Chapter 14 - Mobile Security  pp. 735-752

Mobile Security

By Reza B'Far and Roy T. Fielding

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Everything that man does in his symbolic world is an attempt to deny and overcome his grotesque fate.

Ernst Becker

INTRODUCTION

Security is always one of the biggest concerns when designing any application, but particularly distributed applications. Distributed applications operate over networks, involve multiple users, and have many other properties that make them more vulnerable to security breaches. Though there are stand-alone mobile applications, as we have discussed earlier in this text, most mobile applications, at their core, are distributed applications. Unfortunately, to date, there remain many unsolved problems with security concerns of mobile applications.

Our goal in this chapter will be to first introduce a taxonomy of mobile application security problems, look at few general approaches in solving these problems, and finally review those problems that remain unsolved. Security also tends to be a system-wide problem, not just an application problem, whether dealing with mobile or stationary applications. So, we are not out to show you sample code, standards, or specific techniques; such discussions are completely beyond the scope of our discussion. Our main purpose is to take a step back and look at the big picture of mobile application design and see where security concerns may be. Security is intimately bound to the design of the platform for which the mobile application is being built.

Chapter 14

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

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[Laukkanen 2002] Java on Handheld Devices–Comparing J2ME CDC to Java 1.1. M. Laukkanen, Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki, available at http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/campa/teaching/j2me/papars/cdc.pdf
Pages? vol? [Lawton 2001] “New Technologies Place Video in Your Hands.” G. Lawton in IEEE Computer Magazine, April 2001
[Lee 2000] Operation-Based Update Propagation in Mobile File Systems. Y.-W. Lee, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, January 2000
Pages? vol#? [Leeper 2001] “A Long-Term View of Short-Range Wireless.” D. G. Leeper in IEEE Computer Magazine, June 2001
[Leonhardt and Magee 1997] Security Considerations for a Distributed Location Service. U. Leonhardt and J. Magee, Imperial College, London, England, 1997
[Leufven 2001] Synchronization in a Wireless World. U. Lefven, Royal Institute of Technology and Microsoft Mobile Internet Laboratories, June 2001
[Liao et al. 2000] “Geogrid: A Geocasting Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on GRID.” W.-H. Liao, Y.-C. Tseng, K.-L. Lo, and J.-P. Sheu, Internet Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000
[Lieberman 2001] UML Activity Diagrams: Detailing User Interface Navigation. B. Lieberman, The Rational Edge, Rational Software, October 2001, available at http://www.therationaledge.com/content/oct_01/t_activityDiagrams_bl.html
[Lieberman 2001] UML Activity Diagrams: Detailing User Interface Navigation. B. Lieberman, The Rational Edge, Rational Software, October 2001, available at http://www.therationaledge.com/content/oct_01/t_activityDiagrams_bl.html
[LIF Specifications 2000] Location Interoperability Forum Mobile Location Protocol TS 101 Specification. Version 3.0, June 2002
Publisher or sponser? PAge range? [Lin and Stojmenovic 1999] “Gedir: Loop-Free Location Based Routing in Wireless Networks.” X. Lin and I. Stojmenovic, Proceedings of Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems, November 3–6, 1999
[Lindmark 2000] Interpreting Symptoms of Cognitive Load and Time Pressure in Manual Input. K. Lindmark, Master's thesis, Department of Computer Science, Saarland University, 2000
[Lodderstedt et al. 2002] SecureUML: A UML-Based Modeling Language for Model-Driven Security? T. Lodderstedt, D. Basin, and J. Doser, University of Freiburg, Germany
[Maes 2002] A VoiceXML Framework for Reusable Dialog Components, S. H. Maes, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., 2002
[Malhotra 2002] Introduction to SMS. V. Malhotra, IBM Developer Works, 2002, available at http://www.ibm.com/developerworks
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[Mantyla 2002] User Experience Research. M. Mantyla, Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, 2002
[Martin-Flatin 1999] Push vs. Pull in Web-Based Network Management. J.-P. Martin-Flatin, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, 1999
[MASIF 1997] Mobile Agent System Interoperability Facilities Specification. GMD FOKUS, IBM Corporation, with cooperation from Crystliz, Inc., General Magic, Inc., and the Open group, 1997
[MAUI 2000] Mobile Agent to User Interaction (MAUI). P. Mihailescu, C. Gamage, and E. A. Kendall, Monash University, Australia, 2000
[McClure, Scambray, and Kurtz 1999] Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 1999
[McLaughlin 2000] Java and XML. B. Mclaughlin, O'Reily & Associates, 2000
[Melnik and Decker 2000] A Layered Approach to Information Modeling and Interoperability on the Web. S. Melnik and S. Decker, Stanford University, available at http://www-db.stanford.edu/∼melnik/pub/sw00/sw00.pdf
[Meyers 1993] Why Are Human-Computer Interfaces Difficult to Design and Implement? B. A. Myers, Carnegie Mellon University, July 1993
[Miga et al. 2002] Deriving Message Sequence Charts from Use Case Maps Scenario Specifications. A. Miga, D. Amyot, F. Bordeleau, D. Cameron, and M. Woodside, Carlton University at Ottawa, Canada, 2002
[Minh 1997] Multimodal User Interface Research (MUIR), Modal, Specification and Design. C. Min, Master's Thesis, Department of Computer Science and Technology, Peking University, June 20, 1997
[Moczar and Aston 2002] Cocoon Developer's Handbook. L. Moczar and J. Aston, Sams Publishing, 2002
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Publisher? university? [Mummert 1996] Exploiting Weak Connectivity in a Distributed File System. Lily B. Mummert, CMU-CS-96–195, December 1996
vol, pages [Munoz et al. 2003] “Context-Aware Mobile Communication in Hospitals.” M. A. Munoz, M. Rodriguez, J. Favela, A. I. Marinez-Garcia, and V. Gonzalez, in IEEE Computer Magazine, September 2003
[Murphy 2000] Enabling the Rapid Development of Dependable Applications in the Mobile Environment. A. L. Murphy, Washington University Server Institute of Technology, 2000
[NCC 2002] Wireless—A New Challenge in Software Testing. National Computing Centre, available at http://www.ncc.co.uk/ncc/myitadviser/archive/issue9/technology.cfm
Title, authors? [Nettech 1999] Beginner's Guide to Implementing a Successful Wireless Solution. Nettech Systems, Inc., 1999, available at http://www.nettechRF.com
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[Niklfeld, Finan, and Pucher 2001] Component-Based Multimodal Dialog Interfaces for Mobile Knowledge Creation. G. Niklfeld, R. Finan, and M. Pucher, Telecommunication Research Center, Vienna and Mobilkom, Austria, 2001
[Nunes 2001] Object Modeling for User-Centered Development and User Interface Design: The Wisdom Approach. D. N. J. Nunes, University of Maderia, Funchal, Portugal, April 2001
[OASIS tML 2001] tML Guidelines for Mapping UML Notation to XML Schemas and Vice Versa. OASIS Committee T1–Telecommunications working group T1M1 in conjunction with Sprint Corp., available at http://www.oasis-open.org
[Olsen 1992] User Interface Management Systems: Models and Algorithms. D. R. Olsen Jr., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, Ca., 1992
[Openwave 2002] WAP Push Technology Overview. Openwave Systems Inc., May 2002, available at http://demo.openwave.com/pdf/wappush_tech_overview.pdf
[Openwave 2002] WAP Push Technology Overview. Openwave Systems, Redwood City, CA, available at http://www.openwave.com
[Orfali and Harkey 1997] Client/Server Programming with Java and CORBA. R. Orfali and D. Harkey, John Wiley & Sons, 1997
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[Oviatt 2000] Designing Robust Multimodal Systems for Diverse Users and Environments. S. Oviatt, Computer Science Department, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, 2000
[Oviatt 2002] Taming Recognition Errors with a Multimodal Interface. S. Oviatt, National Science Foundation, Special Extension for Creativity, 2002
[Oviatt and Cohen 2000] Multimodal Interfaces That Process What Comes Naturally. S. Oviatt and P. Cohen, Center for Human Communication, Department of Computer Science, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, 2000
[Oviatt OHSU 2002] Multimodal Interfaces for Future Geographical Information Systems. NRC Committee on Beyond Mapping: The Challenge of New Technologies in the Geographic Information Sciences, August 2002
[Oviatt, Jacko, and Sears 2002] Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction—Multimodal Interfaces. S. Oviatt, Center for Human-Computer Communication, Computer Science Department of Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology 2002
[Owen 2002] When Data Sync Breaks. J. Owen, White Paper, XcelleNet, Inc., 2002
[P809-GI 1999] Mobility in the Broadband Environment Based on IN Evolution. P809-GI project of EUROSCOM, Network Architectures for Broadband Mobility, Vol. 1, Architecture for the Benchmark Services, 1999
[Page 2000] Neuropsychology of Memory. A. Page, University of Western Australia, available at http://www.psy.uwa.edu.au/user/andrew/
Page range, vol#? [Paulson 2003] “New Techniques for Speeding Wireless Streaming Video.” L. D. Paulson in IEEE Computer Magazine, May 2003
Pages? vol? [Pinhanez et al. 2003] “Fostering a Symbiotic Handheld Environment.” C. Pinhanez, M. Raghunath, and C. Narayanasuwami, in IEEE Computer Magazine, September 2003
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[Raggat and Wugofski 2000] Towards Convergence of WML, XHTML and Other W3C Technologies. World Wide Web Consortium, available at http://www.w3.org/2000/09/Papers/Wugofski.html
[Rausch et al. 2001] Extensions of the Unified Modeling Language for Mobile Agents. C. Klein, A. Rausch, M. Sihling, and Z. Wen, Siemens ICN, Munich, Germany, Institut fur Informatic, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany, 2001
[Rausch, Sihling, and Wen 1998] Extensions of the UML around Language Concepts for Mobility. A. Rausch, M. Sihling, and Z. Wen, 1998, available at http://www4.in.tum.de/∼rausch/publications/2001/MobileUML.pdf
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[Rodriquez et al. 2000] An Introduction to IBM WebSphere Everyplace Suite Version 1.1. J. Rodriguez, R. Appleby, B. Bisgaard, H. Wang, A. McGrory, A. Mryhig, A. Patton, and M. Omarjee, IBM RedBooks, 2000
[Rossler et al. 2001] Multimodal Interaction for Mobile Environment. H. Rossler, J. Sienel, W. Wajda, J. Hoffmann, and M. Kostrzewa, Private Network Department, Alcatel SEL AG Research and Innovation, Germany, 2001
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[Ruuskanen 2000] JAVACARD. J.-P.Ruuskanen, Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki, Finland, available at http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/campa/teaching/ruuskanen-final.pdf
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[Sandor and Reicher 2001] CUIML: A Language for Generating Multimodal Human-Computer Interfaces. C. Sandor and T. Reicher, 2001, available at http://wwwbruegge.in.tum.de/publications/includes/pub/sandor2001cuiml/sandor2001cuiml.pdf
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[Selic and Raumbaugh 2003] Mapping SDL to UML. B. Selic and J. Raumbaugh, Rational White Papers, May 8, 2003, available at http://www.rational.com/media/whitepapers/sdl2umlv13.pdf
Page range vol, and issue #? [Sharma et al. 2003] “Speech-Gesture Driven Multimodal Interfaces for Crisis Management.” R. Sharma, M. Yeasin, N. Krahnstoever, I. Raushert, G. Cai, I. Brewer, A. S. MacEachren, and K. Sengupta, in Proceedings of IEEE Special Issue on Multimodal Human-Computer Interface 2003, 2003
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[Singh et al. 1999] RAT: A Quick (And Dirty?) Push for Mobility Support. R. Singh, Y. C. Tay, W. T. Teo, and S. W. Yeow, IEEE Publications, 1999
[Sissonen 2002] Wireless Applications Evaluation and Development Process: Case-Paper Industry Logistics. A. Sissonen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, February 1, 2002
Title and authors? Year? [SMIL 2.0] Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-smil20–20010807/smil20.html
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[Spolsky 2001] User Interface Design For Programmers. J. Spolsky, 2001, available at http://www.joelonsoftware.com
Year? Title correct? [Spyrou, et al.] Wireless Computational Models: Mobile Agents to Rescue. Constantinos. G. Spyrou, P. Pitoura, and E. Evirpidou
[SSML 2002] 2002, available at http://www.w3.org/TR/speech-synthesis/
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[Stemberger 2002] Is Buetooth WI-FI? S. Stemberger, IBM Developer Works, 2002, available at http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/wi-net.html
[Sun Micro J2ME Spec 2000] Introduction to Java 2 Micro Edition and KVM. Sun Microsystems, May 19, 2000
[Sylvain 2001] MPML 3.0 Specifications. D. Sylvain, Master's Student, Internal Report, Ishizuka Laboratory, June 15, 2001
[SyncML Specification 1.1] SyncML Sync Protocol, Version 1.1. Available at http://www.syncml.org/docs/syncml_sync_protocol_v11_20020215.pdf
[SyncML White Paper 2003] Building an Industry-Wide Mobile Data Synchronization Protocol. SyncML White Paper, 2003, available at http://www.syncml.org
Pg range [Tanenbaum and van Renesse 1985] “Distributed Operating Systems.” A. S. Tanenbaum and R. van Renesse, ACM Computing Surveys, December 1985
[Tomlin 1990] Geographic Information Systems and Cartographic Modeling. C. D. Tomlin, Prentice Hall College Division, 1990
[Trabelsi et al. 2002] Multimodal Integration of Voice and Ink for Pervasive Computing. S. Trabelsi, S.-H. Cha, D. Desai, and C. Tappert, CSIS Pace University, 2002
Provide authors, title of document Vol, issue, pgs? [Trantor 2002] http://www.trantor.de
[Tseng et al. 2001] “Location Awareness in Ad Hoc Wireless Mobile Networks.” Y.-C. Tseng, S.-L. Wu, W.-H. Liao, and C.-M. Chao, IEEE Computer Magazine, June 2001
[Tuning 2000] How Do You Test an Interface How Do You Test an Interface You Can't See? Nuance Communications, 2000, available at http://hci.stanford.edu/cs377/nardi-schiano/NLeD.talk.pdf
[UMTS 2002] UMTS White Paper 1. 2002, available at http://www.umts-forum.org/servlet/dycon/ztumts/umts/Live/en/umts/MultiMedia_PDFs_UMTSF-White-Paper-1.pdf
[UTMS P1104 2002] Multimodal Multilingual Information Services for Small Mobile Terminals. L. Boves and E. den Os, eds., Eurescom UTMS, 2002
vol, issue, pgrange [Varshney 2003] “The Status and Future of 802.11-Based WLAN's.” U. Varshney, IEEE Computer Magazine, June 2003
[Varshney and Jain 2001] Issues in Emerging 4G Wireless Networks. U. Varshney and R. Jain, Georgia State University, 2001
[Vaughan-Nichols 2002] “OFDM: Back to the Wireless Future.” S. J. Vaughan-Nichols in IEEE Computer Magazine, December 2002
[Vaughan-Nichols 2003] “Mobile IPv6 and the Future of Wireless Internet Access.” S. J. Vaughan-Nichols in IEEE Computer Magazine, February 2003
[Venners 1997] “The Architecture of Aglets.” B. Venners, Java World, April 1997, available at http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-04–1997/jw-04-hood_p.html
[Vichr 2002] The ABC's of 802.11. R. Vichr, IBM Developer Works, 2002, available at http://www.ibm.com/developerworks
[VXML 2002] Speech Synthesis Markup Language. D. C. Burnett, Nuance, M. R. Walker, Intel, and A. Hunt, SpeechWorks International, World Wide Web Consortium, 2002, available at http://www.w3.org/TR/speech-synthesis/
[W3C Schema—2] W3C XML Schema Part 2—Data Types, Revision 2, January of 2001, available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2
[W3C Semantic Web] Semantic Web documentation on World Wide Web Consortium Web site, 2002, available at http://www.w3.org/2001/sw
[W3C Speech Grammar 2002] W3C Speech Grammar Specifications. A. Hunt and S. McGlashan of W3C, 2002, available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/WD-speech-grammar-20010103/
[W3C XForms] W3C XForms Specifications Working Draft 18, January 2002, available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/WD-xforms-20020118
[W3C XML Pipeline] XML Pipeline Definition Language Version 1.0. N. Walsh and E. Maler, Sun Microsystems, W3C Note, February 28, 2002
[Wahlster 2003] SmarkKom: Symmetric Multimodality in an Adaptive and Reusable Dialogue Shell. W. Wahlster, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), 2003
[Wahlster et al. 1998] SmartKom: Towards Multimodal Dialogues with Anthropomorphic Interface Agents. W. Wahlster, N. Riethinger, and A. Blocher, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence 1998
Vol#, pages? [Waldo 2001] “Mobile Code, Distributed Computing, and Agents.” J. Waldo, in IEEE Intelligent Systems, March/April 2001
[WAP 2.0] Wireless Application Protocol WAP 2.0 Technical White Paper, WAP Forum, available at http://www.wapforum.org/what/WAPWhite_Paper1.pdf
[WAP Architecture 2001] Wireless Application Protocol Architecture Specification WAP-210-WAPArch-20010712, Wireless Application Protocol Forum, July 2001, available at http://www1.wapforum.org/tech/documents/WAP-210-WAPArch-20010712-a.pdf
[WAP MMS Encapsulation 2002] Wireless Application Protocol MMS Encapsulation Protocol. Wireless Application Protocol Forum, Ltd. WAP-209-MMS Encapsulation-20020105-a, Version 05-Jan-2002
Title and year correct? [WAP Professional 2000] WAP Professional 2000. C. Arehart, N. Chidambaram, S. Guruprasad, A. Homer, R. Howelll, S. Kasippilai, R. Machin, T. Myers, A. Nakhimovsky, L. Passani, C. Pedley, R. Taylor, and M. Toschi. WROX Press Ltd., Acocks Green, UK, 2000
[WAP UAPROF] Wireless Application Protocol WAP-248-UAPROF-2001 1020-a, Wireless Application Protocol Forum, available at http://www.wapforum.org/
[Welch 2000] A Survey of Power Management Techniques in Mobile Computing Operating Systems. G. F. Welch, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000
[WFMC and Fisher 2000] The Work Flow Handbook 2001, Work Flow Management Coalition, October 2000
Publisher? [Yang et al. 2000] Mobile Agent on the SARA Digital Library. Y. Yang, O. F. Rana, D. W. Walker, and C. Georgousopoulos, and R. Williams, 2000
Provide publisher, not affiliations [Yang et al. 2000] Mobile Agents on SARA Digital Library. Y. Yang, O. F. Rana, D. W. Walker, C. Georgousopoulos, and R. Williams, 2000
[Yim et al. 2001] Architecture-Centric Object-Oriented Design Method for Multi-Agent Systems. H. Yim, K. Cho, J. Kim, and S. Park, KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), Korea, 2001
[Yu et al. 2003] Scalable Portriat Video for Mobile Video Conferencing. J. Keman Yu, T. He, Y. Lin, and S. Li, Microsoft Research Asia, 2003
[Zhang 2001] Mobile Computing and Wireless Networks. Y. Zhang, 2001, available at http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/ygz/395T-01S
[Zhang 2002] Provably-Secure Enhancements on 3GPP Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol. M. Zhang, Verizon Laboratories, Waltham, MA, 2002