1 - Why study emerging-market multinationals?  pp. 3-22

Why study emerging-market multinationals?

By Ravi Ramamurti

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



As developing and transition economies opened up to the global economy in recent years, a number of local firms not only survived the battle for markets at home, they expanded internationally through exports and foreign direct investment (FDI) to become fledgling multinational enterprises (MNEs) in their own right. By 2007, the more prominent emerging-market MNEs (hereafter referred to as EMNEs) included firms such as China's Huawei in telecommunications equipment, Mexico's Cemex in cement, Russia's Gazprom in energy, India's Tata Consultancy Services in information technology (IT) services, and Brazil's Embraer in regional jets. Many more firms in emerging economies were preparing to go down the same path in the future. Business magazines, such as BusinessWeek (2006) and the Economist (2007), trumpeted this trend with cover stories on “emerging giants” or “globalization's offspring” and illustrated the disruptive effects EMNEs were having on established Western multinationals. Consulting companies, such as McKinsey & Co. and the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), also took notice of these potential clients. There was a parallel increase in studies on EMNEs by international business (IB) scholars, although no consensus emerged on whether and how EMNEs differed from multinationals that had come before.

1

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Aharoni, Yair and Ravi Ramamurti. 2008. The Internationalization of Multinationals. In Jean Boddewyn (ed.), The Evolution of International Business Scholarship: AIB Fellows on the First 50 Years and Beyond. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 171–201.
Amsden, Alice H. 1989. Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Amsden, A. 2001. The Rise of ‘the Rest’. Challenges to the West from Late-Industrializing Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Amsden, A. and Wan-wen Chu. 2003. Beyond Late Development: Taiwan's Upgrading Policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Amsden, Alice H. and Takashi Hikino. 1994. Project Execution Capability, Organizational Know-How and Conglomerate Corporate Growth in Late Industrialization. Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 3, No. 1: 111–147.
Aulakh, Preet S. 2007. Emerging Multinationals from Developing Economies: Motivations, Paths, and Performance. Journal of International Management, Vol. 13, No. 3: 235–240.
Boston Consulting Group. 2006. The New Global Challengers: How 100 Top Companies from Rapidly Developing Economies are Changing the World. Boston: Boston Consulting Group (May 2006).
Buckley, Peter J., L. Jeremy Clegg, Adam R. Cross, Xin Liu, Hinrich Voss, and Ping Zheng. 2007. The Determinants of Chinese Outward Foreign Investment. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4 (July): 499–518.
BusinessWeek. 2006. Emerging Giants. July 31.
Child, John and Suzana B. Rodrigues. 2005. The Internationalization of Chinese Firms: A Case for Theoretical Extension? Management and Organization Review, Vol. 1, No. 3 (November): 381–410.
Dunning, J. H. 1977. Trade, Location of Economic Activity and the Multinational enterprise: A Search for an Eclectic Approach. In B. Ohlin, P. O. Hesselborn, and P. M. Wijkman (eds.), The International Allocation of Economic Activity. London: Macmillan, pp. 395–418.
Dunning, John. 2006. Comment on Dragon Multinationals: New Players in 21st Century Globalization. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 23, No. 2 (June): 139–141.
Economist. 2007. Globalization's Offspring. April 4.
Franco, L. G. 1976. The European Multinationals. New York: Harper & Row.
Ghemawat, Pankaj and Jamie L. Matthews. 2000. The Globalization of Cemex. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, No. 9701017.
Goldstein, Andrea. 2007. Multinational Companies from Emerging Economies. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Johanson, Jan and Jan-Eric Vahlne. 1977. The Internationalization Process of the Firm: A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1: 23–32.
Khanna, Tarun and Krishna Palepu. 2006. Emerging Giants: Building World-Class Companies in Developing Countries. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 84, No. 10 (October): 60–69.
Khanna, T. and Krishna Palepu. 2005. Spotting Institutional Voids in Emerging Markets. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, Note No. 9106014.
Khanna, Tarun and Krishna Palepu. 1997. Why Focused Strategies May Be Wrong for Emerging Markets. Harvard Business Review, (July), Reprint 97404.
Kobrin, Stephen J. 1977. Comment. In Tamir Agmon and Charles P. Kindleberger (eds.), Multinationals from Small Countries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 157–165.
Kumar, Krishna. 1982. Third World multinationals: A growing force in international relations. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 3 (September): 397–424.
Lall, Sanjaya. 1983. (ed.) The New Multinationals: The Spread of Third World Enterprises. Chichester, UK, and New York: John Wiley, IRM series on multinationals.
Lecraw, D. 1977. Direct Investment by Firms from Less-Developed Countries. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 29, No. 3 (November): 442–457.
Luo, Yadong and Rosalie L. Tung. 2007. International Expansion of Emerging Market Enterprises: A Springboard Perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4: 481–498.
Mathews, John A. 2002. Dragon Multinational: A New Model for Global Growth. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Narula, Rajneesh. 2006. Globalization, New Ecologies, New Zoologies, and the Purported Death of the Eclectic Paradigm. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 23, No. 3 (June): 143–152.
Palmisano, Samuel J. 2006. The Globally Integrated Enterprise. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85, No. 3 (May/June): 127–136.
Porter, Michael E. 1990. Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press.
Ramamurti, Ravi. 2004. Developing Countries and Multinational enterprises: Extending and Enriching the Research Agenda. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 35: 277–283.
Rhee, Jay Hyuk and Joseph L. C. Cheng. 2002. Foreign Market Uncertainty and Incremental Market Expansion: The Moderating Effect of Firm, Industry, and Host Country Factors. Management International Review, Vol. 42, No. 4: 419–439.
Sinha, Jayant. 2005. Global Champions from Emerging Markets. McKinsey Quarterly, No. 2: 27–35.
Tsui, Anne. 2007. From Homogenization to Pluralism: International Management Research in the Academy and Beyond. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 50, No. 6: 1353–1364.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2007. World Investment Report, 2007 Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries, and Development. Geneva: United Nations.
van Agtmael, Antoine. 2007. The Emerging Markets Century. New York: Free Press.
Vernon, R. 1966. International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 41 (May): 191–207.
Vernon, Raymond. 1979. The Product Cycle Hypothesis in a New International Environment. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 41, No. 4 (November): 255–267.
Weigel, Dale R., Neil F. Gregory, and Dileep M. Wagle 1998. Lessons of Experience No. 5: Foreign Direct Investment. International Finance Corporation and World Bank.
Wells, Louis T. Jr. 1977. The Internationalization of Firms from Developing Countries. In Tamir Agmon and Charles P. Kindleberger (eds.), Multinationals from Small Countries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 133–156.
Wells, Louis T. Jr. 1983. Third World Multinationals: The Rise of Foreign Investment from Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wilkins, Mira. 1974. The Maturing of Multinational Enterprise: American Business Abroad from 1914 to 1970. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilson, Dominic and Roopa Purushothaman. 2003. Dreaming with Brazil, Russia, India, Chinas: The Path to 2050. New York: Goldman Sachs, Global Economics Paper No. 99.
Yip, George. 1989. Global Strategy … in a World of Nations? Sloan Management Review, Vol. 31, No. 1: 29–41.
Zaheer, Sri. 1995. Overcoming the Liability of Foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2 (April): 341–363.
Zeng, Ming and Peter Williamson. 2007. Dragons at Your Door: How Chinese Cost Innovation is Disrupting Global Competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bartlett, C. A., and Ghoshal, S. 1989. Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Brouthers, L. E., O'Donnell, E., and Hadjimarcou, J. 2005. “Generic Product Strategies for Emerging Market Exports into Triad Nation Markets: A Mimetic Isomorphism Approach,” Journal of Management Studies 42(1): 225–245.
Debrah, Y. A., McGovern, I., and Budhwar, P. 2000. “Complementarity or Competition; The Development of Human Resources in a South-East Asian Growth Triangle: Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore,” International Journal of Human Resource Management 11(2): 314–335.
Fortune Global 500. 2004. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/
Hobday, M. 1995. “East Asian Latecomer Firms: Learning the Technology of Electronics,” World Development 23(7): 1171–1193.
Nelson, R. R., and Pack, H. 1999. “The Asian Miracle and Modern Growth Theory,” The Economic Journal 109: 416–436.
Nolan, P. 2004. China at the Crossroads, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Porter, M. E. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations, New York: Free Press, MacMillan.
Rugman, A. M. 1981. Inside the Multinationals: The Economics of Internal Markets, New York: Columbia University Press. Reissued in 2006 as Inside the Multinationals, 25th Anniversary Edition, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Rugman, A. M. 1987. Outward Bound: Canadian Direct Investment in the United States, Toronto: C. D. Howe and Prentice-Hall of Canada.
Rugman, A. M. 1996. The Theory of Multinational Enterprises, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Rugman, A. M. 2000. The End of Globalization, London: Random House.
Rugman, A. M. 2005. The Regional Multinationals: MNEs and global Strategic Management, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Rugman, A. M., and D'Cruz, J. 2000. Multinationals as Flagship Firms: Regional Business Networks, New York: Oxford University Press.
Rugman, A. M., and Doh, J. 2008. Multinationals and Development, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Rugman, A. M., and McIlveen, J. 1985. Megafirms: Strategies for Canada's Multinationals, Toronto: Methuen.
Rugman, A. M., and Oh, C. H. 2007. “Multinationality and Regional Performance, 2001–2005,” in A. M. Rugman (ed.), Regional Aspects of Multinationality and Performance, Research in Global Strategic Management series, Vol. 13, Oxford, UK: Elsevier, pp. 31–43.
Rugman, A. M., and Verbeke, A. 2003. “Extending the Theory of the Multinational Enterprise: Internalization and Strategic Management Perspectives,” Journal of International Business Studies 34: 125–137.
Thun, E. 2005. Changing Lanes in China: Foreign Direct Investment, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
World Bank 1993. The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy, New York: Oxford University Press.
Zeng, M., and Williamson, P. J. 2007. Dragons at Your Door: How Chinese Cost Innovation is Disrupting Global Competition, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Amsden, A. H. (2001). The Rise of “the Rest”: Challenges to the West from Late-Industrializing Economies. New York, Oxford University Press.
Amsden, A. H. (2007). Escape from Empire: The Developing World's Journey Through Heaven and Hell. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.
Amsden, A. H. and W. W. Chu (2003). Beyond Late Development: Taiwan's Upgrading Policies. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.
Amsden, A. H. and T. Hikino (1994). Project Execution Capability, Organizational Know-how and Conglomerate Corporate Growth in Late Industrialization. Industrial and Corporate Change 3(1): 111–147.
Bagchi, A. K. (1972). Private Investment in India, 1900–1939. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
Banerjee, A. K. (1963). India's Balance of Payments: Estimates of Current and Capital Accounts from 1921–22 to 1938–39. Bombay, Asia Publishing House.
Chandavarkar, R. (1994). The Bombay Cotton Textile Industry, 1900–1940. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
Das, N. (1962). Industrial Enterprise in India. Bombay, Orient Longmans.
Dori, G. (1988). Sources, Procedures, and Microeconomic Effects of Innovation. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. 26, No. 3: 1120–1171.
Ferguson, N. (2003). Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York, Basic Books.
Feuerwerker, A. (1958). China's Early Industrialization: Cheng Hsuan-Huai (1844–1916) and Mandarin Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Feuerwerker, A. (1967). Industrial Enterprise in Twentieth-Century China: The Chee Hsin Cement Co. Approaches to Modern Chinese History. A. Feuerwerker, R. Murphey and M. C. Wright (eds.). Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, University of California Press: 304–341.
Fraser, L. (1919). Iron and Steel in India. Bombay, Times Press.
Hao, Y. -p. i. (1986). The Commercial Revolution in Nineteenth-Century China: The Rise of Sino-Western Mercantile Capitalism. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
Khanna, T. and Y. Yafeh (2007). Business Groups in Emerging Markets: Paragons or Parasites? Journal of Economic Literature Vol. 45: 331–372.
Lawrence, R. Z. (1993). Japan's Low Levels of Inward Investment: The Role of Inhibitions on Acquisitions. Foreign direct Investment. K. Froot (ed.). Chicago, University of Chicago for the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Lieu, D. K. (1936). The Growth and Industrialization of Shanghai. Shanghai: China Institute of Pacific Relations.
Maddison, A. (1971). Class Structure and Economic Growth: India and Pakistan Since the Moghuls. New York, W. W. Norton.
Mathiar, P. (1973). Capital, Credit and Enterprise in the Industrial Revolution. Journal of European Economic History Vol. 2: 121–143.
Morris, M. D. (1983). The Growth of Large-Scale Industry to 1947. The Cambridge Economic History of India. Vol. 2 D. Kumar and M. Desai(eds.). Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
Mourshed, M. (1999). Technology Transfer Dynamics: Lessons from the Egyptian and Indian Pharmaceutical Industries. Urban Studies and Planning Ph.D. thesis. Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Nakaoka, T. (1991). The Transfer of Cotton Manufacturing Technology from Britain to Japan. International Technology Transfer, Europe, Japan and the USA, 1700–1914. D. J. Jeremy (ed.). Aldershot, UK, Edward Elgar: 181–198.
Riskin, C. (1975). Surplus and Stagnation in Modern China. China's Modern Economy in Historical Perspective. D. H. Perkins(ed.). Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press: 49–84.
Rungta, R. S. (1970). The Rise of Corporations in India, 1851–1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rutnagur, S. M. (1927). Bombay Industries: The Cotton Mills. Bombay, The Indian Textile Journal, Ltd.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Brown, D. and S. Wilson (2005), The Black Book of Outsourcing: How to Manage the Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Caves, R. E. and M. E. Porter (1978), ‘Market Structures, Oligopoly, and Stability of Market Shares’, Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol. 26 (June), pp. 289–308.
Dealogic (2006), www.dealogic.com.
Dialog (2003), ‘Interview with Zhang Rai Min’, CCTV 2, 14 December.
Fleury A. and M. T. Fleury (2007), ‘Evolution and Reconfiguration of Production Systems’, Journal of Manufacturing and Technology Management, Vol. 18, No. 8, pp. 946–965.
Government of Singapore (2006), www.csc.mti-mofcom.gov.sg
Nelson, R. R. and S. G. Winter (1982), An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press.
Normile, D. (2005), ‘Chinese Telecom Companies Come Calling’, Electronic Business, 1 February.
Rabe, C. and A. Hoffbauer (2005), ‘Chinesische Firmen drängen auf den deutschen Markt’, Handelsblatt, 9 June, p. 1.
Rugman, A. (1981), Inside the Multinationals, New York: Columbia University Press.
Verdin, P. and P. J. Williamson (1994), ‘From Barriers to Entry to Barriers to Survival’, in Building the Strategically Responsive Organisation (H. Thomas, ed.), Chichester, UK: Wiley, ch. 15.
World Brand Laboratory (2006), www.brand.icxo.com/
World Trade Organization (1998), Annual Report 1998.
Yangcheng Evening News (2004), ‘Pearl River Piano Will Strike a Strong Tone of Global Brand’, 7 June, p. 2.
Zaheer, S. (1995), ‘Overcoming the Liability of Foreignness’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 341–363.
Zeng, M. and P. J. Williamson (2003), ‘The Hidden Dragons’, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 81, No. 10 (October), pp. 92–99.
Zeng, M. and P. J. Williamson (2007), Dragons at Your Door: How Chinese Cost Innovation is Disrupting Global Competition, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Accenture. 2006. India goes global: How cross-border acquisitions are powering growth. (Location unspecified.)
Amsden, A. 2001. The rise of ‘the rest’. Challenges to the West from late-industrializing economies. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.
Amsden, A. and Wan-wen Chu. 2003. Beyond late development: Taiwan's upgrading policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Arora, Ashish, V. S. Arunachalam, Jai Asundi, and Ronald Fernandes. 2001. The Indian software services industry. Research Policy, Vol. 30: 1267–1287.
Arora, Ashish and Alfonso Gamberdella. 2005. From underdogs to tigers: The rise and growth of the software industry in Brazil, China, India, Ireland, and Israel. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bagchi, Subroto. 1999. India's software industry: The people dimension. IEEE Software, May/June: 62–65.
Bartlett, Christopher A. and Sumantra Ghoshal. 2000. Going global: Lessons from late movers. Harvard Business Review, March–April: 132–142.
Baum, J. A. C. and J. V. Singh (eds.) 1994. Evolutionary dynamics of organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
Boston Consulting Group. 2006. The new global challengers: How 100 top companies from rapidly developing economies are changing the world. Boston, MA: Boston Consulting Grou.
Bryce, D. J. and J. V. Singh 2001. The future of the firm from an evolutionary perspective. In Paul DiMaggio (ed.), The twenty-first century firm: changing economic organization in international perspective (pp. 161–185). Princeton, MA: Princeton University Press.
Burgelman, R. A. 1991. Intraorganizational ecology of strategy making and organizational adaptation: Theory and field research. Organization Science Vol. 2, No. 3: 239–262.
Curhan, J. P., W. H. Davidson, and R. Suri. 1977. Tracing the multinationals: A sourcebook on U.S.-based enterprise. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing.
Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd. 2006. Annual report 2005–2006: Creating a global enterprise.
Dunning, John H. and Rajneesh Narula. 1996. The investment development path revisited: Some emerging issues. In John Dunning and Rajneesh Narula (eds.), Foreign direct investment and governments: Catalysts for economic restructuring (pp. 1–41). London and New York: Routledge.
Economist. 2007a. India's acquisitive companies: Maranding maharajahs. March 29.
Economist. 2007b. Multinationals: Globalization's offspring: How the new multinationals are remaking the old. April 4.
Economist. 2007c. Face value: Paper queen. June 9, p. 76.
EPW Research Foundation. 2006. Current economic statistics and review for the week ended December 9, 2006 (50th weekly report for 2006. See www.epwrf.res.in/includefiles/THEMES%20LIST.HTM
Financial Express. 2007. FDI outflow may touch $ 35 billion study. June 18. Available online at www.financialexpress.com/news/FDI-outflow-may-touch-35-bn-study/140558
Forbes. 2007. Special report: The world's billionaires, March 8.
Fortune. 2006. Fortune's Global 500 list. July 24. Also available at http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2006/full_list/
Gamesa, 2006. Gamesa annual report 2005–2006. Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
Government of India, Ministry of Commerce. 2007. Engineering goods emerge as largest contributor to India's merchandise exports. Press release, January 21. See http://demotemp279.nic.in/PressRelease/pressrelease_detail.asp?id=1929
Hagel, John III and John Seely Brown. 2005. The only sustainable edge: Why business strategy depends on productive friction and dynamic specialization. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Heeks, R. 1996. India's software industry: State policy, liberalization, and industrial development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
IBEF (India Brand Equity Foundation). 2006. Going global: Indian multinationals. Gurgaon, India: IBEF (October, according to website: www.indiabrandequityfund.org/artdisplay.aspx?cat_id=410&art_id=13725).
Jha, Anand and Balaji Chakravarthy. 2004. Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd.: Chasing a daring vision. Lausanne, Switzerland: IMD, Case No. IMD216.
Kapur, Devesh and Ravi Ramamurti. 2001. India's emerging competitive advantage in services. Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 15, No. 2: 20–31.
Khanna, T. and Krishna Palepu. 2006. Emerging giants: Building world-class companies in developing countries. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 84, No. 10 (October): 60–69.
Khanna, Tarun, Rajiv Lal, and Merlina Manocaran. 2005. Mahindra & Mahindra: Creating scorpio. Boston, MA: HBS Publishing, Case No. 9705478.
Khanna, T., K. Palepu, and J. Sinha. 2005. Strategies that fit emerging economies. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 83, No. 6 (June): 63–76.
Kobrin, Stephen J. 1977. Comment. In Tamir Agmon and Charles P. Kindleberger (eds.), Multinationals from small countries. (pp. 157–165). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lall, Sanjaya. 1983. (ed.) The new multinationals: The spread of Third World enterprises. Chichester: John Wiley, IRM series on multinationals.
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. 2006. 2005–2006 annual report. Mumbai, India.
Mathews, John A. 2002. Dragon multinational: A new model for global growth. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Moldoveanu, M. and J. V. Singh 2003. The use of evolutionary logic as an explanation generating engine for the study of strategic organization. Strategic Organization, Vol. 1, No. 4: 439–449.
Moneycontrol.com. 2007. I want to create wealth for my country: Tanti. June 2. www.samachar.com/showurl.php?rurl=http://news.moneycontrol.com/india/newsarticle/stocksnews.php?autono=284596&news=I%20want%20to%20create%20wealth%20for%20my%20country:%20Tanti&pubDate=Mon%2C + 04 + Jun + 2007 + 03%3A10%3A02 + GMT&keyword=money_biz
Novelis, 2007. Novelis 2007: A world leader in aluminum rolling and recycling. Company document, available at www.novelis.com/NR/rdonlyres/8C464163-EAC4-41BF-83C9-70A341136115/0/NOVsel17810_OverviewLO.pdf
Prahalad, C. K. 2005. The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits. Philadelphia, PA: Wharton School Publishing.
Ramamurti, R. 2006. Internationally competitive clusters in developing countries: India's Information technology industry. In Subhash Jain and Sushil Vachani (eds.), Multinational corporations and global poverty reduction (pp. 318–336). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd. 2005. Annual report 2005: Vision beyond tomorrow.
Reed, John. 2007. M&M targets SUV market in UK. Financial Times (June 5). Online at http://us.ft.com/ftgateway/superpage.ft?news_id=fto060520071902128992&page=1
Rosenzweig, P. and Jitendra V. Singh. 1991. Organizational environments and the multinational enterprise. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16, No. 2 (April): 340–361.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1932. A theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Singh, Jitendra V. 1990. Organizational evolution: New directions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Singh, Jitendra V. 2006. Ecology, strategy, and organizational Change. In Joel A. C. Baum, Stanislav Dobrev, and Arjen van Witteloostuijn (eds.) Ecology and Strategy: Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 23 (pp. 177–215). Oxford, UK: Elsevier/JAI.
Surendar, T. 2004. Kumar's big bets. Businessworld, September 27, 2004. Reproduced at www.adityabirla.com/media/press_reports/20040920_kumars_big_bets.htm#
Suzlon Energy Ltd. 2007. Annual report 2005–2006.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2006. World investment report, 2006. Geneva: United Nations.
van Agtmael, Antoine. 2007. The emerging markets century. New York: Free Press.
Vernon, R. 1966. International investment and international trade in the product cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics, No. 80: 190–207.
Vernon, Raymond. 1979. The product cycle hypothesis in a new international environment. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics Vol. 41, No. 4: 255–267 (November).
Vestas Wind Systems A/S. 2005. Annual report 2004. Copenhagen, Denmark (March 30, 2005).
Vestas Wind Systems A/S. 2006. Annual report 2005. Copenhagen, Denmark. (March 29, 2006).
Vestas Wind Systems A/S. 2007. Interim financial report: First quarter 2007. Copenhagen, Denmark (May 15, 2007).
Wells, Louis T. Jr. 1977. The internationalization of firms from developing countries. In Tamir Agmon and Charles P. Kindleberger (eds.), Multinationals from small countries (pp. 133–156). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wells, Louis T. Jr. 1983. Third world multinationals: The rise of foreign investment from developing countries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
YES Bank. 2007. Suzlon Energy Ltd: Global leadership in green innovation. Mumbai, India: Yes Bank, Sustainability series.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Adelaja, T. 2007. Graft, red tape are Chief executive officers’ main worries. Moscow Times, March 16: 6.
Bergin, T. 2007. Britain demands reciprocity. Moscow Times, May 15: 5 (Reuters).
Bush, J. 2007a. Rubles across the sea: Russian companies are on a global buying spree. BusinessWeek, April 30: 43.
Bush, J. 2007b. Russia's new deal: The Kremlin is pumping money into education, housing, and health care. BusinessWeek, April 9: 40–45.
Chazan, G. 2007. Fueled by oil money, Russian economy soars. Wall Street Journal, March 13: A1, A21.
Cremer, A. 2007. Russians make high-tech fair debut. Moscow Times, March 16: 7 (Bloomberg).
Daniel, R. 2007. Alcan bid prepared by Norsk Hydro: Report: Takeover battle involving Montreal aluminum producer said to widen. www.MarketWatch.com, May 28, 2007.
Delany, M., and Elder, M. 2007. After Putin's speech, foreign executives wait. Moscow Times, October 11: 1.
Dempsey, J. 2007. Analysts: Putin's tough talk spurs Europe to unite. Boston Globe, May 17: A16 (International Herald Tribune).
EBRD. Transition Report 2007. London: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Economic Newsletter. 2005. Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Harvard University, December 19.
Ekspert 400. 2006. www.gateway2russia.com
Fallico, A. 2007. Russian–Italian economic cooperation. Moscow Times, March 27: 12.
Federal Customs Service of the Russian Federation. 2007. www.customs.ru/en
Goodley, S. 2007. Russian firms need directors to clean image. March 12. www.telegraph.co.uk.
Goskomstat. 2006. Moscow: State Committee for Statistics of the Russian Federation.
Goskomstat. 2007. Moscow: State Committee for Statistics of the Russian Federation.
Hoffman, D. 2002. The oligarchs: Wealth and power in the new Russia. New York: Public Affairs, Perseus Books.
IMF (International Monetary Fund). 2007. www.imf.org
Khanna, T., and Palepu, K. G. 2006. Emerging giants: Building world-class companies in developing countries. Harvard Business Review, October: 1–9.
Lagorce, A. 2007. Is Gazprom Vladimir Putin's retirement haven? MarketWatch, May 16. www.marketwatch.com.
Levitov, M., and Korchagina, V. 2006. Putin rebuffs fears of state control. Moscow Times, February 1: 5.
Lodge, G., and Wilson, C. 2006. A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Martinuzzi, E., and Prince, T. 2007. Moscow bankers get $7 million payday, double New York average. Bloomberg, May 14.
McCarthy, D. J., Puffer, S. M., and Naumov, A. I. 2000. Russia's retreat to statization and the implications for business. Journal of World Business, 35(3): 256–274.
McCarthy, D. J., Puffer, S. M., and Shekshnia, S. V. 2004. Corporate governance in Russia. Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
McCarthy, D. J., Puffer, S. M., Vikhanski, O. S., and Naumov, A. I. 2005. Russian managers in the New Europe: Need for a new management style. Organizational Dynamics, 34(3), 231–246.
McKenna, B. 2007. Vladimir Putin wants his country's “champions” to step onto the world stage: The Russian invasion is here. Globe and Mail, May 12.
MN-files. 2005. www.mosnews.com/mn-files/siloviki. Siloviki. September 23.
Moscow Times. 2006. Poll says Russians prefer strong leader to democracy. January 10: 3 (International Herald Tribune).
Moscow Times. 2006. Novolipetsk, Duferco form $1.6Bln venture. November 28: 5 (Bloomberg).
Moscow Times. 2007. Putin orders the creation of state shipbuilding champion. March 13: 5.
Moscow Times. 2007. Microsoft starts production in Russia. March 14: 6 (Bloomberg).
Moscow Times. 2007. Severstal's Michigan buy. March 16a: 6.
Moscow Times. 2007. VimpelCom in Georgia. March 16b: 6 (Bloomberg).
Moscow Times. 2007. Business briefs. March 19: 1.
Moscow Times. 2007. Business briefs. March 22: 6.
Moscow Times. 2007. Gross domestic product rises 8.3% on consumer demand. March 27: 7 (combined reports).
Moscow Times. 2007. Food retail to expand 10% annually. March 30: 6 (Bloomberg).
Moscow Times. 2007. Kudrin puts inflation worries aside. May 2: 5 (Reuters).
Moscow Times. 2007. Evraz takes control of Highveld. May 8: 6.
Moscow Times. 2007. Alrosa is looking to go public soon. May 11a: 5.
Moscow Times. 2007. Deripaska to pay $1.5Bln for Magna Stake. May 11b: 1.
Moscow Times. 2007. Deripaska buys 5% of GM. August 8: 5 (Reuters).
Moscow Times. 2007. Gazprom seeks U. K. power assets. August 10: 5 (Reuters).
Moscow Times. 2007. Rosy outlook prevails for foreign investment. October 17: 9 (Vedomosti).
North, D. 1990. Institutions, institutional change, and economic performance. New York: Norton.
Pronina, L., and Humber, Y. 2006. Arms dealer wants into titanium. Moscow Times, January 23: 5.
Puffer, S. M., and McCarthy, D. J. 2007. Can Russia's state-managed, network capitalism be competitive?: Institutional pull versus institutional push. Journal of World Business, 42(1): 1–13.
Puffer, S. M., McCarthy, D. J., and Wilson, J. W. 2007. Emerging capitalism in Russia and China: Implications for Europe. European Journal of International Management, 1(1&2): 146–165.
Rodrigues, V. 2007. Gaidar says boom will survive lower oil prices. Moscow Times, May 2: 5 (Reuters).
Russia Business Watch. 2006–2007. Annual meeting 2006: Panel: State capitalism, strategic sectors & foreign investment. Winter, 14(4): 14–15.
Shuster, S. 2007a. Rosneft cash pushes reserves up $11Bln. Moscow Times, March 30: 7.
Shuster, S. 2007b. Troubleshooting starts as energy loses steam. Moscow Times, March 19: 8.
Smolchenko, A. 2007a. Chinese banks offer $2Bln in loans. Moscow Times, March 27:1.
Smolchenko, A. 2007b. Hu to oversee up to $4Bln in deals. Moscow Times, March 22:1.
Smolchenko, A. 2007c. Magna worries about the state's role. Moscow Times, August 7: 5.
World Bank, 2007. www.worldbank.org
World Economic Forum. 2006. Global Competitiveness Report: 2006–2007. Davos, Switzerland: World Economic Forum. www.weforum.org/gcr
Zubkov, V. 2004. All the president's men: Go forth and spy out the land of big business. Russia Profile, 5, November: 16.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Amadeo, E. (1997). Opening, stabilization, and development prospects for Brazil. In East Asian development experience: Economic system approach and its applicability. Symposium held by the Institute of Developing Economies, Tokyo.
Bonelli, R. (1997). Política industrial en Brasil: Intención y resultados. In Políticas de competitividad industrial: América Latina y el Caribe en los años noventa. Siglo Veintiuno Editors.
Boston Consulting Group (2006). The new global challengers. Boston Consulting Grou report, May 2006.
Evans, P. (1977). Dependent development: The alliance of multinationals, state, and local capital. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Ferraz, J. C., Rush, H. and Miles, I. (1992). Development, technology and flexibility: Brazil faces the industrial divide. Routledge Publishing, London.
Ferraz, J. C., Kupfer, D. and Haguenauer, L. (1996). Made in Brazil: desafios competitivos para a indústria. Editora Campus, Rio de Janeiro.
Fleury, A. (1989). The technological behaviour of state-owned enterprises in Brazil. In Jeffrey James (ed.): The technological behaviour of public enterprises in developing countries. Routledge, London.
Fleury, A. and Fleury, M. T. (1995). Aprendizagem e inovação organizacional: As experiências de Japão, Coréia e Brasil. Editora Atlas, Sao Paulo.
Fleury, A. and Fleury, M. T. (2001). A competitividade das cadeias produtivas da indústria textil baseadas em fibras quimicas. Report prepared for the BNDES, November 2001, p. 78.
Fleury, A. and Fleury, M. T. (2007). Evolution and reconfiguration of production systems. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 18, No. 8.
Fleury, A. and Humphrey, J. (1993). Human resources and the diffusion and adaptation of new quality methods in Brazilian manufacturing. Institute of Development Studies, Research Report, p. 14.
Fleury, M. T. (1986). O simbolico nas relações de trabalho – um estudo sobre relações de trabalho numa empresa estatal. Sao Paulo, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Tese de Livre Docencia, p. 237.
Furtado, J. E. (2003). Quatro eixos para a politica industrial. In M. T. Fleury and A. Fleury (orgs.), Política Industrial. Sao Paulo, Publifolha.
Gereffi, G. (1994). Capitalism, development and global commodity chains. In L. Sclair (ed.), Capitalism and development. London, Routledge.
Ghoshal, S., Tanure, B., Sull, D., Santos, H., Escobari, M., and Cardoso, R. (2002). WEG: adaptando o capitalismo familiar ao Mercado global. Belo Horizonte: Fundação Dom Cabral, Casos FDC, CF 0204 – August 2002.
Goldman and Sachs (2003). Dreaming with Brazil, Russia, India, Chinas: the path to 2050. Global Economics Paper No. 99.
Grosse, R. (2005). Can Latin American firms compete? Paper presented at the BALAS Conference, Lima, Peru.
Humphrey, J. and Messner, D. (2006). The impact of the Asian and other drivers on global governance. IDS Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 2006.
Rocha, A., Blundi, M.D., and Dias, V. T. (2002). O que aconteceu as empreas exportadoras da decada de 1970? In A. Rocha (org.), A internacionalizacao das empresas brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro, Ed. Mauad
Rugman, A. (1981). Inside the multinationals: The economics of internal markets. New York, Columbia University Press.
Rugman, A. and Li, J. (2007). Can China's multinationals succeed globally? Paper presented at The Internationalization of Indian and Chinese Enterprises Conference, Brunel University, London, April.
Schmitz, H. and Cassiolato, J. (1992). Hi-tech for industrial development: Lessons from the Brazilian experience in electronics and automation. London, Routledge.
Simonsen, M. H. (1969). Brasil 2001. Rio de Janeiro, APEC Editora.
Sull, D. (2005). Strategy as active waiting. Harvard Business Review, August.
Villela, A. (1983). Multinationals from Brazil. In S. Lall (ed.), The new multinationals: The spread of third world enterprises. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Amsden, Alice 2001. The Rise of the Rest. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Athukorala, Premachandra and Jayasuriya, S. K. 1988. ‘Parentage and Factor Proportions: A Comparative Study of Third-World Multinationals in Sri Lankan Manufacturing’, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 50, 4: 409–423.
Aykut, Dilek and Goldstein, Andrea 2007. ‘Developing Country Multinationals: South–South Investment Comes of Age’, in Industrial Development for the 21st Century: Sustainable Development Perspectives. New York: United Nations.
Belli, Pedro, Finger, Michael and Ballivian, Amparo 1993. ‘South Africa: Review of Trade Policy Issues’, Informal Discussion Papers on Aspects of the South African Economy 4. World Bank, Southern Africa Department.
Chabane, Neo, Goldstein, Andrea and Roberts, Simon 2006. ‘The Changing Face and Strategies of Big Business in South Africa: More Than a Decade of Political Democracy’, Industrial and Corporate Change 15, 3: 549–577.
Chandler, Alfred Jr., Amatori, Franco and Hikino, Takashi (eds.) 1997. Big Business and the Wealth of Nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clark, Nancy L. 1994. Manufacturing Apartheid. State Corporations in South Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dorrenbacher, Christoph 2000. ‘Measuring Corporate Internationalisation: A Review of Measurement Concepts and Their Use’, Intereconomics 35, 3: 119–126.
Dunning, John H. 1981. International Production and the Multinational Enterprise. London: Allen and Unwin.
Ernst & Young (various years), Mergers & Acquisitions: A Review of Activity for the Year. Johannesburg.
Fine, Ben and Rustomjee, Z. 1997. The Political Economy of South Africa: From Minerals-Energy Complex to Industrialisation. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
Gelb, Stephen 2005. ‘South–South Investment: The Case of Africa’, in J. J. Teunissen and A. Akkerman (eds.), Africa in the World Economy – The National, Regional and International Challenges. The Hague: FONDAD.
Goldstein, Andrea 2007. Multinational Companies from Emerging Economies: Composition, Conceptualization and Direction in the Global Economy. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.
Goldstein, Andrea 2008. ‘Who's Afraid of Emerging Multinationals?’, in K. Savant (ed.), The Rise of Transnational Corporations from Emerging Markets: Threat or Opportunity? Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Goldstein, Andrea 2009. ‘South Africa’, in A. Coplan, T. Hikino, and J. Lincoln (eds.), The Handbook of Business Groups in Emerging Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goldstein, Andrea and Wilson Prichard 2007. ‘South African Multinationals: South–South Co-Operation At Its Best?’, in N. Grobbelaar(ed.), Growing Africa’ Private Sector: A Role for Corporate South Africa. Johannesburg: SAIIA.
Grobbelaar, Neuma 2004. ‘“Every Continent Needs an America”: The Experience of South African Firms Doing Business in Mozambique’, Business in Africa Research Project. Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs.
Gulati, Ranjay 1995. ‘Does Familiarity Breed Trust? The Implications of Repeated Ties for Contractual Choice of Alliances’, Academy of Management Journal 38, 85–112.
Lecraw, Donald 1977. ‘Direct Investment by Firms from Less Developed Countries’, Oxford Economic Papers 29, 442–457.
Lecraw, Donald 1993. ‘Outward Direct Investment by Indonesian Firms: Motivation and Effects’, Journal of International Business Studies, 24, 589–600.
Oliva, Rogelio and Suarez, Fernando F. 2007. ‘Economic Reforms and the Competitive Environment of Firms’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 16, 131–154.
Porter, M. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press.
Rogerson, C. M. 1990. ‘Sun International: The Making of a South African Tourism Multinational’, GeoJournal, 22, 345–354.
Rumney, Reg 2006. ‘South Africa's Foreign direct investment Flows into Africa’, presented at the National Treasury Interdepartmental Workshop on South Africa's Economic Presence in Africa, Pretoria, 15 February.
Swart, Pieter 2005. ‘Wrong Data, Wrong Policies: The South African Data Collection Experience’, presented at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Expert Meeting on Capacity Building in the Area of Foreign direct investment: Data Compilation and Policy Formulation in Developing Countries, Geneva, 12–14 December.
Thompson, L. 1995. A History of South Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 2005. ‘Foreign direct investment Statistics: Data Compilation and Policy Issues’, presented at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Expert Meeting on Capacity Building in the Area of Foreign direct investment: Data Compilation and Policy Formulation in Developing Countries, Geneva, 12–14 December.
Veron, Nicolas 2006. ‘Farewell National Champions’, Bruegel Policy Brief, No. 2006/04.
Wells, Louis Jr. 1983. Third World Multinationals: The Rise of Foreign Investment from Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Agmon, T. and D. Lessard (1981). “Investor Recognition of Corporate International Diversification – Reply.” Journal of Finance 36(1): 191–192.
Ahlstrom, D. and G. D. Bruton (2006). “Venture Capital in Emerging Economies: Networks and Institutional Change.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 30(2): 299–320.
Akram, I., P. Roger, and D. McGoey (2004). “Global Cement Update: Mexican Wave,” Deutsche Bank, November 26, 2004.
Almeida, P. (1996). “Knowledge Sourcing by Foreign Multinationals: Patent Citation Analysis in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry.” Strategic Management Journal 17 (Winter Special Issue): 155–165.
Almeida, P. and B. Kogut (1996). “Localization of Knowledge and the Mobility of Engineers in Regional Networks.” Management Science 45(7): 905–917.
Amsden, A. (1989). Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Amsden, A. (2001). The Rise of the “Rest”: Challenge to West from Late Industrializing Economies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Arora, A., A. Fosfuri, and A. Gambardella (2001). Markets for Technology: The Economics of Innovation and Corporate Strategy. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press.
Austin, M. (2004), “Global Integration the CEMEX Way,” Corporate Dealmaker, February 2004.
Barham, J. (2002) “An Intercontinental Mix,” Latin Finance, April 1, 2002.
Barkema, H. G., O. Shenkar, F. Vermeulen, and J. H. J. Bell (1997). “Working Abroad, Working with Others: How Firms Learn to Operate International Joint Ventures.” Academy of Management Journal 40(2): 426–442.
Barkema, H. G. and F. Vermeulen (1998). “International Expansion through Start-up or Acquisition: A Learning Perspective.” Academy of Management Journal 41(1): 7–26.
Barr, P., J. L. Stimpert, and A. S. Huff (1992). “Cognitive Change, Strategic Action and Organizational Renewal.” Strategic Management Journal 13 (Special Issue): 15–36.
Birkinshaw, J. M. and N. Hood (1998). “Multinational Subsidiary Development: Capability Evolution and Charter Change in Foreign-owned Subsidiary Companies.” Academy of Management Review 23(4): 729–754.
Boisot, M. and J. Child (1996). “From Fiefs to Clans and Network Capitalism: Explaining China's Emerging Economic Order.” Administrative Science Quarterly 41(4): 600–628.
Buckley, P. and M. Casson (1976). The Future of the Multinational Enterprise. London, MacMillan.
Caves, R. (1982). Multinational Enterprises and Economic Analysis. Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press.
Chang, S. J. (1995). “International Expansion Strategy of Japanese Firms: Capability Building through Sequential Entry.” Academy of Management Journal 38(2): 383–407.
Chavez, F., (2006). “CEMEX Takes the High Road,” NYSE Magazine, October/November.
Derham, M. T. (2004). “The CEMEX Surprise,” Latin Finance, November 1.
Duncan, J. (1993). “CEMEX Wrings Savings from Spanish Purchases,” Reuters, March 19.
Dunning, J. (1977).“Trade, Location of Economic Activity and the Multinational enterprise: A Search for an Eclectic Approach.” The International Allocation of Economic Activity. B. Ohlin, P. Hesselborn, and P. Wijkman (eds.). London, MacMillan: 395–418.
Dunning, J. H. (1998). “Location and the Multinational Enterprise: A Neglected Factor?” Journal of International Business Studies 29(1): 45–66.
Fratocchi, L. and U. Holm (1998). “Centers of Excellence in the International Firm.” Multinational Corporate Evolution and Subsidiary Development. J. M. Birkinshaw and N. Hood (eds.). London, MacMillan: 189–212.
Frost, T. S., J. M. Birkinshaw, and P. C. Ensign (2002). “Centers of Excellence in Multinational Corporations.” Strategic Management Journal 23(11): 997–1018.
Ghemawat, P. and J. L. Matthews (1999). “The Globalization of CEMEX.” Harvard Business School Publishing, Harvard Business School Case No. 701–017.
Grancher, R. A. (2005). “U.S. Cement: Development of an Integrated Business.” Cement Americas, September 1.
Gupta, A. and V. Govindarajan (1991). “Knowledge Flows and the Structure of Control within Multinational Corporations.” Academy of Management Review 16(4): 768–792.
Gupta, A. and V. Govindarajan (1999). “Feedback-seeking Behavior within Multinational Corporations.” Strategic Management Journal 20(3): 205–225.
Hossie, L. (1990) “Remaking Mexico,” The Globe and Mail, February 7.
Hymer, S. (1960).“The International Operations of National Firms: A Study of Direct Investments.” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, MIT.
Johanson, J. and J. E. Vahlne (1977). “Internationalization Process of Firm – Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments.” Journal of International Business Studies 8(1): 23–32.
Khanna, T. and J. W. Rivkin (2001). “Estimating the Performance Effects of Business Groups in Emerging Markets.” Strategic Management Journal 22(1): 45–74.
Kogut, B. (1989). “A Note on Global Strategies.” Strategic Management Journal 10(4) (July–August): 383–389.
Kogut, B. (1993). “Foreign Direct Investment as a Sequential Process.” The Multinational Corporations in the 1980s. C. P. Kindleberger and D. Audretsch (eds.). Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press.
Kuemmerle, W. (1999). “The Drivers of Foreign Direct Investment into Research and Development: An Empirical Investigation.” Journal of International Business Studies 30(1): 1–24.
Lall, S. (1983). The New Multinationals: The Spread of Third World Enterprises. New York, John Wiley and Sons.
Lee, H and D. Hoyt (2005). “CEMEX: Transforming a Basic Industry.” Harvard Business School Publishing, Stanford Graduate School of Business Case No. GS-33.
Lessard, D. (1982). “Multinational Diversification and Direct Foreign Investment.” Multinational Business Finance. D. K. Eiteman and A. Stonehill (eds.). Reading, MA, Addison Wesley.
Lessard, D. R. and R. Lucea (2007). “Embracing Risk as a Core Competence: The Case of CEMEX.” Unpublished working paper, MIT Sloan School.
Lessard, D. R. and C. Reavis (2007). “Globalization the CEMEX Way.” MIT Sloan Courseware 07-039.
Luo, Y. D. (2003). “Industrial Dynamics and Managerial Networking in an Emerging Market: The Case of China.” Strategic Management Journal 24(13): 1315–1327.
March, J. G. (1991). “Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning.” Organization Science 2(1)(February): 71–87.
Marquis, C. (2003). “The Pressure of the Past: Network Imprinting in Intercorporate Communities.” Administrative Science Quarterly 48: 655–689.
Narayanan, V. K. and L. Fahey (2005). “The Relevance of the Institutional Underpinnings of Porter's Five Forces Framework to Emerging Economies: An Epistemological Analysis.” Journal of Management Studies 42(1): 207–223.
Neue Zürcher Zeitung (1989). “Holderbank of Switzerland Announces Major Investment Plans.” October 13, 1989.
Nobel, R. and J. M. Birkinshaw (1998). “Patterns of Control and Communication in International Research and Development Units.” Strategic Management Journal 19(5): 479–498.
Nonaka, I. (1988). “Toward Middle-Up-Down Management: Accelerating Information Creation.” Sloan Management Review, Spring 1988.
Penrose, E. T. (1995). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Podolny, J. and J. Roberts (1999). “CEMEX S.A. de C.V.: Global Competition in a Local Business.” Harvard Business School Publishing, Stanford Graduate School of Business Case No. S-International business-17.
Prokopy, S. (2006). “Merging the CEMEX Way,” Concrete Products, May 1, 2006.
Rugman, A. (1981). Inside the Multinationals. New York, Columbia University Press.
Rugman, A. and T. L. Brewer (eds.) (2001). The Oxford Handbook of International Business. New York, Oxford University Press.
Siegel, J. (forthcoming). “Is There a Better Commitment Mechanism than Cross-Listings for Emerging Economy Firms? Evidence from Mexico.” Journal of International Business Studies.
Spulber, D. F. (2007). Global Competitive Strategy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stinchcombe, A. L. (1965). “Social Structure and Organizations.” Handbook of Organizations. J. G. March (ed.). Chicago, Rand-McNally: 142–193.
Swaminathan, A. (1996). “Environmental Conditions at Founding and Organizational Mortality: A Trial-by-fire Model.” Academy of Management Journal 39: 1350–1377.
Szulanski, G. (1996). “Exploring Internal Stickiness: Impediments to the Transfer of Best Practices Within the Firm.” Strategic Management Journal 17 (Special Issue): 27–44.
Tripsas, M. and G. Gavetti (2000). “Capabilities, Cognition and Inertia: Evidence from Digital Imaging.” Strategic Management Journal 21(10–11): 1147–1161.
Vermeulen, F. and H. Barkema (2001). “Learning through Acquisitions.” Academy of Management Journal 44(3): 457–476.
Vernon, R. (1966). “International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 80: 90–207.
Vernon, R. (1971). Sovereignty at Bay, the Multinational Spread of U.S. Enterprises. New York, Basic Books, Inc.
Wells, L. (1983). Third World Multinationals. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press.
Whitaker, J. and R. Catalano (2001). “Growth Across Borders.” Corporate Strategy Board, October 2001.
Yiu, D. W., C. M. Lau, and G. D. Bruton (2007). “International Venturing by Emerging Economy Firms: The Effects of Firm Capabilities, Home Country Networks, and Corporate Entrepreneurship.” Journal of International Business Studies 38(4): 519–540.
Zaheer, S. (1995). “Overcoming the Liability of Foreignness.” Academy of Management Journal 38(2): 341–363.
Zaheer, S. and E. Mosakowski (1997). “The Dynamics of the Liability of Foreignness: A Global Study of Survival in Financial Services.” Strategic Management Journal 18(6): 439–463.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Aggarwal, Raj (1984) ‘The strategic challenge of third world multinationals: A new stage of the product life cycle of multinationals?’ In R. N. Farmer (ed.) Advances in international comparative management: A research annual. Greenwich, CT and London: JAI Press, pp. 103–22.
Amsden, Alice (1989) Asia's next giant: South Korea and late industrialization. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Amsden, Alice (1995) ‘Like the rest: South-east Asia's “late” industrialization’. Journal of International Development, 7(5): 791–99.
Amsden, Alice H. (2001) The rise of “The rest”: Challenges to the west from late-industrialising economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Amsden, Alice H. and Hikino, Takashi (1993) ‘Borrowing technology or innovating: An exploration of the two paths to industrial development’. In R. Thompson (ed.) Learning and Technological Change. New York: St Martin's Press, pp. 243–66.
Amsden, Alice H. and Hikino, Takashi (1994) ‘Project execution capability, organisational know-how and conglomerate corporate growth in late industrialisation’. Industrial and Corporate Change, 3(1): 111–47.
Bank of Thailand (2006) Survey results: International investment position of private non-bank sector, as-end December 2005. Bank of Thailand.
Board of Investment (2007) Press Release No. 56/2550, www.boi.go.th/english/download/hot_topic/91/Press_Release No. 56_07.pdf
Cantwell, John and Tolentino, Paz Estrella (1990) ‘Technological accumulation and third world multinationals’. Discussion Papers in International Investment and Business. No. 139. Reading, UK: University of Reading.
CPF (Charoen Pokphand Foods PCL) (2006) Annual Report.
Crispin, Shawn W. (2004) ‘Thai energy concern plans investments’. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition). 15 September, p. 1.
Dunning, John H. (1981) ‘Explaining outward direct investment of developing countries: In support of the eclectic theory of international production’. In K. Kumar and M. C. McLeod (eds.) Multinationals from developing countries. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, pp. 1–22.
Dunning, John H. (1988) Explaining international production. London: Unwin Hyman.
Dunning, John H. (1993) Multinational enterprise and the global economy. Wokingham, UK: Addison-Wesley.
Dunning, John H. (1995) ‘Reapprasing the eclectic paradigm in an age of alliance capitalism’. Journal of International Business Studies, 26(3): 461–91.
Dunning, John H. (1998) ‘Location and the multinational enterprise: A neglected factor?’ Journal of International Business Studies, 29(1): 45–66.
Dunning, John H. (2001) ‘The eclectic paradigm (OLI) of international production: Past, present, and future’. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 8(2): 173–90.
Dunning, John H., van Hoesel, Roger and Narula, Rajneesh (1997) ‘Third world multinationals revisited: New developments and theoretical implications’. Discussion Papers in International Investment and Management, Series B, No. 227. Reading, UK: University of Reading.
Dunning, John H. and Narula, Rajneesh (1997) ‘The investment development path revisited: Some emerging issues’. In J. H. Dunning and R. Narula (eds.) Foreign direct investment and government catalysts for economic restructuring. London: Routledge, pp. 1–41.
Dunning, John H. and Narula, Rajneesh (eds.) (2004) Multinationals and industrial competitiveness: A new agenda. Chelthenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
East Asia Analytical Unit (1995) Overseas Chinese business networks in Asia, Canberra: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia.
Forbes.com (2007) ‘The Global 2000’. www.forbes.com/2007/03/29/forbes-global-2000-biz-07forbes2000-cz_sd_0329global_land.html
Hikino, Takashi and Amsden, Alice H. (1994) ‘Staying behind, stumbling back, sneaking up, soaring ahead: Late industrialization in historical perspectives’. In W. J. Baumol, R. R. Nelson, and E. N. Wolff (eds.) Convergence of productivity: Cross-national studies and historical evidence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 285–315.
Hiratsuka, Daisuke (2006) Outward FDI from and intraregional Foreign direct investment in Asean: Trends and drivers. Discussion Paper. Institute of Developing Economies.
Hogue, Thomas (2007) Firms seek access to Burma oil fields despite bloody crackdown. The Irrawaddy, www.irrawaddy.org, 27 September.
International Gas Report (2006) ‘Myanmar junta benefits from rising gas sales to Thailand’. International Gas Report. October 2006, p. 21.
Jiamteerasakul, Somsak (2006) ‘What is the Crown Property Bureau?’ Fah Diew Kan, 4(1): 67–93. (Original in Thai).
Kao, J. (1993) ‘The worldwide web of Chinese business’. Harvard Business Review (March–April): 24–36.
Khanna, Tarun and Palepu, Krishna (1997) ‘Why focused strategies may be wrong for emerging markets’. Harvard Business Review (July–August): 41–51.
Khanna, Tarun and Palepu, Krishna (2000) ‘The future of business groups in emerging markets: Long-run evidence from Chile’. Academy of Management Journal, 43(3): 268–85.
Kumar, Krishna (1982) ‘Third world multinationals: A growing force in international relations’. International Studies Quarterly, 26: 397–424.
Lall, Sanjaya (1983a) ‘The rise of multinationals from the third world’. Third World Quarterly, 5(3): 618–26.
Lall, Sanjaya (1983b) The new multinationals: The spread of third world enterprises. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Lecraw, Donald (1977) ‘Direct investment by firms from less developed countries’. Oxford Economic Papers, 29(3): 442–57.
Lecraw, Donald J. (1981) ‘Internationalization of firms from LDCs: Evidence from the Asean region’. In Kumar and Mcleod (eds.) Multinationals from developing countries. Lexington, MA: D.C.Heath, pp. 37–51.
Lecraw, Donald (1993) ‘Outward direct investment by Indonesian firms: Motivations and effects’. Journal of International Business Studies (Third Quarter): 589–600.
Limlingan, Victor S. (1986) The overseas Chinese in Asean: Business strategies and management practices. Manila: Vita Development Corporation.
Narula, Rajneesh (1996) Multinational investment and economic structure. London: Routledge.
O'Brien, Peter (1980) ‘The new multinationals: Developing-country firms in international markets’. Futures, pp. 303–16.
Ouyyanont, Porphant (2006) ‘The crown property bureau and its role in business’. In P. Phongpaichit (ed.) Thai capial's battle: Changes and dynamism. Bangkok: Matichon Publishing. pp. 41–150. (Original in Thai).
Pananond, Pavida (2001) The making of Thai multinationals: The internationalisation process of Thai firms. Department of Economics. Reading, UK: University of Reading.
Pananond, Pavida (2004) ‘Thai multinationals after the crisis: Trends and prospects’. Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Bulletin, 21(1): 106–26.
Pananond, Pavida (2006) ‘The changing dynamics of Thailand CP group's international expansion’. In L. Suryadinata (ed.) Southeast Asia's Chinese businesses in an era of globalization: Coping with the rise of China. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS). pp. 321–63.
Pananond, Pavida (2007) ‘The changing dynamics of Thai multinationals after the Asian economic crisis’. Journal of International Management, 13(3): 356–75.
Pananond, Pavida and Kanchoochat, Veerayooth (2006) ‘Thai capital gone abroad’. In P. Phongpaichit (ed.) Thai capial's battle: Changes and dynamism. Bangkok: Matichon Publishing. pp. 293–372. (Original in Thai).
Pananond, Pavida and Zeithaml, Carl P. (1998) ‘The international expansion process of MNES from developing countries: A case study of Thailand's CP group’. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 15(2): 163–84.
Peng, Mike W. (2003) ‘Institutional transitions and strategic choices’. Academy of Management Review, 28(2): 275–90.
Peng, Mike W. and Zhou, Jessie Qi (2005) ‘How network strategies and institutional transitions evolve in Asia’. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 22: 321–36.
PTT (2006) Information Disclosure Report (Form 56–1)
PTTEP (2006) Information Disclosure Report (Form 56–1)
Redding, Gordon (1990) The spirit of Chinese capitalism, New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Redding, Gordon (1995) ‘Overseas chinese networks: Understanding the enigma’. Long Range Planning, 28(1): 61–69.
S&P group (2006) Information Disclosure Report (Form 56–1).
SCG (Siam Cement Group) (1997) Siam Cement: Fact Book. Bangkok: Siam Cement Group.
Tolentino, Paz Estrella (1993) Technological innovation and third world multinationals. London and New York: Routledge.
Ulgado, Francis M., Yu, Chow-Ming J., and Negandhi, Anant R. (1994) ‘Multinational enterprises from Asian developing countries: Management and organisational characteristics’. International Business Review, 3(2): 123–33.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2004) World investment report 2006. The shift toward services: Overview. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2006) World investment report 2006. Foreign direct investment from developing and transition economies: Implications for development. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2007) Asian foreign direct investment in Africa: Towards a new era of cooperation among developing countries. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
Unger, Danny (1998) Building social capital in Thailand: Fibers, finance and infrastructure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vachratith, Viraphong (1992) ‘Thai investment abroad’. Bangkok Bank Monthly Review, 33 (April): 10–21.
van Hoesel, Roger, (1999) New multinational enterprises from Korea and Taiwan: Beyond export-led growth. London: Routledge.
Vernon-Wortzel, Heidi and Wortzel, Lawrence H. (1988) ‘Globalizing strategies for multinationals from developing countries’. Columbia Journal of World Business, (Spring 1988): 27–35.
Wade, Robert (1990) Governing the market: Economic theory and the role of government in east Asian industrialization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Weidenbaum, Murray and Hughes, Samuel (1996) The bamboo network: How expatriate Chinese entrepreneurs are creating a new economic superpower in Asia. New York: The Free Press.
Wells, Louis T. Jr. (1977) ‘The internationalization of firms from developing countries’. In Agmon and Kindleberger (eds.) Multinationals from small countries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 133–56.
Wells, Louis T. Jr. (1981) ‘Foreign investors from the Third world’. In K. Kumar and M. C. McLeod (eds.) Multinationals from developing countries. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, pp. 23–36.
Wells, Louis T. Jr. (1983) Third world multinationals: The rise of foreign investment from developing countries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Yeung, Henry Wai-Chung (1998) Transnational corporations and business networks. London and New York: Routledge.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Agmon, Tamir and Charles P. Kindleberger (1977) Multinationals from Small Countries. MIT Press.
Aharoni, Yair (1976) Structure and Conduct in Israeli Economy. Tel Aviv: Gomeh (Hebrew).
Aharoni, Yair (1982) “State-Owned Enterprise: An Agent Without a Principal” in Leroy Jones et al. (eds.), Public Enterprise in Developing Countries. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 67–78.
Aharoni, Yair (1991) The Israeli Economy Dreams and Realities London: Routledge.
Aharoni, Yair (1992) The Political Economy of Israel. Tel Aviv: Am Oved (Hebrew).
Aharoni, Yair (1993) “From Adam Smith to Schumpeterian Global Firms” Research in Global Strategic Management, Vol. 4, pp. 17–39.
Aharoni, Yair (2007) “New Business Elites” in Eliezer Ben Rafael and Yitzhak Steinberg (eds.), New Elites in Israel. Jerusalem: Bialik Institute (Hebrew).
Almor, Tamar (2000) “Born Global: The Case of Small and Medium Sized, Knowledge-Intensive Israeli Firms” in Tamar Almor and Nir Hashai (eds.), Foreign direct investment, International Trade and the Economics of Peacemaking. College of Management of Rishon LeZion, Israel, pp. 119–139.
Avnimelech, Gil and Morris Teubal (2004) “Venture Capital-Startup Coevolution and the Emergence and Development of Israel's New High Technology Cluster” Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Vol. 13, pp. 33–60.
Avnimelech, Gil and Morris Teubal (2005) “Evolutionary Innovation and High Tech Policy: What Can We Learn from Israel's Targeting of Venture Capital?” STE-WP-25, March.
Bank of Israel (2006) Annual Report.
Bank of Israel (2007) Recent Developments in the Economy, May, p. 10.
Bilkey, Warren J. (1978) “An Attempted Integration of the Literature on the Export Behavior of firms” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 33–46.
Breznitz, Dan (2006) “Innovation-Based Industrial Policy in Emerging Economy? The Case of the Israeli IT Sector” Business and Politics Vol. 8, pp. 1–38.
Breznitz, Dan (2007) Innovation and the State Political Choice and Strategies for Growth in Israel, Taiwan, and Ireland. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Cavusgil, S. T. (1980) “On the Internationalization Process of Firms” European Research, Vol. 8 (November), pp. 273–281.
de Fontenay, Catherine and Carmel, Erran (2004) “Israel's Silicon Wadi: The Forces Behind Cluster Formation” in T. Bresnahan, A. Gambardella, and A. Saxenian (eds.), Building High Tech Clusters. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Globes (2004, December) G Magazine (Hebrew).
Globes (2005, May 18) G Magazine.
Globes (2007, May) Financial Consumerism supplement, p. 30.
Globes (2007, October 9–10) p. 10 (Hebrew).
Ha'Aretz (1999, August 8) (Hebrew).
Huston, Larry and Nabil Sakkab (2006) “Connect and Develop: Inside Procter and Gamble's New Model for Innovation” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 84, No. 3, March, pp. 58–69.
Jolly, Vijayk, Matti Alahuta and Jean-Pierre Jeannet (1992) “Challenging the Incumbents: How High Technology Start-Ups Compete Globally” Journal of Strategic Change, Vol. 1, pp. 71–82.
Johanson, Jan and Jan-Erik Vahlne (1977) “The Internationalization Process of the Firm: A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 8, pp. 23–32.
Johanson, Jan and Jan-Erik Vahlne (1990) “The Mechanism of Internationalization” International Marketing Review, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 11–24.
Knight, Garya and S. T. Cavusgil (1996) “The Born Global Firm: A Challenge to Traditional Internationalization Theory” Advances in International Marketing, Vol. 8, pp. 11–26.
Lemos, Robert (2006) “Check Point Calls Off Sourcefire Buy” March 24, www.securityfocus.com/print/news/11382
Lerner, Susan (2008) “Intel Opens Israeli Plant for Next Generation Chips” July 1, Bloomberg.com
Levav, Amos (1998) The Birth of Israel's High-Tech. Tel-Aviv: Zmora-Bitan (Hebrew).
Madsen, Tagek and Per Servais (1997) “The Internationalization of Born Globals: An Evolutionary Process?” International Business Review, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 561–583.
McKinsey & Co. (1993) Emerging Exporters. Australia's High Value-Added Manufacturing Exporters. Melbourne: McKinsey & Co. and the Australian Manufacturing Council.
Oviatt, Benjamin M. and Patricia P. McDougall (1994) “Toward a Theory of International New Ventures” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 25, pp. 45–64.
Oviatt, Benjamin M. and Patricia P. McDougall (1997) “Challenges for Internationalization Process Theory: The Case of International New Ventures” Management International Review, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 85–99.
Porter, Michael (1990a) The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press
Porter, Michael (1990b) “The Competitive Advantage of Nations” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 2, March/April.
Porter, Michael (1998) On Competition. New York: Free Press.
Reich, Robert B. (1990) “Who is Us” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 1, January–February, pp. 53–65.
Reich, Robert B. (1991) The Work of Nations Preparing Ourselves to 21st Century Capitalism. New York: Vintage Books.
Rennie, M. W. (1993) “Global Competitiveness: Born Global” McKinsey Quarterly, Vol. 4, pp. 45–52.
Rugman, Alan M. and Alain Verbeke (1993) “Foreign Subsidiaries and Multinational Strategic Management: An Extension and Correction of Porter's Single Diamond Framework” Management International Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 71–84.
Rugman, Alan. M. and Alain Verbeke (2001) “Subsidiary Specific Advantages in Multinational Enterprises” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 237–250.
Sherman, Arnold (1988) “A Dream Realized” Israel Economist.
Stauber, Joshua (2001) From Teva to Check Point. Tel Aviv: Yedioth Acharonot (Hebrew).
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (2007) Investor Lunch Presentation, Tel Aviv, Israel (August). Available at www.tevapharm.com/pdf/CapitalMarketQ2.pdf
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 2006 World Investment Report.
Van Den Bulcke, Daniel and Alain Verbeke (2001) Globalization and the Small Open Economy. Aldershot, UK: Elgar.
Zander, I. and Zander U. (1997) “The Oscillating Multinational Firm – Alfa Laval in the Period 1890–1990” in I. Björkman and M. Forsgren (eds.), The Nature of the International Firm. Copenhagen Business School Press.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Amsden, A. and Wan-wen Chu. 2003. Beyond late development: Taiwan's upgrading policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bartlett, Christopher A. and Sumantra Ghoshal. 1989. Managing across borders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Buckley, Peter J., L. Jeremy Clegg, Adam R. Cross, Xin Liu, Hinrich Voss, and Ping Zheng. 2007. The determinants of Chinese outward foreign investment. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4 (July): 499–518.
Cheng, Joseph L. 2007. Critical issues in international management research: An agenda for future advancement. European Journal of Management, Vol. 1, Nos. 1–2: 23–38.
Eden, Lorraine. 2003. A critical reflection and some conclusions on OLI. In John Cantwell and Rajneesh Narula (eds.), International business and the eclectic paradigm: Developing the OLI framework. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 277–297.
Evans, Philip and Thomas S. Wurster. 2000. Blown to bits: How the new economy of information transforms strategy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Farmoohand, Ali F. and Phoebe Ho. 2006. Huwaei: Cisco's Chinese challenger. Hong Kong: Asia Case Research Center, The University of Hong Kong, Case No. HKU 599.
Farrell, Diana, Christian S. Folster, and Susan Lund. 2008. Long-term trends in the global capital market. McKinsey Quarterly (February).
Friedman, Thomas L. 2005. The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Ghemawat, Pankaj. 2007a. Why the world isn't flat. Foreign Policy, No. 159 (March/April): 54–60.
Ghemawat, Pankaj. 2007b. Redefining global strategy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Huang, Yasheng. 2003. Selling China: Foreign direct investment during the reform era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hymer, Stephen. 1976. The international operation of national firms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Khanna, T. and Krishna Palepu. 2005. Spotting institutional voids in emerging markets. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, Note No. 9–106–014.
Khanna, Tarun and Krishna Palepu. 2006. Emerging giants: Building world-class companies in developing countries. Harvard Business Review (October).
Knight, Gary A. and S. Tamer Cavusgil. 1996. The born-global firm: A challenge to traditional internationalization theory. In Tage Koed Madsen (ed.), Advances in International Marketing, Vol. 8. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp. 11–26.
Kogut, Bruce. 1985. Designing global strategies: Profiting from operational flexibility. Sloan Management Review, Vol. 27, No. 1: 27–38.
Lall, Sanjaya (ed.). 1983. The new multinationals: The spread of Third World enterprises. Chichester, UK, and New York: John Wiley, IRM series on multinationals.
Lecraw, D. 1977. Direct investment by firms from less-developed countries. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 29, No. 3 (November): 442–457.
Luo, Yadong and Rosalie L. Tung. 2007. International expansion of emerging market enterprises: A springboard perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4: 481–498.
Mathews, John. 2002. Dragon multinationals: A new model for global growth. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Meyer, Klaus E. 2006. Asian management research needs more self-confidence. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 23, No. 2: 119–137.
Michaels, Ed, Helen Handfield-Jones, and Beth Axelrod. 2001. The war for talent. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Narula, Rajneesh. 2006. Globalization, new ecologies, new zoologies, and the purported death of the eclectic paradigm. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 23, No. 3 (June): 143–152.
Palmisano, Sam. 2006. Leading, trust, and the globally integrated enterprise. Speech delivered at INSEAD Business School, Fontainebleu, France (October).
Porter, Michael E. 1986. Competition in global industries. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Rivkin, Jan. 2000. Imitation of complex strategies. Management Science, Vol. 46, No. 6: 824–844.
Tsui, Anne. 2007. From homogenization to pluralism: International management research in the Academy and beyond. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 50, No. 6: 1353–1364.
Vernon, Raymond. 1983. Two hungry giants: The US and Japan in the quest for oil and ores. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wells, Louis T. Jr. 1983. Third World multinationals: The rise of foreign investment from developing countries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wilkins, Mira. 1986. Japanese multinational enterprises before 1914. Business History Review, Vol. 60, No. 2: 199–232.
Zaheer, Sri. 1995. Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2 (April): 341–363.