan J. Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press. 411–48.
Cox, Gary W. 1997. Making votes count: Strategic coordination in the world's electoral systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cox, Gary W. and McCubbins, Matthew D. 1993. Legislative leviathan: Party government in the House. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cox, Gary W. and McCubbins, Matthew D. 2001. “The institutional determinants of economic policy outcomes,” in Presidents, parliaments, and policy, ed. Stephan Haggard and Mathew D. McCubbins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cox, Gary W. and Rosenbluth, Francis M. 1995. “The structural determinants of electoral cohesiveness: England, Japan, and the United States,” in Structure and policy in Japan and the United States, ed. Peter F. Cowhey and Mathew D. McCubbins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crain, W. Mark, Messenheimer, Harold, and Tollison, Robert D. 1993. “The probability of being president,” Review of Economics and Statistics 75: 683–89.
Crook, Richard. 1989. “Patrimonialism, administrative effectiveness and economic development in Côte d'Ivoire,” African Affairs 88: 205–28.
Crook, Richard. 1997. “Winning coalitions and ethno-regional politics: The failure of the 1990 and 1995 elections in Côte d'Ivoire,” African Affairs 96: 215–42.
Cruise O'Brien, Donal. 1975. Saints and politicians: essays in the organisation of a Senegalese peasant society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Curtis, Gerald. 1971. Election campaigning Japanese style. New York: Columbia University Press.
Curtis, Gerald. 1992. “Japan,” in Electioneering: A comparative study of continuity and change, ed. David Butler and Austin Ranney. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
D'Alimente, Roberto and Bartolini, Stefano. 1997. “Electoral transition and party system change in Italy,” West European Politics 20: 110–34.
Dahl, Robert A. 1961. Who governs? Democracy and power in an American city. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dahl, Robert A. 1971. Polyarchy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dahlberg, Matz and Johansson, Eva. 2002. “On the vote-purchasing behavior of incumbent governments,” American Political Science Review 96: 27–40.
Dalton, Russell J., Flanagan, Scott C., and Beck, Paul Allen. 1984. “Electoral change in advanced industrial democracies,” in Electoral change in advanced industrial democracies: Realignment or dealignment?, ed. Russell J. Dalton, Scott C. Flanagan, and Paul Allen Beck. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Danevad, Andreas. 1995. “Responsiveness in Botswana politics: Do elections matter?” Journal of Modern African Studies 33: 381–402.
De Winter, Lieven. 1997. “Intra- and extra-parliamentary role attitudes and behavior of Belgian MPs,” in Members of Parliament in Western Europe, ed. Wolfgang C. Müller and Thomas Saalfeld. London: Frank Cass.
De Winter, Lieven. 1998. “Parliament and government in Belgium: Prisoners of partitocracy,” in Parliaments and governments in Western Europe, ed. Philip Norton. London: Frank Cass.
De Winter, Lieven and Dumont, Patrick. 2003. “Belgium: Delegation and accountability under partitocratic rule,” in Delegation and accountability in parliamentary democracies, ed. Kaare Str⊘m, Wolfgang C. Müller, and Torbjörn Bergman. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
De Winter, Lieven, Della Porta, Donatella, and Deschouwer, Kris. 1996. “Comparing similar countries: Belgium and Italy,” Res Publica 38: 215–36.
Della Porta, Donatella, and Vannucci, Alberto. 1995. “Politics, the mafia, and the market for corrupt exchanges,” in Italian politics: Funding the First Republic, ed. Carol Mershon and Gianfranco Pasquino. Boulder: Westview Press. 165–85.
Della Porta, Donatella, and Vannucci, Alberto. 1996. “Controlling political corruption in Italy. What did not work, what can be done?” Res Publica 38: 353–69.
Della Sala, Vincent. 1997 “Hollowing out and hardening the state: European integration and the Italian economy,” West European Politics 20: 14–33.
Deschouwer, Kris. 1999. “In der Falle gefangen: Belgiens Parteien und ihre Reaktionen auf abnehmende Wählerloyalitäten,” in Parteien auf komplexen Wählermärkten, ed. Peter Mair, Wolfang C. Müller, and Fritz Plasser. Vienna: Signum.
Deschouwer, Kris, Dewinter, Lieven, and Della Porta, Donatella. 1996. “Partitocracies between crises and reforms: The cases of Belgium and Italy,” Special issue of Res Publica 38.
Diamond, Larry. 1996. “Is the third wave over?” Journal of Democracy 7: 20–37.
Diaz-Cayeros, Alberto, Magaloni, Beatriz and Estévez, Federico. 2003. “Electoral risk and redistributive politics in Mexico and the United States,” Paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Meeting, Chicago, April 3–6.
Diaz-Cayeros, Alberto, Magaloni, Beatriz, and Weingast, Barry. 2002. “Democratization and the economy in Mexico: Equilibrium (PRI) hegemony and its demise,” Stanford: Stanford University. Typescript.
Dirks, Nicholas B. 2001. Castes of mind: Colonialism and the making of modern India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Dixit, Avinash, and Londregan, John. 1996. “The determinants of success of special interests in redistributive politics,” Journal of Politics 58: 1132–55.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper and Row.
Dresser, Denise. 1991. Neopopulist solutions to neoliberal problems: Mexico's National Solidarity Program. Current Issue Brief No. 3. La Jolla: Center for US–Mexican Studies.
Dresser, Denise. 1994. “Bringing the poor back in: National Solidarity as a strategy of regime legitimation,” in Transforming state–society relations in Mexico: The National Solidarity Strategy, ed. Wayne A. Cornelius, Ann. L. Craig, and Jonathan Fox. La Jolla: Center for US–Mexican Relations.
Dreze, Jean and Sen, Amartya. 1995. India: Economic development and social opportunity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dreze, Jean and Sen, Amartya. 1997. Indian development: Selected regional perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Drumaux, Anne. 1988. “Privatisation in Belgium: The national and international context,” West European Politics 11: 74–86.
Easterly, William. 2001. The elusive quest for growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Easterly, William and Levine, Ross. 2002. “Tropics, germs, and crops: How endowments influence economic development,” NBER Working Paper No. 9106.
Eboko, Fred. 1999. “Les élites politiques au Cameroun: Le renouvellement sans renouveau?,” in Le non-renouvellement des élites en Afrique Subsaharienne, ed. Jean-Pascal Daloz. Bordeaux: Centre D'Etude d'Afrique Noire.
Echeverri-Gent, John. 1993. The state and the poor: Public policy and political development in India and the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ellner, Steve. 1989. “Organized labor's political influence and party ties in Venezuela: Acción Democrática and its labor leadership,” Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs 31: 91–129.
Ellner, Steve. 1993. Organized labor in Venezuela, 1958–1991: Behavior and concerns in a democratic setting. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.
Ellner, Steve. 1996. “Political party factionalism and democracy in Venezuela,” Latin American Perspectives 23: 87–109.
Erie, Steven E. 1988. Rainbow's end: Irish-Americans and the dilemmas of urban machine politics, 1840–1985. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Eschenburg, Theodor. 1961. Ämterpatronage. Stuttgart: Curt E. Schwab.
Esping-Andersen, G⊘sta. 1990. The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Esping-Andersen, G⊘sta. 1999. “Politics without class: Postindustrial cleavages in Europe and America,” in Continuity and change in contemporary capitalism, ed. Herbert Kitschelt, Peter Lange, Gary Marks, and John D. Stephens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fama, Eugene and French, Kenneth. 1996. “Multifactor explanations of asset pricing anomalies,” Journal of Finance 51: 55–86.
Farrell, David M. 2002. Electoral systems. Houndmills: Palgrave.
Fauré, Y. and Médard, J. C. (ed.) 1982. Etat et bourgeoisie en Côte d'Ivoire. Paris: Karthala.
Ferejohn, John. 1986. “Incumbent performance and electoral control,” Public Choice 50: 5.
Ferejohn, John. 1999. “Accountability and authority: Towards a theory of political accountability,” in Democracy, accountability, and representation, ed. Adam Przeworski, Susan Stokes, and Bernard Manin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 131–53.
Figueiredo, Argelina Cheibub and Limongi, Fernando. 2000. “Presidential power, legislative organization, and party behavior in Brazil,” Comparative Politics 32: 151–70.
Finegold, Kenneth. 1995. Experts and politicians reform: Challenges to machine politics in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Fiorina, Morris. 1976. “The voting decision: Instrumental and expressive aspects,” Journal of Politics 38: 390–413.
Fox, Jonathan. 1994. “The difficult transition from clientelism to citizenship,” World Politics 46: 151–84.
Fox, Richard G. 1969. From zamindar to ballot box: Community change in a north Indian market town. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Frank, Stephen. 2000. “Bureaucrats for rent: How old-boy networks have undermined the strength of the Japanese state.” Ph.D. thesis, Duke University, Department of Political Science.
Frankel, F. and Rao, M. S. A. 1989. Dominance and state power in modern India: decline of a social order, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Franklin, Mark. 2004. Voter turnout and the dynamics of electoral competition in established democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Freeman, Chris and Louca, Francisco. 2001. As time goes by: From the industrial revolutions to the information revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fuchs, Dieter, Guidorossi, Giovanna, and Svensson, Palle. 1995. “Support for the democratic system,” in Citizens and the state, ed. Hans-Dieter Klingemann and Dieter Fuchs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 323–54.
Fukui, Haruhiro and Fukai, Shigeko N. 1996. “Pork barrel politics, networks, and local economic development in contemporary Japan,” Asian Survey 36: 268–86.
Fukuyama, Francis. 1995. “Social capital and the global economy,” Foreign Affairs 74: 89–103.
Fussel, Paul. 1984. Class: A guide through the American status system. New York: Ballantine.
Gallagher, Michael. 1985. “The voters decide?: Preferential voting in European list systems,” European Journal of Political Research 13: 365–78.
Garrett, Geoffrey. 1998. Partisan politics in the global economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Garrido, Luis Javier. 1982. El partido de la Revolución Institucionalizada 1928–1945. Mexico City: Siglo XⅪ.
Gay, Robert. 1994. Popular organization and democracy in Rio de Janeiro: A tale of two favelas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Geddes, Barbara. 1991. “A game theoretical model of reform in Latin American democracies,” American Political Science Review 85: 371–92.
Geddes, Barbara. 1994. Politicians' dilemma: Building state capacity in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999. “Comparisons in the context of a game theoretic argument,” in Critical comparisons in politics and culture, ed. John R. Bowen and Roger Petersen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Geddes, Barbara and Neto, Artur Ribeiro. 1992. “Institutional sources of corruption in Brazil,” Third World Quarterly 13: 641–61.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gibson, Edward. 1997. “The populist road to market reform: Policy and electoral coalitions in Mexico and Argentina,” World Politics 49: 339–70.
Gibson, Edward and Calvo, Ernesto. 2000. “Federalism and low-maintenance constituencies: Territorial dimensions of economic reform in Argentina,” Studies in Comparative International Development 35: 32–55.
Giuliani, Marco. 1997. “Measures of consensual law-making: Italian ‘Consociativismo’,” South European Society & Politics 2: 66–96.
Glaeser, Edward L., La Porta, Rafael, Lopez-De-Silanes, Florencio, and Shleifer, Andrei. 2004. “Do institutions cause growth?” Journal of Economic Growth 9: 271–303.
Golden, Miriam A. 2002. “Does globalization reduce corruption? Some political consequences of economic integration,” Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 29–September 1, 2002, Boston, MA.
Golden, Miriam A. and Chang, Eric C. C. 2001. “Competitive corruption: Factional conflict and political malfeasance in postwar Italian Christian Democracy,” World Politics 53: 588–622.
Golosov, Grigorii V. 1997. “Russian political parties and the ‘bosses’: Evidence from the 1994 provincial elections in Western Siberia,” Party Politics 3: 5–21.
Good, Kenneth. 1994. “Corruption and mismanagement in Botswana: A best-case example?,” Journal of Modern African Studies 32: 499–521.
Gordin, Jorge. 2002. “The political and partisan determinants of patronage in Latin America 1969–1994: A comparative analysis,” European Journal of Political Research 41: 513–49.
Gosnell, Harold F. 1968 [1937]. Machine politics Chicago model. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Government of India, Planning Commission. 2001. Annual Plan 2000–2001. New Delhi, Government of India.
Government of India, Planning Commission. 2002. Economic survey 2001–2002. New Delhi: Economic Division, Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
Gray, Mark and Caul, Miki. 2000. “Declining voter turnout in advanced industrial democracies, 1950–1997: The effect of declining group mobilization,” Comparative Political Studies 33: 1091–122.
Gray, Obika. 2004. Demeaned but empowered: The social power of the urban poor in Jamaica. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
Greif, Avner. 2006. Historical institutional analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Guillermoprieto, Alma. 2002. “Letter from Colombia: Waiting for war,” The New Yorker, May 13, 48–55.
Haggard, Stephan. 1990. Pathways from the periphery. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Haggard, Stephan and Kaufman, Robert (ed.) 1992. The politics of adjustment. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hale, Henry E. 2003. “Explaining machine politics in Russia's regions: Economy, ethnicity, and legacy,” Post-Soviet Affairs 19: 228–63.
Hale, Henry E. 2005. “The makeup and breakup of ethnofederal States: Why Russia survives where the USSR fell,” Perspectives on Politics 3: 55–70.
Hall, Peter A. and Soskice, David. 2001. “An introduction to varieties of capitalism,” in Varieties of capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative advantage, ed. Peter A. Hall and David Soskice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1–68.
Hardin, Russell. 1995. One for all: The logic of group conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Harmel, Robert and Janda, Kenneth. 1982. Parties and their environment. New York: Longman.
Hechter, Michael. 1987. Principles of group solidarity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hellemans, Staf. 1990. Strijd om de moderniteit. Leuven: Universitaire Pers Leuven.
Hernández, Alfonso. 2001. “The political economy of the governorship,” unpublished paper, ITESO, Guadalajara, Mexico.
Hernández Rodríguez, Rogelio. 1991. “La reforma interna y los conflictos en el PRI,” Foro Internacional 31: 222–49.
Herring, Ronald J. 1983. Land to the tiller: The political economy of agrarian reform in South Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Hibou, Béatrice (ed.) 1999. La Privatisation des états. Paris: Karthala.
Hierczy de Miño, Wolfgang and Lane, John C. 2000. “Malta: STV in a two-party system,” in Elections in Australia, Ireland, and Malta under the single transferable vote, ed. Shaun Bowler and Bernard Grofman. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Hine, David. 1979. “Italy,” in Government and administration in Western Europe, ed. R. F. Ridley. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Hine, David. 1993. Governing Italy: The politics of bargained pluralism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hirschleifer, Jack and Riley, John. 1992. The analytics of uncertainty and information. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hiskey, Jonathan. 1999. “Does democracy matter? Electoral competition and local development in Mexico,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.
Hodgkin, Thomas. 1961. African political parties. London: Penguin.
Hopkin, Jonathan and Mastropaolo, Alfio. 2001. “From patronage to clientelism: Comparing the Italian and Spanish experiences,” in Clientelism, interests, and democratic representation, ed. Simona Piattoni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Horiuchi, Yusaku. 2001. “Turnout twist: Higher voter turnout in lower-level elections”. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
Horowitz, Donald. 1985. Ethnic groups in conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Howell, Chris and Daley, Anthony. 1992. “The transformation of political exchange,” International Journal of Political Economy 22: 3–16.
Huber, Evelyne, and Stephens, John D. 2001. Development and crisis of the welfare state: Parties and policies in global markets. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Huber, John and Inglehart, Ronald. 1995. “Expert interpretations of party space and party locations in 42 societies,” Party Politics 1: 73–111.
Huber, John D. and Shipan, Charles R. 2002. Deliberate discretion? Institutional foundations of bureaucratic autonomy in modern democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huntington, Samuel. 1968. Political order in changing societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Huntington, Samuel. 1993. The third wave: Democratization in the late twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Inglehart, Ronald. 1977. The silent revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Inkles, Alex and Smith, David H. 1974. Becoming modern: Individual change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
International Monetary Fund. 2001. “India, recent economic development and selected issues,” June 5: 87–88.
Jackman, Robert. 1987. “Political institutions and voter turnout in the industrial democracies,” American Political Science Review 81: 405–23.
James, Daniel. 1988. Resistance and integration: Peronism and the Argentine working class, 1946–1976. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jerusalem Post. 2001. “Hillary and the Hassidim,” March 16.
Johnston, Michael. 1979. “Patrons and clients, jobs and machines: A case study of the uses of patronage,” American Political Science Review 73: 385–98.
Jomo, K. S. and Gomez, E. T. 1999. Malaysia's political economy: Politics, patronage and profits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Joseph, Richard. 1987. Democracy and prebendal politics in Nigeria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kang, David C. 2002. Crony capitalism: Corruption and development in South Korea and the Philippines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Karanth, G. K. 1997. “Caste in contemporary rural India,” in Caste: Its twentieth century avatar, ed. M. N. Srinivas. New Delhi: Penguin Books. 87–109.
Kasfir, Nelson. 1971. The shrinking political arena: Participation and ethnicity in African politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kaspin, Deborah. 1995. “The politics of ethnicity in Malawi's democratic transition,” Journal of Modern African Studies 33: 595–620.
Katz, Richard S. 1980. A theory of parties and electoral systems. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Katz, Richard S. 1990. “Party as linkage: A vestigial function?” European Journal of Political Research 18: 141–61.
Katz, Richard S. and Mair, Peter. 1995 “Changing models of party organization and party democracy: The emergence of the cartel party,” Party Politics 1: 5–28.
Katzenstein, Peter. 1985. Small states in world markets. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kaufmann, Daniel, Kraay, Aart, and Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo. 2002. Governance matters II. Updated indicators for 2000/01. The World Bank. Development Research Group. Policy Research Working Paper 2772.
Kearney, Robert. 1973. The politics of Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Keefer, Phil. 2003. “Clientelism, development and democracy,” Washington, DC: World Bank. Typescript.
Kiewiet, D. Roderick, and McCubbins, Mathew D. 1991. The logic of delegation: Congressional parties and the appropriations process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
King, Gary. 1998. Unifying political methodology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
King, Gary, Keohane, Robert O., and Verba, Sidney. 1994. Designing social inquiry: Scientific inference in qualitative research. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
King, Gary, Murray, Christopher J. L., Salomon, Joshua A., and Tandon, Ajay. 2003. “Enhancing the validity and cross-cultural comparability of measurement in survey research,” American Political Science Review 98: 191–207.
Kirchheimer, Otto. 1966. “The transformation of western European party systems,” in Political parties and political development, ed. Joseph LaPalombara and Myron Weiner. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1994. The transformation of European social democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1995. The radical right in Western Europe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 2000a. “Linkages between citizens and politicians in democratic polities,” Comparative Political Studies 33: 845–79.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 2000b. “Citizens, politicians, and party cartellization: Political representation and state failure in post-industrial democracies,” European Journal of Political Research 37: 149–79.
Kitschelt, Herbert. Forthcoming. “Party systems,” in Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics, ed. Carles Boix and Susan Stokes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert, and Smyth, Regina. 2002. “Programmatic party cohesion in emerging post-communist democracies: Russia in comparative context,” Comparative Political Studies 35: 1228–56.
Kitschelt, Herbert, Hawkins Kirk, Rosas Guillermo, and Zechmeister, Liz. 2006. “Party competition in Latin America,” unpublished manuscript.
Kitschelt, Herbert, Mansfeldova, Zdenka, Markowski, Radoslaw, and Toka, Gabor. 1999. Post-communist party systems: Competition, representation, and inter-party cooperation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Klesner, Joseph L. 1994. “Realignment or dealignment? Consequences of economic crisis and restructuring for the Mexican party system,” in Politics of economic restructuring: State–society relations and regime change in Mexico, eds. Maria Lorena Cook, Kevin Middlebrook, and Juan Molinar. La Jolla: Center for US–Mexican Studies, University of California at San Diego.
Klesner, Joseph L. 1996. “¿Realineación o desalineación? Consecuencias de la crisis y la reestructuración economica para el sistema partidiario Mexicano,” in Las dimensiones politicas de reestructuración Mexicana, ed. Maria Lorena Cook, Kevin Middlebrook and Juan Molinar. México: Cal y Arena. 251–91.
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Hofferbert, Richard, and Budge, Ian. 1994. Parties, policies, and democracy. Boulder: Westview Press.
Knack, Stephen. 2003. (ed.) Democracy, governance and growth. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kochanek, Stanley A. 1987. “Briefcase politics in India: The Congress Party and the business elite,” Asian Survey 27:1278–301.
Koelble, Thomas. 1991. The left unraveled: Social democracy and the new left challenge. Durham: Duke University Press.
Koelble, Thomas. 1992. “Recasting social democracy in Europe: A nested games explanation of strategic adjustment in political parties,” Politics and Society 20: 51–70.
Kofler, Anton. 1985. Parteiengesellschaft im Umbruch: Partizipationsprobleme von Grossparteien. Vienna: Böhlau.
Kohli, Atul. 1987. The state and poverty in India: The politics of reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kohli, Atul. 1990. Democracy and discontent: India's growing crisis of governability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Koole, Ruud. 1996. “Cadre, catch-all or cartel? A comment on the notion of the cartel party,” Party Politics 2: 507–23.
Kothari, Rajni. 1988. State against democracy: In search of humane governance. Delhi: Ajanta Publishers.
Kothari, Rajni. 1998. “Rise of the Dalits and the renewed debate on caste,” in State and politics in India, ed. Partha Chatterjee. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 439–58.
Krishna, Anirudh. 2002a. Active social capital: Tracing the roots of democracy and development. New York: Columbia University Press.
Krishna, Anirudh. 2002b. “Enhancing political participation in democracies: What is the role of social capital?” Comparative Political Studies 35: 437–60.
Kristinsson, Gunnar Helgi. 2001. “Clientelism in a cold climate: The case of Iceland,” in Clientelism, interests, and democratic representation, ed. Simona Piattoni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kuhn, Berthold. 1998. Participatory development in rural India. New Delhi: Radiant Publishers.
Kumar Singh, Ajit. 2000. “UP budget 2000–2001: Fiscal crisis deepens,” Economic and Political Weekly (Mumbai) April 29, 1512–13.
Kurer, Oskar. 1996. “The political foundations of economic development policies,” Journal of Development Studies 32: 645–68.
Kurtzman, David Harold. 1935. “Methods of controlling votes in Philadelphia,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Laakso, Markku and Taagepera, Rein. 1979. “Effective number of parties: A measure with application to west Europe,” Comparative Political Studies 12: 3–27.
Landa, Dimitri and Kapstein, Ethan. 2001. “Inequality, growth, and democracy,” World Politics 53: 264–96.
Lane, Jan-Erik. 2000. New public management. London: Routledge.
Lane, Jan-Erik and Ersson, Svante. 1999. The new institutional politics: Performance and outcomes. London: Routledge.
La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., and Vishny, R. W. 1999. “The quality of government,” Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 15: 222–79.
Laver, Michael and Hunt, Ben. 1992. Party and policy competition. London: Routledge.
Lawson, Kay (ed.) 1980. Political parties and linkage. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Leal, Victor Nunes. 1977. Coronelismo: The municipality and representative government in Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lemarchand, René. 1972. “Political clientilism and ethnicity in tropical Africa: Competing solidarities in nation building,” American Political Science Review 66: 68–90.
Lemarchand, René. 1988. “The state, the parallel economy and the changing structure of patronage systems,” in The precarious balance: State and society in Africa, ed. Donald Rothchild and Naomi Chazan. Boulder: Westview Press. 149–70.
Lemarchand, René, and Legg, Keith. 1972. “Political clientelism and development: A preliminary analysis,” Comparative Politics 4: 149–78.
Leonardi, Roberto and Wertman, David A. 1989. Italian Christian Democracy. Houndmills: Macmillan.
Lerner, Daniel. 1958. “The grocer and the chief: A parable,” in The passing of traditional society. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Levi, Margaret. 1988. Of rule and revenue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levitsky, Steven. 1999. “From laborism to liberalism: Institutionalization and labor-based party adaptation in Argentina 1983–1997,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley.
Levitsky, Steven. 2001. “A ‘disorganized organization’: Informal organization and the persistence of local party structures in Argentine Peronism,” Journal of Latin American Studies 33: 29–65.
Levitsky, Steven 2003. Transforming labor-based parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in comparative perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis, Peter. 1996. “From prebendalism to predation: The political economy of decline in Nigeria,” Journal of Modern African Studies 34: 79–103.
Lewis, W. Arthur. 1978. The evolution of the international economic order. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Lienert, Ian and Modi, Jitendra. 1997. “A decade of civil service reform in sub-Saharan Africa,” IMF Working Paper WP/97/179. International Monetary Fund, Fiscal Affairs Department.
Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in plural societies: A comparative explanation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lijphart, Arend. 1994. Electoral systems and party systems: A study of twenty-seven democracies, 1945–1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lijphart, Arend. 1999. Patterns of democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Limongi, Fernando, and Cheibub Figueredo, Argelina. 1995. “Partidos politicos na Câmara dos Deputados: 1989–1994,” Dados 38: 497–525.
Lindbeck, Assar, and Weibull, Jörgen. 1987. “Balanced-budget redistribution as the outcome of political competition,” Public Choice 52: 273–97.
Lindberg, C. Staffan. 2001. “Our time to chop: Elections 2000 in Ghana,” Presentation to the Annual Meetings of the African Studies Association, Houston, Texas, 15–18 November.
Linstone, Harold A. and Turoff, Murray. 1975. The delphi method: Techniques and applications. Reading: Addison-Wesley.
Linz, Juan. 1994. “Presidential or parliamentary democracy: Does it make a difference?,” 3–87, in The failure of presidential democracy, ed. Arturo Valenzuela and Juan Linz. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lipset, Seymour M. 1960. Political man: The social bases of politics. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Lipset, Seymour M. 1994. “The social requisites of democracy revisited,” American Sociological Review 59:1–22.
Lipset, Seymour M., and Rokkan, Stein. 1967. “Cleavages, structures, and voters alignments: An introduction,” in Party systems and voter alignments, ed. Seymour Martin Lipset and Stein Rokkan. New York: Free Press.
Lohmann, Susanne. 1998. “Federalism and central bank independence: The politics of German monetary policy, 1957–1992,” World Politics 50: 401–46.
Lowi, Theodore J. 1964. At the pleasure of the mayor: Patronage and power in New York City 1898–1959. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe.
Lyne, Mona M. 2004. “Endogenous institutions: Electoral law and internal party dynamics in Brazil,” Paper presented at the 2004 American Political Science Association Annual Convention, Chicago.
Lyne, Mona M. 2006. “The voter's dilemma and democratic accountability in Brazil and Venezuela: A transaction cost theory of electoral sanctioning.” Manuscript.
MacMullen, A. L. 1979. “Belgium,” in Government and administration in Western Europe, ed. R. F. Ridley. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2005. “The demise of Mexico's one-party dominant regime: Elite choices and the masses in the establishment of democracy,” in The third wave of democratization in Latin America: Advances and setbacks, ed. Frances Hagopian and Scott Mainwaring. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Magaloni, Beatriz. Forthcoming. Voting for autocracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott. 1992. “Brazilian party underdevelopment in comparative perspective,” Political Science Quarterly 107: 677–708.
Mainwaring, Scott. 1995. “Brazil: Weak parties, feckless democracy,” in Building democratic institutions: Party systems in Latin America, ed. Scott Mainwaring and Timothy Scully. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott. 1999. Rethinking party systems in the third wave of democratization: The case of Brazil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott and Perez-Liñán, Anibal. 1997. “Party discipline in multiparty systems: A methodological note and an analysis of the Brazilian Constitutional Congress,” Legislative Studies Quarterly 22: 471–93.
Manor, James. 1997. “Karnataka: Caste, class, dominance and politics in a cohesive society,” in State and politics in India, ed. P. Chafferjee. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 262–73.
Manor, James. 2000. “Small-time political fixers in India's states,” Asian Survey 40: 816–35.
Manow, Philip. 2002. “Was erklärt politische Patronage in den Ländern Westeuropas? Defizite des politischen Wettbewerbs oder historisch-formative Phasen der Massendemokratisierung,” Politische Vierteljahresschrift 43: 20–45.
Marsh, Michael. 2000. “Candidate centered but party wrapped: Campaigning in Ireland under STV,” in Elections in Australia, Ireland, and Malta under the single transferable vote, ed. Shaun Bowler and Bernhard Grofman. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Marsh, Michael and Mitchell, Paul. 1999. “Office, votes, and then policy: Choices for political parties in the Republic of Ireland, 1981–1992,” in Policy, office, or votes?, ed. Wolfgang C. Müller and Kaare Str⊘m. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Martz, John D. 1966. Acción Democrática: Evolution of a modern political party in Venezuela. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mattson, Ingvar and Str⊘m, Kaare. 1995. “Parliamentary committees,” in Parliaments and majority rule in Western Europe, ed. Herbert Döring. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Mavrogordatos, George T. 1997. “From traditional clientelism to machine politics: The impact of PASOK populism in Greece,” South European Society & Politics 2: 1–26.
Mayer, Adrian. 1997. “Caste in an Indian village: Change and continuity 1954–1992,” in Caste today, ed. C. J. Fuller. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 32–64.
Mayhew, David R. 1974. Congress: The electoral connection. New Haven: Yale University Press.
McCarthy, Mary Alice. 1997. “Center-left parties in Chile: Party–labor relations under a minimalist state,” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, April 10–12.
McCubbins, Mathew D., and Rosenbluth, Frances. 1995. “Party provision for personal politics: Dividing the vote in Japan,” in Structure and policy in Japan and the United States, ed. Peter F. Cowhey and Mathew D. McCubbins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McGuire, James W. 1997. Peronism without Peron: Unions, parties, and democracy in Argentina. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Medina, Luis Fernando, and Stokes, Susan C. 2002. “Clientelism as political monopoly,” Unpublished manuscript, Political Science Department, University of Chicago.
Middlebrook, Kevin. 1995. The paradox of revolution. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Migdal, Joel S. 1988. Strong societies and weak states. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mijeski, Kenneth. 1977. “Costa Rica: The shrinking of the presidency?,” in Presidential power in Latin American politics, ed. Thomas V. Di Bacco. New York: Praeger.
Milne, R. S. 1973. “Patrons, clients and ethnicity: The case of Sarawak and Sabah in Malaysia,” Asian Survey 13: 891–907.
Mitchell, Paul. 2000. “Voters and their representatives: Electoral institutions and delegation in Parliamentary Democracies,” European Journal of Political Research 37: 335–51.
Mitra, Subrata K. 1991. “Room to maneuver in the middle: Local elites, political action, and the state in India,” World Politics 43: 390–413.
Mitra, Subrata K. 1992. Power, protest and participation: Local elites and the politics of development in India. London: Routledge.
Molinar Horcasitas, Juan. 1991. El tiempo de la legitimidad: Elecciones, autoritarismo y democracia en Mexico. Mexico City: Cal y Arena.
Molinar Horcasitas, Juan and Weldon, Jeffrey A. 1994. “Electoral determinants and consequences of National Solidarity,” in Transforming state–society relations in Mexico: The National solidarity strategy, ed. Wayne A. Cornelius, Ann. L. Craig, and Jonathan Fox. La Jolla: Center for US–Mexican Relations.
Moller, Stefanie, Bradley, David, Huber, Evelyne, Nielson, François, and Stephens, John D. 2003. “Determinants of relative poverty in advanced capitalist democracies,” American Sociological Review 68: 22–51.
Mora y Araujo, Manuel and Llorente, Ignacio (eds). 1980. El voto Peronista: Ensayos de sociologia electoral argentina. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana.
Morgenstern, Scott. 2004. Patterns of legislative politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morgenthau, Ruth Schachter. 1964. Political parties in West Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Morlino, Leonardo. 1998. Democracy between consolidation and crisis: Parties, groups, and citizens in southern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Morris, Stephen D. 1995. Political reformism in Mexico: An overview of contemporary Mexican politics. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Morris-Jones, W. H. 1967. The government and politics of India. New York: Anchor Books.
Mulgan, Aurelia George. 2000. The politics of agriculture in Japan. New York: Routledge.
Müller, Wolfgang C. 1983. “Direktwahl und Parteiensystem,” Österreichisches Jahrbuch für Politik: 83–112.
Müller, Wolfgang C. 1988. “Privatising in a corporatist economy: The politics of privatisation in Austria,” West European Politics 11: 101–16.
Müller, Wolfgang C. 1989. “Party patronage in Austria,” in The Austrian party system, ed. Anton Pelinka and Fritz Plasser. Boulder: Westview.
Müller, Wolfgang C. 2000. “Patronage by national governments,” in The nature of party government, ed. Jean Blondel and Maurizio Cotta. Houndmills: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Müller, Wolfgang C. 2006. “The changing role of the Austrian civil service: The impact of politicisation, public sector reform, and Europeanisation,” in From the service state to the enabling state, ed. Edward C. Page. Houndmills: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Müller, Wolfgang C. and Meth-Cohn, Delia. 1994. “Looking reality in the eye: The politics of privatization in Austria,” in Privatization in Austria, ed. Vincent Wright. New York: Pinter Publishers. 160–79.
Müller, Wolfgang C., Jenny, Marcelo, Steininger, Barbara, Dolezal, Martin, Philipp, Wilfried, and Preisl-Westphal, Sabine. 2001. Die österreichischen Abgeordneten. Vienna: WUV-Fakultas.
Murillo, María Victoria. 2001. Partisan coalitions and labor competition in Latin America: Trade unions and market reforms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Narain, Iqbal (ed.) 1976. State politics in India. Meerut: Meenakshi Prakashan.
Nayak, Radhika, Saxena, N. C. and Farrington, John. 2002. Reaching the poor: The influence of policy and administrative processes on the implementation of government poverty schemes in India. ODI Working Paper 175, September.
Newell, James L., and Bull, Martin. 1997. “Party organization and alliances in Italy in the 1990s: A revolution of sorts,” West European Politics 20: 3–53.
Nian, Senati. 2002. “Rural revolution,” The Hindu, June 23.
North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nugent, Paul. 2001. “Winners, losers and also-rans: Money, moral authority, and voting patterns in the Ghana 2000 elections,” African Affairs 100: 405–28.
O'Donnell, Guillermo. 1979. “Tensions in the bureaucratic authoritarian state and the question of democracy,” in The new authoritarianism in Latin America, ed. David Collier. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
O'Gorman, Frank. 1984. “Electoral deference in ‘unreformed’ England: 1760–1832,” Journal of Modern History 56: 391–429.
Okuda, Takako. 2001. “Mechanism and dynamics of Japanese clientelism: Examination of politics of pork barrel politics in the 1990s,” Unpublished Master's thesis, Duke University.
Olson, Mancur, Jr. 1965. The logic of collective action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Orttung, Robert W. 2002. “Business and politics in Russia's regions,” paper prepared for the 2002 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, Pittsburgh, PA.
Overseas Development Institute. 2002. “Panchayati Raj and natural resources management: How to decentralize management over natural resources. Karnataka: Situation analysis and literature review,” Working Document: 22–23.
Pacheco Mendez, Guadalupe. 1991. “Los sectores del PRI en las elecciones de 1988,” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 7: 253–82.
Page, Edward C. and Wright, Vincent (eds.) 1999. Bureaucratic elites in western European states. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Palomino, Hector. 1987. Cambios ocupacionales y sociales en Argentina, 1947–1985. Buenos Aires: CISEA.
Panebianco, Angelo. 1988. Political parties: Organization and power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Panini, M. N. 1997. “The political economy of caste,” in Caste: Its twentieth century avatar, ed. M. N. Srinivas. New Delhi: Penguin Books. 28–68.
Papakostas, Apostolis. 2001. “Why is there no clientelism in Scandinavia? A comparison of the Swedish and Greek sequences of development,” in Clientelism, interests, and democratic representation, ed. Simona Piattoni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 31–53.
Pappas, Takis S. 1999. Making party democracy in Greece. Houndmills: Macmillan.
Park, Chan Wook. 1998. “Legislators and their constituents in South Korea: The pattern of district representation,” Asian Survey 28: 1049–65.
Park, Cheol Hee. 1998. “Electoral strategies in urban Japan: How institutional change affects strategic choices,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University.
Pempel, T. J. 1978. “Political parties and social change: The Japanese experience,” in Political parties: Development and decay, ed. Louis Maisel and Joseph Cooper. London: Sage Publications.
Persson, Torsten, Tabellini, Guido, and Trebbi, Francesco. 2001. “Electoral rules and corruption,” NBER Working Paper 8154.
Peters, B. Guy and Pierre, Jon (eds.) 2001. Politicians, bureaucrats, and administrative reform. London: Routledge.
Piattoni, Simona (ed.) 2001. Clientelism, interests, and democratic representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Plumb, David. 1998. “El partido por la democracia: The birth of Chile's postmaterialist catch-all Left,” Party Politics 4: 93–106.
Polsby, Nelson W. 1975. “Legislatures,” in Handbook of political science. Volume 5. Governmental institutions and processes, ed. Fred I. Greenstein and Nelson W. Polsby. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Porter, Michael E., Takeuchi, Hirotaka, and Sakakibara, Mariko. 2000. Can Japan compete? Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
Posner, Daniel. N. 1998. “The institutional origins of ethnic politics in Zambia,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Government, Harvard University.
Post, Kenneth. 1963. The Nigerian federal election of 1959. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Powell, G. Bingham. 1986. “American voter turnout in comparative perspective,” American Political Science Review 80: 17–43.
Powell, G. Bingham. 2000. Elections as instruments of democracy: Majoritarian and proportional visions. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Powell, G. Bingham. 2004. “Political representation in comparative politics,” Annual Review of Political Science 7: 273–96.
Powell, John Duncan. 1970. “Peasant society and clientelist politics,” American Political Science Review 64: 411–25.
Przeworski, Adam. 1991. Democracy and the market: Political and economic reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Przeworski, Adam, and Sprague, John. 1986. Paper stones: A history of electoral socialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Przeworski, Adam, Alvarez, Michael E., Cheibub, Jose Antonio, and Limongi, Fernando. 2000. Democracy and development: Political institutions and well-being in the world, 1950–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Quinn, Dennis and Woolley, John T. 2001. “Democracy and national economic performance: The preference for stability,” American Journal of Political Science 45: 634–51.
Raftopoulos, Brian. 2001. “Le mouvement syndical et émergence de l'opposition politique au Zimbabwe,” Politique Africaine 81.
Ramseyer, J. Mark, and Rosenbluth, Frances M. 1995. The politics of oligarchy: Institutional choice in imperial Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ramseyer, J. Mark, and Rosenbluth, Frances M. 1993. Japan's political marketplace. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Reddaway, P. and Orttung, R. W. 2004. Dynamics of Russian politics: Putin's reform of federal-regional relations. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Reddy, G. Ram and Haragopal, G. 1985. “The Pyraveerkar: The ‘fixer’ in rural India,” Asian Survey 25: 1147–62.
Reed, Steven R. 1986. Japanese prefectures and policymaking. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Rehfeld, Andrew. 2000. “Silence of the land: An historical and normative analysis of territorial representation in the United States,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Political Science, University of Chicago.
Reno, William. 1995. Corruption and state politics in Sierra Leone. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rhodes, Martin. 1997. “Financing party politics in Italy: A case of systemic corruption,” West European Politics 20: 54–80.
Richardson, Bradley. 1997. Japanese democracy: Power, coordination, and performance. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Riker, William H. 1980. “Implications from the disequilibrium of majority rule for the study of institutions,” American Political Science Review 74: 432–46.
Riordon, William. 1994. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall. Boston: Bedford Books.
Roberts, Kenneth M. 1994. “Renovation in the revolution? Dictatorship, democracy, and political change in the Chilean left,” Kellogg Institute Working Paper 203. Notre Dame: The Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies.
Roberts, Kenneth M. 1995. “Neoliberalism and the transformation of populism in Latin America: The Peruvian case,” World Politics 48: 82–116.
Roberts, Kenneth M. 1998a. Deepening democracy? The modern left and social movements in Chile and Peru. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Roberts, Kenneth M 1998b. “The Chilean party system and social cleavages in the neoliberal era,” Paper prepared for delivery at the XⅪ International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association, Chicago, 24–26 September, 1998.
Roberts, Kenneth M. 2002. “Social inequalities without class inequalities in Latin America's neoliberal era,” Studies in Comparative International Development 36: 3–33.
Roberts, Kenneth M. and Arce, Moises. 1998. “Neoliberalism and lower-class voting behavior in Peru,” Comparative Political Studies 31: 217–46.
Roberts, Kenneth M., and Wibbels, Erik. 1999. “Party systems and electoral volatility in Latin America: A test of economic, institutional, and structural explanations,” American Political Science Review 93: 575–90.
Robinson, James A. and Verdier, Thierry. 2001. “The political economy of clientelism,” Manuscript, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Robinson, Marguerite S. 1988. Local politics: The law of fishes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rodden, Jonathan and Wibbels, Erik. 2002. “Beyond the fiction of federalism,” World Politics 54: 491–531.
Rodrik, Dani, Subramanian, Arvind and Trebbi, Francesco. 2002. “Institutions rule: The primacy of institutions over geography and integration in economic development,” Revised paper, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Rogowski, Ronald. 1987. “Trade and the variety of democratic institutions,” International Organization 41: 203–23.
Roniger, Luis. 1981. “Clientelism and patron-client relations: A bibliography,” in Political clientelism, patronage and development, ed. Shmuel N. Eisenstadt and Rene Lemarchand. Beverly Hills: Sage. 297–329.
Rosenbluth, Frances M. 1996. “Internationalization and electoral politics in Japan,” in Internationalization and domestic politics, ed. Robert O. Keohane and Helen V. Milner. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 137–56.
Rothchild, Donald. 1985. “State ethnic relations in middle Africa,” in African independence: the first 25 years, ed. Gwendolyn Carter and Patrick O'Meara. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Rothchild, Donald and Olorunsola, V. A. (eds.) 1982. State versus ethnic claims: African policy dilemmas. Boulder: Westview Press.
Roy, A. D. 1952. “Safety first and the holding of assets,” Econometrica 20: 431–49.
Roy, Aruna and Dey, Nikhil. 2001. “Chasing a right,” Frontline 18, 7 (March 31–April 13).
Rudolph, L. I. and Rudolph, S. H. 1967. The modernity of tradition: Political development in India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Samuels, David J. 2002. “Pork barreling is not credit claiming or advertising: Campaign finance and the sources of the personal vote in Brazil,” Journal of Politics 64: 845–63.
Samuels, David and Snyder, Richard. 2001. “The value of a vote: Malapportionment in comparative perspective,” British Journal of Political Science 31: 651–71.
Sandbrook, Richard. 1972. “Patrons, clients and factions: New dimensions of conflict analysis in Africa,” Canadian Journal of Political Science 5: 104–19.
Saxena. S. B. and Charan, A. S. 1973. “Dingri (Udaipur District, Rajasthan): A village in the vicinity of a new rail link.” Indian Village Studies No. 18, Agro-Economic Research Center. Vallabh Vidyanagar Gujarat: Sadar Patel University.
Scalapino, Robert A. 1953. Democracy and the party movement in prewar Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schady, Norbert. 2000. “The political economy of expenditures by the Peruvian Social Fund FONCODES, 1991–95,” American Political Science Review 94: 289–303.
Schaffer, Frederic. 1998. Democracy in translation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Scharpf, Fritz W. 1997. Games real actors play. Boulder: Westview.
Scharpf, Fritz W. and Schmidt, Vivien A. 2000. Welfare and work in the open economy: From vulnerability to competitiveness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schatzberg, Michael. 2001. Political legitimacy in Middle Africa: Father, family, food. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Scheiner, Ethan. 2001. “The limits of anti-clientelist appeals: Opposition failure in Japan,” Paper prepared for delivery at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, August 30–September 2.
Scheiner, Ethan. 2006. Democracy without competition in Japan: Opposition failure in a one-party dominant state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, James C. 1969. “Corruption, machine politics, and political change,” American Political Science Review 62: 1142–58.
Scott, James C. 1972. “Patron–client politics and political change in Southeast Asia,” American Political Science Review 66: 91–113.
Scully, Timothy R. 1995. “Reconstituting party politics in Chile,” in Building democratic institutions. Party systems in Latin America, ed. Scott Mainwaring and Timothy R. Scully. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 100–37.
Seaman, Scott R. 2003. “Crumbling foundations: Japan's public works policies and democracy in the 1990s,” unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Duke University.
Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as freedom. New York: Random House.
Sharpe, W. 1964. “Capital asset prices: A theory of market equilibrium under conditions of risk,” Journal of Finance 19: 425–42.
Sheffer, Gabriel. 1978. “Elite cartel, vertical domination, and grassroots discontent in Israel,” in Territorial politics in industrial nations, ed. Sidney Tarrow, Peter J. Katzenstein, Luigi Graziano. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Shefter, Martin 1977. “Party and patronage: Germany, England, and Italy,” Politics and Society 7: 403–51.
Shefter, Martin 1994. Political parties and the state: The American historical experience. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Shepsle, Kenneth A. 1986. “Institutional equilibrium and equilibrium institutions,” in Political science. The science of politics, ed. Herbert F. Weisberg. New York: Agathon Press.
Shepsle, Kenneth A. 1989. “Studying institutions: Some lessons from the rational choice approach,” Journal of Theoretical Politics 1: 131–47.
Shepsle, K. A. and Bonchek, M. S. 1997. Analyzing politics: Rationality, behavior, and institutions. New York: W.W. Norton.
Shepsle, Kenneth A. and Weingast, Barry R. 1987. “The institutional foundation of committee power,” American Political Science Review 81: 85–104.
Sheth, D. L. 1999. “Secularisation of caste and making of new middle class,” Economic and Political Weekly, August 21–28, 2502–10.
Shugart, Matthew Soberg. 1998. “The inverse relationship between party strength and executive strength: A theory of politicians' constitutional choices,” British Journal of Political Science 28: 1–29.
Shugart, Matthew Soberg and Carey, John M. 1992. Presidents and assemblies: Constitutional design and electoral dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Singh, Rajendra. 1988. Land, power and people: Rural elite in transition 1801–1970. London: Sage Publications.
Singh, Vikas, Gehlot, Bhupendra, Start, Daniel and Johnson, Craig. 2003. “Out of reach: Local politics and the disbursement of development funds in Madhya Pradesh,” Overseas Development Institute Working Paper May 2003 (www.odi.org.uk/publications/working_papers/WP200.pdf).
Sisson, Richard. 1972. The Congress Party in Rajasthan: Political integration and institution-building in an Indian state. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Smith, William. 1989. Authoritarianism and the crisis of the Argentine political economy. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Somjee, A. H. 1959. Voting behaviour in an Indian village. Political Science Series no. 2. Baroda: M.S. University of Baroda, 1959.
Soskice, David. 1999. “Divergent production regimes: Coordinated and uncoordinated market economies in the 1980s and 1990s,” in Continuity and change in contemporary capitalism, ed. Herbert Kitschelt, Peter Lange, Gary Marks, and John Stephens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 101–34.
Stiefel, Dieter. 2000. “Fifty years of state-owned industry in Austria, 1946–1996,” in The rise and fall of state-owned enterprise in the western world, ed. Pier Angelo Toninelli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 237–52.
Stigler, George J. 1972. “Economic competition and political competition,” Public Choice 13: 91–106.
Stokes, Susan C. 1995. Cultures in conflict: Social movements and the state in Peru. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stokes, Susan C. 2003. “Perverse accountability: Monitoring voters and buying votes,” Paper prepared for Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, August 28–31.
Stokes, Susan C. 2005. “Perverse accountability: A formal model of machine politics with evidence from Argentina,” American Political Science Review 99: 315–26.
Stone, Carl. 1986. Class, state, and democracy in Jamaica. New York: Praeger.
Stoner-Weiss, Kathryn. 1999. “Central weakness and provincial autonomy,” Post-Soviet Affairs 15: 87–104.
Str⊘m, Kaare. 1990. “A behavioral theory of competitive political parties,” American Journal of Political Science 34: 565–98.
Str⊘m, Kaare, Müller, Wolfgang C., and Bergman, Torbjörn (eds.) 2003. Delegation and accountability in parliamentary democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Subha, K. 1997. Karnataka Panchayat elections 1995: Process, issues and membership profile. New Delhi: Concept Publishing/Institute of Social Sciences.
Swenden, Wilfried. 2002. “Asymmetric federalism and coalition-making in Belgium,” Publius 32: 67–87.
Szwarcberg, Mariela L. 2001. “Feeding loyalties: An analysis of clientelism, the case of the Manzaneras,” unpublished manuscript, Universidad Torcuato di Tella.
Taagepera, Rein, and Shugart, Matthew Soberg. 1989. Seats and votes: The effects and determinants of electoral systems. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1977. Between center and periphery: Grassroots politicians in Italy and France. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Tatebayashi, Masahiko, and McKean, Margaret. 2001. “Vote division and policy differentiation strategies of LDP members under SNTV/MMD in Japan,” Prepared for the Conference on Citizen-Elite Linkages, March 30–April 1 2001, Duke University.
Throup, David W., and Charles Hornsby. 1998. Multi-party politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta & Moi states & the triumph of the system in the 1992 Election. Oxford: J. Currey.
Tilly, Charles. 1975. The formation of nation states in western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Torre, Juan Carlos. 1983. Los sindicalistas en el gobierno, 1973–1976. Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de America Latina.
Treisman, Daniel. 2000. “The causes of corruption: A cross-national study,” Journal of Public Economics 76: 399–457.
Treisman, Daniel S. 1999. After the deluge. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Tsebelis, George. 1990. Nested games: Rational choice in comparative politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tsebelis, George. 2002. Veto players: An introduction to institutional analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Uphoff, Norman and Ilchman, Warren. 1972. The political economy of development: Theoretical and empirical contributions. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Uriu, Robert M. 1996. Troubled industries: Confronting economic change in Japan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Urquizo, Yolanda. 1999. Unpublished manuscript, Universidad Nacional de Misiones.
van de Walle, Nicolas. 1993. “The politics of non-reform in Cameroon,” in Hemmed in: Responses to Africa's economic decline, ed. Thomas Callaghy and John Ravenhill. New York: Columbia University Press. 357–97.
van de Walle, Nicolas. 1993. “The politics of non-reform in Cameroon,” in Hemmed in: Responses to Africa's economic decline, ed. Thomas Callaghy and John Ravenhill. New York: 2001. African economies and the politics of permanent crisis, 1979–1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van Hassel, Hugo. 1975. “Belgian civil servants and political decision making,” in The mandarins of western Europe, ed. Mattei Dogan. New York: Sage.
Van Outrive, Lode. 1996. “The political role of the judiciary,” Res Publica 38: 371–84.
Villalón, Leonardo. 1994. “Democratizing a quasi democracy: The Senegalese elections of 1993,” African Affairs 93: 163–93.
Villarreal, Juan. 1987. “Changes in Argentine society: The heritage of the dictatorship,” in From military rule to liberal democracy in Argentina, ed. Monica Peralta-Ramos and Carlos Waisman. Boulder: Westview Press.
Waisbord, Silvio. 1995. El gran desfile: Campañas electorales y medios de comunicación en Argentina. Buenos Aires: Sudamericana.
Wantchekon, Leonard. 2003. “Clientelism and voting behavior: Evidence from a field experiment in Benin,” World Politics 55: 399–422.
Warner, Carolyn M. 1997. “Political parties and the opportunity costs of patronage,” Party Politics 3: 533–48.
Warner, Carolyn M. 2001. “Mass parties and clientelism in France and Italy,” in Clientelism, interests and democratic representation, ed. Simona Piattoni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 122–51.
Washbrook, David. 1973. “Country politics: Madras 1880 to 1930,” Modern Asian Studies 7: 475–531.
Weber, Eugen. 1976. Peasants into Frenchmen. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Weiner, Myron. 1967. Party building in a new nation: The Indian National Congress. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Weiner, Myron. 1986. “The political economy of industrial growth in India,” World Politics 38: 596–610.
Weingast, Barry R. 1995. “The economic role of political institutions: Market-preserving federalism and economic development,” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 11: 1–31.
Weingast, Barry R. 1996. “Political institutions: Rational choice perspectives,” in A new handbook of political science, ed. Robert E. Goodin and Hans-Dieter Klingemann. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Weingast, Barry R. 2000. “A comparative theory of federal economic performance,” APSA-CP Newsletter, Winter, 6–11.
Weingast, Barry R. and Marshall, William J. 1988. “The industrial organization of Congress: Or why legislatures, like firms, are not organized as markets,” Journal of Political Economy 96:132–63.
Weingrod, Alex. 1968. “Patrons, patronage and political parties,” in Comparative Studies in Society and History 10: 377–400. Also published in Friends, followers and factions; A reader in political clientelism, ed. Steffen W. Schmidt, Laura Guasti, Carl H. Landé and James C. Scott. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Weldon, Jeffrey. 1997. “Political sources of presidencialismo in Mexico,” in Presidentialism and democracy in Latin America, ed. Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Soberg Shugart. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Whyte, J. H. 1965. “Landlord influence at elections in Ireland, 1760–1885,” English Historical Review 80: 740–60.
Wiberg, Matti. 1995. “Parliamentary questions,” in Parliaments and majority rule in western Europe, ed. Herbert Döring. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Widner, Jennifer. 1992. The rise of the party-state in Kenya. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wildgen, John K. 1985. “Preference voting and intraparty competition in Italy: Some new evidence on the Communist–Christian Democratic stalemate,” Journal of Politics 47: 947–57.
Wilkinson, Steven I. 2004. Votes and violence: Electoral competition and ethnic riots in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wolfinger, Raymond E. 1972. “Why political machines have not withered away and other revisionist thoughts,” Journal of Politics 34: 365–98.
Woodall, Brian. 1996. Japan under construction: Corruption, politics, and public works. Berkeley: University of California Press.
World Bank. 1999. World development report 1999/2000. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank. 2000a. Entering the 21st century. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank 2000b. Overview of rural decentralization in India, Volume II,” Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank 2003. India: Sustaining reform, reducing poverty. Report No. 25797-IN. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Yadav, Yogendra. 1996. “Reconfiguration in Indian politics: State assembly elections, 1993–95,” Economic and Political Weekly 95–104.
Zamítiz, Héctor. 1991. “La reforma del PRI en el contexto de la reforma del estado: Actores y dinámica política de la ⅪV Asamblea Nacional,” Estudios Políticos 6: 109–39.
Zucker, Lynne G. 1977. “The role of institutionalization in cultural persistence,” American Sociological Review 42: 726–43.
Zuckerman, Alan. 1979. The politics of faction. New Haven: Yale University Press.