Epilogue: The future of journalistic fiction and the legacy of the journalist-literary figures: Henry James to Tom Wolfe  pp. 184-198

Epilogue: The future of journalistic fiction and the legacy of the journalist-literary figures: Henry James to Tom Wolfe

By Doug Underwood

Image View Previous Chapter Previous Chapter



No art that is not understood by the people can live or ever did live a single generation.

– Frank Norris

Our American professors like their literature clear and cold and pure and very dead.

– Sinclair Lewis

It is so hard to be clear. Only a fool is willfully obscure.

– John Steinbeck

The press … is the watchdog of civilization, and the watchdog happens to be … in a chronic state of rabies.

– Henry James

In both his time and ours, the stylistically complex novelist Henry James has served as the literary intellectual's bulwark against the crudities and the lowbrow nature of popular culture and the popular press that James came to loathe. James' views about the press were reflected in his recondite literary philosophy and his opaque writing strategies. But they also grew out of personal experience.

In 1875, the youthful James had arranged to be a correspondent on manners, people, and the arts for the New York Tribune during his travels to Europe. But his editor, Whitelaw Reid, didn't like the lengthy and discursive style of James' “letters” and wrote to him that they should be more “newsy” and written less on “topics too remote from popular interests to please more than a select few of our readers.” An offended James ended the relationship, writing back: “I am afraid I can't assent to your proposal … I know the sort of letter you mean – it is doubtless the proper sort of thing for the Tribune to have … I am too finical a writer and I should be constantly becoming more ‘literary’ than is desirable.”

Reference Type: notes

Bjorn Larsson, Long John Silver (1995; reprint, London: Harvill Press, 1999), 133
Grahame Smith, The Novel and Society: Defoe to George Eliot (London: Batsford, 1984), 56
Diana Spearman, The Novel and Society (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966), 56, 66, 69
Mark Kinkead-Weekes, “Johnson on ‘The Rise of the Novel,’” in Isobel Grundy, ed., Samuel Johnson: New Critical Essays (London: Vision Press, 1984), 70–77
Lawrence Lipking, Samuel Johnson: The Life of an Author (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998), 174
Iain Finlayson, The Moth and the Candle: A Life of James Boswell (London: Constable, 1984), 168.
Barbara Foley, Telling the Truth: The Theory and Practice of Documentary Fiction (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986), 25–41.
Tom Wolfe, “Stalking the Billion-Footed Beast: A Literary Manifesto for the New Social Novel,” Harper's (Nov., 1989): 45–56
Phyllis Frus, The Politics and Poetics of Journalistic Narrative: The Timely and the Timeless (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 134–136
Karen Roggenkamp, Narrating the News: New Journalism and Literary Genre in Late Nineteenth-Century American Newspapers and Fiction (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2005)
George Plimpton, “Ernest Hemingway,” in Van Wyck Brooks, ed., Writers at Work: The Paris Review Interviews (New York: Viking, 1963), 225.
Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964)
Lennard J. Davis, Factual Fictions: The Origins of the English Novel (1983; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996)
Richard I. Cook, Jonathan Swift as a Tory Pamphleteer (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967)
Shelley Fisher Fishkin, From Fact to Fiction: Journalism and Imaginative Writing in America (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985)
Michael Robertson, Stephen Crane, Journalism, and the Making of Modern American Literature (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997)
Jean Marie Lutes, Front-page Girls: Women Journalists in American Culture and Fiction, 1880–1930 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006)
Brian McCrea, Addison and Steele Are Dead: The English Department, Its Canon, and the Professionalization of Literary Criticism (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1990)
Thomas Strychacz, Modernism, Mass Culture, and Professionalism (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993)
Paula Rabinowitz, They Must Be Represented: The Politics of Documentary (New York: Verso, 1994)
William Stott, Documentary Expression and Thirties America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973)
Michael Allen, Poe and the British Magazine Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969)
Richard Pearson, W. M. Thackeray and the Mediated Text: Writing for Periodicals in the Mid-nineteenth Century (Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2000)
Virgil Grillo, Charles Dickens’ Sketches by Boz: End in the Beginning (Boulder: The Colorado Associated University Press, 1974)
John M. L. Drew, Dickens the Journalist (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)
Louis L. Cornell, Kipling in India (London: Macmillan, 1966)
M. Catherine Downs, Becoming Modern: Willa Cather's Journalism (London: Associated University Presses, 1999)
Charles A. Fenton, The Apprenticeship of Ernest Hemingway: The Early Years (1954; reprint, New York: Viking, 1958
Christopher P. Wilson, The Labor of Words: Literary Professionalism in the Progressive Era (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985)
John Gross, The Rise and Fall of the Man of Letters: Aspects of English Literary Life Since 1800 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969)
Thomas Berry, The Newspaper in the American Novel 1900–1969 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1970)
Howard Good, Acquainted with the Night: The Image of Journalists in American Fiction, 1890–1930 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1986)
Loren Ghiglione, “The American Journalist: Fiction Versus Fact,” in John B. Hench, ed., Three Hundred Years of the American Newspaper (Lunenburg, VT: Stinehour, 1991): 445–463
Chris Anderson, ed., Literary Nonfiction: Theory, Criticism, Pedagogy (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989)
Chris Anderson, Style as Argument: Contemporary American Nonfiction (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987)
Thomas Connery, ed., A Sourcebook of American Literary Journalism: Representative Writers in an Emerging Genre (New York: Greenwood, 1992)
John C. Hartsock, A History of American Literary Journalism: The Emergence of a Modern Narrative Form (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2000)
Iona Italia, The Rise of Literary Journalism in the Eighteenth Century: Anxious Employment (London: Routledge, 2005)
Paul Many, “Toward a History of Literary Journalism,” Michigan Academician 24 (1992): 359–369
John Hellman, Fables of Fact: The New Journalism as New Fiction (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981)
John Hollowell, Fact and Fiction: The New Journalism and the Nonfiction Novel (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1977)
Kevin Kerrane and Ben Yagoda, eds., The Art of Fact: A Historical Anthology of Literary Journalism (1997; reprint, New York: Touchstone, 1998)
Barbara Lounsberry, The Art of Fact: Contemporary Artists of Non Fiction (New York: Greenwood, 1990)
Norman Sims, True Stories: A Century of Literary Journalism (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2007)
Norman Sims, ed., The Literary Journalists (New York: Ballantine, 1984)
Norman Sims, ed., Literary Journalism in the Twentieth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)
Norman Sims and Mark Kramer, eds., Literary Journalism: A New Collection of the Best of American Nonfiction (New York: Ballantine, 1995)
Richard Keeble and Sharon Wheeler, eds., The Journalistic Imagination: Literary Journalists from Defoe to Capote and Carter (London: Routledge, 2007)
Edd Applegate, Literary Journalism: A Biographical Dictionary of Writers and Editors (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996)
R. Thomas Berner, The Literature of Journalism: Text and Context (State College, PA: Strata, 1998)
Kate Campbell, ed., Journalism, Literature, and Modernity (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000)
Jean Chance and William McKay, eds., Literary Journalism: A Reader (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001)
Everette E. Dennis, Other Voices: The New Journalism in America (New York: HarperCollins, 1974)
Louis Dudek, Literature and the Press: A History of Printing, Printed Media, and Their Relation to Literature (Toronto: Ryerson, 1960)
Michael L. Johnson, The New Journalism: The Underground Press, the Artists of Nonfiction, and Changes in the Established Media (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1972)
Arthur J. Kaul, American Literary Journalists, 1945–1995 (Detroit: Gale Research, 1997)
Warren C. Price, The Literature of Journalism: An Annotated Bibliography (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1959)
Edwin H. Ford, A Bibliography of Literary Journalism in America (Minneapolis: Burgess, 1937)
Ronald Weber, The Literature of Fact: Literary Non-fiction in American Writing (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1980)
Ronald Weber, Hired Pens: Professional Writers in America's Golden Age of Print (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1997)
W. Ross Winterowd, The Rhetoric of the ‘Other’ Literature (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1990)
Daniel C. Hallin, “The Passing of ‘High Modernism’ of American Journalism,” Journal of Communication 42:3 (Summer, 1992): 14–25
D. L. Eason, “The New Journalism and the Image-World: Two Modes of Organizing Experience,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 1:1 (March, 1984): 51–65
Robert Boynton, ed., The New New Journalism: Conversations with America's Best Nonfiction Writers on Their Craft (New York: Vintage, 2005)
John C. Hartsock, “‘Literary Journalism’ as an Epistemological Moving Object within a Larger ‘Quantum’ Narrative,” Journal of Communication 23:4 (October, 1999): 432–450
John C. Hartsock, “The Critical Marginalization of American Literary Journalism,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 15:1 (March, 1998): 61–84
John Graham (David Graham Phillips), The Great God Success (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1901), 11
W. A. Swanberg, Dreiser (New York: Scribner's, 1965), 253–254
Margaret Walker, Richard Wright/Daemonic Genius: A Portrait of the Man/A Critical Look at His Work (New York: Warner, 1988), 121–126
Stout, “Media and Religion: The Promise of Cultural Biography,” Journal of Media and Religion 5:3 (2006): 141–146.
David S. Reynolds, Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography (1995; reprint, New York: Vintage, 1996), 271, 321, 334
J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner, eds., The Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, volume viii (Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1989), 280–281
Paul Fussell, Samuel Johnson and the Life of Writing (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971), 38–39
Donald Greene, “Samuel Johnson, Journalist,” in Donovan H. Bond and W. Reynolds McLeod, eds., Newsletters to Newspapers: Eighteenth-Century Journalism (Morgantown: The School of Journalism, West Virginia University, 1977), 87
Arthur and Barbara Gelb, O'Neill: Life with Monte Cristo (2000; reprint, New York: Applause, 2002), 348–349
Joan Richardson, Wallace Stevens: The Early Years 1879–1923 (New York: Morrow, 1986), 127–129
Joan Richardson, Wallace Stevens: The Later Years 1923–1955 (New York: Morrow, 1988), 124–125, 166–167
Gary Scharnhorst, Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Boston: Twayne, 1985)
Michael Shelden, Graham Greene: The Enemy Within (New York: Random House, 1994), 331–332
Irving Howe, Sherwood Anderson (Toronto: George J. McLeod, 1951), 219–220
Genevieve Moreau, The Restless Journey of James Agee (New York: Morrow, 1977), 112
Kenneth S. Lynn, Hemingway (1987; reprint, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 444–449
Townsend Ludington, John Dos Passos: A Twentieth Century Odyssey (New York: Dutton, 1980), 122, 184, 191–192
Mark Schorer, Sinclair Lewis: An American Life (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961), 92, 142, 178, 213, 218, 769
Marion Meade, Dorothy Parker: What Fresh Hell Is This? (1988; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1989), 67–68, 224, 254
William A. Bloodworth, Jr., Upton Sinclair (Boston: Twayne, 1977), 37–39
Leon Harris, Upton Sinclair: American Rebel (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1975), 177
Dan B. Miller, Erskine Caldwell: The Journey from Tobacco Road (New York: Knopf, 1995), 222, 224, 267
Wayne Mixon, The People's Writer: Erskine Caldwell and the South (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995), 94–95
Sylvia Jenkins Cook, Erskine Caldwell and the Fiction of Poverty: The Flesh and the Spirit (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991), 48, 67–68
Edwin H. Cady, The Road to Realism: The Early Years 1837–1895 of William Dean Howells (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1956), 21, 87, 180
Richard Lingeman, Theodore Dreiser: An American Journey 1908–1945 (New York: G. P. Putnam's, 1990), 467–469
James Lundquist, Theodore Dreiser (New York: Frederick Unger, 1974), 14
Ellen Moers, Two Dreisers (New York: Viking, 1969), 47–56
Andrew Sinclair, Jack: A Biography of Jack London (New York: Pocket, 1977), 33, 79, 128
Michael Shelden, Orwell: The Authorized Biography (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 3, 229, 264–269
Gregory Wolfe, Malcolm Muggeridge: A Biography (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1995), 94–95, 98–99
Douglas Clayton, Floyd Dell: The Life and Times of an American Rebel (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1994), 15–17
Lincoln Steffens, The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1931), 526
David Levering Lewis, W. E. B. DuBois: Biography of a Race 1868–1919 (New York: Henry Holt, 1993), 39
Jeffrey Meyers, Edmund Wilson: A Biography (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995), 149, 158, 221–225
Carol Gelderman, Mary McCarthy: A Life (New York: St. Martin's, 1988), 73–79
Colin Wilson, Bernard Shaw: A Reassessment (New York: Atheneum, 1969), 64–68, 75–79
Audrey Williamson, Bernard Shaw: Man and Writer (New York: Crowell-Collier, 1963), 35–39
Julia Briggs, A Woman of Passion: The Life of E. Nesbit, 1858–1924 (London: Hutchinson, 1987), 62–85
Tim Hilton, John Ruskin: The Early Years 1819–1859 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985), 151, 203, 224, 240, 262
Tim Hilton, John Ruskin: The Later Years (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), 70–71, 354–359
Edgar M. Branch, James T. Farrell (New York: Twayne, 1971), 27
Philip Henderson, William Morris: His Life, Work and Friends (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967), 148–149, 241–243, 253–300
Vincent Brome, J. B. Priestley (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1988), 249–252, 255–256
Judith Cook, Priestley (London: Bloomsbury, 1997), 128–132, 185–186, 192
Carl Rollyson, Rebecca West: A Life (New York: Scribner, 1996), 29–30, 63, 106
Victoria Glendenning, Rebecca West: A Life (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987), 99–101
Michael Foot, H. G.: The History of Mr. Wells (London: Doubleday, 1995), 9, 16, 22–23
Richard Hauer Costa, H. G. Wells (Boston: Twayne, 1985), 49–51, 61–78
Laurence Thompson, The Enthusiasts: A Biography of John and Katharine Bruce Glasier (London: Victor Gollancz, 1971), 68–69
Penelope Niven, Carl Sandburg: A Biography (New York: Scribner's, 1991), 133–138
Richard Crowder, Carl Sandburg (New York: Twayne, 1964), 39–40
Charlotte Nekola and Paula Rabinowitz, eds., Writing Red: An Anthology of Women Writers, 1930–1940 (New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York, 1987)
Frederick Schyberg, Walt Whitman (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), 167
Bettina L. Knapp, Walt Whitman (New York: Continuum, 1993), 35
Justin Kaplan, Walt Whitman: A Life (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980), 233–240
Joan Acocella, Willa Cather and the Politics of Criticism (New York: Vintage, 2000), 9–10
Hermione Lee, Willa Cather: A Life Saved Up (1989; reprint, New York: Virago, 2000), 10–12
James Woodress, Willa Cather: A Literary Life (1987; reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), 141–143
Gerald Clarke, Capote: A Biography (1988; reprint, New York: Ballantine, 1989), 44–46
Paul Mariani, The Broken Tower: A Life of Hart Crane (1999; reprint, New York: Norton, 2000), 60–61
Nicola Beauman, E. M. Forster: A Biography (New York: Knopf, 1994), 14–15
Gerald Nicosia, Memory Babe: A Critical Biography of Jack Kerouac (1983; reprint, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 102, 142, 154–155
Chris Harvey, “Tom Wolfe's Revenge,” American Journalism Review (Oct. 1994): 40–46
Roy Peter Clark and Don Fry, “Return of the Narrative,” Quill (May 1994): 10–12
Carl Sessions Stepp, “Going Long in a No-Jump World,” American Journalism Review (Jan./Feb. 1993): 1–5
Roy Peter Clark, “A New Stage for the News,” Washington Journalism Review (Mar. 1984): 46–47
Joseph B. McCullough and Janice McIntire-Strasburg, eds., Mark Twain at the Buffalo Express: Articles and Sketches by America's Favorite Humorist (DeKalb: Northern Illinois Press, 1999), xx–xxiii
Edgar M. Branch, The Literary Apprenticeship of Mark Twain (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950), 154

Reference Type: notes

Peter Martin, A Life of Boswell (1999, reprint, London: Phoenix Press, 2000), 401
Richard West, Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange, Surprising Adventures (1998; reprint, New York: Carroll and Graf, 2000), 218
John Ginger, The Notable Man: The Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmith (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1977)
Stephen Gwynn, Oliver Goldsmith (1935; reprint, London: Thornton Butterworth, 1937), 141
Jeremy Treglown and Bridget Bennett, eds., Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet (New York: Clarendon-Oxford University Press, 1998), 4–6
D. J. Taylor, Thackeray: The Life of a Literary Man (New York: Carroll and Graf, 2001), 103–109, 198–199
Fred Kaplan, Dickens: A Biography (1988; reprint, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 49–50
Kenneth Silverman, Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance (1991; reprint, New York: Harper Perennial, 1992), 99.
Stanley T. Williams, The Life of Washington Irving. 2 volumes (New York: Oxford University Press, 1935), 114, 192–193
Donald McQuade, Robert Atwan, Martha Banta, Justin Kaplan, David Minter, Cecelia Tichi, and Helen Vendler, eds., The Harper American Literature (New York: Harper and Row, 1987), x, 348–406
Oswald Doughty, Perturbed Spirit: The Life and Personality of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (London: Associated University Presses, 1981), 457.
Spencer L. Eddy, Jr., The Founding of The Cornhill Magazine (Muncie, IN: Ball State University Publications, 1970), 21.
Robert Giddings, The Tradition of Smollett (London: Methuen and Company, 1967), 47, 49–50
Clive T. Probyn, English Fiction of the Eighteenth Century 1700–1789 (London: Longman, 1987), 15
George M. Kahrl, Tobias Smollett: Traveler-Novelist (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945), 152
Hugh Walker, The English Essay and Essayists (New York: Dutton, 1915), 101
Thomas R. Cleary, Henry Fielding: Political Writer (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1984), 119
Ian A. Bell, Henry Fielding: Authorship and Authority (London: Longman, 1994), 150–154
Victoria Glendinning, Jonathan Swift (London: Hutchinson, 1998), 101
Bertrand A. Goldgar, The Curse of Party: Swift's Relations with Addison and Steele (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1961), 97–98
John F. Ross, Swift and Defoe: A Study in Relationship (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1941), 10–36.
Donald Thomas, Henry Fielding (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1990), 147–158
Pieter Van Der Voorde, Henry Fielding: Critic and Satirist (New York: Haskell House, 1966), 27–28
Martin C. and Ruthe R. Battestin, Henry Fielding: A Life (London: Routledge, 1989), 327, 446–606
Brian McCrea, Henry Fielding and the Politics of Mid-eighteenth Century England (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1981)
Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones (1749; reprint, Middlesex, England: Penguin, 1975), 435–439
W. M. Thackeray, The Newcomes, volume one in Complete Works of William Makepeace Thackeray (New York: Collier and Son, 1902), 41.
Robert Donald Spector, Tobias George Smollett (Boston: Twayne, 1989)
James G. Basker, Tobias Smollett: Critic and Journalist (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1988), 188
Richard B. Schwartz, Boswell's Johnson: A Preface to the Life (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1978), 93
John J. Burke, Jr., “But Boswell's Johnson Is Not Boswell's Johnson,” in John A. Vance, ed., Boswell's Life of Johnson: New Questions, New Answers (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1985), 178.
Frederick Pottle, “The Life of Boswell,” in Harold Bloom, ed., Dr. Samuel Johnson and James Boswell (New York: Chelsea, 1986), 33
Paul J. Korshin, “Johnson's Conversation in Boswell's Life of Johnson,” in Greg Clingham, ed., New Light on Boswell: Critical and Historical Essays on the Occasion of the Bicentenary of The Life of Johnson (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 179–181
Adam Sisman, Boswell's Presumptuous Task (London: Hamish Hamilton, 2000), xviii
William R. Siebenschuh, Fictional Techniques and Factual Works (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983); 56
Donald Greene, Samuel Johnson (New York: Twayne, 1970), 71–72
Steven Lynn, Samuel Johnson after Deconstruction: Rhetoric and The Rambler (Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press, 1992), 9
W. Jackson Bate, Samuel Johnson (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975), 222, 290
John Wain, Samuel Johnson (New York: Viking, 1974), 152
Robert Donald Spector, Samuel Johnson and the Essay (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997), 193–194
James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson, ed. Frank Brady, (1791; reprint, New York: Signet, 1968)
Carey McIntosh, The Choice of Life: Samuel Johnson and the World of Fiction (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973), 20, 26, 30
Archibald C. Coolidge, Jr., Charles Dickens as Serial Novelist (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1967), 46
Gordon N. Ray, ed., William Makepeace Thackeray: Contributions to the Morning Chronicle (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1955), xi–xii
W. M. Thackeray, The Adventures of Philip (1862; reprint, London: Macmillan, 1905), 517
Edgar F. Harden, Thackeray the Writer: From Journalism to Vanity Fair (New York: St. Martin's, 1988), 33
W. M. Thackeray, The History of Pendennis: His Fortunes and Misfortunes/His Friends and His Greatest Enemy (1850; reprint, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).
Gordon S. Haight, George Eliot and John Chapman (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940), 12–13
Kathryn Hughes, George Eliot: The Last Victorian (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998), 83, 98–101
David Williams, Mr. George Eliot: A Biography of George Henry Lewes (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1983), 107.
Winifred F. Courtney, Young Charles Lamb 1775–1802 (London: Macmillan, 1982), 311–313
Grevel Lindop, The Opium-Eater: A Life of Thomas De Quincey (London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1981), 259–260

Reference Type: notes

Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1877; reprint, New York: Signet, 1961), 53
John Lauber, The Making of Mark Twain: A Biography (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1985), 113
Mark Dawidziak, ed., Mark My Words: Mark Twain on Writing (New York: St. Martin's, 1996), 103.
Ernest Marchand, Frank Norris: A Study (1942; reprint, New York: Octagon, 1964), 53
Christopher Smith, ed., American Realism (San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2000), 26–27
Richard O'Connor, Bret Harte: A Biography (Boston: Little, Brown, 1966), 7
Margaret Duckett, Mark Twain and Bret Harte (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), 9, 312–332.
Theodore Dreiser, A Book About Myself (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1922).
William Dean Howells, My Mark Twain: Reminiscences and Criticisms (1910; reprint, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1967), 38
Lars Ahnebrink, The Beginnings of Naturalism in American Fiction: A Study of the Works of Hamlin Garland, Stephen Crane, and Frank Norris with Special Reference on Some European Influences, 1891–1903 (New York: Russell and Russell, 1961), 11, 80–85.
Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884; reprint, New York: Laurel, 1971), 209.
Herbert J. Gans, Deciding What's News: A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time (1979; reprint, New York: Vintage, 1980), 42–52
Edmund Reiss, Afterword in Twain, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889; reprint, New York: Signet, 1963), 324–325
Justin Kaplan, Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain: A Biography (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966), 265, 347
Ron Powers, Mark Twain: A Life (2005; reprint, New York: Free Press, 2006), 374–375.
Margaret Sanborn, Mark Twain: The Bachelor Years: A Biography (New York: Doubleday, 1990), 73–75, 79–80
Philip Ashley Fanning, Mark Twain and Orion Clemens: Brothers, Partners, Strangers (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2003), 23, 25–27
Gladys Carmen Bellamy, Mark Twain as a Literary Artist (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1950), 86, 89
Andrew Hoffman, Inventing Mark Twain: The Lives of Samuel Longhorne Clemens (New York: Morrow, 1997), 95
Everett Emerson, Mark Twain: A Literary Life (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000)
Rodney D. Olsen, Dancing in Chains: The Youth of William Dean Howells (New York: New York University Press, 1991), 137–138
Kenneth Eble, William Dean Howells, Second Edition (Boston: Twayne, 1982), 2–3
Kenneth S. Lynn, William Dean Howells: An American Life (1970; reprint, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971), 54–55
Clara Kirk and Rudolf Kirk, William Dean Howells (New York: Twayne, 1962), 22
Amy Kaplan, The Social Construction of American Realism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 20
Axel Nissen, Bret Harte: Prince and Pauper (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000), xv, 97
Gary Scharnhorst, Bret Harte: Opening the American Literary West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000), 43
Gary Scharnhorst, Bret Harte (New York: Twayne, 1992), 118.
Lawrence I. Berkove, A Prescription for Adversity: The Moral Art of Ambrose Bierce (Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2002), 30, 83
Richard Saunders, Ambrose Bierce: The Making of a Misanthrope (San Francisco: Chronicle, 1985), 62.
Richard O'Connor, Ambrose Bierce: A Biography (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967), 22–23
Carey McWilliams, Ambrose Bierce: A Biography (Hamden, CT: Archon, 1967), 226
Ambrose Bierce, The Enlarged Devil's Dictionary (1906; reprint, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1967), 237
Harold H. Kolb, The Illusion of Life: American Realism as a Literary Form (Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia, 1969), 45
Franklin Walker, Frank Norris: A Biography (1932; reprint, New York: Russell and Russell, 1963), 79, 169–171
R. W. Stallman, Stephen Crane: A Biography (New York: Braziller, 1968), 125
F. O. Matthiessen, Theodore Dreiser (Toronto: George J. McLeod, 1951), 57.
Christopher Benfey, The Double Life of Stephen Crane (New York: Knopf, 1992), 15, 229–230
Linda H. Davis, Badge of Courage: The Life of Stephen Crane (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998), 272–273
Paul Civello, American Literary Naturalism and Its Twentieth Century Transformations: Frank Norris, Ernest Hemingway, Don DeLillo (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1994), 1–5
Mary Lawlor, Recalling the Wild: Naturalism and the Closing of the American West (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000), 85
Yoshinobu Hakutani, Young Dreiser: A Critical Study (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1980), 20–21
Shawn St. Jean, Pagan Dreiser: Songs from American Mythology (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 2001), 37
Theodore Dreiser, Dawn: An Autobiography of Early Youth (1931; reprint, Santa Rosa, CA: Black Sparrow Press, 1998), 551–553
Everett Carter, Howells and the Age of Realism (Hamden, CT: Archon, 1966), 234
Donald Pizer, Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth Century American Literature (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1966)
Mark Twain, The Mysterious Stranger and Other Stories (1916; reprint, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1922, 1950), 20, 26–27
Roy Morris, Jr., Ambrose Bierce: Alone in Bad Company (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 205
Richard O'Connor, Jack London; A Biography (Boston: Little, Brown, 1964), 14
Edward J. Larson, Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate over Science and Religion (New York: BasicBooks, 1997), 94, 125, 256–257
Charles Child Walcutt, American Literary Naturalism, A Divided Stream (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1956), 90.
Carl Bode, Mencken (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969), 55.
Richard Lehan, Theodore Dreiser: His World and His Novels (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969), 54
Philip L. Gerber, Theodore Dreiser (New York: Twayne, 1964), 67
Robert Penn Warren, Homage to Theodore Dreiser (New York: Random House, 1971), 17
James Lundquist, Theodore Dreiser (New York: Frederick Unger, 1974), 28
Robert H. Elias, Theodore Dreiser: Apostle of Nature (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1948), 113–115
John Berryman, Stephen Crane (1950, reprint, Cleveland: World Publishing, 1962), 92
James B. Colvert, Stephen Crane (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984), 44.
H. Wayne Morgan, Writers in Transition: Seven Americans (New York: Hill and Wang, 1963), 6.
Milne Holton, Cylinder of Vision: The Fiction and Journalistic Writing of Stephen Crane (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972), 21
Edwin H. Cady, Stephen Crane (Boston: Twayne, 1980), 22–23.
Marston LaFrance, A Reading of Stephen Crane (London: Clarendon Press, 1971), 174
Thomas Beer, Stephen Crane: A Study in American Letters (New York: Knopf, 1923), 233.
Joseph R. McElrath, Jr., Frank Norris Revisited (New York: Twayne, 1992), 14
William B. Dillingham, Frank Norris: Instinct and Art (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1969)
Robert W. Schneider, Five Novelists of the Progressive Era (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965), 116–117
Warren French, Frank Norris (New York: Twayne, 1962), 82
Barbara Hochman, The Art of Frank Norris, Storyteller (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1988), 6, 12
Don Graham, The Fiction of Frank Norris: The Aesthetic Content (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1978), 13
Robert A. Morace, “The Writer and His Middle Class Audience: Frank Norris, A Case in Point,” in Don Graham, ed., Critical Essays on Frank Norris (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980), 59
John Perry, Jack London: An American Myth (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1981), 139, 151
Francis Shor, “Power, Gender, and Ideological Discourse in The Iron Heel,” in Leonard Cassuto and Jeanne Campbell Reesman, eds., Rereading Jack London (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996)
Earle Labor, Jack London (New York: Twayne, 1974), 95.
Jack London, Martin Eden (1908; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1946), 223–224
Charles Carrington, Rudyard Kipling: His Life and Work (1955; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1986), 304–305
Jackson J. Benson, John Steinbeck, Writer: A Biography (1984; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1990), 648–649.

Reference Type: notes

Michael Schudson, Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers (New York: Basic, 1978), 186–188
William Dean Howells, A Modern Instance (1882; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1984), 213, 450–451
William Dean Howells, The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1986), 3–23
Ronald Weber, Hemingway's Art of Non-Fiction (London: Macmillan, 1990)
Laurence Bergreen, James Agee: A Life (1984; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1985)
Harvena Richter, Writing to Survive: The Private Notebooks of Conrad Richter (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988), 191.
Robert O. Stephens, Hemingway's Nonfiction: The Public Voice (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1968), 6
Carlos Baker, Hemingway: The Writer as Artist (1952; reprint, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972), 58–69.
Carlos Baker, Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story (New York: Scribner's, 1969), 147–155
Bertram D. Sarason, Hemingway and The Sun Set (Washington, DC: National Cash Register Company, 1972), 8–18
Melvin Mencher, News Reporting and Writing: Second Edition (1977; reprint, Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown, 1982), 162
J. F. Kobler, Ernest Hemingway: Journalist and Artist (1968; reprint, Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1985), 18
Vasant A. Shahane, Rudyard Kipling: Activist and Artist (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1973), 14–15
Lord Birkenhead, Rudyard Kipling (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1978), 63
Martin Seymour-Smith, Kipling (London: Macdonald, 1989), 55, 69
W. L. Renwick, “Re-reading Kipling,” in Andrew Rutherford, ed., Kipling's Mind and Art: Selected Critical Essays (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1964), 7, 10, 13
James Harrison, Rudyard Kipling (Boston: Twayne, 1982), 66
Philip Mason, Kipling: The Glass, the Shadow and the Fire (New York: Harper and Row, 1975), 119–122
Harry Ricketts, Rudyard Kipling: A Life (New York: Carroll and Graf, 1999), 219
Bonamy Dobree, Rudyard Kipling: Realist and Fabulist (London: Oxford University Press, 1967), 4
J. I. M. Stewart, Rudyard Kipling (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1966), 116.
Richard Lingeman, Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street (New York: Random House, 2002), 23, 86, 91, 553
Scott Donaldson, By Force of Will: The Life and Art of Ernest Hemingway (New York: Viking, 1977), 10–11, 24, 38, 245
Matthew J. Bruccoli, Ernest Hemingway, Cub Reporter (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1970).
Ernest Hemingway, “Pamplona in July,” in By-Line: Ernest Hemingway, ed. William White (1967; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1980), 105–114
Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises (1926; reprint, New York: Scribner, 2003), 220–221.
David R. Johnson, Conrad Richter: A Writer's Life (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 135–136
John Hersey, “The Legend on the License,” Yale Review 70 (1980): 1–25.
Mary V. Dearborn, Mailer: A Biography (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999), 40, 235, 244, 246, 259, 348–351.
Joan Didion, Slouching Toward Bethlehem (1961; reprint, New York: Washington Square, 1981), 19.

Reference Type: notes

Arthur W. Brown, Margaret Fuller (New York: Twayne, 1964), 82, 121–122.
Louis Filler, Voice of Democracy: A Critical Biography of David Graham Phillips: Journalist, Novelist, Progressive (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1978), 75.
Scott Elledge, E. B. White: A Biography (1984; reprint, New York: Norton, 1986), 219, 223.
Jonathan Yardley, Ring: A Biography of Ring Lardner (New York: Random House, 1977), 393
Charles P. Frank, Edmund Wilson (New York: Twayne, 1970), 154–155
Ellen Wright and Michel Fabre, eds., Richard Wright Reader (New York: Harper and Row, 1978), 34.
Faith Berry, Langston Hughes: Before and Beyond Harlem (Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill, 1983), 309–311, 326
R. Bruce Bickley, Jr., Joel Chandler Harris (Boston: Twayne, 1978), 95–130.
Ann Waldron, Eudora: A Writer's Life (1998; reprint, New York: Anchor, 1999), 66
Joan Givner, Katherine Anne Porter: A Life (1981; reprint, New York: Touchstone, 1982), 130.
Norman Mailer, The Armies of the Night: History as a Novel/The Novel as History (New York: New American Library, 1968), 21–22
Sherwood Anderson, “In Washington,” in Horace Gregory, ed., The Portable Sherwood Anderson (1972; reprint, New York: Viking, 1949), 447–454.
Doug Underwood, “Depression, Drink, and Dissipation: The Troubled Inner World of Famous Journalist-Literary Figures and Art as the Ultimate Stimulant,” Journalism History 32 (Winter, 2007): 186–200.
Anne Edwards, Road to Tara: The Life of Margaret Mitchell (New Haven, CT: Ticknor and Fields, 1983), 75
Billy Altman, Laughter's Gentle Soul: The Life of Robert Benchley (New York: Norton, 1997), 24–27
Ambrose Bierce, “The Short Story,” in Tales of Soldiers and Civilians and Other Stories (1897; reprint, New York: Penguin, 2000), 253–259
H. L. Mencken, “Dreiser,” in A Mencken Chrestomathy (1949; reprint, New York: Vintage, 1982), 504.
Finis Farr, O'Hara: A Biography (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973), 243–244
Burton Bernstein, Thurber: A Biography (1975; reprint, New York: Ballantine, 1976), 590, 620–622
Selina Hastings, Evelyn Waugh: A Biography (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), 157, 183, 212, 288–289

Reference Type: notes

Frank Norris, “Dying Fires,” in The Best Short Stories of Frank Norris (Forest Hills, NY: Ironweed, 1998), 130, 132–133, 136.
Jane Smiley, Charles Dickens (New York: Viking, 2002).
Robert Solotaroff, “Robert Stone,” Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 152: American Novelists Since World War II, Fourth Series (Gale Group, 1995), 216–231.
Norman Mailer, The Naked and the Dead (1948; reprint, New York: Henry Holt, 1998), xi–xii.
George Weigel, “God, Man, and H. L. Mencken,” First Things 53 (May, 1995): 50–59.
Smiley, Moo (New York: Knopf, 1995).