15 - Electroconvulsive therapy in continental Western Europe: A literature review  pp. 246-255

Electroconvulsive therapy in continental Western Europe: A literature review

By Pascal Sienaert and Walter W. van den Broek

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Introduction

Both convulsive therapy and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are European achievements. At the Budapest-Lipotmezö State Hospital (Hungary), on January 23, 1934, Ladislas Meduna decided to produce “epileptic attacks” by means of an intramuscular injection of camphor in oil to treat a man in catatonic stupor (Fink, 1984, 2001). Although within Hungary Meduna's work was criticized, psychiatrists from all over Europe visited him and adopted his treatment at a number of centers in Europe (Fink, 1984). In April 1938, at the Clinic for Mental and Nervous Diseases in Rome, Cerletti and Bini went ahead with the first ECT treatment in humans (Accornero, 1988; Kalinowsky, 1986; Shorter and Healy, 2007). By 1940, at least 32 treatment units had been established in Italy (Shorter and Healy, 2007). Outside Italy, Switzerland was the first country in which ECT visibly flourished for the international community. From there, ECT spread to the rest of continental Western Europe, in large part thanks to the efforts of Lothar Kalinowski (Shorter and Healy, 2007). In both the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, ECT has been used frequently throughout its history, whereas in other European countries the use of ECT has been highly variable.

Few data on the use of ECT in other European countries are available, however. Official central data collection is lacking in most countries, and published data are provided in different formats, making it difficult to compare practice between countries.

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(As laws and regulations are frequently being updated, I believe that the Web sites with the most up-to-date regulations are more appropriate than the specific volume used for these procedures).
California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 9 can be found at http://www.oal.ca.gov/index.html
California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 17 can be found at http://www.oal.ca.gov/index.html
Up-to-date manuals for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services can be found at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/
Up-to-date manuals for EMTALA regulations can be found at: http://www.emtala.com/
Up-to-date manuals for The Joint Commission regulations can be found at http://www.jcrinc.com/Welfare and Institutions Code (WIC) for California can be found at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/calawquery?codesection=wic&codebody=&hits=20

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