16 - Prosopagnosia  pp. 315-334

Prosopagnosia

By Eugene Mayer and Bruno Rossion

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



General presentation of the disorder

Prosopagnosia is classically defined as an inability to recognize faces of people known to the patient on the basis of visual perception, despite the absence of low-level visual impairments, or cognitive alterations such as mental confusion or amnesia, with a preserved ability to recognize people through other cues: voice or other visual traits such as gait, size, clothes, or even facial features (moustache, scar, blemish) or accessories (ear-rings, eyeglasses). Prosopagnosics also have access to semantic knowledge concerning people.

According to Grüsser and Landis (1991), this condition seems to have been first described by Wigan (1844), in a book in which he expressed his views on the interaction of the two cerebral hemispheres. Wigan stated (pp. 128–9):

A gentleman of middle age, or a little past that period, lamented to me his utter inability to remember faces. He would converse with a person for an hour, but after an interval of a day could not recognise him again. Even friends, with whom he had been engaged in business transactions, he was unconscious of ever having seen (…) it was not till he heard the voice, that he could recognise men with whom he had constant intercourse (…) When I inquire more fully into the matter, I found that there was no defect in vision, except that his eyes were weak, and that any long continued employment of them gave him pain (…). He was quite determined to conceal it, if possible, and it was impossible to convince him that it did not depend solely on the eyes.

16

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Aichner, F., Adelwohrer, C. and Haring, H. P. (2002). Rehabilitation approaches to stroke. J. Neural Transm. Suppl., 59–73.
Aldrich, M. S., Alessi, A. G., Beck, R. W. and Gilman, S. (1987). Cortical blindness: etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis. Ann. Neurol., 21, 149–58.
Argenta, P. A. and Morgan, M. A. (1998). Cortical blindness and Anton syndrome in a patient with obstetric hemorrhage. Obstet. Gynecol., 91, 810–12.
Auchus, A. P., Chen, C. P., Sodagar, S. N., Thong, M. and Sng, E. C. (2002). Single stroke dementia: insights from 12 cases in Singapore. J. Neurol. Sci., 203/204, 85–9.
Azouvi, P., Samuel, C., Louis-Dreyfus, A., et al. (2002). Sensitivity of clinical and behavioural tests of spatial neglect after right hemisphere stroke. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 73, 160–6.
Basso, A. (1992). Prognostic factors in aphasia. Aphasiology, 6, 337–48.
Bisiach, E. and Luzzatti, C. (1978). Unilateral neglect of representational space. Cortex, 14, 129–33.
Blanke, O., Landis, T., Mermoud, C., Spinelli, L. and Safran, A. B. (2003). Direction-selective motion blindness after unilateral posterior brain damage. Eur. J. Neurosci., 18, 709–22.
Bogousslavsky, J. (2003). William Feinberg lecture 2002: emotions, mood, and behavior after stroke. Stroke, 34, 1046–50.
Bowen, A., Lincoln, N. B. and Dewey, M. E. (2002). Spatial neglect: is rehabilitation effective? Stroke, 33, 2728–9.
Brown, A. W., Bjelke, B. and Fuxe, K. (2004). Motor response to amphetamine treatment, task-specific training, and limited motor experience in a postacute animal stroke model. Exp. Neurol., 190, 102–8.
Burns, M. S. (2004). Clinical management of agnosia. Top Stroke Rehabil., 11, 1–9.
Caeiro, L., Ferro, J. M., Albuquerque, R. and Figueira, M. L. (2004). Delirium in the first days of acute stroke. J. Neurol., 251, 171–8.
Cals, N., Devuyst, G., Afsar, N., Karapanayiotides, T. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2002). Pure superficial posterior cerebral artery territory infarction in the Lausanne Stroke Registry. J. Neurol., 249, 855–61.
Cappa, S. F., Perani, D., Grassi, F., et al. (1997). A PET follow-up study of recovery after stroke in acute aphasics. Brain Lang., 56, 55–67.
Carota, A., Rossetti, A. O., Karapanayiotides, T. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2001). Catastrophic reaction in acute stroke: a reflex behavior in aphasic patients. Neurology, 57, 1902–5.
Cohen, L., Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., et al. (2000). The visual word form area: spatial and temporal characterization of an initial stage of reading in normal subjects and posterior split-brain patients. Brain, 123, 291–307.
Crisostomo, E. A., Duncan, P. W., Propst, M., Dawson, D. V. and Davis, J. N. (1988). Evidence that amphetamine with physical therapy promotes recovery of motor function in stroke patients. Ann. Neurol., 23, 94–7.
Croquelois, A. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2004). Cognitive deficits in hyperacute stroke. Stroke, 35, 25.
Croquelois, A., Wintermark, M., Reichhart, M., Meuli, R. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2003). Aphasia in hyperacute stroke: language follows brain penumbra dynamics. Ann. Neurol., 54, 321–9.
De Renzi, E., Gentilini, M. and Barbieri, C. (1989). Auditory neglect. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 52, 613–17.
Déjerine, J. (1892). Contribution à l'étude anatomo-pathologique et clinique des différentes variétés de cécité verbale. Mémoires de la Société de Biologie, 4, 61–90.
Engelter, S., Gostynski, M., Papa, S., et al. (2004). Prevalence and severity of aphasia due to first ischemic stroke: a prospective population based study. European Stroke Conference. Mannheim-Heidelberg.
Ferro, J. M. (2001). Hyperacute cognitive stroke syndromes. J. Neurol., 248, 841–9.
Ghika, J., Bogousslavsky, J. and Regli, F. (1995). “Hyperneglect,” a sequential hemispheric stroke syndrome. J. Neurol. Sci., 132, 233–8.
Ghika-Schmid, F., van Melle, G., Guex, P. and Bogousslavsky, J. (1999). Subjective experience and behavior in acute stroke: the Lausanne Emotion in Acute Stroke Study. Neurology, 52, 22–8.
Gil, R. (1996). Abrégé de Neuropsychologie, Paris: Masson.
Godefroy, O., Dubois, C., Debachy, B., Leclerc, M. and Kreisler, A. (2002). Vascular aphasias: main characteristics of patients hospitalized in acute stroke units. Stroke, 33, 702–5.
Grossman, M., Galetta, S. and D'Esposito, M. (1997). Object recognition difficulty in visual apperceptive agnosia. Brain Cogn., 33, 306–42.
Grotta, J. and Bratina, P. (1995). Subjective experiences of 24 patients dramatically recovering from stroke. Stroke, 26, 1285–8.
Grüsser, O.-J. and Landis, T. (1991). Lost letters: pure alexia. In J. R. Cronly-Dillon, ed., Visual Agnosias and Other Disturbances of Visual Perception and Cognition. Vol 12. London: Macmillan Press, pp. 333–56.
Hacke, W., Kaste, M., Skyhoj Olsen, T., Orgogozo, J. M. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2000). European Stroke Initiative (EUSI) recommendations for stroke management. The European Stroke Initiative Writing Committee. Eur. J. Neurol., 7, 607–23.
Halligan, P., Wilson, B. and Cockburn, J. (1990). A short screening test for visual neglect in stroke patients. Int. Disabil. Stud., 12, 95–9.
Halligan, P. W., Cockburn, J. and Wilson, B. A. (1991). The behavioural assessment of visual neglect. Neuropsychol. Rehab., 1, 5–32.
Heinsius, T., Bogousslavsky, J. and Van Melle, G. (1998). Large infarcts in the middle cerebral artery territory: etiology and outcome patterns. Neurology, 50, 341–50.
Hillis, A. E., Wityk, R. J., Barker, P. B., Ulatowski, J. A. and Jacobs, M. A. (2003). Change in perfusion in acute nondominant hemisphere stroke may be better estimated by tests of hemispatial neglect than by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Stroke, 34, 2392–6.
Hillis, A. E., Newhart, M., Heidler, J., et al. (2005). Anatomy of spatial attention: insights from perfusion imaging and hemispatial neglect in acute stroke. J. Neurosci., 25, 3161–7.
Husain, M. and Rorden, C. (2003). Non-spatially lateralized mechanisms in hemispatial neglect. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 4, 26–36.
Kalra, L., Perez, I., Gupta, S. and Wittink, M. (1997). The influence of visual neglect on stroke rehabilitation. Stroke, 28, 1386–91.
Kerkhoff, G. (2001). Spatial hemineglect in humans. Prog. Neurobiol., 63, 1–27.
Kertesz, A. (1988). What do we learn from recovery from aphasia? Adv. Neurol., 47, 277–92.
Landis, T., Graves, R., Benson, D. F. and Hebben, N. (1982). Visual recognition through kinaesthetic mediation. Psychol. Med., 12, 515–31.
Meijer, R., Ihnenfeldt, D. S., van Limbeek, J., Vermeulen, M. and de Haan, R. J. (2003). Prognostic factors in the subacute phase after stroke for the future residence after six months to one year, a systematic review of the literature. Clin. Rehabil., 17, 512–20.
Merino, J. G. and Heilman, K. M. (2003). Editorial comment: Measurement of cognitive deficits in acute stroke. Stroke, 34, 2396–8.
Mesulam, M. M. (1999). Spatial attention and neglect: parietal, frontal and cingulate contributions to the mental representation and attentional targeting of salient extrapersonal events. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci., 354, 1325–46.
Miozzo, M. and Caramazza, A. (1998). Varieties of pure alexia: the case of failure to access graphemic representations. Cogn. Neuropsych., 15.
Motomura, N., Sawada, T., Inoue, N., Asaba, H. and Sakai, T. (1988). Neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric findings in right hemisphere damaged patients. Jpn. J. Psychiatry Neurol., 42, 747–52.
Ortigue, S., Viaud-Delmon, I., Michel, C. M., et al. (2003). Pure imagery hemineglect of far space. Neurology, 60, 2000–2.
Paolucci, S., Antonucci, G., Gialloreti, L. E., et al. (1996). Predicting stroke inpatient rehabilitation outcome: the prominent role of neuropsychological disorders. Eur. Neurol., 36, 385–90.
Parton, A., Malhotra, P. and Husain, M. (2004). Hemispatial neglect. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 75, 13–21.
Pashek, G. V. and Holland, A. L. (1988). Evolution of aphasia in the first year post-onset. Cortex, 24, 411–23.
Pedersen, P. M., Jorgensen, H. S., Nakayama, H., Raaschou, H. O. and Olsen, T. S. (1995). Aphasia in acute stroke: incidence, determinants, and recovery. Ann. Neurol., 38, 659–66.
Pegna, A. J., Khateb, A., Lazeyras, F. and Seghier, M. L. (2005). Discriminating emotional faces without primary visual cortices involves the right amygdala. Nat. Neurosci., 8, 24–5.
Pierce, S. R. and Buxbaum, L. J. (2002). Treatments of unilateral neglect: a review. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 83, 256–68.
Pilgrim, E. and Humphreys, G. W. (1994). Rehabilitation of a case of ideomotor apraxia. In M. J. Riddoch and G. W. Humphreys, eds., Cognitive Neuropsychology and Cognitive Rehabilitation. Hove, Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 271–85.
Pohjasvaara, T., Erkinjuntti, T., Ylikoski, R., et al. (1998). Clinical determinants of poststroke dementia. Stroke, 29, 75–81.
Rentschler, I., Treutwein, B. and Landis, T. (1994). Dissociation of local and global processing in visual agnosia. Vision Res., 34, 963–71.
Robertson, I. H. and Halligan, P. W. (1998). Spatial Neglect: A Clinical Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.
Stone, S. P., Wilson, B., Wroot, A., et al. (1991). The assessment of visuo-spatial neglect after acute stroke. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 54, 345–50.
Trapl, M., Eckhardt, R., Bosak, P. and Brainin, M. (2004). Early recognition of speech and speech-associated disorders after acute stroke. Wien. Med. Wochenschr., 154, 571–6.
Vuilleumier, P. (2004). Anosognosia: the neurology of beliefs and uncertainties. Cortex, 40, 9–17.
Wade, D. T., Hewer, R. L., David, R. M. and Enderby, P. M. (1986). Aphasia after stroke: natural history and associated deficits. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 49, 11–16.
Warrington, E. K. and Shallice, T. (1980). Word-form dyslexia. Brain, 103, 99–11.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Andrew, J., Fowler, C. J. and Harrison, M. J. (1982). Tremor after head injury and its treatment by stereotaxic surgery. J. Neur. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 45, 815–19.
Bastian, A. J. and Thach, W. T. (1995). Cerebellar outflow lesions: a comparison of movement deficits resulting from lesions at the levels of the cerebellum and thalamus. Ann. Neurol., 38, 881–92.
Benabid, A. L., Pollak, B., Gervason, C., et al. (1991). Long-term suppression of tremor by chronic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Lancet, 337, 403–6.
Bhatia, K. P., Lera, G., Luthert, P. J. and Marsden, C. D. (1994). Vascular chorea: case report with pathology. Mov. Disorders, 9, 447–50.
Bhatia, K. P. and Marsden, C. D. (1994). The behavioral and motor consequences of focal lesions of the basal ganglia in man. Brain, 117, 859–76.
Ceballos-Baumann, A. O., Passingham, R. E., Marsden, C. D. and Brooks, D. J. (1995). Motor reorganization in acquired hemidystonia. Ann. Neurol., 37, 746–57.
Chung, S. J., Im, J. H., Lee, M. C. and Kim, J. S. (2004). Hemichorea after stroke: clinical-radiological correlation. J. Neurol., 251, 725–29.
Cordivari, C., Misra, V. P., Catania, S. and Lee, A. J. (2004). New therapeutic indications for botulinum toxins. Mov. Disorders, 19(Suppl. 8), S157–S161.
Defebvre, L., Destée, A., Cassim, F., Muller, J. P. and Vermersch, E. (1990). Transient hemiballism and striatal infarct. Stroke, 21, 967–8.
Demirkiran, M., Bozdemir, H. and Sarica, Y. (2001). Vascular parkinsonism: a distinct, heterogeneous clinical entity. Acta. Neurol. Scand., 104, 63–7.
Destée, A., Muller, J. P., Vermersch, P., Pruvo, J. P. and Warot, P. (1990). Hémiballisme. Hémichorée. Infarctus striatal. Rev. Neurol., 146, 150–2.
Dewey, R. B. and Jankovic, J. (1989). Hemiballism-Hemichorea: Clinical and pharmacologic findings in 21. Arch. Neurol., 46, 862–7.
Dooling, E. C. and Adams, R. D. (1975). The pathological anatomy of posthemiplegic athetosis. Brain, 98, 29–48.
Fénélon, G. and Houéto, J. L. (1997). Unilateral parkinsonism following a large infarct in the territory of the lenticulostriate arteries. Mov. Disorders, 12, 1086–90.
Fénélon, G. and Houéto, J. L. (1998). Les syndromes parkinsoniens vasculaires: un concept controversé. Rev. Neurol., 154, 291–302.
Flaherty, A. W. and Graybiel, A. M. (1994). Anatomy of the basal ganglia. In Movement Disorders 3, ed. C. D. Marsden and S. Fahn. Butterworth Heinemann Ltd., pp. 3–27.
Garcin, R. (1955). Syndrome cérébello-thalamique par lésion localisée du thalamus avec une digression sur le “signe de la main creuse” et son intérêt séméiologique. Rev. Neurol., 93, 143–9.
Ghika, J., Bogousslavski, J., Henerson, J., Maeder, P. and Regli, F. (1994). The “jerky dystonic unsteady hand”: a delayed motor syndrome in posterior thalamic infarctions. J. Neurol., 241, 537–42.
Ghika-Smith, F., Ghika, J., Regli, F. and Bogousslavsky, J. (1997). Hyperkinetic movement disorders during and after acute stroke: the Lausanne Stroke Registry. J. Neurol. Sci., 146, 109–16.
Growdon, H., Chambers, W. W. and Liu, C. N. (1967). An experimental dyskinesia in the rhesus monkey. Brain, 90, 603–32.
Hopfensperger, K. J., Busenbark, K. and Koller, W. C. (1995). Midbrain tremor. In Handbook of Tremor Disorders, ed. L. J. Findley and W. C. Koller. New York, pp. 1455–9.
Hughes, A. J., Daniel, S. E. and Lees, A. J. (2001). Improved accuracy of clinical diagnosis of Lewy body parkinson's disease. Neurology, 57, 1497–9.
Hunter, R., Smith, J., Thomson, T. and Dayan, A. D. (1978). Hemiparkinsonism with infarction of the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 4, 297–301.
Johnson, W. G. and Fahn, S. (1977). Treatment of vascular hemiballism and hemichorea. Neurology, 27, 634–6.
Kim, J. S. (1992). Delayed onset hand tremor caused by cerebral infarction. Stroke, 23, 292–4.
Kim, J. S. (2001a). Asterixis after unilateral stroke: lesion location of 30 patients. Neurology, 56, 533–6.
Kim, J. S. (2001b). Involuntary movements after anterior cerebral artery territory infarction. Stroke, 32, 258–61.
Krystkowiak, P., Defebvre, L. and Destée, A. (1996). Vascular chorea causing a phenocopy of Huntington's disesase. 4th International Congress of Movement Disorders, June 17–21, 1996, Vienne. Movement Disorders, 11, 56.
Krystkowiak, P., Martinat, P., Cassim, F., et al. (2000). Thalamic tremor: correlations with 3D MRI data and pathophysiological mechanisms. Mov. Disorders, 15, 911–18.
Krystkowiak, P., Martinat, P., Defebvre, L., et al. (1998). Dystonia following thalamic and striatopallidal stroke: radioclinic correlations and pathophysiological mechanisms. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 65, 703–8.
Leduc, V., Montagne, B. and Destée, A. (1997). Parkinsonism consecutive to an hemorrhagic lesion of the substantia nigra. Mov. Disorders, 12(Suppl. 1), 2.
Lee, M. S. and Marsden, C. D. (1994). Movement disorders following lesions of the thalamus or subthalamic region. Mov. Disorders, 9, 493–507.
Leenders, K. L., Frackowiak, R. S., Quinn, N., et al. (1986). Ipsilateral blepharospasm and contralateral hemidystonia and parkinsonism in a patient with unilateral rostral brainstem-thalamic lesion: structural and functional abnormalities studied with CT, MRI and PET scanning. Mov. Disorders, 1, 51–8.
Lehéricy, S., Grand, S., Pollak, P., et al. (2001). Clinical characteristics and topography of lesions in movement disorders due to thalamic lesions. Neurology, 57, 1055–66.
Lehéricy, S., Vidailhet, M., Dormont, D., et al. (1996). Striatopallidal and thalamic dystonia: a magnetic resonance imaging anatomoclinical study. Arch. Neurol., 53, 241–50.
Llinàs, R. and Paré, D. (1995). Role of intrinsic neuronal oscillations and network ensembles in the genesis of normal and pathological tremors. In Handbook of Tremor Disorders, ed. L. J. Findley and W. C. Koller. New York, pp. 7–36.
Marsden, C. D., Obeso, J. A., Zarranz, J. J. and Lang, A. E. (1985). The anatomical basis of symptomatic hemidystonia. Brain, 108, 463–83.
Milhorat, T. H. (1967). Experimental myoclonus of thalamic origin. Arch. Neurol., 17, 365–78.
Mitchell, I. J., Luquin, R., Boyce, S., et al. (1990). Neural mechanisms of dystonia: evidence from a 2-deoxyglucose uptake study in a primate model of dopamine agonist-induced dystonia. Mov. Disorders, 5, 49–54.
Miwa, H., Hatori, K., Kondo, T., Imai, H. and Mizuno, Y. (1996). Thalamic tremor: case reports and implications of the tremor-generating mechanism. Neurology, 46, 75–9.
Mizushima, N., Park-Matsumoto, Y. C., Amakawa, T. and Hayashi, H. (1997). A case of Hemichorea-Hemiballism associated with parietal lobe infarction. Eur. Neurol., 37, 65–6.
Narbona, J., Obeso, J., Tunon, T., Martinez-Lage, J. M. and Marsden, C. D. (1984). Hemi-dystonia secondary to localised basal ganglia tumour. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 47, 704–9.
Nijssen, P. C. and Tijssen, C. C. (1992). Stimulus-sensitive paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with a thalamic infarct. Mov. Disorders, 7, 364–6.
Ohye, C., Shibazaki, T., Hirai, T., et al. (1989). Further physiological observations on the ventralis intermedius neurons in the human thalamus. J. Neurophysiol., 61, 488–500.
Ondo, W. G., Chan, L. L. and Levy, J. K. (2002). Vascular parkinsonism: clinical correlates predicting motor improvement after lumbar puncture. Mov. Disorders, 17, 91–7.
Oppenheimer, D. R. (1967). A case of striatal hemiplegia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 30, 134–9.
Percheron, G., Yelnik, J., Francois, C., Fenelon, G. and Talbi, B. (1994). Analyse informationnelle du système lié aux ganglions de la base. Rev. Neurol., 150, 614–26.
Peterson, D. I. and Peterson, G. W. (1987). Unilateral asterixis due to ispilateral lesions in the pons and medulla. Ann. Neurol., 22, 661–3.
Pettigrew, L. C. and Jankovic, J. (1985). Hemidystonia: a report of 22 patients and a review of the literature. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 48, 650–7.
Pullicino, P., Xuereb, M. and Farrugia, B. (1990). Hémorragie cérébelleuse et asterixis unilateral. Rev. Neurol., 146, 687–98.
Qureshi, F., Morales, A. and Elble, R. J. (1996). Tremor due to infarction in the ventrolateral thalamus. Mov. Disorders, 11, 440–59.
Remy, P., De Recondo, A., Defer, G., et al. (1995). Peduncular « rubral » tremor and dopaminergic denervation: a PET study. Neurology, 45, 472–7.
Riley, D. E. (1996). Paroxysmal kinesigenic associated with a medullary lesion. Mov. Disorders, 11, 738–40.
Scott, B. L. and Jankovic, J. (1996). Delayed-onset progressive movement disorders after static brain lesions. Neurology, 46, 68–74.
Sethi, K. D., Nichols, F.T. and Yaghmai, F. (1987). Generalized chorea due to basal ganglia lacunar infarcts. Mov. Disorders, 2, 61–6.
Sibon, I., Fénelon, G., Quinn, N. P. and Tison, F. (2004). Vascular parkinsonism. J. Neurol., 251, 513–24.
Steriade, M., Currò-Dossi, R. and Nunez, A. (1991). Network modulation of a slow intrinsic oscillation of cat thalamocortical neurons implicated in sleep delta waves: cortically induced synchronization and brainstem cholinergic suppression. J. Neurosci., 11, 3200–17.
Tabaton, M., Mancardi, G. and Loeb, C. (1985). Generalized chorea due to bilateral small, deep cerebral infarcts. Neurology, 35, 588–9.
Tatu, L., Moulin, T., Martin, V., et al. (1996). Asterixis unilatéral et lésions cérébrales focales: douze cas. Rev. Neurol., 152, 121–7.
Trillet, M., Vighetto, A., Croisile, B., Charles, N. and Aimard, G. (1995). Hémiballisme avec libération thymo-affective et logorrhée par hématome du noyau sous-thalamique gauche. Rev. Neurol., 151, 416–19.
Trouillas, P. (1984). Regression of cerebellar syndrome with long term administration of 5-HTP or the combination 5-HTP-benzeraside. Ital. J. Neurol. Sci., 5, 253–66.
Vidakovic, A., Dragasevic, N. and Kostic, V. S. (1994). Hemiballism: report of 25 cases. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57, 945–9.
Vidhailhet, M., Dupel, C., Lehericy, S., et al. (1999). Dopaminergic dysfunction in midbrain dystonia: anatomoclinical study using 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodopa F 18 positron emission tomography. Arch. Neurol., 56, 982–9.
Winikates, J. and Jankovic, J. (1999). Clinical correlates of vascular parkinsonism. Arch. Neurol., 56, 98–102.
Yamanouchi, H. and Nagura, H. (1995). Cerebrovascular parkinsonism-clinicopathologic study. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 35, 1457–8.
Yoshimura, D. M., Aminoff, M. J. and Olney, R. K. (1992). Botulinum toxin therapy for limb dystonias. Neurology, 42, 627–30.
Zagnoli, F., Rouhart, F., Perotte, P., Bellard, S. and Goas, J. Y. (1996). Hémichorée et infarctus striatal. Rev. Neurol., 152, 615–22.
Zijlmans, J. M. C., Thijssen, H. O. M., Vogels, O. J. M., et al. (1995). MRI in patients with suspected vascular parkinsonism. Neurology, 45, 2183–8.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Basso, A., Capitani, E., Della Sala, S., Laiacona, M. and Spinnler, H. (1987). Recovery from ideomotor apraxia a study on acute stroke patients. Brain, 110, 747–60.
Bergego, C., Pradat-Diehl, P., Taillefer, C. and Migeot, H. (1994). Evaluation et rééducation de l'apraxie d'utilisation des objets. In l'Apraxie, ed. D. Le Gall and G. Aubin. Marseille: Solal, pp. 214–23.
Buxbaum, L. J., Schwartz, M. F. and Montgomery, M. W. (1998). The role of semantic memory in object use. Cogn. Neuropsych., 75, 617–44.
Buxbaum, L. J., Sirigu, A., Schwartz, M. F. and Klatzky, R. (2003). Cognitive representations of hand posture in ideomotor apraxia. Neuropsychologica, 41, 1091–1113.
Buxbaum, L. J., Johnson-Frey, S. H. and Barlett-Williams, M. (2005a). Neuropsychologia, 43, 917–29.
Buxbaum, L. J., Kyle, K. M. and Menon, R. (2005b). On beyond mirror neurons: internal representations subserving imitation and recognition of skilled object-related actions in humans. Cognitive Brain Res., 25, 226–39.
Chaminade, T., Meltzoff, A. N. and Decety, J. (2005). An fMRI study of imitation: action representation and body schema. Neuropsychologia, 43, 115–27.
Della Sala, S., Basso, A., Laiacona, M. and Papagno, C. (1992). Subcortical localization of ideomotor apraxia: a review and an experimental study. In G. Vallar, S. F. Cappa, and C.-W. Wallesch, eds., Neuropsychological Disorders Associated with Subcortical Lesions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 357–80.
De Renzi, E. (1990). Apraxia. In Handbook of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vol 2, ed. F. Boller and J. Grafman. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 245–63.
De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P. and Sorgato, P. (1982). Modality-specific and supramodal mechanisms of apraxia. Brain, 105, 301–12.
De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., Scarpa, M. and Crisi, G. (1986). Limb apraxia in patients with damage confined to the left basal ganglia and thalamus. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 49, 1030–8.
Donkervoort, M., Dekker, J. and Deelman, B. J. (2002). Sensitivity of different ADL measures to apraxia and motor impairments. Clin. Rehab., 16(3), 299–305.
Donkervoort, M., Dekker, J., Van Den Ende, E., Stehmann-Saris, J. C. and Deelman, B. J. (2000). Prevalence of apraxia among patients with a first left hemisphere stroke in rehabilitation centres and nursing homes. Clin. Rehab., 14(2), 130–6.
Dumont, C., Ska, B. and Schiavetto, A. (1999). Selective impairment of transitive gestures: An unusual case of apraxia. Neurocase, 5, 447–58.
Etcharry-Bouyx, F. and Le Gall, D. (2003). Comment j'examine l'apraxie gestuelle. Rev. Neurol., 159(2), 231–4.
Etcharry-Bouyx, F., Le Gall, D. and Pradat-Diehl, P. (2000). La prise en charge rééducative de l'apraxie. In Traité de Neuropsychologie Tome II, ed. X. Seron and M. Van der Linden. Marseille: Solal, pp. 245–52.
Freund, H.-J. (2001). The parietal lobe as a sensorimotor interface: a perspective from clinical and neuroimaging data. Neuroimage, 14, 142–6.
Goldenberg, G. (1995). Imitating gestures and manipulating a manikin. The representation of the human body in ideomotor apraxia. Neuropsychologia, 33, 63–72.
Goldenberg, G. (1996). Defective imitation of gestures in patients with damage in the left or right hemispheres. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 61, 176–80.
Goldenberg, G. and Hagmann, S. (1997). The meaning of meaningless gestures: a study of visuo-imitative apraxia. Neuropsychologia, 35, 333–41.
Goldenberg, G. and Hagmann, S. (1998). Therapy of activities of daily living in patients with apraxia. Neuropsych. Rehab., 8(2), 123–41.
Goldenberg, G., Daumüller, M. and Hagmann, S. (2001). Assessment and therapy of complex ADL in apraxia. Neuropsych. Rehab., 11, 147–68.
Goldenberg, G., Hartmann, K. and Schloot, I. (2003). Defective pantomime of object use in left brain damage: apraxia or asymbolia? Neuropsychologia, 41, 1565–73.
Goldenberg, G., Hentze, S. and Hermsdörfer, J. (2004). The effect of tactile feedback on pantomime of tool use in apraxia. Neurology, 63, 1863–7.
Goodale, M. A. and Milner, A. D. (1992). Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends Neurosci., 15, 20–5.
Habib, M., Ceccaldi, M. and Poncet, M. (1990). Syndrome de déconnexion calleuse par infarctus jonctionnel hémisphérique gauche. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 146, 19–24.
Halsband, U., Schmitt, J., Weyers, M., et al. (2001). Recognition and imitation of pantomimed motor acts after unilateral parietal and premotor lesions: a perspective on apraxia. Neuropsychologia, 39, 200–16.
Hanna-Pladdy, B., Heilman, K. M. and Foundas, A. L. (2001). Cortical and subcortical contributions to ideomotor apraxia analysis of task demands and error types. Brain, 124, 2513–27.
Hanna-Pladdy, B., Heilman, K. M. and Foundas, A. L. (2003). Ecological implications of ideomotor apraxia evidence from physical activities of daily living. Neurology, 60, 487–90.
Hartmann, K., Goldenberg, G., Daumüller, M. and Hermsdörfer, J. (2005). It takes the whole brain to make a cup of coffee: the neuropsychology of naturalistic actions involving technical devices. Neuropsychologia, 43, 625–37.
Heath, M., Roy, E. A., Black, S. E. and Westwood, D. A. (2001). Intransitive limb gestures and apraxia following unilateral stroke. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 23(5), 628–42.
Heilman, K. M., Rothi, L. J. and Valenstein, F. (1982). Two forms of ideomotor apraxia. Neurology, 32, 342–6.
Jeannerod, M. and Decety, J. (1995). Mental motor imagery: a window into the representational stages of action. Curr. Opin. Neurobio., 5, 727–32.
Kleist, K. (1912). Der gang und der gegenwurtige stand der apraxie-forschung. Ergebnisse der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 1, 342–452.
Le Gall, D. and Etcharry-Bouyx, F. (2003). Sémiologie des troubles apraxiques. La Revue du Praticien, 53, 382–7.
Le Gall, D. and Peigneux, P. (2003). Les apraxies: formes cliniques et modèles théoriques. In L'apraxie, ed. D. Le Gall and G. Aubin. Marseille: Solal, pp. 91–132.
Le Gall, D., Morineau, T. and Etcharry-Bouyx, F. (2000). Les apraxies: formes cliniques modèles théoriques et méthodes d'évaluation. In Traité de Neuropsychologie Tome I, ed. X. Seron and M. Van der Linden. Marseille: Solal, pp. 225–49.
Liepmann, H. (1908). Drei Aufsatze aus dem Apraxie Gebiet, Berlin: Karger.
Maher, L. M. and Ochipa, C. (1997). Management and treatment of limb apraxia. In Apraxia. The Neuropsychology of Action, ed. L. J. G. Rothi and K. M. Heilman. Hove: Psychology Press. pp. 75–91.
Makuuchi, M., Kaminaga, T. and Sugishita, M. (2005). Brain activation during ideomotor apraxia: imitation and movements executed by verbal command. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 76(1), 25–33.
Mohr, J. P., Pessin, M. S., Finkelstein, S., et al. (1978). Broca aphasia: pathologic and clinical. Neurology, 28, 311–24.
Mozaz, M., Rothi, L., Anderson, J., Crucian, G. P. and Heilman, K. (2002). Postural knowledge of transitive pantomimes and intransitive gestures. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 8, 958–62.
Mühlau, M., Hermsdörfer, J., Goldenberg, G., et al. (2005). Left inferior parietal dominance in gesture imitation: an fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 43, 1086–98.
Nadeau, S. E., Roeltgen, D. P., Sevush, S., Ballinger, W. E. and Watson, R. T. (1994). Apraxia due to a pathologically documented thalamic infarction. Neurology, 44, 2133–7.
Ochipa, C., Maher, L. M. and Rothi, L. J. G. (1995). Treatment of ideomotor limb apraxia. Twenty Third Annual International Neuropsychology Society Meeting Abstracts, 149.
Peigneux, P. and Van der Linden, M. (2000). Présentation d'une batterie neuropsychologique et cognitive pour l'évaluation de l'apraxie gestuelle. Revue de Neuropsychologie, 10(2), 311–62.
Peigneux, P., Van der Linden, M. and Le Gall, D. (2003). Evaluation des apraxies gestuelles. In L'apraxie, ed. D. Le Gall and G. Aubin. Marseille: Solal, pp. 133–66.
Perenin, M. T. and Vighetto, A. (1988). Optic ataxia: a specific disruption in visuomotor mechanisms. Brain, 111, 643–4.
Pilgrim, E. and Humphreys, G. W. (1991). Impairment of action to visual objects in a case of ideomotor apraxia. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 8, 459–73.
Poncet, M., Ali Cherif, A., Choux, M., Boudouresques, J. and Lhermitte, F. (1978). Etude neuropsychologique d'un syndrome de déconnexion calleuse totale avec hémianopsie latérale homonyme droite. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 134, 633–53.
Pradat-Diehl, P., Taillefer, C. and Migeot, H. (1999). Rééducation de l'apraxie gestuelle pour l'utilisation des objets. In La Rééducation en Neuropsychologie: Études de Cas, ed. P. Azouvi, D. Perrier and M. Van der Linden. Marseille: Solal, pp. 265–73.
Pramstaller, P. P. and Marsden, C. D. (1996). The basal ganglia and apraxia. Brain, 119, 319–40.
Rapcsak, S. Z., Ochipa, C., Beeson, P. M. and Rubens, A. B. (1993). Praxis and the right hemisphere. Brain Cogn., 23, 181–202.
Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Gallese, V. and Fogassi, L. (1996). Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cogn. Brain Res., 3, 131–41.
Rothi, L. J. G., Ochipa, C. and Heilman, K. M. (1991). A cognitive neuropsychological model of limb praxis. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 8, 443–58.
Rothi, L. J. G., Ochipa, C. and Heilman, K. M. (1997). A cognitive neuropsychological model of limb praxis. In Apraxia. The Neuropsychology of Action, ed. L. J. G. Rothi and K. M. Heilman. Hove: Psychology Press. pp. 29–50.
Roy, E. A. and Square, P. A. (1985). Common considerations in the study of limb, verbal and oral apraxia. In Neuropsychological Studies of Apraxia and Related Disorders, ed. E. A. Roy. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 111–62.
Roy, E. A., Heath, M., Westwood, D., et al. (2000). Task demands and limb apraxia in stroke. Brain Cogn., 44, 253–79.
Saeki, S., Ogata, H., Okubo, T., Takahashi, K. and Hoshuyama, T. (1995). Return to work after stroke. Stroke, 26, 399–401.
Sirigu, A., Cohen, L., Duhamel, J. R., et al. (1995). A selective impairment of hand posture for object utilization in apraxia. Cortex, 31, 41–55.
Smania, N., Girardi, F., Domenicali, C., Lora, E. and Aglioti, S. (2000). The rehabilitation of limb apraxia: a study in left brain damaged patients. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 81, 379–88.
Sundet, K., Finset, A. and Reinvang, I. (1988). Neuropsychological predictors in stroke rehabilitation. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 10(4), 363–79.
Watson, R. T., Fleet, S., Gonzalez-Rothi, L. and Heilman, K. (1986). Apraxia and the supplementary motor area. Arch. Neurol., 43, 787–92.
Wetter, S., Poole, J. L. and Haaland, K. Y. (2005). Functional implications of ipsilesional motor deficits after unilateral stroke. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 86, 776–81.
Zwinkels, A., Geusgens, C., Van de Sande, P. and Van Heugten, C. (2004). Assessment of apraxia: inter-rater reliability of a new apraxia test, association between apraxia and other cognitive deficits and prevalence of apraxia in a rehabilitation setting. Clin. Rehabil., 18(7), 819–27.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Alexander, M. P. and Loverme, S. R. (1980). Aphasia after left hemispheric intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology, 30, 1193–202.
Alexander, M. P., Naeser, M. A. and Palumbo, C. L. (1987). Correlations of subcortical CT lesion sites and aphasia profiles. Brain, 110, 961–92.
Appell, J., Kertesz, A., & Fisman, M. (1982). A study of language functioning in Alzheimer patients. Brain Lang., 17, 73–91.
Arseni, C. and Botez, M. I. (1961). Speech disturbances caused by tumors of the supplementary motor area. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 36, 279–99.
Barat, M., Mazaux, J. M., Bioulac, B., et al. (1981). Troubles du langage de type aphasique et lesions putamino-caudees: observation anatome-clinique. Rev. Neurol., 137, 343–56.
Baron, J. C., D'Antona, R., Serdaru, M., et al. (1986). Hypometabolisme cortical après lesion thalamizue chez l'homme: etude par la tomography a postions. Rev. Neurol., 142, 465–74.
Basso, A., Della, S. S. and Farabola, M. (1987). Aphasia arising from purley deep lesions. Cortex, 23, 29–44.
Bell, D. S. (1968). Speech functions of the thalamus inferred from the effects of thalamotomy. Brain, 91, 619–38.
Benson, D. F. (1979). Aphasia, Alexia, and Agraphia. Edinburgh and London: Churhill-Livingstone.
Berndt, R. S. and Mitchum, C. C. (1997). Lexical-semantic organization: evidence from aphasia. Clin. Neurosci., 4, 57–63.
Binder, J. R. and Rao, S. M. (1994). Human brain mapping with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In A. Kertesz, ed., Localization and Neuroimaging in Neuropsychology. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 185–212.
Broca, P. (1861). Remarques sur le siège de la faculté du langage articulé suivies d'une observation d'amphemie (perte de la parole). Bulletin et Memories de la Societé Anatomique de Paris, 36, 330–57.
Bub, D. and Kertesz, A. (1982). Deep agraphia, Brain Lang., 17, 146–65.
Bucy, P. C. (1934). The relation of the premotor cortex to motor activity. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 79, 621–30.
Cambier, J., Elghozi, D., Signoret, J. L. and Henin, D. (1983). Contribution of the right hemisphere to language in aphasic patients. Disappearance of this language after a right-sided lesion. Rev. Neurol., 139, 55–63.
Cappa, S. F., Cavallotti, G. and Vignolo, L. A. (1981). Phonemic and lexical errors in fluent aphasia; correlation with lesion site. Neuropsychologia, 19, 171–9.
Cappa, S. F. and Vignolo, L. A. (1979). “Transcortical” features of aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage. Cortex, 15, 121–30.
Chertkow, H. and Murtha, S. (1997). PET activation and language. Clin. Neurosci., 4, 78–86.
Cummings, J. L., Benson, D. F., Walsh, M. J. and Levine, J. L. (1979). Left-to-right transfer of language dominance: a case study. Neurology, 29, 1547–50.
Czopf, J. (1972). Role of the non-dominant hemisphere in the restitution of speech in aphasia. Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 216, 162–71.
Damasio, A. R., Damais, H., Rizzo, M., Varney, N. and Gersh, F. (1982). Aphasia with nonhemorrhagic lesions in the basal ganglia and internal capsule. Arch. Neurol., 39, 15–20.
Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E. and Brown, J. R. (1975). Motor Speech Disorders. Toronto: W. B. Saunders.
Dejerine, J. (1892). Contribution a l'étude anatomo-pathologique et clinique des differentes varietés de cecite verbale. Comptes Randus des Séances de la Société de Biologie et de Ses Fillales, 4, 61–90.
Dejerine, J. and Dejerine-Klumpke, A. (1895). Anatome des centres nerveus. Paris: Ruef et Cie.
Demeurisse, G., Verhas, M., Capon, A. and Paternot, J. (1983). Lack of evolution of the cerebral blood flow during clinical recovery of stroke. Stroke, 14, 77–81.
Dronkers, N. F. (1996). A new brain region for coordinating speech articulation. Nature, 384, 159–61.
Ellis, A. W. (1984). Reading, Writing and Dyslexia: A Cognitive Analysis. Hilldale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Ferro, J. M. (1983). Global aphasia without hemiparesis. Neurology, 33, 1106.
Ferro, J. M. and Kertesz, A. (1987). Comparative classification of aphasic disorders. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 9, 365–75.
Franklin, S., Howard, D. and Patterson, K. (1994). Abstract word meaning deafness. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 11, 1034.
Geschwind, N. (1965). Disconnexion syndromes in animal and man. Brain, 88, 237–94, 585–644.
Geschwind, N. (1974). Late changes in nervous system: An overview in plasticity and recovery of function in the central nervous system. In Plasticity and Recovery of Function in the Central Nervous System, ed. D. Stein, J. Rosen and N. Butters. New York: Academic Press, pp. 467–508.
Geschwind, N. and Levitsky, W. (1968). Human brain, left-right asymmetries in temporal speech regions. Science, 161, 186–7.
Gloning, I., Gloning, K., Haub, G. and Quartember, R. (1969). Comparison of verbal behavior in right-handed and nonright-handed patients with anatomically verified lesion of one hemisphere. Cortex, 5, 43–52.
Goldstein, K. (1948). Language and Language Disturbances. New York: Grune and Stratton.
Goodglass, H. (1997). Agrammatism in aphasiology. Clin. Neurosci., 4, 51–6.
Goodglass, H. and Kaplan, E. (1972). Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
Greenblatt, S. H. (1983). Localization of lesions in alexia. In Localization in Neuropsychology, ed. A. Kertesz. New York: Academic Press, pp. 324–56.
Head, H. (1926). Aphasia and Kindred Disorders of Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Henschen, S. E. (1922). Klinische und Anatomische Beitrage zur Pathologie des Gehirns, Vols. 5–7. Stockholm: Nordisa Bokhandel n.
Hier, D. B., Davis, K. R., Richardson, E. P. and Mohr, J. (1977). Hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage. Ann. Neurol., 1, 152–9.
Hillis, A. E., Work, M., Barker, P. B., Jacobs, M. A., Breese, E. L. and Maurer, K. (2004). Re-examining the brain regions crucial for orchestrating speech articulation. Brain, 127(7), 1479–87.
Huber, W., Poeck, K., Weniger, D. and Willmes, K. (1983). Aachener-Aphasie Test. Toronto Verlag fur Psychologie Gottingen.
Iwata, M. (1984). Kanji versus Kana: Neuropsycholological correlations of the Japanese writing system. Trends Neurosci., 7, 290–3.
Katz, R. and Goodglass, H. (1990). Deep dysphasia: An analysis of a rare form of repetition disorder. Brain Lang., 39, 153–85.
Kawahata, N., Nagata, K. and Shishido, F. (1988). Alexia with agraphia due to the left posterior inferior temporal lobe lesions – Neuropsychological analysis and its pathogenic mechanisms. Brain Lang., 33, 296–310.
Kawamura, M., Hirayama, K., Hasegawa, K., Takashahi, N. and Yamaura, A. (1987). Alexia with agraphia of kanji (Japanese morphograms). J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 5, 1125–9.
Kertesz, A. (1979). Aphasia and Associated Disorders: Taxonomy, Localization and Recovery. New York: Grune and Stratton.
Kertesz, A. (1982). The Western Aphasia Battery. New York: Grune and Stratton.
Kertesz, A. (1983). Localizaton of lesions in Wernicke's aphasia. In Localization in Neuropsychology, ed. A. Kertesz. New York: Academic Press, pp. 209–30.
Kertesz, A. (1984). Subcortical lesions and verbal apraxia. In Apraxia of Speech: Physiology. Acoustics. Linguistics. Management, ed. J. C. Rosenbek, M. R. McNeil and A. E. Aronson. San Diego, CA : College-Hill Press, pp. 73–90.
Kertesz, A. (1988). What do we learn from recovery from aphasia? In Advances of neurology, Vol. 47: Functional Recovery in Neurological Disease, ed. S. G. Waxman. New York: Raven Press, pp. 277–92.
Kertesz, A. and Benke, T. (1989). Sex equality and intrahemispheric language organization. Brain Lang., 37, 401–8.
Kertesz, A. and Benson, D. F. (1970). Neoloistic jargon – a clinicopathological study. Cortex, 6, 362–86.
Kertesz, A., Harlock, W. and Coates, R. (1979). Computer tomographic localization, lesion size, and prognosis in aphasia and nonverbal impairment. Brain Lang., 8, 34–50.
Kertesz, A., Hudson, L., Mackenzie, I. R. A. and Munoz, D. G. (1994). The pathology and nosology of primary progressive aphasia. Neurology, 44, 2065–72.
Kertesz, A. and Phipps, J. (1977). Numerical taxonomy of aphasia. Brain Lang., 4, 1–10.
Kertesz, A., Polk, M., Black, S. E. and Howell, J. (1992). Anatomical asymmetries and functional laterality. Brain, 115, 589–605.
Kertesz, A., Sheppard, A. and MacKenzie, R. A. (1982). Localization in transcortical sensory aphasia. Arch. Neurol., 39, 475–8.
Kinsbourne, M. (1971). The minor cerebral hemisphere as a source of aphasic speech. Arch. Neurol., 25, 302–6.
Kirk, A. and Kertesz, A. (1994). Cortical and subcortical aphasias compared. Aphasiology, 8, 65–82.
Kleist, K. (1962). Sensory Aphasia and Amusia. Pergamon: Oxford.
Knopman, D. S., Rubens, A. B., Selnes, O. R., et al. (1984). Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from serial xenon 133 cerebral blood flow studies. Ann. Neurol., 15, 530–5.
Kohn, S. and Friedman, R. (1986). Word meaning deafness: a phonological–semantic dissociation. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 3, 291–308.
Kornyey, E. (1975). Aphasie transcorticale et echolalie: Le problème de l'initiative de la parole. Rev. Neurol., 131, 347–63.
Landis, T., Cummings, J. L. and Benson, D. F. (1980). Passage of language dominance to the right hemisphere: Interpretation of delayed recovery after global aphasia. Rev. Med. Suisse Romande, 100, 171–7.
Lashley, K. S. (1938). Factors limiting recovery after central nervous lesions. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 88, 733–55.
Lecours, A. R. and Lhermitte, F. (1976). The ‘pure form’ of the phonetic disintegration syndrome (pure anarthria): anatomo-clinical report of a historical case. Brain Lang., 3, 88–113.
Leischner, A. (1976). Aptitude of aphasics for language treatment. In Recovery in Aphasics, ed. Y. Lebrun and R. Hoops. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger B. V., pp. 112–24.
Leske, M. C. (1981). Prevalence estimates of communicative disorders in the U.S. Language, hearing and vestibular disorders. ASHA, 23, 229–37.
Levine, D. M. and Mohr, J. P. (1979). Language after bilateral cerebral infarctions: role of the minor hemisphere. Neurology, 29, 927–38.
Levine, D. N. and Sweet, E. (1983). Localization of lesion in Broca's motor aphasia. In Localization in Neuropsychology, ed. A. Kertesz. New York: Academic Press, pp. 185–208.
Lichtheim, L. (1885). On aphasia. Brain, 7, 443.
Liebermann, A. M., Cooper, F. S., Shankweiler, D. R. and Staddert-Kennedy, M. (1967). Perception of the speech code. Psychol. Rev., 74, 431–61.
Ludlow, C., Rosenberg, J., Fair, C., et al. (1986). Brain lesions associated with nonfluent aphasia fifteen years following penetrating head injury. Brain, 109, 55–80.
Marie, P. (1906). Que faut-il penser des aphasies sous-corticales? Seminaires Medicales, 26, 493.
Marie, P. (1926). Travaux et mémoires, Paris: Masson.
Mayendorf, N. von, E. (1930). Vom Lokalisationsproblem der artikulierten Sprache. Leipzig: Barth.
Mazzocchi, F. and Vignolo, L. A. (1979). Localisation of lesions in aphasia: Clinical CT scan correlation in stroke patients. Cortex, 15, 627–54.
McGlone, J. (1980). Sex differences in human brain asymmetry: a critical survey. Behav. Brain Sci., 5, 215–64.
Mesulam, M.-M. (1987). Primary progressive aphasia–differentiation from Alzheimer's disease. Ann. Neurol., 22, 533–34.
Metter, E. J., Wasterlain, C. G., Kuhl, D. E., Hanson, W. R. and Phelps, M. E. (1981). FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography in a study of aphasia. Ann. Neurol., 10, 173–83.
Mochizuki, H. and Ohtomo, R. (1988). Pure alexia in Japanese and agraphia without alexia in kanji. Arch. Neurol., 45, 1157–9.
Mohr, J. P. (1976). Broca's area and Broca's aphasia. In Studies in Neurolinguistics (Vol. 1), ed. H. Whitaker and H. A. Whitaker. New York: Academic Press, pp. 201–35.
Mohr, J. P., Walters, W. C. and Duncan, G. W. (1975). Thalamic hemorrhage and aphasia. Brain Lang., 2, 3–17.
Monakow, C. von (1914). Die Lokalisation im Grosshirm und der Abbau der Funktionen durch kortikale Herde. Wiesbaden, Bergmann.
Moutier, F. (1908). L'aphasie de Broca. Paris: Steinheil.
Muratoff, W. (1893). Secundare Degenerationen nach Durchschneidung des Balkens. Neurologisches Centralblatt, 12, 714–29.
Naeser M. A., Alexander, M. P., Helm-Estabroks, N., et al. (1982). Aphasia with predominantly subcortical lesion sites. Description of three capsular/putaminal apshasia syndromes. Arch. Neurol., 39, 2–14.
Naeser, M. A., Palumbo, C. L., Helm-Estabrooks, N., Sitassny-Eder, D. and Albert, M. L. (1989). Severe nonfluency in aphasia: role of the medial subcallosal fasiculus and other white matter pathways in recovery of spontaneous speech. Brain, 112, 1–38.
Nagata, K., Yunoki, K., Kabe, S., Suzuki, A. and Araki, G. (1986). Regional cerebral blood flow correlates of aphasia outcome in cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Stroke, 17, 417–23.
Nielsen, J. M. (1946). Agnosia, Apraxia and Aphasia. New York: Hoeber.
Penfield, W. and Roberts, L. (1959). Speech and Brain Mechanisms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Perani, D., Vallar, G., Cappa, S., Messa, C. and Fazio, F. (1987). Aphasia and neglect after subcortical stroke: a clinical/cerebral perfusion correlation study. Brain, 110, 1211–29.
Petersen, S., Fox, P. T., Snyder, A. Z. and Raichle, M. E. (1990). Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli. Science, 249, 1041–4.
Pick, A. (1913). “Die agrammatischen Sprachstorungen. Studien zur psychologischen Grundlegung der aphasielehre.” Berlin: J. Springer.
Pieniadz, J. M., Naeser, M. A., Koff, E. and Levine, H. L. (1983). CT scan cerebral hemispheric asymmetry measurements in stroke cases with global aphasia: atypical asymmetries associated with improved recovery. Cortex, 19, 371–91.
Rubens, A. B. (1975). Aphasia with infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery. Cortex, 11, 239–50.
Russell, W. and Espir, M. (1961). Traumatic Aphasia: A Study of Aphasia in War Wounds of the Brain. London: Oxford University Press.
Sanides, F. (1970). Functional architecture of motor and sensory cortices in primates in the light of a new concept of neocortex evolution. In The Primate Brain, ed. C. R. Noback and W. Montagna. New York: Appleton.
Selby, G. (1967). Sterotaxic surgery for the relief of Parkinson's disease II. An analysis of the results of a series of 303 patients (413 operations). J. Neurol. Sci., 5, 343–75.
Shewan, C. M. and Kertesz, A. (1984). Effects of speech and language treatment on recovery aphasia. Brain Lang., 23, 272–300.
Snowden, J. S., Goulding, P. J., and Neary, D. (1989). Semantic dementia: a form of circumscribed cerebral atrophy. Behav. Neurol., 2, 167–82.
Subirana, A. (1969). Handedness and cerebral dominance. In Handbook of Clinical Neurology, ed. P. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. 248–72.
Tzortis, C. and Albert, M. L. (1974). Impairment of memory for sequences in conduction aphasia. Neuropsychologia, 13, 355–66.
Van Horn, G. and Hawes, A. (1982). Global aphasia without hemiparesis: a sign of embolic encephalopathy. Neurology, 32, 403–6.
Warrington, E. K. and Shallice, T. (1969). The selective impairment of auditory-verbal short-term memory. Brain, 92, 885–96.
Weiller, C., Chollet, F., Friston, K. J., Wise, R. J. S. and Frackowiak, R. S. J. (1992). Functional reorganization of the brain in recovery from striatocapsular infarction in man. Ann. Neurol., 31, 463–72.
Wernicke, C. (1874). Der aphasische symtomenkomplex. In Boston Studies on the Philosophy of Science, Vol. IV. Dordrecht, Reidel, Breslau: Cohn and Weigart.
Wernicke, C. (1886). Einige neueren Arbeiten uber Aphasie. Fortschritte der Medizin, 4, 371–7.
Yakovlev, P. I. and Locke, S. (1961). Limbic nuclei of thalamus and connections of limbic cortex. Arch. Neurol., 5, 364–400.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Abe, K., Ukita, H., Yorifuji, S. and Yanagihara, T. (1997). Crossed cerebellar diaschisis in chronic Broca's aphasia. Neuroradiology, 39, 624–6.
Aftonomos, L. B., Appelbaum, J. S. and Steele, R. D. (1999). Improving outcomes for persons with aphasia in advanced community-based treatment programs. Stroke, 30, 1370–9.
Alexander, M. P., Naeser, M. A. and Palumbo, C. L. (1987). Correlations of subcortical CT lesion sites and aphasia profiles. Brain, 110, 961–91.
Basso, A., Lecours, A. R., Moraschini, S. and Vanier, M. (1985). Anatomoclinical correlations of the aphasias as defined through computerized tomography: exceptions. Brain Lang., 26, 201–29.
Berthier, M. L. (2005). Poststroke aphasia: epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. Drugs Aging, 22, 163–82.
Bhogal, S. K., Teasell, R. and Speechley, M. (2003). Intensity of aphasia therapy, impact on recovery. Stroke, 34, 987–93.
Brust, J. C., Shafer, S. Q., Richter, R. W. and Bruun, B. (1976). Aphasia in acute stroke. Stroke, 7, 167–74.
Cereda, C., Ghika, J., Maeder, P. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2002). Strokes restricted to the insular cortex. Neurology, 59, 1950–5.
Coppens, P. (1991). Why are Wernicke's aphasia patients older than Broca's? A critical view of the hypotheses. Aphasiology, 5, 279–90.
Croquelois, A., Wintermark, M., Reichhart, M., Meuli, R. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2003). Aphasia in hyperacute stroke: language follows brain penumbra dynamics. Ann. Neurol., 54, 321–9.
Doesborgh, S. J., van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. M., Dippel, D. W., et al. (2003). Linguistic deficits in the acute phase of stroke. J. Neurol., 250, 977–82.
Ferro, J. M. and Madureira, S. (1997). Aphasia type, age and cerebral infarct localization. J. Neurol., 244, 505–9.
Godefroy, O., Rousseaux, M., Pruvo, J. P., Cabaret, M. and Leys, D. (1994). Neuropsychological changes related to unilateral lenticulostriate infarcts. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57, 480–5.
Godefroy, O., Dubois, C., Debachy, B., Leclerc, M. and Kreisler, A. (2002). Vascular aphasias: main characteristics of patients hospitalized in acute stroke units. Stroke, 33, 702–5.
Goodglass, H. and Kaplan, E. (1983). The Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
Greener, J., Enderby, P. and Whurr, R. (2000). Speech and Language Therapy for Aphasia Following Stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000425.
Greener, J., Enderby, P. and Whurr, R. (2001) Pharmacological Treatment for Aphasia Following Stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000424.
Heiss, W. D., Kessler, J., Thiel, A., Ghaemi, M. and Karbe, H. (1999). Differential capacity of left and right hemispheric areas for compensation of poststroke aphasia. Ann. Neurol., 45, 430–8.
Hillis, A. E., Kane, A., Tuffiash, E., et al. (2001). Reperfusion of specific brain regions by raising blood pressure restores selective language functions in subacute stroke. Brain Lang., 79, 495–510.
Hillis, A. E., Wityk, R. J., Barker, P. B., et al. (2002). Subcortical aphasia and neglect in acute stroke: the role of cortical hypoperfusion. Brain, 125, 1094–104.
Hillis, A. E., Barker, P. B., Wityk, R. J., et al. (2004). Variability in subcortical aphasia is due to variable sites of cortical hypoperfusion. Brain Lang., 89, 524–30.
Kennedy, P. G. (1988). A retrospective analysis of forty-six cases of herpes simplex encephalitis seen in Glasgow between 1962 and 1985. Q. J. Med., 68, 533–40.
Kertesz, A. and Sheppard, A. (1981). The epidemiology of aphasic and cognitive impairment in stroke: age, sex, aphasia type and laterality differences. Brain, 104, 117–28.
Kleiser, R., Wittsack, H. J., Butefisch, C. M., Jorgens, S. and Seitz, R. J. (2005). Functional activation within the PI-DWI mismatch region in recovery from ischemic stroke: preliminary observations. Neuroimage, 24, 515–23.
Kreisler, A., Godefroy, O., Delmaire, C., et al. (2000). The anatomy of aphasia revisited. Neurology, 54, 1117–23.
Lacour, A., De Seze, J., Revenco, E., et al. (2004). Acute aphasia in multiple sclerosis: A multicenter study of 22 patients. Neurology, 62, 974–7.
Laska, A. C., Hellblom, A., Murray, V., Kahan, T. and von Arbin, M. (2001). Aphasia in acute stroke and relation to outcome. J. Intern. Med., 249, 413–22.
Marien, P., Saerens, J., Nanhoe, R., et al. (1996). Cerebellar induced aphasia: case report of cerebellar induced prefrontal aphasic language phenomena supported by SPECT findings. J. Neurol. Sci., 144, 34–43.
Maulaz, A. B., Bezerra, D. C. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2005). Posterior cerebral artery infarction from middle cerebral artery infarction. Arch. Neurol., 62, 938–41.
Nadeau, S. E. and Crosson, B. (1997). Subcortical aphasia. Brain Lang., 58, 355–402.
Nespoulous, J. L., Lecours, A. R. and Lafond, D. (1986). Protocole Montréal-Toulouse de l'examen de l'aphasie, Module Standard Initial (Version Beta). Montréal, Canada: L'Ortho Édition.
Pedersen, P. M., Jorgensen, H. S., Nakayama, H., Raaschou, H. O. and Olsen, T. S. (1995). Aphasia in acute stroke: incidence, determinants, and recovery. Ann. Neurol., 38, 659–66.
Pedersen, P. M., Vinter, K. and Olsen, T. S. (2004). Aphasia after stroke: type, severity and prognosis. The Copenhagen aphasia study. Cerebrovasc. Dis., 17, 35–43.
Pohjasvaara, T., Erkinjuntti, T., Ylikoski, R., et al. (1998). Clinical determinants of poststroke dementia. Stroke, 29, 75–81.
Puel, M., Demonet, J. F., Cardebat, D., et al. (1984). Aphasie souscorticale. Etude neurolinguistique et scangraphique de 25 cas. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 140, 695–710.
Riepe, M. W., Riss, S., Bittner, D. and Huber, R. (2004). Screening for cognitive impairment in patients with acute stroke. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord., 17, 49–53.
Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., Stern, Y., et al. (1994). Cognitive impairment after stroke: frequency, patterns, and relationship to functional abilities. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57, 202–7.
Thommessen, B., Thoresen, G. E., Bautz-Holter, E. and Laake, K. (2002). Validity of the aphasia item from the Scandinavian Stroke Scale. Cerebrovasc. Dis., 13, 184–6.
Verstichel, P. (2003). Thalamic aphasia. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 159, 947–57.
Willmes, K. and Poeck, K. (1993). To what extent can aphasic syndromes be localized? Brain, 116, 1527–40.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Ackermann, H. and Ziegler, W. (1991). Cerebellar voice tremor: an acoustic analysis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 54, 74–6.
Amarenco, P., Chevrie-Muller, C., Roullet, E. and Bousser, M. G. (1991). Paravermal infarct and isolated cerebellar dysarthria. Ann. Neurol., 30, 211–13.
Amarenco, P., Debroucker, T. and Cambier, J. (1988). Dysarthrie et instabilité révélant un infarctus distal de l'artére cérébelleuse supérieure gauche. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 144, 459–61.
Amarenco, P. and Hauw, J. J. (1990). Cerebellar infarction in the territory of the superior cerebellar artery. A clinicopathologic study of 33 cases. Neurology, 40, 1383–90.
Amarenco, P., Roullet, E., Goujon, C., et al. (1991). Infarction of the anterior rostral cerebellum. Neurology, 41, 253–8.
Arboix, A., Bell, Y., Garcia-Eroles, L., et al. (2004). Clinical study of 35 patients with dysarthria–clumsy hand syndrome. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 75, 231–4.
Arboix, A., Garcia-Eroles, L., Comes, E., et al. (2003). Predicting spontaneous early neurological recovery after acute ischemic stroke. Eur. J. Neurol., 10, 429–35.
Arboix, A., Marti-Vilalta, J. L. and Garcia, J. H. (1990). Clinical study of 227 patients with lacunar infarcts. Stroke, 21, 842–7.
Arboix, A., Massons, J., Oliveres, M. and Titus, F. (1991). Isolated dysarthria. Stroke, 22, 531.
Auzou, P., Gaillard, M. J., Özsancak, C., et al. (1998). Evaluation clinique de la dysarthrie. L'Ortho-Editions, Isbergues.
Auzou, P., Özsancak, C., Jan, M., et al. (2000). Intérêt de l'évaluation motrice des organes de la parole dans le diagnostic des dysarthries. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 156, 47–52.
Benke, T. and Kertesz, A. (1989). Hemispheric mechanisms of motor speech. Aphasiology, 3, 627–41.
Berry, W. and Sanders, S. B. (1983). Environmental education: the universal management approach for adults with dysarthria. In W. R. Berry, ed., Clinical Dysarthria. San Diego: College-Hill Press, pp. 203–16.
Bogousslavsky, J. and Regli, F. (1990). Capsular genu syndrome. Neurology, 40, 1499–502.
Bogousslavsky, J., Van Melle, G. and Regli, F. (1988). The Lausanne Stroke Registry: analysis of 1,000 consecutive patients with first stroke. Stroke, 19, 1083–92.
Chamorro, A., Sacco, R. L., Mohr, J. P., et al. (1991). Clinical-computed tomographic correlations of lacunar infarction in the Stroke Data Bank. Stroke, 22, 175–81.
Chenery, H. J., Ingram, J. C. and Murdoch, B. E. (1990). Perceptual analysis of speech in ataxic dysarthria. Aust. J. Hum. Commun. Dis., 18, 19–28.
Chenery, H. J., Murdoch, B. E. and Ingram, J. C. (1988). Studies in Parkinson's disease: 1. Perceptual speech analyses. Aust. J. Hum. Commun. Dis., 16, 17–29.
Chenery, H. J., Murdoch, B. E. and Ingram, J. C. (1992). The perceptual speech characteristics of persons with pseudobulbar palsy. Aust. J. Hum. Commun. Dis., 20, 21–30.
Crow, E. and Enderby, P. (1989) The effects of an alphabet chart on the speaking rate and intelligibility of speakers with dysarthia. In K. M. Yorkston and D. R. Beukelman, eds., Recent Advances in Clinical Dysarthria. Boston: College-Hill, pp. 99–108.
Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E. and Brown, J. R. (1969a). Differential diagnostic patterns of dysarthria. J. Speech Hear. Res., 12, 246–69.
Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E. and Brown, J. R. (1969b). Clusters of deviant speech dimensions in the dysarthrias. J. Speech. Hear. Res., 12, 462–96.
Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E. and Brown, J. R. (1975). Motor Speech Disorders. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
Duffy, J. R. (1995). Motor Speech Disorders. St Louis: Mosby-Year book.
Enderby, P. (1983). Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment. San Diego: College-Hill Press.
Enderby, P. (1986). Relationships between dysarthric groups. Br. J. Disord. Commun., 21, 189–97.
Fisher, C. M. (1982). Lacunar strokes and infarcts: a review. Neurology, 32, 871–6.
Freed, D. B. (2000). Motor Speech Disorders. United States Singular Thompson Learning.
Hartman, D. E. and Abbs, J. H. (1992). Dysarthria associated with focal unilateral upper motor neuron lesion. Eur. J. Disord. Commun., 27, 187–96.
Ichikawa, K. and Kageyama, Y. (1991). Clinical anatomic study of pure dysarthria. Stroke, 22, 809–12.
Joanette, Y. and Dudley, J. G. (1980). Dysarthric symptomatology of Friedreich's ataxia. Brain Lang., 10, 39–50.
Kent, R. D., Duffy, J. R., Slama, A., Kent, J. F. and Clift, A. (2001). Clinicoanatomic studies in dysarthria: review, critique, and directions for research. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res., 44, 535–51.
Kent, R. D., Weismer, G., Kent, J. F. and Rosenbek, J. C. (1989). Toward phonetic intelligibility testing in dysarthria. J. Speech Hear. Dis., 54, 482–99.
Kim, J. S. (1994). Pure dysarthria, isolated facial paresis, or dysarthria-facial paresis syndrome. Stroke, 25, 1994–8.
Kim, J. S., Kwon, S. U. and Lee, T. G. (2003). Pure dysarthria due to small cortical stroke. Neurology, 60, 1178–80.
Kluin, K. J., Foster, N. L., Berent, S. and Gilman, S. (1993). Perceptual analysis of speech disorders in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology, 43, 563–6.
Kluin, K. J., Gilman, S., Lohman, M. and Junck, L. (1996). Characteristic of the dysarthria of multiple system atrophy. Arch. Neurol., 53, 545–8.
Kluin, K. J., Gilman, S., Markel, D., et al. (1988). Speech disorders in olivopontocerebellar atrophy correlate with Positron Emission Tomography findings. Ann. Neurol., 23, 547–54.
Kumral, E., Bayulkem, G. and Evyapan, D. (2002). Clinical spectrum of pontine infarction. Clinical-MRI correlations. J. Neurol., 249, 1659–70.
Kumral, E., Evyapan, D. and Balkir, K. (1999). Acute caudate vascular lesions. Stroke, 30, 100–8.
Kumral, E., Ozkaya, B., Sagduyu, A., et al. (1998). The Ege Stroke Registry: a hospital-based study in the Aegean region, Izmir, Turkey. Analysis of 2,000 stroke patients. Cerebrovasc. Dis., 8, 278–88.
Lechtenberg, R. and Gilman, S. (1978). Speech disorders in cerebellar disease. Ann. Neurol., 3, 285–90.
Ludlow, C. L. and Bassich, C. J. (1983). The results of acoustical and perceptual assessment of two types of dysarthria. Clinical Dysarthria. San Diego: College-Hill Press, pp. 121–53.
Ludlow, C. L. and Bassich, C. J. (1984). Relationships between perceptual ratings and acoustic measures of hypokinetic speech. The dysarthrias: Physiology, Acoustics, Perception, Management. San Diego: College-Hill Press, pp. 163–5.
Lyden, P., Lu, M., Jackson, C., et al. (1999). Underlying structure of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: results of a factor analysis. Stroke, 30, 2347–54.
Melo, T. P., Bogousslavsky, J., van Melle, G. and Regli, F. (1992). Pure motor stroke: a reappraisal. Neurology, 42, 789–98.
Netsell, R. (1984). Physiological studies of dysarthria and their relevance to treatment. In J. C. Rosenbek, ed., Seminars in Language. New York: Thieme-Stratton, pp. 279–92.
Netsell, R. and Rosenbek, J. (1985). Treating the dysarthrias. In: J. K. Darby, eds., Speech and Language Evaluation in Neurology: Adult Disorders. Orlando: Grune and Stratton, pp. 363–92.
Nishikawa, M., Komiyama, M., Sakamoto, H., Yasui, T. and Nakajima, H. (1998). Cerebellar mutism after basilar artery occlusion–case report. Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo), 38, 569–73.
Okuda, B., Kawabata, K., Tachibana, H. and Sugita, M. (1999). Cerebral blood flow in pure dysarthria: role of frontal cortical hypoperfusion. Stroke, 30, 109–13.
Onnient, Y., Mihout, B., Guegan-Massardier, E. and Samson, M. (1994). Aspects clinique et évolutif des infarctus cérébelleux. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 150, 209–15.
Ozaki, I., Baba, M., Matsunaga, M., Takebe, K. and Narita, S. (1991). Capsular genu syndrome. Neurology, 41, 1853–4.
Ozaki, I., Baba, M., Narita, S., Matsunaga, M. and Takebe, K. (1986). Pure dysarthria due to anterior internal capsule and/or corona radiata infarction: a report of five cases. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 49, 1435–7.
Özsancak, C. and Auzou, P. (2003). Comment examiner une dysarthrie. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 159, 466–9.
Ray, J. (2002). Orofacial myofunctional therapy in dysarthria: a study on speech intelligibility. Int. J. Orofacial Myology, 28, 39–48.
Robertson, S. (2001). The efficacy of oro-facial and articulation exercises in dysarthria following stroke. Int. J. Lang. Commun. Disord., 36 (Suppl), 292–7.
Robertson, S. J. and Thomson, F. (1986). Working with dysarthrics. A practical guide to therapy for dysarthria. Oxon: Winslow Press.
Ropper, A. H. (1987). Severe dysarthria with right hemisphere stroke. Neurology, 37, 1061–3.
Schonewille, W. J., Tuhrim, S., Singer, M. B. and Atlas, S. W. (1999). Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute lacunar syndromes. A clinical-radiological correlation study. Stroke, 30, 2066–9.
Sellars, C., Hughes, T. and Langhorne, P. (2002). Speech and language therapy for dysarthria due to nonprogressive brain damage: a systematic Cochrane review. Clin. Rehabil., 16, 61–8.
Theodoros, D. G., Murdoch, B. E. and Chenery, H. J. (1994). Perceptual speech characteristics of dysarthric speakers following severe closed head injury. Brain Injury, 8, 101–24.
Thompson, E. C. and Murdoch, B. E. (1995a). Disorders of nasality in subject with upper motor neuron type dysarthria following cerebrovascular accident. J. Commun. Dis., 28, 261–76.
Thompson, E. C. and Murdoch, B. E. (1995b). Respiratory function associated with dysarthria following upper motor neuron damage. Aust. J. Hum. Commun. Dis., 23, 61–87.
Thompson, E. C., Murdoch, B. E. and Stokes, P. D. (1995a). Lip function in subjects with upper motor neuron type dysarthria following cerebrovascular accidents. European J. Dis. Com., 30, 451–66.
Thompson, E. C., Murdoch, B. E. and Stokes, P. D. (1995b). Tongue function in subjects with upper motor neuron type dysarthria following cerebrovascular accidents. J. Med. Speech Lang. Pathol., 3, 27–40.
Tilling, K., Sterne, J. A., Rudd, A. G., et al. (2001). A new method for predicting recovery after stroke. Stroke, 32, 2867–73.
Tudor, C. and Selley, W. G. (1974). A palatal training appliance and a visual aid for use in the treatment of hypernasal speech. Br. J. Disord. Commun., 9, 117–22.
Urban, P. P., Wicht, S., Hopf, H. C., Fleischer, S. and Nickel, O. (1999). Isolated dysarthria due to extracerebellar lacunar stroke: a central monoparesis of the tongue. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr., 66, 495–501.
Yorkston, K. M. and Beukelman, D. R. (1981). Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech. Tigard, OR: C. C. Publications.
Yorkston, K. M., Beukelman, D. R., Strand, E. A. and Bell, K. (1999). Management of Speech Motor Disorders. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed Inc.
Yorkston, K. M., Beukelman, D. R. and Traynor, C. D. (1984). Computerized Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Inc.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: bibliography

Anderson, S. W., Damasio, A. R. and Damasio, H. (1990). Troubled letters but not numbers: Domain specific cognitive impairments following focal damage in frontal cortex. Brain, 113, 749–66.
Arguin, M. and Bub, D. N. (1993). Evidence for an independent stimulus-centered spatial reference frame from a case of visual hemineglect. Cortex, 29, 349–57.
Barbut, D. and Gazzaniga, M. S. (1987). Disturbances in conceptual space involve language and speech. Brain, 110, 1487–96.
Baxter, D. M. and Warrington, E. K. (1983). Neglect dysgraphia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 46, 1073–8.
Beauvois, M. F. and Derousne, J. (1981). Lexical or orthographic agraphia. Brain, 104, 21–49.
Beeson, P. M. (1998). Treatment for letter-by-letter reading: A case study. In N. Helm-Estabrooks and A. L. Holland, eds., Approaches to the Treatment of Aphasia. San Diego, CA: Singular, pp. 153–77.
Beeson, P. M. (1999). Treating acquired writing impairment. Aphasiology, 13, 367–86.
Beeson, P. M. and Hillis, A. E. (2001). Comprehension and production of written words. In R. Chapey, ed., Language Intervention Strategies in Aphasia and Related Neurogenic Communication Disorders, (4th edition). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkens, pp. 572–604.
Beeson, P. M. and Insalaco, D. (1998). Acquired alexia: Lessons from successful treatment. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 4, 621–35.
Beeson, P. M. and Rapcsak, S. Z. (2002). Clinical diagnosis and treatment of spelling disorders. In A. E. Hillis, ed., The Handbook of Adult Language Disorders: Integrating Cognitive Neuropsychology, Neurology and Rehabilitation. New York: Psychology Press, pp. 101–20.
Beeson, P. M., Rapcsak, S. Z., Plante, E., et al. (2003). The neural substrates of writing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Aphasiology, 17, 647–65.
Behrmann, M. and Bub, D. (1992). Surface dyslexia and dysgraphia: Dual routes, single lexicon. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 9, 209–51.
Benson, D. F. (1979). Aphasia, Alexia, and Agraphia. New York: Churchill Livingstone.
Binder, J. R. and Mohr, J. P. (1992). The topography of callosal reading pathways. A case-control analysis. Brain, 115, 1807–26.
Black, S. and Behrmann, M. (1994). Localization in alexia. In A. Kertesz, ed., Localization and Neuroimaging in Neuropsychology. San Diego: Academic Press.
Black, S. E., Behrmann, M., Bass, K. and Hacker, P. (1989). Selective writing impairment: Beyond the allographic code. Aphasiology, 3, 265–77.
Bub, D. and Kertesz, A. (1982). Deep agraphia. Brain Lang., 17, 146–65.
Byng, S. and Coltheart, M. (1986). Aphasia therapy research: Methodological requirements and illustrative results. In E. Hjelmquist and L.-G. Nilsson, eds., Communication Handicap: Aspects of Psychological Compensation and Technical Aids, North-Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.
Caramazza, A. and Hillis, A. E. (1990). Where do semantic errors come from? Cortex, 26, 95–122.
Caramazza, A. and Hillis, A. E. (1990a). Spatial representation of words in the brain implied by studies of a unilateral neglect patient. Nature, 346, 267–9.
Caramazza, A. and Hillis, A. E. (1990b). Levels of representation, coordinate frames, and unilateral neglect. In M. J. Riddoch, ed., Neglect and the Peripheral Dyslexias, Special Issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology, 391–445.
Caramazza, A., Miceli, G., Villa, G. and Romani, C. (1987). The role of the graphemic buffer in spelling: Evidence from a case of acquired dysgraphia. Cognition, 26, 59–85.
Carlomagno, S., Iavarone, A. and Colombo, A. (1994). Cognitive approaches to writing rehabilitation. In M. J. Riddoch and G. Humphreys, eds., Cognitive Neuropsychology and Cognitive Rehabilitation. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 485–502.
Chialant, D. and Caramazza, A. (1998). Perceptual and lexical factors in a case of letter-by-letter reading. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 15, 167–201.
Cohen, L. and Dehaene, S. (2004). Specialization within the ventral stream: The case for the visual word form area. NeuroImage, 22, 466–76.
Cohen, L., Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., et al. (2000). The visual word form area: Spatial and temporal characterization of an initial stage of reading in normal subjects and posterior split-brain patients. Brain, 123, 291–307.
Cohen, L., Henry, C., Dehaene, S., et al. (2004). The pathophysiology of letter-by-letter reading. Neuropsychologia, 42(13), 1768–80.
Cohen, L., Lehericy, S., Chochon, F., et al. (2002). Language-specific tuning of visual cortex? Functional properties of the visual word form area. Brain, 125, 1054–69.
Cohen, L., Martinaud, O., Lemer, C., et al. (2003). Visual word recognition in the left and right hemispheres: anatomical and functional correlates of peripheral alexias. Cerebral Cortex, 13, 1313–33.
Coltheart, M., Patterson, K. and Marshall, J. C. (1980). Deep Dyslexia. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Croquelois, A., Wintermark, M., Reichhart, M., Meuli, R. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2003). Aphasia in hyperacute stroke: Language follows brain penumbra dynamics. Ann. Neurol., 54(3), 321–9.
Damasio, A. R. and Damasio, H. (1986). Hemianopia, hemiachromatopsia and the mechanisms of alexia. Cortex, 22, 161–9.
De Partz, M. P. (1986). Re-education of a deep dyslexic patient: Rationale of the method and results. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 3, 147–77.
Dejerine, J. (1891). Sur un cas de cécité verbale avec agraphie, suivi d'autopsie. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie, Ninth series, 3, 197–201.
Dejerine, J. (1892). Contribution à l'étude anatomo-pathologique et clinique des différentes variétés de cécité verbale. Memoires Societe Biologique, 4, 61–90.
Ellis, A. W., Flude, B. M. and Young, A. W. (1987a). “Neglect Dyslexia” and the early visual processing of letters in words and nonwords, Cogn. Neuropsychol., 4, 439–64.
Ellis, A. W., Flude, B. M. and Young, A. W. (1987b). “Afferent Dysgraphia” in a patient and normal subjects. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 4, 465–86.
Exner, S. (1881). Lokalisation des Funcktion der Grosshirnrinde des Menschen, Wein: Braunmuller.
Foundas, A., Daniels, S. K. and Vasterling, J. J. (1998). Anomia: Case studies with localization. Neurocase, 4, 35–43.
Friedman, R. (2002). Clinical diagnosis and treatment of reading disorders. In A. E. Hillis (ed.) Handbook of Adult Language Disorders: Integrating Cognitive Neuropsychology, Neurology, and Rehabilitation, Philadelphia: Psychology Press, pp. 27–43.
Geschwind, N. (1965). Disconnection syndromes in animals and man. Brain, 88, 237–94, 585–644.
Goodglass, H. and Budin, C. (1988). Category and modality specific dissociations in word comprehension and concurrent phonological dyslexia, Neuropsychologia, 26, 67–78.
Goodglass, H., Kaplan, E. and Barresi, B. (2001). Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination 3. Austin, Tx: Pro-Ed.
Goodman, R. A. and Caramazza, A. (1986). Phonologically plausible errors: Implications for a model of the phoneme-grapheme conversion mechanism in the spelling process. In G. Augst, ed., Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Graphemics and Orthography, pp. 300–25.
Hatfield, F. M. and Patterson, K. (1983). Phonological spelling. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 35a, 451–68.
Haywood, M. and Coltheart, M. (2000). Neglect dyslexia and the early stages of visual word recognition. Neurocase, 6, 33–44.
Hillis, A. E. (1991). Effects of separate treatments for distinct impairments within the naming process. In T. Prescott, ed., Clinical Aphasiology, Vol. 19. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed, pp. 255–65.
Hillis, A. E. (1992). Facilitating written language. In R. Peach, ed., Clinics in Communication Disorders: Approaches to Treatment of Aphasia, pp. 19–33.
Hillis, A. E. (1993). The role of models of language processing in rehabilitation of language impairments. Aphasiology, 7, 5–26.
Hillis, A. E. (1994). Contributions from cognitive analysis. In R. Chapey,ed., Language Intervention Strategies in Adult Aphasia. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkens, pp. 207–19.
Hillis, A. E. (2003). Alexia. In R. Kent,ed., MIT Encyclopedia of Communication Disorders. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 236–40.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1990). The effects of attentional deficits on reading and spelling. In A. Caramazza, ed., Cognitive Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics: Advances in Models of Cognitive Function and Impairment. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 211–75.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1991a). Spatially-specific deficit to stimulus-centered letter shape representations in a case of “unilateral neglect.” Neuropsychologia, 29, 1223–40.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1991b). Mechanisms for accessing lexical representations for output: Evidence from a category-specific semantic deficit. Brain Lang., 40, 106–44.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1994). Theories of lexical processing and theories of rehabilitation. In G. Humphreys and M. J. Riddoch, eds., Cognitive Neuropsychology and Cognitive Rehabilitation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 449–82.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1995a). A framework for interpreting distinct patterns of hemispatial neglect. Neurocase, 1, 189–207.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1995b). Spatially-specific deficits in processing graphemic representations in reading and writing. Brain Lang., 48, 263–308.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1995c). Converging evidence for the interaction of semantic and phonological information in accessing lexical information for spoken output. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 12, 187–227.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1995d). I know it but I can't write it: Selective deficits in long and short-term memory. In R. Campbell,ed., Broken Memories: Neuropsychological Case Studies, London: Blackwell, pp. 344–65.
Hillis, A. E., Chang, S. and Breese, E. (2003). The crucial role of posterior frontal regions in modality specific components of the spelling process. Neurocase.
Hillis, A. E. and Heidler, J. (2003). Contributions and limitations of the “Cognitive Neuropsychological approach” to treatment: Illustrations from studies of reading and spelling therapy. Aphasiology.
Hillis, A. E., Kane, A., Barker, P., Beauchamp, N. and Wityk, R. (2001a). Neural substrates of the cognitive processes underlying reading: Evidence from Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in hyperacute stroke. Aphasiology, 15, 919–31.
Hillis, A. E., Kane, A., Tuffiash, E., et al. (2002). Neural substrates of the cognitive processes underlying spelling: Evidence from MR diffusion and perfusion imaging. Aphasiology, 16, 425–38.
Hillis, A. E., Newhart, M., Heidler, J., Barker, P. B. and Degaonkar, M. (2005). Anatomy of spatial attention: insights from perfusion imaging and hemispatial neglect in acute stroke. J. Neurosci., 25, 3161–7.
Hillis, A. E., Newhart, M., Heidler, J., et al. (2005b). The roles of the “visual word form area” in reading. NeuroImage, 24, 548–59.
Hillis, A. E., Newhart, M., Heidler, J., et al. (2005a). The neglected role of the right hemisphere in spatial representation of words for reading. Aphasiology, 19, 225–38.
Hillis, A. E. and Rapp, B. S. (2004). Cognitive and neural substrates of written language comprehension and production. In M. Gazzaniga, ed., The New Cognitive Neurosciences (3rd Edition). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 755–88.
Hillis, A. E., Rapp, B., Benzing, L. and Caramazza, A. (1998). Dissociable coordinate frames of unilateral spatial neglect: Viewer-centered neglect. Brain Cogn., 37, 491–526.
Hillis, A. E., Rapp, B. C. and Caramazza, A. (1999). When a rose is a rose in speaking but a tulip in writing. Cortex, 35, 337–56.
Hillis, A. E., Wityk, R., Barker, P. B. and Caramazza, A. (2003). Neural regions essential for writing verbs. Nature Neurosci., 6, 19–20.
Hillis, A. E., Wityk, R. J., Tuffiash, E., et al. (2001b). Hypoperfusion of Wernicke's area predicts severity of semantic deficit in acute stroke. Ann. Neurol., 50, 561–6.
Hillis, A. E., Work, M., Breese, E. L., et al. (2004). Re-examining the brain regions crucial for orchestrating speech articulation. Brain, 127, 1479–87.
Horwitz, B., Rumsey, J. M. and Donohue, B. C. (1998). Functional connectivity of the angular gyrus in normal reading and dyslexia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 8939–44.
Huber, W., Poeck, K. and Willmes, K. (1984). The Aachen Aphasia Test. Adv. Neurol., 42, 291–303.
Joubert, S., Beauregard, M., Walter, N., et al. (2004). Neural correlates of lexical and sublexical processes in reading. Brain Lang., 89, 9–20.
Kawahata, N., Nagata, K. and Shishido, F. (1988). Alexia with agraphia due to the left posterior inferior temporal lobe lesion: Neuropsychological analysis and its pathogenetic mechanisms. Brain Lang., 33, 296–310.
Kay, J., Lesser, R. and coltheart, M. (1992). Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia (PALPA). East Sussex, England: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kinsbourne, M. and Rosenfield, D. B. (1974). Agraphia selective for written spelling. Brain Lang., 1, 215–25.
Kertesz, A. (1982). The Western Aphasia Battery. San Antonio: Psychological Association.
Lapoint, L. L. and Horner, J. (1998). Reading Comprehension Battery for Aphasia (2nd edition). Austin, Tx: Pro-Ed.
Love, T., Swinney, D., Wong, E. and Buxton, R. (2002). Perfusion imaging and stroke: A more sensitive measure of the brain bases of cognitive deficits. Aphasiology, 16, 873–83.
McCandliss, B. D., Cohen, L. and Dehaene, S. (2003). The visual word form area: Expertise for reading in the fusiform gyrus. Trends Cogn. Sci., 7, 293–9.
Miozzo, M. and Caramazza, A. (1998). Varieties of pure alexia: The case of failure to access graphemic representations. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 15, 203–38.
Moyer, S. B. (1979). Rehabilitation of alexia: A case study. Cortex, 15, 139–44.
Nadeau, S. E., Gonzalez Rothi, L. J. and Crosson, B., (eds.) (2000). Aphasia and Language: Theory to Practice. New York: The Guilford Press.
Nichelli, P., Venneri, A., Pentore, R. and Cubelli, R. (1993). Horizontal and vertical neglect dyslexia. Brain Lang., 44, 264–83.
Nickels, L. (1992). The autocue? Self-generated phonemic cues in the treatment of a disorder of reading and naming. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 9, 155–82.
Patterson, K. E., Coltheart, M. and Marshall, J. C. (1985). Surface Dyslexia. London: LEA.
Patterson, K. E. and Kay, J. (1982). Letter-by-letter reading: Psychological descriptions of a neurological syndrome. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 34A, 411–41.
Price, C. J. and Devlin, J. T. (2003). The myth of the visual word form area. NeuroImage, 19, 473–81.
Price, C. J. and Devlin, J. T. (2004). The pros and cons of labeling a left occipitotemporal region: “The visual word form area.” NeuroImage, 22, 477–9.
Price, C. J., Winterburn, D., Giraud, A. L., Moore, C. J. and Noppeney, U. (2003). Cortical localization of the visual and auditory word form areas: A reconsideration of the evidence. Brain Lang., 86, 272–86.
Price, C. J., Wise, R. J., Warburton, E. A., et al. (1996). Hearing and saying. The functional neuro-anatomy of auditory word processing. Brain, 119, 919–31.
Puce, A., Allison, T., Asgari, M., Gore, J. C. and McCarthy, G. (1996). Differential sensitivity of human visual cortex to faces, letterstrings, and textures: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J. Neurosci., 16, 5205–15.
Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., et al. (2001). Neurobiological studies of reading and reading disability. J. Commun. Disord., 34, 479–92.
Rapcsak, S. Z. and Beeson, P. M. (2002). Neuroanatomical correlates of spelling and writing. In A. E. Hillis, ed., Handbook of Adult Language Disorders: Integrating Cognitive Neuropsychology, Neurology, and Rehabilitation. Philadelphia: Psychology Press, pp. 71–99.
Rapcsak, S. Z. and Beeson, P. M. (2004). The role of posterior inferior temporal cortex in spelling. Neurology, 62, 2221–9.
Rapcsak, S. Z., Rubens, A. B. and Laguna, J. F. (1990). From letters to words: Procedures for word recognition in letter-by-letter reading. Brain Lang., 38, 504–14.
Rapp, B. C. and Caramazza, A. (1997). From graphemes to abstract letter shapes: Levels of representation in written spelling. J. Exp. Psychol. [Hum. Percept.], 23, 1130–52.
Raymer, A., Foundas, A. L., Maher, L. M., et al. (1997). Cognitive neuropsychological analysis and neuroanatomical correlates in a case of acute anomia. Brain Lang., 58, 137–56.
Riddoch, M. J., Humphreys, G. W., Cleton, P. and Fery, P. (1990). Levels of coding in neglect dyslexia. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 7, 479–517.
Roeltgen, D. P. and Heilman, K. M. (1984). Lexical agraphia: Further support for the two strategy hypotheses of linguistic agraphia. Brain, 107, 811–27.
Rothi, L. J. and Heilman, K. M. (1981). Alexia and agraphia with spared spelling and letter recognition abilities. Brain Lang., 12(1), 1–13.
Rothi, L. J. G. and Moss, S. (1992). Alexia without agraphia: Potential for model-assisted therapy. Clin. Commun. Disord., 2, 11–18.
Saffran, E. M. and Coslett, H. B. (1998). Implicit vs. letter-by-letter reading in pure alexia: A tale of two systems. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 15, 141–65.
Sakurai, Y., Sakai, K., Sakuta, M. and Iwata, M. (1994). Naming difficulties in alexia with agraphia for kanji after a left posterior inferior temporal lesion. J. Neurol., Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57, 609–13.
Seki, K., Yajima, M. and Sugishita, M. (1995). The effect of kinesthetic reading treatment for pure alexia. Neuropsychologia, 33, 595–609.
Shallice, T. (1988). From Neuropsychology to Mental Structure, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Small, S. (2002). Biological approaches to the treatment of aphasia. In A. E. Hillis, ed., The Handbook of Adult Language Disorders: Integrating Cognitive Neuropsychology, Neurology and Rehabilitation. New York: Psychology Press, pp. 397–411.
Soma, Y., Sugishita, M., Kitamura, K., Maruyama, S. and Imanaga, H. (1989). Lexical agraphia in the Japanese language. Pure agraphia for Kanji due to left posteroinferior temporal lesions, Brain, 112, 1549–61.
Subbiah, I. and Caramazza, A. (2000). Stimulus-centered neglect in reading and object recognition. Neurocase, 6, 13–31.
Vanier, M. and Caplan, D. (1985). CT correlates of surface dyslexia. In K. E. Patterson, J. C. Marshall and M. Coltheart, eds., Surface Dyslexia: Neuropsychological and Cognitive Studies of Phonological Reading. London: Laurence Erlbaum.
Warrington, E. K. (1991). Right neglect dyslexia: A single case study. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 8, 191–212.
Young, A. W., Newcombe, F. and Ellis, A. W. (1991). Different impairments contribute to neglect dyslexia. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 8, 177–91.
Zangwill, O. L. (1954). Agraphia due to a left parietal glioma in a left-handed man. Brain, 77, 510–20.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Anderson, J. R., Qin, Y., Stenger, V. A. and Carter, C. S. (2004). The relationship of three cortical regions to an information-processing model. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 16, 637–53.
Anderson, S. W., Damasio, A. R. and Damasio, H. (1990). Troubled letters but not numbers: Domain specific cognitive impairments following focal damage in frontal cortex. Brain, 113, 749–66.
Benton, A. L. (1961). The fiction of the Gerstmann syndrome. J. Neurol., 24, 176–81.
Benton, A. L. (1992). Gerstmann's syndrome. Arch. Neurol., 49, 445–7.
Bogousslavsky, J., Regli, F. and Assal, G. (1986). The syndrome of unilateral tuberothalamic artery territory infarction. Stroke, 17, 434–41.
Butterworth, B. (1999). The Mathematical Brain. London: Macmillan.
Butterworth, B., Cappelletti, M. and Kopelman, M. (2001). Category specificity in reading and writing: the case of number words. Nat. Neurosci., 4, 784–6.
Butterworth, B., Cipolotti, L. and Warrington, E. K. (1996). Short-term memory impairment and arithmetical ability. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 49A, 251–62.
Caporali, A., Burgio, F. and Basso, A. (2000). The natural course of acalculia in left-brain-damaged patients. Neurol. Sci., 21, 143–9.
Cappelletti, M., Butterworth, B. and Kopelman, M. (2001). Spared numerical abilities in a case of semantic dementia. Neuropsychologia, 39, 1224–39.
Caramazza, A. and McCloskey, M. (1987). Dissociations of calculation processes. In G. Deloche and X. Seron., eds., Mathematical Disabilities: A cognitive Neuropsychological Perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 221–34.
Cohen, L. and Dehaene, S. (1991). Neglect dyslexia for numbers? A case report. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 8, 39–58.
Cohen, L. and Dehaene, S. (1994). Amnesia for arithmetic facts: A single case study. Brain and Lang., 47, 214–32.
Cohen, L. and Dehaene, S. (1995). Number processing in pure alexia: the effect of hemispheric asymmetries and task demands. NeuroCase, 1, 121–37.
Cohen, L. and Dehaene, S. (1996). Cerebral networks for number processing: Evidence from a case of posterior callosal lesion. NeuroCase, 2, 155–74.
Cohen, L. and Dehaene, S. (2000). Calculating without reading: Unsuspected residual abilities in pure alexia. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 17, 563–83.
Cohen, L., Dehaene, S., Chochon, F., Lehéricy, S. and Naccache, L. (2000a). Language and calculation within the parietal lobe: A combined cognitive, anatomical and fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 138, 1426–40.
Cohen, L., Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., et al. (2000b). The visual word form area: Spatial and temporal characterization of an initial stage of reading in normal subjects and posterior split-brain patients. Brain, 123, 291–307.
Cohen, L., Dehaene, S. and Verstichel, P. (1994). Number words and number non-words: A case of deep dyslexia extending to arabic numerals. Brain, 117, 267–79.
Cohen, L., Verstichel, P. and Dehaene, S. (1997). Neologistic jargon sparing numbers: a category specific phonological impairment. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 14, 1029–61.
Corbett, A. J., McCusker, E. A. and Davidson, O. R. (1986). Acalculia following a dominant-hemisphere subcortical infarct. Arch. Neurol., 43, 964–6.
Dagenbach, D. and McCloskey, M. (1992). The organization of arithmetic facts in memory: Evidence from a brain-damaged patient. Brain Cogn., 20, 345–66.
Dehaene, S. (1992). Varieties of numerical abilities. Cognition, 44, 1–42.
Dehaene, S. (2003). The neural basis of the Weber-Fechner law: a logarithmic mental number line. Trends Cogn. Sci., 7, 145–7.
Dehaene, S. and Changeux, J. P. (1993). Development of elementary numerical abilities: A neuronal model. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 5, 390–407.
Dehaene, S. and Cohen, L. (1991). Two mental calculation systems: A case study of severe acalculia with preserved approximation. Neuropsychologia, 29, 1045–74.
Dehaene, S. and Cohen, L. (1994). Dissociable mechanisms of subitizing and counting: Neuropsychological evidence from simultanagnosic patients. J. Exp. Psychol. [Hum. Percept.], 20, 958–75.
Dehaene, S. and Cohen, L. (1995). Towards an anatomical and functional model of number processing. Math. Cogn., 1, 83–120.
Dehaene, S. and Cohen, L. (1997). Cerebral pathways for calculation: Double dissociations between Gerstmann's acalculia and subcortical acalculia. Cortex, 33, 219–50.
Dehaene, S., Molko, N., Cohen, L. and Wilson, A. J. (2004). Arithmetic and the brain. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 14, 218–24.
Dehaene, S., Piazza, M., Pinel, P. and Cohen, L. (2003). Three parietal circuits for number processing. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 20, 487–506.
Dejerine, J. (1892). Contribution à l'étude anatomo-pathologique et clinique des différentes variétés de cécité verbale. Mémoires de la Société de Biologie, 4, 61–90.
Delazer, M. and Benke, T. (1997). Arithmetic facts without meaning. Cortex, 33, 697–710.
Delazer, M., Domahs, F., Bartha, L., et al. (2003). Learning complex arithmetic – an fMRI study. Brain Res. Cogn., 18, 76–88.
Delazer, M., Domahs, F., Lochy, A., et al. (2004). Number processing and basal ganglia dysfunction: a single case study. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1050–62.
Delazer, M., Girelli, L., Grana, A. and Domahs, F. (2003a). Number processing and calculation – normative data from healthy adults. Clin. Neuropsychol., 17, 331–50.
Delazer, M., Lochy, A., Jenner, C., Domahs, F. and Benke, T. (2002). When writing 0 (zero) is easier than writing O (o): a neuropsychological case study of agraphia. Neuropsychologia, 40, 2167–77.
Dellatolas, G., Deloche, G., Basso, A. and Claros-Salinas, D. (2001). Assessment of calculation and number processing using the EC301 battery: cross-cultural normative data and application to left- and right-brain damaged patients. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 7, 840–59.
Deloche, G. and Seron, X. (1982). From one to 1: An analysis of a transcoding process by means of neuropsychological data. Cognition, 12, 119–49.
Deloche, G. and Seron, X. (1984). Semantic errors reconsidered in the procedural light of stack concepts. Brain Lang., 21, 59–71.
Deloche, G., Seron, X. and Ferrand, I. (1989). Reeducation of number transcoding mechanisms: A procedural approach. In X. Seron and G. Deloche, eds., Cognitive Approach in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Domahs, F., Bartha, L. and Delazer, M. (2003). Rehabilitation of arithmetic abilities: Different intervention strategies for multiplication. Brain Lang., 87, 165–6.
Fasotti, L., Bremer, J. J. C. B. and Eling, P. A. T. M. (1992a). Influence of improved test encoding on arithmetical word problem solving after frontal lobe damage. Neuropsychol. Rehabil., 2, 3–20.
Fasotti, L., Eling, P. A. T. M. and Bremer, J. J. C. B. (1992b). The internal representation of arithmetical word problem sentences: Frontal and posterior patients compared. Brain Cogn., 20, 245–63.
Feigenson, L., Dehaene, S. and Spelke, E. (2004). Core systems of number. Trends Cogn. Sci., 8, 307–14.
Ferro, J. M. and Botelho, M. A. S. (1980). Aphasia for arithmetical signs: A cause of disturbed calculation. Cortex, 16, 175–80.
Garcia-Orza, J., Leon-Carrion, J. and Vega, O. (2003). Dissociating arabic numeral reading and basic calculation: a case study. Neurocase, 9, 129–39.
Gazzaniga, M. S. and Hillyard, S. A. (1971). Language and speech capacity of the right hemisphere. Neuropsychologia, 9, 273–80.
Gazzaniga, M. S. and Smylie, C. E. (1984). Dissociation of language and cognition: A psychological profile of two disconnected right hemispheres. Brain, 107, 145–53.
Gerstmann, J. (1940). Syndrome of finger agnosia disorientation for right and left agraphia and acalculia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 44, 398–408.
Geschwind, N. (1965). Disconnection syndromes in animals and man. Brain, 88, 237–94.
Girelli, L., Bartha, L. and Delazer, M. (2002). Strategic learning in the rehabilitation of semantic knowledge. Neuropsychol. Rehabil., 12, 41–61.
Girelli, L., Delazer, M., Semenza, C. and Denes, G. (1996). The representation of arithmetical facts: evidence from two rehabilitation studies. Cortex, 32, 49–66.
Girelli, L. and Seron, X. (2000). La revalidation des troubles du calcul et du traitement des nombres. In X. Seron and M. van der Linden, eds., Traité de Neuropsychologie Clinique. Vol. 2. Marseille: Solal, 215–25.
Grafman, J., Kampen, D., Rosenberg, J., Salazar, A. and Boller, F. (1989). Calculation abilities in a patient with a virtual left hemispherectomy. Behav. Neurol., 2, 183–94.
Grafman, J., Passafiume, D., Faglioni, P. and Boller, F. (1982). Calculation disturbances in adults with focal hemispheric damage. Cortex, 18, 37–49.
Hauser, M. D., Tsao, F., Garcia, P. and Spelke, E. S. (2003). Evolutionary foundations of number: spontaneous representation of numerical magnitudes by cotton-top tamarins. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci., 270, 1441–6.
Hécaen, H., Angelergues, R. and Houillier, S. (1961). Les variétés cliniques des acalculies au cours des lésions rétro-rolandiques: Approche statistique du problème. Rev. Neurol. 105, 85–103.
Henschen, S. E. (1920). Klinische und anatomische Beitraege zur Pathologie des Gehirns. Stockholm: Nordiska Bokhandeln.
Hittmair-Delazer, M., Sailer, U. and Benke, T. (1995). Impaired arithmetic facts but intact conceptual knowledge – a single case study of dyscalculia. Cortex, 31, 139–47.
Hittmair-Delazer, M., Semenza, C. and Denes, G. (1994). Concepts and facts in calculation. Brain, 117, 715–28.
Holender, D. and Peereman, R. (1987). Differential processing of phonographic and logographic single-digit numbers by the two hemispheres, In G. Deloche and X. Seron, eds., Mathematical Disabilities: A Cognitive Neuropsychological Perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 43–86.
Houde, O. and Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2003). Neural foundations of logical and mathematical cognition. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 4, 507–14.
Isaacs, E. B., Edmonds, C. J., Lucas, A. and Gadian, D. G. (2001). Calculation difficulties in children with a very low birthweight. A neural correlate. Brain, 124, 1701–7.
Jackson, M. and Warrington, E. K. (1986). Arithmetic skills in patients with unilateral cerebral lesions. Cortex, 22, 611–20.
Lampl, Y., Eshel, Y., Gilad, R. and Sarova-Pinhas, I. (1994). Selective acalculia with sparing of the subtraction process in a patient with left parietotemporal hemorrhage. Neurology, 44, 1759–61.
Langdon, D. W. and Warrington, E. K. (1997). The abstraction of numerical relations: a role for the right hemisphere in arithmetic? J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 3, 260–8.
Lemer, C., Dehaene, S., Spelke, E. and Cohen, L. (2003). Approximate quantities and exact number words: Dissociable systems. Neuropsychologia, 41, 1942–58.
Lochy, A., Domahs, F. and Delazer, M. (in press). Rehabilitation of acquired calculation and number processing disorders. In J. Campbell, ed., The Handbook of Mathematical Cognition.
Luria, A. R. (1959). Disorders of simultaneous perception in a case of bilateral occipito-parietal brain injury. Brain, 82, 437–49.
Luria, A. R. (1966). The Higher Cortical Functions in Man. New York: Basic Books.
Macaruso, P., McCloskey, M. and Aliminosa, D. (1993). The functional architecture of the cognitive numerical-processing system: Evidence from a patient with multiple impairments. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 10, 341–76.
Mandler, G. and Shebo, B. J. (1982). Subitizing: An analysis of its component processes. J. Exp. Psychol. [Gen.], 111, 1–21.
Mayer, E., Martory, M. D., Pegna, A. J., et al. (1999). A pure case of Gerstmann syndrome with a subangular lesion. Brain, 122 (Pt 6), 1107–20.
McCloskey, M., Aliminosa, D. and Sokol, S. M. (1991). Facts rules and procedures in normal calculation: Evidence from multiple single-patient studies of impaired arithmetic fact retrieval. Brain Cogn., 17, 154–203.
McCloskey, M., Sokol, S. M. and Goodman, R. A. (1986). Cognitive processes in verbal-number production: Inferences from the performance of brain-damaged subjects. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen., 115, 307–30.
McNeil, J. E. and Warrington, E. K. (1994). A dissociation between addition and subtraction within written calculation. Neuropsychologia, 32, 717–28.
Molko, N., Cachia, A., Riviere, D., et al. (2003). Functional and structural alterations of the intraparietal sulcus in a developmental dyscalculia of genetic origin. Neuron, 40, 847–58.
Moyer, R. S. and Landauer, T. K. (1967). Time required for judgements of numerical inequality. Nature, 215, 1519–20.
Noël, M. P. (2001). Numerical cognition. In B. Rapp, ed., The Handbook of Cognitive Neuropsychology. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Pesenti, M., Seron, X. and Van Der Linden, M. (1994). Selective impairment as evidence for mental organisation of arithmetical facts: BB, a case of preserved subtraction? Cortex, 30, 661–71.
Pica, P., Lemer, C., Izard, V. and Dehaene, S. (2004). Exact and approximate arithmetic in an Amazonian indigene group. Science (in press).
Pinel, P., Dehaene, S., Riviere, D. and LeBihan, D. (2001). Modulation of parietal activation by semantic distance in a number comparison task. Neuroimage, 14, 1013–26.
Rizzo, M. and Robin, D. A. (1990). Simultanagnosia: A deficit of sustained attention yields insights on visual information processing. Neurology, 40, 447–55.
Rosselli, M. and Ardila, A. (1989). Calculation deficits in patients with right and left hemisphere damage. Neuropsychologia, 27, 607–17.
Seymour, S. E., Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. and Gazzaniga, M. S. (1994). The disconnection syndrome: basic findings reaffirmed. Brain, 117, 105–15.
Simon, O., Mangin, J. F., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D. and Dehaene, S. (2002). Topographical layout of hand, eye, calculation, and language-related areas in the human parietal lobe. Neuron, 33, 475–87.
Thioux, M., Pillon, A., Samson, D., et al. (1998). The isolation of numerals at the semantic level. Neurocase. 4.
Thompson, J. C., Abbott, D. F., Wheaton, K. J., Syngeniotis, A. and Puce, A. (in press). Digit representation is more than just hand waving. Cogn. Brain Res.
van Harskamp, N. J. and Cipolotti, L. (2001). Selective impairments for addition, subtraction and multiplication. Implications for the organisation of arithmetical facts. Cortex, 37, 363–88.
van Harskamp, N. J., Rudge, P. and Cipolotti, L. (2002). Are multiplication facts implemented by the left supramarginal and angular gyri? Neuropsychologia, 40, 1786–93.
Vuilleumier, P. and Rafal, R. (1999). Both means more than two: localizing and counting in patients with visuospatial neglect. Nat. Neurosci., 2, 783–4.
Warrington, E. K. (1982). The fractionation of arithmetical skills: A single case study. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 34A, 31–51.
Whalen, J., McCloskey, M., Lindemann, M. and Bouton, G. (2002). Representing arithmetic table facts in memory: Evidence from acquired impairments. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 19, 505–22.
Zorzi, M., Priftis, K. and Umilta, C. (2002). Brain damage: neglect disrupts the mental number line. Nature, 417, 138–9.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Aglioti, S., Smania, N. and Moro, V. (1998). Tactile salience influences extinction. Neurology, 50(4), 1010–14.
Aglioti, S., Smania, N. and Peru, A. J. (1999). Frames of reference for mapping tactile stimuli in brain-damaged patients. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 11(1), 167–79.
Agrell, B. M., Dehlin, O. I. and Dahlgren, C. J. (1997). Neglect in elderly stroke patients: A comparison of five tests. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 51(5), 295–300.
Albert, M. (1973). A simple test of visual neglect. Neurology, 23, 658–64.
Andersen, R. A. and Buneo, C. A. (2003). Sensorimotor integration in posterior parietal cortex. Adv. Neurol., 93, 159–77.
Andersen, R., Snyder, L. H., Bradley, B. C., et al. (1997). Multimodal representation of space in the posterior parietal cortex and its use in planning movement. Ann. Rev. Neurosci., 20, 303–30.
Appelros, P., Nydevik, I., Karlsson, G. M., et al. (2004). Recovery from unilateral neglect after right-hemisphere stroke. Disabil. Rehabil., 26(8), 471–7.
Azouvi, P., Samuel, C., Louis-Dreyfus, A., et al. (2002). Sensitivity of clinical and behavioural tests of spatial neglect after right hemisphere stroke. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 73(2), 160–6.
Azouvi, P., Oliver, S., de Montety, G., et al. (2003). Behavioral assessment of unilateral neglect: Study of the psychometric properties of the Catherine Bergego Scale. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 84(1), 51–7.
Baier, B. and Karnath, H. O. (2005). Neuroanatomical correlates of anosognosia for hemiparesis. J. Neurosci., 25, 7134–8.
Bartolomeo, P., Bachoud-Levi, A. C., Azouvi, P., et al. (2005). Time to imagine space: A chronometric exploration of representational neglect. Neuropsychologia, 43(9), 1249–57.
Bartolomeo, P. and Chokron, S. (1999). Egocentric frame of reference: its role in spatial bias after right hemisphere lesions. Neuropsychologia, 37(8), 881–94.
Bartolomeo, P. and Chokron, S. (2002). Orienting of attention in left unilateral neglect. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 26(2), 217–34.
Bartolomeo, P., D'Erme, P. and Gainotti, G. (1994). The relationship between visuospatial and representational neglect. Neurology, 44(9), 1710–14.
Bartolomeo, P., Perri, R. and Gainotti, G. (2004). The influence of limb crossing on left tactile extinction. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 75(1), 49–55.
Behrmann, M., Ghiselli-Crippa, T., Sweeney, J. A., et al. (2002). Mechanisms underlying spatial representation revealed through studies of hemispatial neglect. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 14(2), 272–90.
Behrmann, M. and Moscovitch, M. (1994). Object-centered neglect in patients with unilateral neglect: Effects of left-right coordinates of objects. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 6, 1–16.
Behrmann, M., Moscovitch, M., Black, S. E., et al. (1990). Perceptual and conceptual mechanisms in neglect dyslexia. Brain, 113, 1163–83.
Behrmann, M. and Tipper, S. P. (1999). Attention accesses multiple reference frames: Evidence from visual neglect. J. Exp. Psychol. [Hum. Percept.], 25(1), 83–101.
Beis, J. M., Andre, J. M., Baumgarten, A., et al. (1999). Eye patching in unilateral spatial neglect: Efficacy of two methods. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 80(1), 71–6.
Beis, J. M., Keller, C., Morin, N., et al. (2004). Right spatial neglect after left hemisphere stroke: Qualitative and quantitative study. Neurology, 63(9), 1600–5.
Bellas, D. N., Novelly, R. A., Eskenazi, B., et al. (1988). The nature of unilateral neglect in the olfactory sensory system. Neuropsychologia, 26(1), 45–52.
Bellmann, A., Meuli, R. and Clarke, S. (2001). Two types of auditory neglect. Brain, 124(Pt 4), 676–87.
Berlucchi, G., Moro, V., Guerrini, C., et al. (2004). Dissociation between taste and tactile extinction on the tongue after right brain damage. Neuropsychologia, 42(8), 1007–16.
Berti, A. (2003). Unconscious processing in neglect. In The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Spatial Neglect, ed. H. O. Karnath et al., Oxford University Press.
Berti, A. and Frassinetti, F. (2000). When far becomes near: Remapping of space by tool use. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 12(3), 415–20.
Berti, A. and Rizzolatti, G. (1992). Visual processing without awareness: Evidence from unilateral neglect. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 4, 345–51.
Berti, A., Frassinetti, F. and Umilta, C. (1994). Nonconscious reading? Evidence from neglect dyslexia. Cortex, 30, 181–97.
Berti, A., Oxbury, S., Oxbury, J., et al. (1999). Somatosensory extinction for meaningful objects in a patient with right hemispheric stroke. Neuropsychologia, 37(3), 333–43.
Beschin, N. and Robertson, I. H. (1997). Personal versus extrapersonal neglect: a group study of their dissociation using a reliable clinical test. Cortex, 33(2), 379–84.
Beschin, N., Cazzani, M., Cubelli, R., et al. (1996). Ignoring left and far: An investigation of tactile neglect. Neuropsychologia, 34, 41–2.
Beschin, N., Cocchini, G., Della Sala, S., et al. (1997). What the eyes perceive, the brain ignores: A case of pure unilateral representational neglect. Cortex, 33(1), 3–26.
Binder, J., Marshall, R., Lazar, R., et al. (1992). Distinct syndromes of hemineglect. Arch. Neurol., 49(11), 1187–94.
Bisiach, E., Brouchan, M., Poncet, M., et al. (1993). Unilateral neglect in route description. Neuropsychologia, 31(11), 1255–62.
Bisiach, E., Geminiani, G., Berti, A., et al. (1990). Perceptual and premotor factors of unilateral neglect. Neurology, 40, 1278–81.
Bisiach, E. and Luzzatti, C. (1978). Unilateral neglect of representational space. Cortex, 14, 129–33.
Bisiach, E., Perani, D., Vallar, G., et al. (1986). Unilateral neglect: Personal and extrapersonal. Neuropsychologia, 24, 759–67.
Bisiach, E., Ricci, R., Lualdi, M., et al. (1998a). Perceptual and response bias in unilateral neglect: Two modified versions of the Milner landmark task. Brain Cogn., 37(3), 369–86.
Bisiach, E., Ricci, R. and Madona, M. N., et al. (1998b). Visual awareness and anisometry of space representation in unilateral neglect: A panoramic investigation by means of a line extension task. Conscious Cogn., 7(3), 327–55.
Bisiach, E., Rusconi, M. L., Peretti, V. A., et al. (1994). Challenging current accounts of unilateral neglect. Neuropsychologia, 32, 1431–4.
Bisiach, E., Tegner, R., Ladavas, E., et al. (1995). Dissociation of ophthalmokinetic and melokinetic attention in unilateral neglect. Cereb. Cortex, 5(5), 439–47.
Bogousslavsky, J., Miklossy, J., Regli, F., et al. (1988). Subcortical neglect: Neuropsychological, SPECT, and neuropathological correlations with anterior choroidal artery territory infarction. Ann. Neurol., 23(5), 448–52.
Bogousslavsky, J., Regli, F., and Assal, G., et al. (1986). The syndrome of unilateral tuberothalamic artery territory infarction. Stroke, 17(3), 434–41.
Bowen, A., Lincoln, N. B., and Dewey, M. E. (2002). Spatial neglect: Is rehabilitation effective? Stroke, 33(11), 2728–9.
Bowen, A., Mckenna, K. and Tallis, R. C. (1999). Reasons for variability in the reported rate of occurrence of unilateral spatial neglect after stroke. Stroke, 30(6), 1196–202.
Bremmer, F., Duhamel, J.-R., Ben Hamed, S., et al. (1996). The representation of movement in near extrapersonal space in the macaque ventral intraparietal area. In Parietal Lobe Contributions to Orientation in 3D Space, ed. P. Thier and H.-O. Karnath. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 619–30.
Brighina, F., Bisiach, E., Piazza, A., et al. (2002). Perceptual and response bias in visuospatial neglect due to frontal and parietal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal subjects. Neuroreport, 13(18), 2571–5.
Butter, C. M., Mark, V. W. and Heilman, K. M. (1988a). An experimental analysis of factors underlying neglect in line bisection. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 51(12), 1581–3.
Butter, C. M., Rapcsak, S. Z., Watson, R. T., et al. (1988b). Changes in sensory inattention, directional akinesia, and release of fixation reflex following a unilateral frontal lesion: A case report. Neuropsychologia, 26, 533–45.
Buxbaum, L. J., Ferraro, M. K., Veramonti, T., et al. (2004). Hemispatial neglect: Subtypes, neuroanatomy, and disability. Neurology, 62(5), 749–56.
Cals, N., Devuyst, G., Afsa, N., et al. (2002). Pure superficial posterior cerebral artery territory infarction in The Lausanne Stroke Registry. J. Neurol., 249(7), 855–61.
Cambier, J., Graveleau, P., Decroix, J. P., et al. (1983). Anterior choroidal artery syndrome. Neuropsychological study of 4 cases. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 139(10), 553–9.
Cambier, J., Masson, M., Guillot, M., et al. (1985). Right neglect with hemiasomatognosia, mental confusion, apraxia and agraphia without aphasia. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 141(12), 802–5.
Caplan, L. R., Kelly, M., Kase, C. S., et al. (1986). Infarcts of the inferior division of the right middle cerebral artery: Mirror image of Wernicke's aphasia. Neurology, 36(8), 1015–20.
Cappa, S., Sterzi, R., Vallar, G., et al. (1987). Remission of hemineglect and anosognosia during vestibular stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 25(5), 775–82.
Caramazza, A. and Hillis, A. E. (1990). Spatial representation of words in the brain implied by studies of a unilateral neglect patient. Nature, 346(6281), 267–9.
Carrera, E., Michel, P. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2004). Anteromedian, central, and posterolateral infarcts of the thalamus: Three variant types. Stroke, 35(12), 2826–31.
Cassidy, T. P., Bruce, D. W., Lewis, S., et al. (1999). The association of visual field deficits and visuo-spatial neglect in acute right-hemisphere stroke patients. Age Ageing, 28(3), 257–60.
Cassidy, T. P., Lewis, S. and Gray, C. S. (1998). Recovery from visuospatial neglect in stroke patients. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 64, 555–7.
Castaigne, P., Laplane, D. and Degos, J. D. (1972). 3 cases of motor neglect due to prerolandic frontal lesion. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 126(1), 5–15.
Chamorro, A., Marshall, A. S., Volls-Sole, J., et al. (1997). Motor behavior in stroke patients with isolated medial frontal ischemic infarction. Stroke, 28(9), 1755–60.
Chatterjee, A. (1994). Picturing unilateral spatial neglect: Viewer versus object centred reference frames. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57(10), 1236–40.
Chatterjee, A. (1995). Cross-over, completion and confabulation in unilateral spatial neglect. Brain, 118, 455–65.
Cherney, L. R. and Halper, A. S. (2001). Unilateral visual neglect in right-hemisphere stroke: A longitudinal study. Brain Inj., 15(7), 585–92.
Chokron, S., Bartolomeo, P., Perenin, M. T., et al. (1998). Scanning direction and line bisection: A study of normal subjects and unilateral neglect patients with opposite reading habits. Brain Res. Cogn., 7(2), 173–8.
Chokron, S., Colliot, P., Bartolomeo, P., et al. (2002). Visual, proprioceptive and tactile performance in left neglect patients. Neuropsychologia, 40(12), 1965–76.
Cocchini, G., Beschin, N. and Jehkonen, M. (2001). The fluff test: A simple task to assess body representation neglect. Neuropsychol. Rehabil., 11, 17–31.
Cocchini, G., Cubelli, R., Della Sala, S., et al. (1999). Neglect without extinction. Cortex, 35(3), 285–313.
Colby, C. (1998). Action-oriented spatial reference frames in cortex. Neuron, 20(1), 15–24.
Corbetta, M., Akbudak, E., Conturo, T. E., et al. (1998). A common network of functional areas for attention and eye movements. Neuron, 21(4), 761–73.
Corbetta, M. and Shulman, G. L. (2002). Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 3(3), 201–15.
Coslett, H. B. (1989). Hemihypokinesia after right hemisphere stroke. Brain Cogn., 9, 267–78.
Coslett, H. B. (1997). Neglect in vision and visual imagery: A double dissociation. Brain, 120(7), 1163–71.
Coslett, H. B., Bowers, D., Fitzpatrick, E., et al. (1990). Directional hypokinesia and hemispatial inattention in neglect. Brain, 113, 475–86.
Cowey, A., Small, M. and Ellis, S. (1994). Left visuospatial neglect can be worse in far than in near space. Neuropsychologia, 32, 1059–66.
Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H. and Chui, H. C., et al. (1987). Neglect following damage to frontal lobe or basal ganglia. Neuropsychologia, 18(2), 123–32.
Decroix, J. P., Graveleau, P., Masson, M., et al. (1986). Infarction in the territory of the anterior choroidal artery. A clinical and computerized tomographic study of 16 cases. Brain, 109(Pt 6), 1071–85.
Denis, M., Beschin, N., Logie, R. H., et al. (2002). Visual perception and verbal descriptions as sources for generating mental representations: Evidence from representational neglect. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 19(2), 97–112.
Deouell, L. Y. and Soroker, N. (2000). What is extinguished in auditory extinction? Neuroreport, 11(13), 3059–62.
Di Legge, S., Fang, J., Saposnik, G., et al. (2005). The impact of lesion side on acute stroke treatment. Neurology, 65(1), 81–6.
Di Pellegrino, G. (1995). Clock-drawing in a case of left visuo-spatial neglect: a deficit of disengagement? Neuropsychologia, 33(3), 353–8.
Di Pellegrino, G. and De Renzi, E. (1995). An experimental investigation on the nature of extinction. Neuropsychologia, 33, 153–70.
Di Pellegrino, G., Ladavas, E. and Farne, A. (1997). Seeing where your hands are. Nature, 388, 370.
Di Pellegrino, G., Ladavas, E. and Galletti, C. (2001). Lexical processes and eye movements in neglect dyslexia. Behav. Neurol., 13(1–2), 61–74.
Doricchi, F. and Angelelli, P. (1999). Misrepresentation of horizontal space in left unilateral neglect: Role of hemianopia. Neurology, 52(9), 1845–52.
Doricchi, F., Guariglia, P., Figliozzi, F., et al. (2005). Causes of cross-over in unilateral neglect: Between-group comparisons, within-patient dissociations and eye movements. Brain, 128(Pt 6), 1386–406.
Doricchi, F. and Tomaiuolo, F. (2003). The anatomy of neglect without hemianopia: A key role for parietal-frontal disconnection? Neuroreport, 14(17), 2239–43.
Driver, J., Baylis, G. C, Goodrich, S. J., et al. (1994). Axis-based neglect of visual shapes. Neuropsychologia, 32, 1353–65.
Driver, J. and Halligan, P. W. (1991). Can visual neglect operate in object-centered coordinates? An affirmative single case study. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 8, 475–94.
Driver, J. and Pouget, A. (2000). Object-centered visual neglect, or relative egocentric neglect? J. Cogn. Neurosci., 12(3), 542–5.
Driver, J. and Vuilleumier, P. (2001a). Unconscious processing in neglect and extinction. In Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processing, ed. B. DeGelder et al.. Oxford University Press, pp. 107–39.
Driver, J. and Vuilleumier, P. (2001b). Perceptual awareness and its loss in unilateral neglect and extinction. Cognition, 79, 39–88.
Driver, J., Vuilleumier, P., Eimer, M., et al. (2001). Functional MRI and evoked potential correlates of conscious and unconscious vision in parietal extinction patients. Neuroimage, 14, 68–75.
Driver, J., Vuilleumier, P. and Husain, M. (2004). Spatial neglect and extinction. In The New Cognitive Neurosciences, ed. M. Gazzaniga. MIT Press.
Ellis, A. X., Della Salla, S. and Logie, R. H. (1996). The Bailiwick of visuo-spatial working memory: Evidence from unilateral spatial neglect. Cogn. Brain Res., 3(2), 71–8.
Farah, M. J., Brunn, J. L., Wong, A. B., et al. (1990). Frames of reference for allocating attention to space: Evidence from the neglect syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 28, 335–47.
Farne, A., Buxbaun, L. J., Feraro, M., et al. (2004). Patterns of spontaneous recovery of neglect and associated disorders in acute right brain-damaged patients. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 75(10), 1401–10.
Farne, A. and Ladavas, E. (2000). Dynamic size-change of hand peripersonal space following tool use. Neuroreport, 11(8), 1645–9.
Feinberg, T. E., Haber, L. S. and Leeds, N. E. (1990). Verbal asomatognosia. Neurology, 40, 1391–4.
Ferber, S. and Karnath, H. O. (1999). Parietal and occipital lobe contributions to perception of straight ahead orientation. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 67(5), 572–8.
Ferber, S. and Karnath, H. O. (2001a). How to assess spatial neglect—line bisection or cancellation tasks? J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 23(5), 599–607.
Ferber, S. and Karnath, H. O. (2001b). Size perception in hemianopia and neglect. Brain, 124(Pt 3), 527–36.
Ferro, J. M. and Kertesz, A. (1984). Posterior internal capsule infarction associated with neglect. Arch. Neurol., 41(4), 422–4.
Ferro, J. M., Kertesz, A. and Black, S. E. (1987). Subcortical neglect: Quantitation, anatomy, and recovery. Neurology, 37(9), 1487–92.
Fimm, B., Zahn, R., Mull, M., et al. (2001). Asymmetries of visual attention after circumscribed subcortical vascular lesions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 71(5), 652–7.
Fiorelli, M., Blin, J., Bakchine, S., et al. (1991). PET studies of cortical diaschisis in patients with motor hemi-neglect. J. Neurol. Sci., 104(2), 135–42.
Fischer, M. H. (2001). Number processing induces spatial performance biases. Neurology, 57, 822–6.
Fleet, W. S., Valenstein, E., Watson, R. T., et al. (1987). Dopamine agonist therapy for neglect in humans. Neurology, 37(11), 1765–70.
Frassinetti, F., Angeli, V., Meneghello, F., et al. (2002). Long-lasting amelioration of visuospatial neglect by prism adaptation. Brain, 125(Pt 3), 608–23.
Gaffan, D. and Hornak, J. (1997). Visual neglect in the monkey: Representation and disconnection. Brain, 120(9), 1647–57.
Gainotti, G., Messerli, P. and Tissot, R. (1972). Qualitative analysis of unilateral spatial neglect in relation to laterality of cerebral lesions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 35(4), 545–50.
Gauthier, L., Dehaut, F., and Joanette, Y., (1989). The Bells Test: A quantitative and qualitative test for visual neglect. Int. J. Clin. Neuropsychol., 11, 49–54.
Ghika-Schmid, F. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2000). The acute behavioral syndrome of anterior thalamic infarction: A prospective study of 12 cases. Ann. Neurol., 48(2), 220–7.
Gillen, R., Tennen, H., and McKee, T., (2005). Unilateral spatial neglect: Relation to rehabilitation outcomes in patients with right hemisphere stroke. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 86(4), 763–7.
Gitelman, D. R., Nobre, A. C., Parrish, T. B., et al. (1999). A large-scale distributed network for covert spatial attention: Further anatomical delineation based on stringent behavioural and cognitive controls. Brain, 122, 1093–106.
Goldenberg, G. (1986). Neglect in a patient with partial callosal disconnection. Neuropsychologia, 24(3), 397–403.
Grossi, D., Modafferi, A., Pelosi, L., et al. (1989). On the different roles of the cerebral hemispheres in mental imagery: The “O'Clock Test” in two clinical cases. Brain Cogn., 10(1), 18–27.
Grujic, Z., Mapstone, M., Gitelman, D. R., et al. (1998). Dopamine agonists reorient visual exploration away from the neglected hemispace. Neurology, 51(5), 1395–8.
Guariglia, C. and Antonucci, G. (1992). Personal and extrapersonal space: A case of neglect dissociation. Neuropsychologia, 30, 1001–10.
Guariglia, C., Padovani, A., Partano, P., et al. (1991). Unilateral neglect restricted to visual imagery. Nature, 364, 235–7.
Halligan, P. W., Fink, G. R. Marshall, J. C., et al. (2003). Spatial cognition: Evidence from visual neglect. Trends Cogn. Sci., 7(3), 125–33.
Halligan, P. W. and Marshall, J. C. (1991a). Figural modulation of visuo-spatial neglect: A case study. Neuropsychologia, 29, 619–28.
Halligan, P. W. and Marshall, J. C. (1991b). Left neglect for near but not far space in man. Nature, 350, 498–500.
Halligan, P. W. and Marshall, J. C. (1998). Visuospatial neglect: The ultimate deconstruction? Brain Cogn., 37(3), 419–38.
Halligan, P. W., Marshall, J. C., Wade, D. T., (1989). Visuospatial neglect: Underlying factors and test sensitivity. Lancet, 2(8668), 908–11.
Halligan, P. W., et al. (1990). Do visual field deficits exacerbate visuo-spatial neglect? J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 53(6), 487–91.
Harvey, M., Kramer McCaffery, T., Dow, L., et al. (2002). Categorisation of ‘perceptual’ and ‘premotor’ neglect patients across different tasks: Is there strong evidence for a dichotomy? Neuropsychologia, 40(8), 1387–95.
Harvey, M., Milner, A. I., and Roberts, R. C., et al. (1995). An investigation of hemispatial neglect using the Landmark Task. Brain Cogn., 27(1), 59–78.
Heilman, K. M. and Van Den Abell, T. (1979). Right hemisphere dominance for mediating cerebral activation. Neuropsychologia, 17, 315–21.
Heilman, K. M. and Adams, D. J. (2003). Callosal neglect. Arch. Neurol., 60(2), 276–9.
Heilman, K. M., Boweres, B., Coslett, H. B., et al. (1985). Directional hypokinesia: Prolonged reaction times for leftward movements in patients with right hemisphere lesions and neglect. Neurology, 35, 855–9.
Heilman, K. M., Pandya, D. M. and Geschwind, N. (1970). Trimodal inattention following parietal lobe ablations. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 95, 259–68.
Heilman, K. M. and Valenstein, E. (1972). Frontal lobe neglect in man. Neurology, 22, 660–4.
Heilman, K. M. and Van Den Abell, T. (1980). Right hemisphere dominance for attention: The mechanisms underlying hemispheric asymmetries of inattention (neglect). Neurology, 30, 327–30.
Heilman, K. M., Watson, R. T. and Valenstein, E. (2003). Neglect and related disorders. In Clinical Neuropsychology, ed. K. M. Heilman and E. Valenstein. Oxford University Press, pp. 279–336.
Hier, D. B., Mondlock, J. and Caplan, I. R. (1983a). Behavioral abnormalities after right hemisphere stroke. Neurology, 33(3), 337–44.
Hier, D. B., et al. (1983b). Recovery of behavioral abnormalities after right hemisphere stroke. Neurology, 33(3), 345–50.
Hillis, A. E., Barker, P. B., Beauchamp, N. J., et al. (2000). MR perfusion imaging reveals regions of hypoperfusion associated with aphasia and neglect. Neurology, 55(6), 782–8.
Hillis, A. E. and Caramazza, A. (1991). Deficit to stimulus-centered, letter shape representations in a case of “unilateral neglect”. Neuropsychologia, 29(12), 1223–40.
Hillis, A. E., Newhart, M., Heidler, J., et al. (2005). Anatomy of spatial attention: Insights from perfusion imaging and hemispatial neglect in acute stroke. J. Neurosci., 25(12), 3161–7.
Hillis, A. E., Wityk, R. J., Barker, P. B., et al. (2002). Subcortical aphasia and neglect in acute stroke: The role of cortical hypoperfusion. Brain, 125(Pt 5), 1094–104.
Hillis, A. E., et al. (2003). Change in perfusion in acute nondominant hemisphere stroke may be better estimated by tests of hemispatial neglect than by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Stroke, 34(10), 2392–6.
Humphreys, G. W. and Riddoch, M. J. (1995). Separate coding of space within and between perceptual objects: Evidence from unilateral visual neglect. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 12, 283–311.
Husain, M. and Kennard, C. (1996). Visual neglect associated with frontal lobe infarction. J. Neurol., 243, 652–7.
Husain, M. and Kennard, C. (1997). Distractor-dependent frontal neglect. Neuropsychologia, 35, 829–41.
Husain, M., Mannan, S., Hodgson, T., et al. (2001). Impaired spatial working memory across saccades contributes to abnormal search in parietal neglect. Brain, 124(Pt 5), 941–52.
Husain, M., Mattingley, J. B, Rorden, C., et al. (2000). Distinguishing sensory and motor biases in parietal and frontal neglect. Brain, 123(Pt 8), 1643–59.
Husain, M. and Rorden, C. (2003). Non-spatially lateralized mechanisms in hemispatial neglect. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 4(1), 26–36.
Husain, M., Shapiro, K., Martin, J., et al. (1997). Abnormal temporal dynamics of visual attention in spatial neglect patients. Nature, 385(6612), 154–6.
Jehkonen, M., Ahonen, J. P, Dastidar, P., et al. (2000). Visual neglect as a predictor of functional outcome one year after stroke. Acta. Neurol. Scand., 101(3), 195–201.
Johannsen, L. and Karnath, H. O. (2004). How efficient is a simple copying task to diagnose spatial neglect in its chronic phase? J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 26(2), 251–6.
Karnath, H. O. (1995). Transcutaneous electrical stimulation and vibration of neck muscles in neglect. Exp. Brain Res., 105(2), 321–4.
Karnath, H. O., Ferber, S. and Himmelbach, M. (2001). Spatial awareness is a function of the temporal not the posterior parietal lobe. Nature, 411(6840), 950–3.
Karnath, H. O. and Fetter, M. (1995). Ocular space exploration in the dark and its relation to subjective and objective body orientation in neglect patients with parietal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 33(3), 371–7.
Karnath, H. O., Fetter, M. and Niemeier, M. (1998). Disentangling gravitational, environmental, and egocentric reference frames in spatial neglect. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 10(6), 680–90.
Karnath, H. O., Fruhmann Berger, M., Kuker, et al. (2004). The anatomy of spatial neglect based on voxelwise statistical analysis: A study of 140 patients. Cereb. Cortex, 14(10), 1164–72.
Karnath, H. O., Himmelbach, M. and Kuker. (2003). The cortical substrate of visual extinction. Neuroreport, 14(3), 437–42.
Karnath, H. O., Himmelbach, M. and Rorden, C. (2002). The subcortical anatomy of human spatial neglect: Putamen, caudate nucleus and pulvinar. Brain, 125(Pt 2), 350–60.
Karnath, H. O. and Perenin, M. T. (1998). Tactile exploration of peripersonal space in patients with neglect. Neuroreport, 9(10), 2273–7.
Karnath, H. O., Schenkel, P. and Fischer, B. (1991). Trunk orientation as the determining factor of the ‘contralateral’ deficit in the neglect syndrome and as the physical anchor of the internal representation of body orientation in space. Brain, 1997–2014.
Kerkhoff, G. (1998). Rehabilitation of visuospatial cognition and visual exploration in neglect: A crossover study. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 12(1), 27–40.
Kerkhoff, G. (2001). Spatial hemineglect in humans. Prog. Neurobiol., 63(1), 1–27.
Kinsella, G. and Ford, B. (1980). Acute recovery from patterns in stroke patients: Neuropsychological factors. Med. J. Aust., 2(12), 663–6.
Kinsella, G., Olver, J., Ng, K.,, et al. (1993). Analysis of the syndrome of unilateral neglect. Cortex, 29(1), 135–40.
Klatka, L. A., Depper, M. H. and Marini, A. M. (1998). Infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery. Neurology, 51(2), 620–2.
Kooistra, C. A. and Heilman, K. M. (1989). Hemispatial visual inattention masquerading as hemianopia. Neurology, 39, 1125–72.
Kumral, E. and Evyapan, D. (1999). Associated exploratory-motor and perceptual-sensory neglect without hemiparesis. Neurology, 52(1), 199–202.
Kumral, E., Evyapan, D. and Balkir, K. (1999). Acute caudate vascular lesions. Stroke, 30(1), 100–8.
Kumral, E., Kocaer, T., Sagduyu, A., et al. (1995). Infarctus calleux après occlusion bilatérale des artères carotides internes. Rev. Neurol., 151, 202–5.
LaBar, K. S., Gitelman, D. R., Parrish, T. B., et al. (1999). Neuroanatomic overlap of working memory and spatial attention networks: A functional MRI comparison within subjects. Neuroimage, 10, 695–704.
Ladavas, E. (1987). Is the hemispatial deficit produced by right parietal damage associated with retinal or gravitational coordinates? Brain, 110, 167–80.
Ladavas, E. (1990). Selective spatial attention in patients with visual extinction. Brain, 113, 1527–38.
Ladavas, E., di Pellegrino, G., Farne, A., et al. (1998). Neuropsychological evidence of an integrated visuotactile representation of peripersonal space in humans. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 10(5), 581–9.
Ladavas, E., Farne, A., Zeloni, G., et al. (2000). Seeing or not seeing where your hands are. Exp. Brain Res., 131(4), 458–67.
Ladavas, E., Shallice, T. and Zanella, M. T. (1997). Preserved semantic access in neglect dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 35(3), 257–70.
Lamb, M. R., Robertson, L. C. and Knight, R. T. (1989). Attention and interference in the processing of global and local information: Effects of unilateral temporal-parietal junction lesions. Neuropsychologia, 4, 471–83.
Laplane, D. (1990). Is there a correlation between motor neglect and unilateral sensory neglect. Rev. Neurol.(Paris), 146(10), 635–8.
Laplane, D., Baulac, M. and Carydakis, C. (1986). Motor neglect of thalamic origin. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 142(4), 375–9.
Laplane, D. and Degos, J. D. (1983). Motor neglect. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 46, 152–8.
Lee, B. H., Kang, S. J., Park, J. M., et al. (2004). The Character-line Bisection Task: A new test for hemispatial neglect. Neuropsychologia, 42(12), 1715–24.
Leibovitch, F. S., Black, S. E., Caldwell, C. B., et al. (1998). Brain-behavior correlations in hemispatial neglect using CT and SPECT: The Sunnybrook Stroke Study. Neurology, 50(4), 901–8.
Leibovitch, F. S., et al. (1999). Brain SPECT imaging and left hemispatial neglect covaried using partial least squares: The Sunnybrook Stroke study. Hum. Brain Mapp., 7(4), 244–53.
Levine, D. N., Warach, J. D., Benowitz, L., et al. (1986). Left spatial neglect: Effects of lesion size and premorbid brain atrophy on severity and recovery following right cerebral infarction. Neurology, 36(3), 362–6.
Levine, R. L., Lagreze, H. L., Dobkin, J. A., et al. (1988). Large subcortical hemispheric infarctions. Presentation and prognosis. Arch. Neurol., 45(10), 1074–7.
Lundervold, A. J., Bergmann, N. and Wootton, C. (2005). Visual neglect in the first weeks after a stroke in the right hemisphere. Scand. J. Psychol., 46(3), 297–303.
Maguire, A. M. and Ogden, J. A. (2002). MRI brain scan analyses and neuropsychological profiles of nine patients with persisting unilateral neglect. Neuropsychologia, 40(7), 879–87.
Maravita, A. (1997). Implicit processing of somatosensory stimuli disclosed by a perceptual after-effect. NeuroReport, 8(7), 1671–4.
Maravita, A., Husain, M., Clarke, K., et al. (2001). Reaching with a tool extends visual-tactile interactions into far space: Evidence from cross-modal extinction. Neuropsychologia, 39(6), 580–5.
Marchetti, C., Carey, D. and Della Salla, S. (2005). Crossed right hemisphere syndrome following left thalamic stroke. J. Neurol., 252(4), 403–11.
Mark, V. W. (2003). Acute versus chronic functional aspects of unilateral spatial neglect. Front. Biosci., 8, e172–189.
Mark, V. W., Kooistra, C. A. and Heilman, K. M. (1988). Hemispatial neglect affected by non-neglected stimuli. Neurology, 38, 1207–11.
Marshall, J. C. and Halligan, P. W. (1988). Blindsight and insight in visuo-spatial neglect. Nature, 336, 766–7.
Marshall, J. C. and Halligan, P. W. (1994). The yin and the yang of visuospatial neglect: A case study. Neuropsychologia, 32, 1037–57.
Marzi, C., Girelli, M., Miniussi, C., et al. (2000). Electrophysiological correlates of conscious vision: Evidence from unilateral extinction. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 12(5), 869–77.
Mattingley, J. B., Bradshaw, J. G. and Phillips, J. C. (1992). Impairments of movement initiation and execution in unilateral neglect: Directional hypokinesia and bradykinesia. Brain, 115, 1849–74.
Mattingley, J. B., Driver, J., Beschin, N., et al. (1997). Attentional competition between modalities: Extinction between touch and vision after right hemisphere damage. Neuropsychologia, 35(6), 867–80.
Mattingley, J. B., Husain, M., Rorden, L., et al. (1998). Motor role of human inferior parietal lobe revealed in unilateral neglect patients. Nature, 392(6672), 179–82.
Maulaz, A. B., Bezerra, J. C. and Bogousslavsky (2005). Posterior cerebral artery infarction from middle cerebral artery infarction. Arch. Neurol., 62(6), 938–41.
Mayer, S. A., Tatemichi, T. K., Hair, L. S., et al. (1993). Hemineglect and seizures in Binswanger's disease: Clinical-pathological report. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 56(7), 816–19.
McGlinchey-Berroth, R., Milberg, W. P., Verfaellie, M., et al. (1993). Semantic processing in the neglected visual field: Evidence from a lexical decision task. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 10, 79–108.
Mennemeier, M., Chatterjee, A. and Heilman, K. M. (1994). A comparison of the influences of body and environment centred reference frames on neglect. Brain, 117, 1013–21.
Mennemeier, M., Wertman, E. and Heilman, K. M. (1992). Neglect of near peripersonal space: Evidence for multidirectional attentional systems in humans. Brain, 115, 37–50.
Merrino, J. G. and Heilman, K. M. (2003). Measurement of cognitive deficits in acute stroke. Stroke, 34, 2396–7.
Mesulam, M. M. (1981). A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect. Ann. Neurol., 4, 309–25.
Mesulam, M. M. (1985). Attention, confusional states and neglect. In Principles of Behavioral Neurology, ed. M. M. Mesulam. F. A. Davis, pp. 125–68.
Mesulam, M. M. (1999). Spatial attention and neglect: Parietal, frontal and cingulate contributions to the mental representation and attentional targeting of salient extrapersonal events. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci., 354(1387), 1325–46.
Milner, A. D., Harvey, M., Roberts, R. C., et al. (1993). Line bisection errors in visual neglect: Misguided action or size distortion? Neuropsychologia, 31(1), 39–49.
Mort, D. J., Malhotra, P., Mannan, S. K., et al. (2003). The anatomy of visual neglect. Brain 126(9), 1986–97.
Moscovitch, M. and Behrmann, M. (1994). Coding of spatial information in the somatosensory system: Evidence from patients with neglect following parietal lobe damage. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 6, 151–5.
Niemeier, M. and Karnath, H. O. (2000). Exploratory saccades show no direction-specific deficit in neglect. Neurology, 54(2), 515–18.
Ogden, J. A. (1985a). Contralesional neglect of constructed visual images in right and left brain-damaged patients. Neuropsychologia, 23(2), 273–7.
Ogden, J. A. (1985b). Anterior-posterior interhemispheric differences in the loci of lesions producing visual hemineglect. Brain Cogn., 4, 59–75.
Olson, E., Stark, M. and Chatterjee, A. (2003). Evidence for a unimodal somatosensory attention system. Exp. Brain Res., 151, 15–23.
Ortigue, S., Viaud-Delmon, I., Annoni, J. M., et al. (2001). Pure representational neglect after right thalamic lesion. Ann. Neurol., 50(3), 401–4.
Ota, H., Fujii, T., Suzuki, K., et al. (2001). Dissociation of body-centered and stimulus-centered representations in unilateral neglect. Neurology, 57(11), 2064–9.
Ota, H., Fujii, T., Tabuchi, M., et al. (2003). Different spatial processing for stimulus-centered and body-centered representations. Neurology, 60(11), 1846–8.
Pachalska, M., Franczuk, B., MacQueen, B. J., et al. (2004). Reintegrating space and object representations in patients with hemispatial neglect: Two case studies. Disabil. Rehabil., 26(9), 549–61.
Paghera, B., Marien, P. and Vignolo, L. A. (2003). Crossed aphasia with left spatial neglect and visual imperception: A case report. Neurol. Sci., 23(6), 317–22.
Pedersen, P. M., Jorgensen, H. S., Nakayama, H., et al. (1997). Hemineglect in acute stroke – incidence and prognostic implications. The Copenhagen Stroke Study. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 76(2), 122–7.
Pegna, A. J., Petit, L., Caldara-Schnetzer, A. S., et al. (2001). So near yet so far: Neglect in far or near space depends on tool use. Ann. Neurol., 50(6), 820–2.
Perani, D., Vallar, G., Cappa, S., et al. (1987). Aphasia and neglect after subcortical stroke. A clinical/cerebral perfusion correlation study. Brain, 110(2), 1211–29.
Pierce, S. R. and Buxbaum, L. J. (2002). Treatments of unilateral neglect: A review. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 83(2), 256–68.
Pisella, L., Berberovic, N., and Mattingley, J. B. (2004). Impaired working memory for location but not for colour or shape in visual neglect: A comparison of parietal and non-parietal lesions. Cortex, 40(2), 379–90.
Pizzamiglio, L., Cappa, S., Vallar, G., et al. (1989). Visual neglect for far and near extrapersonal space in humans. Cortex, 25, 471–7.
Posner, M. I., Walker, J. A., Friedrich, F. J., et al. (1987). How do the parietal lobes direct covert attention? Neuropsychologia, 25, 135–46.
Posteraro, L. and Maravita, A. (1996). A new case of atypical cerebral dominance. Ital. J. Neurol. Sci., 17(3), 237–40.
Rafal, R., Danziger, S., Grossi, G., et al. (2002). Visual detection is gated by attending for action: Evidence from hemispatial neglect. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99(25), 16371–5.
Rafal, R. D. and Posner, M. I. (1987). Deficits in human visual spatial attention following thalamic lesions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84, 7349–53.
Rapcsak, S. Z., Cimino, C. R. and Heilman, K. M. (1988). Altitudinal neglect. Neurology, 38(2), 277–81.
Rapcsak, S. Z., Verfaellie, M., Fleet, W. S., et al. (1989). Selective attention in hemispatial neglect. Arch. Neurol., 46(2), 178–82.
Rees, G., Wojciulik, E., Clarke, K., et al. (2000). Unconscious activation of visual cortex in the damaged right hemisphere of a parietal patient with extinction. Brain, 123(8), 1624–33.
Rees, G., et al. (2002). Neural correlates of conscious and unconscious vision in parietal extinction. Neurocase, 8(5), 387–93.
Rizzolatti, G., Matelli, M. and Pavesi, C. (1983). Deficits in attention and movement following the removal of postarcuate (area 6) and prearcuate (area 8) cortex in macaque monkeys. Brain, 106, 655–73.
Robertson, I. H., Manly, T., Beschin, N., et al. (1997). Auditory sustained attention is a marker of unilateral spatial neglect. Neuropsychologia, 35(12), 1527–32.
Robertson, I. H., Mattingley, J. B., Rorden, A., et al. (1998). Phasic alerting of neglect patients overcomes their spatial deficit in visual awareness. Nature, 395, 169–72.
Robertson, I. H., Tegner, R., Tham, K., et al. (1995). Sustained attention training for unilateral neglect: Theoretical and rehabilitation implications. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 17(3), 416–30.
Rode, G., Perenin, M. T. and Boisson, D. (1995). Neglect of the representational space: Demonstration by mental evocation of the map of France. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 151(3), 161–4.
Rode, G., Pisella, L., Rossetti, Y., et al. (2003). Bottom-up transfer of sensory-motor plasticity to recovery of spatial cognition: Visuomotor adaptation and spatial neglect. Prog. Brain Res., 142, 273–87.
Rode, G., Rossetti, Y., Badan, M., et al. (2001). Role of rehabilitation in hemineglect syndromes. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 157(5), 497–505.
Rossetti, Y., Rode, G., Pisella, L., et al. (1998). Prism adaptation to a rightward optical deviation rehabilitates left hemispatial neglect. Nature, 395(6698), 166–9.
Rousseaux, M., Beis, J. M., Pradat-Diehl, P., et al. (2001). Presenting a battery for assessing spatial neglect. Norms and effects of age, educational level, sex, hand and laterality. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 157(11 Pt 1), 1385–400.
Samuelsson, H., Hjelmquist, E. K., Jensen, C., et al. (1998). Nonlateralized attentional deficits: An important component behind persisting visuospatial neglect? J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 20(1), 73–88.
Samuelsson, H., Jensen, C., Ekholm, S., et al. (1997). Anatomical and neurological correlates of acute and chronic visuospatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke. Cortex, 33(2), 271–85.
Schmahmann, J. D. (2003). Vascular syndromes of the thalamus. Stroke, 34(9), 2264–78.
Schwartz, S., Vuilleumier, P., Hutton, C., et al. (2005). Attentional load and sensory competition in human vision: Modulation of fMRI responses by load at fixation during task-irrelevant stimulation in the peripheral visual field. Cereb. Cortex, 15(6), 770–86.
Shelton, P. A., Bowers, D. and Heilman, K. M. (1990). Peripersonal and vertical neglect. Brain, 113, 191–205.
Simon, J. E., Morgan, S. C., Pexman, J. H., et al. (2003). CT assessment of conjugate eye deviation in acute stroke. Neurology, 60(1), 135–7.
Stein, S. and Volpe, B. T. (1983). Classical “parietal” neglect syndrome after subcortical right frontal lobe infarction. Neurology, 33(6), 797–9.
Stone, S. P., Halligan, P. W., Marshall, J. C., et al. (1998). Unilateral neglect: A common but heterogeneous syndrome. Neurology, 50(6), 1902–5.
Stone, S. P., Halligan, P. W., Wilson, B., et al. (1991a). Performance of age-matched controls on a battery of visuo-spatial neglect tests. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 54(4), 341–4.
Stone, S. P., Patel, P., Greenwood, R. J., et al. (1992). Measuring visual neglect in acute stroke and predicting its recovery: The visual neglect recovery index. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 55(6), 431–6.
Stone, S. P., Wilson, B., Wroot, A., et al. (1991b). The assessment of visuo-spatial neglect after acute stroke. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 54(4), 345–50.
Tanaka, Y., Minematsu, K., Hara, H., et al. (2001). Sensory extinction phenomenon of double simultaneous stimulation: The analysis of consecutive stroke series with acute and unilateral lesions. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 41(9), 569–73.
Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., Stern, Y., et al. (1994). Cognitive impairment after stroke: Frequency, patterns, and relationship to functional abilities. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57(2), 202–7.
Tegner, R. and Levander, M. (1991). Through a looking glass: A new technique to demonstrate directional hypokinesia in unilateral neglect. Brain, 113, 1943–51.
Tham, K. and Tegnér, R. (1996). The Baking Tray task: A test of spatial neglect. Neuropsychol. Rehab., 6, 19–25.
Toraldo, A., McIntosh, R. D., Dijkerman, H. C., et al. (2002). Disentangling perceptual and response bias in unilateral neglect: A methodological proposal. Brain Cogn., 48(2–3), 593–7.
Valenstein, E. and Heilman, K. M. (1981). Unilateral hypokinesia and motor extinction. Neurology, 31, 445–8.
Valenza, N., Seghier, M. L., Schwarz, S., et al. (2004). Tactile awareness and limb position in neglect: Functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ann. Neurol., 55(1), 139–43.
Vallar, G. (1993). The anatomical basis of spatial neglect in humans. In Unilateral Neglect: Clinical and Experimental Studies, ed. I. H. Robertson and J. C. Marshall. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 27–62.
Vallar, G., Bottini, G. and Paulesu, E. (2003). Neglect syndromes: The role of the parietal cortex. In The Parietal Lobes Vol. 93, ed. A. M. Siegel et al., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, pp. 219–315.
Vallar, G., Bottini, G., Sterzi, R., et al. (1991). Hemianesthesia, sensory neglect, and defective access to conscious experience. Neurology, 41(5), 650–2.
Vallar, G., Daini, R. and Antonucci, G. (2000). Processing of illusion of length in spatial hemineglect: A study of line bisection. Neuropsychologia, 38(7), 1087–97.
Vallar, G., Guariglia, C., Nico, D., et al. (1995). Spatial hemineglect in back space. Brain, 118(2), 467–72.
Vallar, G., Lobel, E., Galati, G., et al. (1999). A fronto-parietal system for computing the egocentric spatial frame of reference in humans. Exp. Brain Res., 124(3), 281–6.
Vallar, G. and Perani, D. (1986). The anatomy of unilateral neglect after right-hemisphere stroke lesions: A clinical/CT correlation study in man. Neuropsychologia, 24, 609–22.
Volpe, B. T., Ledoux, J. E. and Gazzaniga, M. S. (1979). Information processing in an “extinguished” visual field. Nature, 282, 722–4.
Vuilleumier, P. (2000). Faces call for attention: Evidence from patients with visual extinction. Neuropsychologia, 38(5), 693–700.
Vuilleumier, P. (2005). Visual extinction and hemispatial neglect after brain damage: Neurophysiological basis of residual processing. In Neurobiology of Attention, ed. L. Itti et al., Elsevier, pp. 351–7.
Vuilleumier, P., Armony, J., Clarke, K., et al. (2002). Neural response to emotional faces with and without awareness: Event-related fMRI in a parietal patient with visual extinction and spatial neglect. Neuropsychologia, 40, 2156–66.
Vuilleumier, P., Ortigue, S. and Brugger, P. (2004). The number space and neglect. Cortex, 40(2), 399–410.
Vuilleumier, P. and Rafal, R. (2000). A systematic study of task-dependent visual extinction: Between and within-field deficits of attention in hemispatial neglect. Brain, 123, 1263–79.
Vuilleumier, P., Sagiv, N., Hazeltine, E., et al. (2001a). Neural fate of seen and unseen faces in unilateral spatial neglect: A combined event-related fMRI and ERP study of visual extinction. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 98(6), 3495–500.
Vuilleumier, P. and Schwartz, S. (2001). Modulation of visual perception by eye gaze direction in patients with spatial neglect and extinction. Neuroreport, 12(10), 2101–4.
Vuilleumier, P., Schwartz, S., Clarke, K., et al. (2001b). Implicit processing and learning of visual stimuli in parietal extinction and neglect. Cortex, 37, 741–4.
Vuilleumier, P., Valenza, N. and Landis, T. (2001c). Explicit and implicit perception of illusory contours in unilateral spatial neglect: Behavioural and anatomical correlates of preattentive grouping mechanisms. Neuropsychologia, 39, 597–610.
Vuilleumier, P., Valenza, N., Mayer, E., et al. (1998). Near and far visual space in unilateral neglect. Ann. Neurol., 43, 406–10.
Vuilleumier, P., Valenza, N., Perrig, S., et al. (1999). To see better to the left when looking more to the right: Effects of gaze direction and frame of spatial coordinates in unilateral neglect. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 5, 75–82.
Walker, R., Findlay, J. M., Young, A. W., et al. (1991). Disentangling neglect and hemianopia. Neuropsychologia, 29(10), 1019–27.
Ward, R. and Goodrich, S. (1996). Differences between objects and nonobjects in visual extinction: A competition for attention. Psychological Science, 7, 177–80.
Ward, R., Goodrich, S. and Driver, J. (1994). Grouping reduces visual extinction: Neuropsychological evidence for weight-linkage in visual selection. Visual Cognition, 1, 101–29.
Watson, T. and Heilman, K. M. (1981). Unilateral hypokinesia and motor extinction. Neurology, 31, 445–8.
Weintraub, S. and Mesulam, M. M. (1987). Right cerebral hemisphere dominance in spatial attention. Arch. Neurol., 44, 621–5.
Weiss, P. H., Marshall, J. C., Wunderlich, G., et al. (2000). Neural consequences of acting in near versus far space: A physiological basis for clinical dissociations. Brain, 123(Pt 12), 2531–41.
Weiss, P. H., Marshall, J. C., Zilles, K., et al. (2003). Are action and perception in near and far space additive or interactive factors? Neuroimage, 18(4), 837–46.
Wilson, B. A., Cockburn, J. and Halligan, P. W., et al. (1987). Behavioural Inattention Test, Thames Valley Test Company.
Wojciulik, E., Husain, M., Clarke, K., et al. (2001). Spatial working memory deficit in unilateral neglect. Neuropsychologia, 39(4), 390–6.
Worrall, B. B., Farace, E., Hillis, A. E., et al. (2001). Correlation of aphasia and/or neglect with cortical infarction in a subpopulation of RANTTAS. Cerebrovasc. Dis., 11(3), 257–64.
Zorzi, M., Priftis, K. and Umilta, C. (2002). Brain damage: Neglect disrupts the mental number line. Nature, 417(6885), 138–9.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Adair, J. C., Na, D. L., et al. (1995). Anosognosia for hemiplegia: Test of the personal neglect hypothesis. Neurology, 45, 2195–9.
Anderson, S. W. and Tranel, D. (1989). Awareness of disease states following cerebral infarction, dementia, and head trauma: Standardized assessment. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 3, 327–39.
Appelros, P., Karlsson, G. M., et al. (2002). Neglect and anosognosia after first-ever stroke: incidence and relationship to disability. J. Rehabil. Med., 34(5), 215–20.
Appelros, P., Karlsson, G. M., et al. (2003). Prognosis for patients with neglect and anosognosia with special reference to cognitive impairment. J. Rehabil. Med., 35(6), 254–8.
Azouvi, P., Marchal, F., et al. (1996). Functional consequences and awareness of unilateral neglect: Study of an evaluation scale. Neuropsychol. Rehabil., 6, 133–50.
Azouvi, P., Olivier, S., et al. (2003). Behavioral assessment of unilateral neglect: Study of the psychometric properties of the Catherine Bergego Scale. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 84, 51–7.
Azouvi, P., Samuel, C., et al. (2002). Sensitivity of clinical and behavioral tests of spatial neglect after right hemisphere stroke. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 73, 160–6.
Babinski, J. (1914). Contribution à l'étude des troubles mentaux dans l'hémiplégie organique cérébrale (Anosognosie). Rev. Neurol., 27, 845–8.
Beis, J., Keller, C., et al. (2004). Right spatial neglect after left hemisphere stroke: Qualitative and quantitative study. Neurology, 63, 1600–5.
Bergego, C., Azouvi, P., et al. (1995). Validation d'une échelle d'évaluation fonctionnelle de l'héminégligence dans la vie quotidienne: l'échelle CB. Annales de Réadaptation et de Médecine Physique, 38, 183–9.
Berti, A., Ladavas, E., et al. (1996). Anosognosia for hemiplegia, neglect dyslexia, and drawing neglect: clinical findings and theoretical considerations. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 2(5), 426–40.
Berti, A., Ladavas, E., et al. (1998). Anosognosia for motor impairment and dissociations with patients' evaluation of the disorder: Theoretical considerations. Cogn. Neuropsychiatry, 3, 21–44.
Bisiach, E. and Geminiani, G. (1991). Anosognosia related to hemiplegia and hemianopia. In Awareness of Deficit after Brain Injury, ed. G. P. Prigatano and D. L. Schacter. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 17–39.
Bisiach, E., Vallar, G., et al. (1986). Unawareness of disease following lesions of the right hemisphere: anosognosia for hemiplegia and anosognosia for hemianopia. Neuropsychologia, 24, 471–82.
Cocchini, G., Beschin, N., et al. (2002). Chronic anosognosia: a case report and theoretical account. Neuropsychologia, 40(12), 2030–8.
Critchley, M. (1953). The Parietal Lobes. London: Hafner Press.
Critchley, M. (1974). Misoplegia or hatred of hemiplegia. M. Sinai J. Med., 41, 82–7.
Cutting, J. (1978). Study of anosognosia. J. Neurol., Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 41, 548–55.
Dauriac-Le Masson, V., Mailhan, L., et al. (2002). Double dissociation entre négligence unilatérale gauche et anosognosie. Rev. Neurol., 158, 427–30.
Denes, G., Semenza, C., et al. (1982). Unilateral spatial neglect and recovery from hemiplegia. Brain, 105, 543–52.
Ellis, S. and Small, M. (1997). Localization of lesion in denial of hemiplegia after acute stroke. Stroke, 28(1), 67–71.
Fullerton, K. J., McSherry, D., et al. (1986). Albert's test: A neglected test of perceptual neglect.” Lancet, 1, 430–2.
Gerstmann, J. (1942). Problems of imperception of disease and of impaired body territories with organic lesions. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 48, 890–913.
Geschwind, N. (1965a). Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man. I. Brain, 88(2), 237–94.
Geschwind, N. (1965b). Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man. II. Brain, 88(3), 585–644.
Gialanella, B. and Mattioli, F. (1992). Anosognosia and extrapersonal neglect as predictors of functional recovery following right hemisphere stroke. Neuropsychol. Rehabil., 2, 169–78.
Gilmore, R. L., Heilman, K. M., et al. (1992). Anosognosia during Wada testing. Neurology, 42(4), 925–7.
Heilman, K. M. (1991). Anosognosia: Possible neuropsychological mechanisms. In Awareness of Deficit after Brain Injury, ed. G. P. Prigatano and D. L. Schacter. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 53–62.
Held, J. P., Pierrot-Deseilligny, E., et al. (1975). Devenir des hémiplégies vasculaires par atteinte sylvienne en fonction du côté de la lésion. Annales de Réadaptation et de Médecine Physique, 18, 592–604.
Hier, D. B., Mondlock, J., et al. (1983a). Behavioral abnormalities after right hemisphere stroke. Neurology, 33, 337–344.
Hier, D. B., Mondlock, J., et al. (1983b). Recovery of behavioral abnormalities after right hemisphere stroke. Neurology, 33, 345–50.
Hurwitz, L. J. and Adams, G. F. (1972). Rehabilitation of hemiplegia: indices of assessment and prognosis. Br. Med. J., 1(792), 94–8.
Jehkonen, M., Ahonen, J. P., et al. (2000). Visual neglect as a predictor of functional outcome one year after stroke. Acta Neurol. Scand., 101(3), 195–201.
Kalra, L., Perez, I., et al. (1997). The influence of visual neglect on stroke rehabilitation. Stroke, 28, 1386–91.
Katz, N., Hartman-Maeir, A., et al. (1999). Functional disability and rehabilitation outcome in right hemisphere damaged patients with and without unilateral spatial neglect. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 80(4), 379–84.
Levine, D. N., Calvanio, R., et al. (1991). The pathogenesis of anosognosia for hemiplegia. Neurology, 41, 1770–81.
Marcel, A. J., Tegner, R., et al. (2004). Anosognosia for plegia: specificity, extension, partiality and disunity of bodily unawareness. Cortex, 40(1), 19–40.
McGlynn, S. M. and Schacter, D. L. (1989). Unawareness of deficits in neuropsychological syndromes. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 11(2), 143–205.
Paolucci, S., Antonucci, G., et al. (1996a). Predicting stroke in patient rehabilitation outcome: The prominent role of neuropsychological disorders. Eur. Neurol., 36, 385–90.
Paolucci, S., Antonucci, G., et al. (1996b). Facilitatory effect of neglect rehabilitation on the recovery of left hemiplegic stroke patients: A cross-over study. J. Neurol., 243, 308–14.
Pedersen, P. M., Jorgensen, H. S., et al. (1996). Frequency, determinants, and consequences of ansosognosia in acute stroke. J. Neurol. Rehabil., 10, 243–50.
Pedersen, P. M., Jorgensen, H. S., et al. (1997). Hemineglect in acute stroke. Incidence and prognostic implications. The Copenhagen stroke study. Am. J. Phy. Med. Rehabil., 76, 122–7.
Pia, L., Neppi-Modona, M., et al. (2004). The anatomy of anosognosia for hemiplegia: a meta-analysis. Cortex, 40(2), 367–77.
Prigatano, G. P. and Altman, I. M. (1990). Impaired awareness of behavioral limitations after traumatic brain injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 71, 1058–64.
Prigatano, G. P., Altman, I. M., et al. (1990). Behavioral limitations that traumatic-brain-injured patients tend to underestimate. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 4, 163–76.
Prigatano, G. P. and Schacter, D. L. (1991). Awareness of Deficit after Brain Injury: Clinical and Theoretical Issues. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rode, G., Charles, N., et al. (1992). Partial remission of hemiplegia and somatoparaphrenia through vestibular stimulation in a case of unilateral neglect. Cortex, 28, 203–8.
Rode, G., Perenin, M. T., et al. (1998). Improvement of the motor deficit of neglect patients through vestibular stimulation: evidence for a motor neglect component. Cortex, 34(2), 253–61.
Small, M. and Ellis, S. (1996). Denial of hemiplegia: an investigation into the theories of causation. Eur. Neurol., 36(6), 353–63.
Starkstein, S. E., Fedoroff, J. P., et al. (1992). Anosognosia in patients with cerebrovascular lesions: A study of causative factors. Stroke, 23, 1446–53.
Stone, S. P., Halligan, P. W., et al. (1993). The incidence of neglect phenomena and related disorders in patients with an acute right or left hemisphere stroke. Age Ageing, 22, 46–52.
Sundet, K., Finset, A., et al. (1988). Neuropsychological predictors in stroke rehabilitation. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol, 10(4), 363–79.
Vallar, G., Bottini G., et al. (2003). Anosognosia for left-sided motor and sensory deficits, motor neglect, and sensory hemiinattention: is there a relationship? Prog. Brain Res., 142, 289–301.
Venneri, A. and Shanks M. F. (2004). Belief and awareness: reflections on a case of persistent anosognosia. Neuropsychologia, 42(2), 230–8.
Vuilleumier, P. (2000). Anosognosia. In Behavior and Mood Disorders in Focal Brain Lesions. ed. J. Bogousslavsky and J. L. Cummings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 465–519.
Vuilleumier, P. (2004). Anosognosia: the neurology of beliefs and uncertainties. Cortex, 40(1), 9–17.
Wade, D. T., Skilbeck, C. E., et al. (1983). Predicting Barthel ADL score at 6 months after an acute stroke. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 64, 24–8.
Weinstein, E. A. and Kahn, R. L. (1953). Personality factors in denial of illness. AMA Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 69(3), 355–67.
Willanger, R., Danielsen, U. T., et al. (1981). Denial and neglect of hemiparesis in right-sided apoplectic lesions. Acta Neurol. Scand., 64(5), 310–26.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Adair, J. C., Gilmore, R. L., Fennell, E. B., Gold, M. and Heilman, K. M. (1995). Anosognosia during intracarotid barbiturate anesthesia: Unawareness or amnesia for weakness. Neurology, 45, 241–43.
Aglioti, S., Smania, N., Manfredi, M. and Berlucchi, G. (1996). Disownership of left hand and objects related to it in a patient with right brain damage. Neuroreport, 8, 293–6.
Altschuler, E. L., Wisdom, S. B., Stone, L., et al. (1999). Rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke with a mirror. Lancet, 353, 2035–6.
Anderson, S. W. and Tranel, D. (1989). Awareness of disease states following cerebral infarction, dementia, and head trauma: Standardized assessment. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 3, 327–39.
Appenzeller, O. and Bicknelle, J. M. (1969). Effects of nervous system lesions on phantom experience in amputees. Neurology, 19, 141–6.
Armel, K. C. and Ramachandran, V. S. (2003). Projecting sensations to external objects: Evidence from skin conductance response. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 270, 1499–506.
Assal, G. (1983). Non, je ne suis pas paralysée, c'est la main de mon mari. Arch. Suisses Neurol. Psychiatrie, 133 (fascicule 1), 151–7.
Assal, G. (1985). Transformation en animal, métamorphose ou métaphore? Arch. Suisses Neurol. Neurochir. Psychiatrie, 136, 33–42.
Babinski, J. (1914). Contribution à l'étude des troubles mentaux dans l'hémiplégie organique cérébrale (anosognosie). Revue Neurologie, 27, 845–8.
Bakchine, S., Slachevsky, Tourbah, A., Serres, I. and Abdelmounni, H. (1999). Quatre mains “étranges” pour deux mains après une lésion calleuse. Rev. Neurol., 155, 929–34.
Bakheit, A. M. (2000). Illusory movements of the paralysed upper limb in stroke. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 69, 837.
Barbeau, E., Joubert, S. and Poncet, M. (2004). A single case-study of diagonistic dyspraxia. Brain and Cognition, 54, 215–17.
Bargh, J. A. and Chartrand, T. (2000). The mind in the middle. In H. T. reis and C. M. Judd, eds., Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge, pp. 253–85.
Bechterev, V. M. (1926). Partial cortical and subcortical paralyses of psychoreflexive functions. Obozr Psykhiatr, 31–41.
Benattar, B., Le Roux, A., Van Amerongen, P., Hanon, C. and Pascal, J. C. (2004). À propos du syndrome d'Ekbom. Ann. Méd. Psychol., 162, 755–61.
Benke, T., Luzzatti, C. and Vallar, G. (2004). Hermann Zingerle's “Impaired perception of the own body due to organic brain disorders”. 1913. An introductory comment, and an abridged translation. Cortex, 40, 265–74.
Berthier, M., Starkstein, S. and Leiguarda, R. (1988). Asymbolia for pain: A sensori-limbic disconnection syndrome. Ann. Neurol., 24, 41–9.
Berti, A., Làdavas, E. and Della Corte, M. (1996). Anosognosia for hemiplegia, neglect dyslexia, and drawing neglect: Clinical findings and theoretical considerations. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2, 426–40.
Billard, T., Osseby, G. V., Minier, D., Couvreur, G., Rouaud, O., Moreau, T. and Giroud, M. (2004). Le syndrome de la main étrangère par infarctus du corps calleux: à propos d'un cas. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 160, 563–7.
Biran, I. and Chatterjee, A. (2004). Alien hand syndrome. Arch. Neurol., 61, 292–4.
Bisiach, E. and Geminiani, G. (1991). Anosognosia related to hemiplegia and hemianopia. In G. P. Prigatano and D. L. Schacter, eds., Awareness of Deficit after Brain Injury. Oxford.
Bisiach, E., Rusconi, M. L. and Vallar, G. (1991). Remission of somatoparaphrenic delusion through vestibular stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 29, 1029–31.
Bisiach, E., Vallar, G., Perani, D. and Berti, A. (1986). Unawareness of disease following lesions of the right hemisphere: Anosognosia for hemiplegia and anosognosia for hemianopia. Neuropsychologia, 24, 471–82.
Blanke, O., Landis, T., Spinelli, L. and Seeck, M. (2004). Out-of-body experience and autoscopy of neurological origin. Brain, 127, 243–58.
Bogen, J. E. (1979). The callosal syndrome. In K. M. Heilman and E. V. Valenstein, eds., Clinical Neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 295–338.
Bogousslavsky, J., Kumral, E., Regli, F., Assal, G. and Ghika, J. (1995). Acute hemiconcern: a right anterior parietotemporal syndrome. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 58, 428–32.
Bornstein, B. (1949). Sur le phénomène du membre fantôme. L'Encéphale, 38, 32–46.
Bottini, G., Bisiach, E., Sterzi, R. and Vallar, G. (2002). Feeling touches in someone else's hand. Neuroreport, 13, 249–52.
Botvinick, M. (2004). Probing the neural basis of body ownership. Science, 305, 782–3.
Brain, K. L., Haines, J. and Williams, C. L. (1998). The psychophysiology of self-mutilation: Evidence of tension reduction. Arch. Suicide Res., 4, 227–42.
Brion, S. and Jedynak, C. P. (1972). Troubles du transfert interhémisphérique. A propos de trois observations de tumeurs du corps calleux. le signe de la main étrangère. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 126, 257–66.
Buxbaum, L. J., Ferraro, M. K., Veramonti, T., et al. (2004). Hemispatial neglect. Subtypes, neuroanatomy, and disability. Neurology, 62, 749–56.
Cambier, J., Elghozi, D., Graveleau, P. and Lubetzki, C. (1984). Right hemiasomatognosia and sensation of amputation caused by left subcortical lesion. Role of callosal disconnection. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 140, 256–62.
Castaigne, P., Laplane, D. and Degos, J.-D. (1970). Trois cas de négligence motrice par lésion rétro-rolandique. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 122, 234–42.
Cereda, C., Ghika, J., Maeder, P. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2002). Strokes restricted to the insular cortex. Neurology, 59, 1950–5.
Cocchini, G., Beschin, N. and Jehkonen, M. (2001). The fluff test: A simple task to assess body representation neglect. Neuropsychol. Rehabil., 11, 17–31.
Cotard, J. (1880). Du délire hypocondriaque dans une forme de mélancolie anxieuse. Ann. Méd. Psychol. (Paris), 4, 168–74.
Cotard, J. (1882). Du délire des négations. Arch. Neurol., 4, 152–70, 282–96.
Critchley, M. (1953). The Parietal Lobes, New York: Hafner Press.
Critchley, M. (1955). Personification of paralysed limbs in hemiplegics. BMJ, July 30, 284–286.
Critchley, M. (1974). Misoplegia, or hatred of hemiplegia. M. Sinai J. Med., 41, 82–7.
Cutting, J. (1978). Study of anosognosia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 41, 548–55.
Cutting, J. (1990). The Right Cerebral Hemisphere and Psychiatric Disorders, Oxford University Press.
Davies, M., Aimola Davies, A. and Coltheart, M. (2005). Anosognosia and the Two-factor Theory of Delusions. Mind and Language, 20, 209–36.
Dijkerman, H. C., Webeling, M., ter Wal, J. M., Groet, E. and van Zandvoort, M. J. (2004). A long-standing improvement of somatosensory function after prism adaptation, a case study. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1697–702.
Dugas, L. and Moutier, F. (1911). La dépersonnalisation, Paris: Alcan.
Duggal, H. S. (2003). A lesion approach to neurobiology of dissociative symptoms. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 15, 245–6.
Durst, R. and Rosca-Rebaudengo, P. (1991). The disorder named Koro. Behav. Neurol., 4, 1–14.
Dusoir, H., Owens, C., Forbes, R. B., et al. (2005). Anorexia nervosa remission following left thalamic stroke. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 76(1), 144–5.
Ehrenwald, H. (1930). Verändertes Erleben des Körperbildes mit konsekutiver Wahnbildung bei linksseitiger Hemiplegie. Monatsschrift fur Psychiatrie une Neurologie, 75, 89–97.
Ehrenwald, H. (1931). Anosognosie une depersonalisation. Ein Beitrag zur Psychologie der linksseitig Hemiplegischen. Nervenartz, 4, 681–8.
Ehrsson, H. H., Spence, C. and Passingham, R. E. (2004). That's my hand! Activity in premotor cortex reflects feeling of ownership of a limb. Science, 305, 875–7.
Ey, H. (1973). Les hallucinations corporelles. In H. Ey, ed., Traité des Hallucinations. Paris: Masson.
Feinberg, T. E. (2001). Altered Selves: How the Brain Creates the Self. Oxford: Oxford University press.
Feinberg, T. E., Haber, L. D. and Leeds, N. E. (1990). Verbal asomatognosia. Neurology, 40, 1391–4.
Feinberg, T. E., Schindler, R. J., Flanagan, N. G. and Haber, L. D. (1992). Two alien hand syndromes. Neurology, 42, 19–24.
Feinberg, T. E., Roane, D. M. and Ali, J. (2000). Illusory limb movements in anosognosia for hemiplegia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 68, 511–13.
Feinberg, T. E., Roane, D. M. and Cohen, J. C. (1998). Partial status epilepticus associated with asomatognosia and alien hand-like behaviors. Arch. Neurol., 55, 1574–6.
Ferro, F. M. (2003). Le corps en fragment dans le syndrome de Jules Cotard. Evolution Psychiatrique, 68, 579–89.
Flynn, F. G., Cummings, J. L., Scheibel, J. and Wirshing, W. (1989). Monosymptomatic delusion of parasitosis associated with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry Neurol., 2, 134–9.
Frederiks, J. A. M. (1963a). Anosognosie et hémiasomatognosie. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 109, 585–97.
Frederiks, J. A. M. (1963b). Macrosomatognosia and microsomatognosia. Psychiat. Neurol. Neurochir., 66, 531–6.
Frederiks, J. A. M. (1969). Disorders of the body schema. In P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn, eds., Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 4, pp. 207–40.
Gabbay, V., Asnis, G. M., Bello, J. A., et al. (2003). New onset of body dysmorphic disorder following frontotemporal lesion. Neurology, 61, 123–5.
Gallagher, S. (1986). Body image and body schema: A conceptual clarification. J. Mind Behav., 7, 541–54.
Garçin, R., Varay, A. and Dimo, H. (1938). Document pour servir à l'étude des troubles du schéma corporel. Rev. Neurol., 69, 498–510.
Gerstmann, J. (1942). Problem of imperception of disease and of impaired body territories with organic lesions. Arch. of Neurol. Psychiatry, 48, 890–913.
Groom, K. N., Ng, W. K., Kevorkian, C. G. and Levy, J. K. (1999). Egosyntonic alien hand syndrome after right posterior cerebral artery stroke. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 80, 162–5.
Guariglia, C. and Antonucci, G. (1992). Personal and extrapersonal space: A case of neglect dissociation. Neuropsychologia, 30, 1001–10.
Halligan, P. W., Marshall, J. C. and Wade, D. T. (1995). Unilateral somatoparaphrenia after right hemisphere stroke: A case description. Cortex, 31, 173–82.
Head, H. (1920). Studies in Neurology, Vol. II. London.
Hécaen, H. and de Ajuriaguerra, J. (1952). Méconnaissances et Hallucinations Corporelles. Intégration et désintégration de la somatognosie. Paris: Masson.
Hécaen, H., de Ajuriaguerra, J., Le Guillant and Angelergues, R. (1954). Délire centré sur un membre fantôme chez une hémiplégique gauche par lésion vasculaire avec anosognosie. Evolution Psychiatrique, 19, 273–9.
Heilman, K. M. and Adams, D. J. (2003). Callosal neglect. Arch. Neurol., 60, 276–9.
Heilman, K. M., Barrett, A. M. and Adair, J. C. (1998). Possible mechanisms of anosognosia: A defect in self-awareness. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B., 353, 1903–9.
Herzog, D. B. and Copeland, P. M. (1985). Eating disorders. N. Engl. J. Med., 313, 295–303.
Hirstein, W. (2005). Brain Fiction. MIT Press.
Hoff, H. and Potzl, O. (1935). Ueber ein neues parieto-occipitales syndrom. Seelenlähmung des Schauens, Störung des Körperschemas, Wegfall des zentralen Seehens. Jahrb. f. Psychiat. Neurol., 52, 173–218.
Ives, E. and Nielsen, J. (1937). Disturbances of body scheme: Delusion of the absence of part of body in two cases with autopsy verification of lesion. Bull. Los Angeles Neurol. Soc., 2, 120–5.
Jaffe, J. and Slote, W. H. (1958). Interpersonal factors in denial of illness. AMA. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 80, 653.
Jehkonen, M., Ahonen, J.-P., Dastidar, P., Laippala, P. and Vilkki, J. (2000). Unawareness of deficits after right hemisphere stroke: Double-dissociations of anosognosia. Acta Neurol. Scand., 102, 378–84.
Keenan, J. P. (2003). The Face in the Mirror: The Search for the Origins of Consciousness, New York: Harper Collins.
Kumral, E. and Öztürk, O. (2004). Delusional state following acute stroke. Neurology, 62, 110–13.
Lhermitte, J. (1939). L'Image de Notre Corps, Paris: Nouvelle Revue Critique.
Manly, T., Woldt, K., Watson, P. and Warburton, E. (2002). Is motor perseveration in unilateral neglect “driven” by the presence of neglected left-sided stimuli? Neuropsychologia, 40, 1794–803.
Maravita, A. and Iriki, A. (2004). Tools for the body (schema). Trends Cogn. Sci., 8, 79–85.
Maravita, A., McNeil, J., Malhotra, P., et al. (2003). Prism adaptation can improve contralesional tactile perception in neglect. Neurology, 60, 1829–31.
Marcel, A. J., Postma, P., Gillmeister, H., et al. (2004a). Migration and fusion of tactile sensation – premorbid susceptibility to allochiria, neglect and extinction? Neuropsychologia, 42, 1749–67.
Marcel, A. J., Tegnér, R. and Nimmo-Smith, I. (2004b). Anosognosia for plegia: Specificity, extension, partiality and disunity of bodily awareness. Cortex, 40, 19–40.
Mark, V. W. and Taub, E. (2004). Constraint-induced movement therapy for chronic stroke hemiparesis and other disabilities. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 22, 317–36.
Mathews, C. A., Waller, J., Glidden, D. V., et al. (2004). Self injurious behavior in Tourette syndrome: Correlates with impulsivity and impulse control. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 75, 1149–55.
McCormick, S. and Goff, D. C. (1992). Possession states: Approaches to clinical evaluation and classification. Behav. Neurol., 5, 161–7.
McCrea, C. W., Summerfield, A. B. and Rosen, B. (1982). Body image: A selective review of existing measurement techniques. Br. J. Med. Psychol., 55, 225–33.
McGonigle, D. J., Hänninen, R., Salenius, S., et al. (2002). Whose arm is it anyway? An fMRI case study of supernumerary phantom limb. Brain, 125, 1265–74.
Meador, K. J., Loring, D. W., Feinberg, T. E., Lee, G. P. and Nichols, M. E. (2000). Anosognosia and asomatognosia during intracarotid amobarbital inactivation. Neurology, 55, 816–20.
Metzinger, T. (2003). Being No One. The Self-Model Theory of Subjectivity, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Metzinger, T. (2005). Out-of-Body Experiences as the origin of the concept of a “soul”. Mind and Matter, 3, 57–84.
Miura, N., Takeda, A., Terao, S., et al. (1996). Somatoparaphrenia caused by the lesion in the dominant cerebral hemisphere – a case report. No To Shinkei, 48, 275–9. (Abstract in English)
Morin, C., Durand, E., Marchal, F., et al. (2002). Asomatognosie et troubles de l'oralité. Une lecture psychanalytique. Annales de Réadaptation et de Médecine Physique, 46, 12–23.
Morin, C., Pradat-Diehl, P., Mazevet, D., et al. (2003). Un enfant dans le bras. Un trouble feminin de l'image du corps en neurology? Bull. Assoc. Lacan. Int., 101, 13–22.
Moss, A. D. and Turnbull, O. H. (1996). Hatred of hemiparetic limbs (misoplegia) in a 10 year old child. JNNP, 61, 210–11.
Nagaratnam, N., Nagaratnam, K., Ng, K. and Diu, P. (2004). Akinetic mutism following stroke. J. Clin. Neurosci., 11, 25–30.
Nagasako, E. M., Oaklander, A. L. and Dworkin, R. H. (2003). Congenital insensitivity to pain: An update. Pain, 101, 213–19.
Nathanson, M., Bergman, P. S. and Gordon, G. G. (1952). Denial of illness: Its occurrence in one hundred cases of hemiplegia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 68, 380–7.
Nielsen, J. M. (1938a). Gerstmann syndrome; finger agnosia, agraphia, confusion of right and left, acalculia. Comparison of this syndrome with disturbances of body scheme resulting from lesions of right side of brain. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 39, 536–60.
Nielsen, J. M. (1938b). Disturbances of the body scheme: Their physiological mechanism. Bull. Los Angeles Neurol. Soc., 3, 127–35.
Nightingale, S. (1982). Somatoparaphrenia: A case report. Cortex, 18, 463–7.
Nishikawa, T., Okuda, J., Mizuta, I., et al. (2001). Conflict of intentions due to callosal disconnection. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 71, 462–71.
Noll, R. (1992). Vampires, Werewolves and Demons: Twentieth Century Reports in the Psychiatric Literature, New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Northoff, G. (2002). What catatonia can tell us about “top-down modulation”: A neuropsychiatric hypothesis. Behav. Brain Sci., 25, 555–77.
Paillard, J. (1999). Body schema and body image: A double dissociation in deafferented patients. In G. N. Gantchev, S. Mori, and J. Massion, eds., Motor Control, Today and Tomorrow. Sofia: Academic Publishing House, “Prof. M. Drinov”.
Paysant, J., Beis, J. M., Le Chapelain, L. and André, J. M. (2004). Mirror asomatognosia in right lesions stroke victims. Neuropsychologia, 42, 920–5.
Peru, A. and Pinna, G. (1997). Right personal neglect following a left hemisphere stroke. A case report. Cortex, 33, 585–90.
Potzl, O. (1924). Ueber Störungen der Selbstwahrnehmung bei linksseitiger Hemiplegie. Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat., 93, 117–68.
Ramachandran, V. S. (1998). Consciousness and body image: Lessons from phantom limbs, Capgras syndrome and pain asymbolia. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B., 353, 1851–9.
Ramachandran, V. S. (2000). Memory and the brain: New lessons from old syndromes. In D. L. Schacter and E. Scarry, eds., Memory, Brain, and Belief. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 87–114.
Ramachandran, V. S. and Hirstein, W. (1998). Perception of phantom limbs: The D. O. Hebb lecture. Brain, 121, 1603–30.
Rode, G., Charles, N., Perenin, M.-T., et al. (1992). Partial remission of hemiplegia and somatoparaphrenia through vestibular stimulation in a case of unilateral neglect. Cortex, 28, 203–8.
Rode, G., Rossetti, Y. and Boisson, D. (2001). Prism adaptation improves representational neglect. Neuropsychologia, 39, 1250–4.
Sandifer, P. H. (1946). Anosognosia and disorders of the body scheme. Brain, 69, 122–37.
Scepkowski, L. A. and Cronin-Golomb, A. (2003). The alien hand: Cases, categorizations, and anatomical correlates. Behav. Cogn. Neurosci. Rev., 2, 261–77.
Schaefer, M., Heinze, H.-J. and Rotte, M. (2005). Viewing touch improves tactile sensory threshold. NeuroReport, 16, 367–70.
Schilder, P. (1935). L'Image de Notre Corps, Paris: Gallimard.
Schilder, P. and Stengel, E. (1931). Das Krankheitsbild der Schmerzasymbolie. Ztchr. Neurol. Psych., 129, 250–79.
Sierra, M., Lopera, F., Lambert, M. V., Phillips, M. L. and David, A. S. (2002). Separating depersonalisation and derealisation: The relevance of the “lesion method”. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 72, 530–2.
Signer, S. F. and Benson, D. F. (1990). Three cases of Anorexia Nervosa associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. Am. J. Psychiatry, 147, 235–7.
Simeon, D., Guralnik, O., Hazlett, E. A., et al. (2000). Feeling unreal: A PET study of depersonalisation disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 157, 1782–8.
Small, M. and Ellis, S. (1996). Denial of hemiplegia: An investigation into the theories of causation. Eur. Neurol., 36, 353–63.
Starobinski, J. (1982). L'immortalité mélancolique. Le Temps de la Réflexion, 3, 231–51.
Staub, F. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2005). Identité et appartenance corporelle: Fantômes et membres surnuméraires. Arch. Suisses Neurol. Psychiatrie, 156, 189–95.
Todd, J. (1955). The syndrome of Alice in Wonderland. Can. Med. Assoc. J., 73, 701–6.
Tsakiris, M. and Haggard, P. (2005). The rubber hand illusion revisited: Visuotactile integration and self-attribution. J. Exp. Psychol. [Hum. Percept.], 31, 80–91.
Vallar, G. (1998). Spatial hemineglect in humans. Trends Cogn. Sci., 2, 87–97.
Vallar, G., Guariglia, C. and Rusconi, M. L. (1997). Modulation of the neglect syndrome by sensory stimulation. In P. Their and H.-O. Karnath, eds., Parietal Lobe Contribution to Orientation in 3D Space. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 555–78.
Verret, J. M. and Lapresle, J. (1978). Syndrome d'Anton Babinski avec reconnaissance du membre supérieur gauche lors de sa vision dans un miroir. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 134, 709–13.
von Hagen, K. and Ives, E. R. (1937). Anosognosie (Babinski), Imperfection of hemiplegia. Report of 6 cases, one with autopsy. Bull. Los Angeles Neurol. Soc., 2, 95–103.
Vuilleumier, P., Chicherio, C., Assal, F., et al. (2001). Functional neuroanatomical correlates of hysterical sensorimotor loss. Brain, 124, 1077–90.
Weinstein, E. A. (1969). Disorders of the body schema in organic mental syndromes. In P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn, eds., Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 4, pp. 241–7.
Weinstein, E. A., Kahn, R. L., Malitz, S. and Rozanski, J. (1954). Delusional reduplications of parts of the body. Brain, 77, 45–60.
Weir-Mitchell, S. (1905). The case of George Dedlow. In S. Weir-Mitchell, ed, The Autobiography of a Quack, New York: The Century, pp. 83–109.
Yarnitsky, D., Barron, S. A. and Bental, E. (1988). Disappearance of phantom pain after focal brain infarction. Pain, 32, 285–7.
Young, A. W. and Leafhead, K. M. (1996). Betwixt life and death: Case studies of the Cotard delusion. In P. W. Halligan and J. C. Marshall, eds., Method in Madness: Case Studies in Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, London: Psychology Press, pp. 147–171.
Zampini, M., Moro, V. and Aglioti, S. M. (2004). Illusory movements of the contralesional hand in patients with body image disorders. JNNP, 75, 1626–8.
Zingerle, H. (1913). Ueber Störungen des Wahrnehmung des eigenen Körpers bei organischen Gehirnerkrankungen. Mschr. Psychiat. Neurol., 34, 13–36.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Adunsky, A., Fleissig, Y., Levenkrohn, S., Arad, M. and Noy, S. (2002). Clock drawing task, mini-mental state examination and cognitive-functional independence measure: Relation to functional outcome of stroke patients. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., 45, 153–60.
Ajuriaguerra, J., Hécaen, H. and Anguelergues, R. (1960). Les apraxies: Variétés cliniques et latéralisation lésionnelle. Rev. Neurol., 102, 566–94.
Andrews, K., Brocklehurst, J. C., Richards, B. and Laycock, P. J. (1980). The prognostic value of picture drawings by stroke patients. Rheumatol. Rehabil., 19, 180–8.
Arena, R. and Gainotti, G. (1978). Constructional apraxia and visuoperceptive disabilities in relation to laterality of cerebral lesions. Cortex, 14, 463–73.
Arrigoni, G. and De Renzi, E. (1964). Constructional apraxia and hemispheric locus of lesion. Cortex, 1, 180–97.
Benton, A. L. (1967). Constructional apraxia and the minor hemisphere. Confinia Neurologica, 29, 1–16.
Benton, A. L. (1968). Differential effects in frontal lobe disease. Neuropsychologia, 6, 53–60.
Binder, L. M. (1982). Constructional strategies on complex figure drawings after unilateral brain damage. J. Clin. Neuropsychol., 4, 51–8.
De Renzi, E. and Faglioni, P. (1967). The relationship between visuospatial impairment and constructional apraxia. Cortex, 3, 227–342.
Dérouesné, J., Seron, X. and Signoret, J. L. (1975). La rééducation de patients avec lésion frontale. Rev. Neurol., 131, 677–89.
Duensing, F. (1953). Raumagnostische und ideatorisch-apraktische storung des gestaltenden handelns. Deutsch Zietschrift Nervenheilkd, 170, 72–94.
Engstad, T., Almkvist, O., Viitanen, M. and Arnesen, E. (2003). Impaired motor speed, visuospatial episodic memory and verbal fluency characterize cognition in long-term stroke survivors: The Tromso Study. Neuroepidemiology, 22, 326–31.
Freedman, M., Leach, L., Kaplan, E., et al. (1994). Clock Drawing: A Neuropsychological Analysis, New York: Oxford University Press.
Friedman, P. J. (1991). Clock drawing in acute stroke. Age Ageing, 20, 140–5.
Fushimi, H., Inoue, T., Yamada, Y., Udaka, F. and Kameyama, M. (1996). Asymptomatic cerebral small infarcts (lacunae), their risk factors and intellectual disturbances. Diabetes, 45 (Suppl. 3), S98–S100.
Gainotti, G. (1972). A quantitative study of the ‘closing in’ phenomenon symptom in children and in brain damaged patients. Neuropsychologia, 10, 429–36.
Gainotti, G. (1985). Constructional apraxia. In J. A. M. Frederiks, ed., Handbook of Clinical Neurology Vol 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 491–506.
Gainotti, G., D'Erme, P. and Diodato, S. (1985). Are drawing errors differed in right-sided and left-sided constructional apraxics? Ital. J. Neurol. Sci., 6, 495–501.
Hécaen, H., Ajuriaguerra, J. and Massonet, J. (1951). Les troubles visuoconstructifs par lésions pariéto-occipitales droites. Rôle des perturbations vestibulaires. Encéphale. 122–79.
Hécaen, H. and Assal, G. (1970). A comparison of constructive deficits following right and left hemispherics lesions. Neuropsychologia, 8, 289–303.
Hier, D. B., Mondlock, J. and Caplan, L. R. (1983). Recovery of behavioral abnormalities after right hemisphere stroke. Neurology, 33, 345–50.
Hochstenbach, J., Mulder, T., Van Limbeek, J., Donders, R. and Schoonderwaldt, H. (1998). Cognitive decline following stroke: A comprehensive study of cognitive decline following stroke. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 20, 503–17.
Hochstenbach, J. B., den Otter, R. and Mulder, T. W. (2003). Cognitive recovery after stroke: A 2-year follow-up. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 84, 1499–504.
Ishiai, S., Sugishita, M., Ichikawa, T., Gono, S. and Watabiki, S. (1993). Clock drawing test and unilateral spatial neglect. Neurology, 43, 106–10.
Kirk, A. and Kertesz, A. (1989). Hemispheric contributions to drawing. Neuropsychologia, 27, 881–6.
Kirk, A. and Kertesz, A. (1993). Subcortical contribution to drawing. Brain Lang., 21, 57–70.
Kleist, K. (1934). Gehirnpathologie, Leipzig: Barth.
Kreiter, K. T., Copeland, D., Bernardini, G. L., et al. (2002). Predictors of cognitive dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke, 33, 200–8.
Lhermitte, F., Dérouesné, J. and Signoret, J. L. (1972). L'analyse neuropsychologique du syndrome frontal. Rev. Neurol., 127, 415–40.
Luria, A. R. and Tsvetkova, L. S. (1964). The programming of constructive activity in local brain injury. Neuropsychologia, 2, 95–108.
Marshall, R. S., Lazar, R. M., Binder, J. R., et al. (1994). Intrahemispheric localization of drawing dysfunction. Neuropsychologia, 32, 493–501.
Mayer, S. A., Kreiter, K. T., Copeland, D., et al. (2002). Global and domain-specific cognitive impairment and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology, 59, 1750–8.
Mendez, M., Ala, T. and Underwood, K. (1992). Development of scoring criteria for the clock drawing task in Alzheimer's disease. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 40, 1095–99.
Ogden, J. A., Mee, E. W. and Henning, M. (1993). A prospective study of impairment of cognition and memory and recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery, 33, 572–86.
Pillon, B. (1981). Troubles visuoconstructifs et méthodes de compensation: Résultats de 85 patients atteints de lésions cérébrales. Neuropsychologia, 19, 375–83.
Rey, A. (1959). Test de Copie d'une Figure Complexe. Paris: Edition du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée.
Rosen, W. (1983). The Rosen drawing Test. New York: Veterans Administration Medical Center.
Rouleau, I., Salmon, D., Butters, N., Kennedy, C. and McGuife, K. (1992). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of clock drawings in Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Brain Cogn., 18, 70–87.
Sachdev, P. S., Brodaty, H., Valenzuela, M. J., et al. (2004). The neuropsychological profile of vascular cognitive impairment in stroke and TIA patients. Neurology, 62, 912–19.
Shallice, T. (1989). From Neuropsychology to Mental Structures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Suhr, J., Grace, J., Allen, J., Nadler, J. and McKenna, M. (1998). Quantitative and qualitative performance of stroke versus normal elderly on six clock drawing systems. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol., 13, 495–502.
Sunderland, T., Hill, J. L. Mellow, A. M., et al. (1989). Clock drawing in Alzheimer's disease. A novel measure of dementia severity. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 37(8), 725–29.
Sunderland, A., Tinson, D. and Bradley, L. (1994). Differences in recovery from constructional apraxia after right and left hemisphere stroke? J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 16, 916–20.
Swindell, C. S., Holland, A. L., Fromm, D. and Greenhouse, J. B. (1988). Characteristics of recovery of drawing ability in left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain Cogn., 7, 16–30.
Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., Stern, Y., et al. (1994). Cognitive impairement after stroke: Frequency, patterns, and relationship to functional abilities. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57, 202–7.
Warrington, E. K., James, M. and Kinsbourne, M. (1966). Drawing disability in relation to laterality of cerebral lesion. Brain, 89, 53–82.
Watson, Y. I., Arfken, C. L. and Birge, S. J. (1993). Clock completion: An objective screening test for dementia. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 41, 1235–40.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Aguirre, G. K. and D'Esposito, M. (1999). Topographical disorientation: A synthesis and taxonomy. Brain, 122, 1613–28.
Alsaadi, T., Binder, J. R., Lazar, R. M., Doorani, T. and Mohr, J. P. (2000). Pure topographic disorientation: A distinctive syndrome with varied localization. Neurology, 54, 1864–6.
Aoki, K., Hiroki, M., Bando, M., Miyamoto, K. and Hirai, S. (2003). A case of agnosia for streets without visual memory disturbance. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 43, 335–40.
Barrash, J. (1994). Age-related decline in route learning ability. Dev. Neuropsychol., 10, 189–201.
Barrash, J. (1998). A historical review of topographical disorientation and its neuroanatomical correlates. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 20, 807–27.
Barrash, J., Damasio, H., Adolphs, R. and Tranel, D. (2000). The neuroanatomical correlates of route learning impairment. Neuropsychologia, 38, 820–36.
Bohbot, V. D., Allen, J. J. and Nadel, L. (2000). Memory deficits characterized by patterns of lesions to the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 911, 355–68.
Bohbot, V. D., Kalina, M., Stepankova, K., et al. (1998). Spatial memory deficits in patients with lesions to the right hippocampus and to the right parahippocampal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 36, 1217–38.
Cammalleri, R., Gangitano, M., D'Amelio, M., et al. (1996). Transient topographical amnesia and cingulate cortex damage: A case report. Neuropsychologia, 34, 321–6.
Corsi, P. M. (1972). Human memory and the medial temporal region of the brain. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34, 819B.
De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P. and Villa, P. (1977a). Topographical amnesia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 40, 498–505.
De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P. and Previdi, P. (1977b). Spatial memory and hemispheric locus of lesion. Cortex, 13, 424–33.
Farrell, M. J. (1996). Topographical disorientation. Neurocase, 2, 509–20.
Foerster, R. (1890). Ueber Rinden blindheit. Albrecht v. Graefe Arch. Ophtalmol., 38, 94–108.
Funakawa, I., Mukai, K., Terao, A., Kawashima, S. and Mori, T. (1994). A case of MELAS associated with prosopagnosia, topographical disorientation and PLED. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 34, 1052–4.
Gil-Neciga, E., Alberca, R., Boza, F., et al. (2002). Transient topographical disorientation. Eur. Neurol., 48, 191–9.
Habib, M. and Sirigu, A. (1987). Pure topographical disorientation: A definition and anatomical basis. Cortex, 23, 73–85.
Hecaen, H., Tzortzis, C. and Rondot, P. (1980). Loss of topographical memory with learning deficits. Cortex, 16, 525–42.
Hirayama, K., Taguchi, Y., Sato, M. and Tsukamoto, T. (2003). Limbic encephalitis presenting with topographical disorientation and amnesia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 74, 110–12.
Hublet, C. and Demeurisse, G. (1992). Pure topographical disorientation due to a deep-seated lesion with cortical remote effects. Cortex, 28, 123–8.
Ishii, K., Kita, Y., Nagura, H., Bandoh, M. and Yamanouchi, H. (1992). A case report of cerebral achromatopsia with bilateral occipital lesion. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 32, 293–8.
Jackson, J. H. (1932). Case of large cerebral tumour with optic neuritis and with left hemiplegia and imperception. In J. H. Jackson, ed., Selected Writings. London: Taylor, pp. 146–52.
Katayama, K., Takahashi, N., Ogawara, K. and Hattori, T. (1999). Pure topographical disorientation due to right posterior cingulate lesion. Cortex, 35, 279–82.
Landis, T., Cummings, J. L., Benson, D. F. and Palmer, E. P. (1986). Loss of topographic familiarity. An environmental agnosia. Arch. Neurol., 43, 132–6.
Levine, D. N., Warrash, J. and Farah, M. J. (1985). Two visual systems in mental imagery: Dissociation of the “what” and “where” in imagery disorders due to bilateral posterior cerebral lesions. Neurology, 35, 1010–18.
Lin, C. C. and Pai, M. C. (2000). Transient topographical disorientation as a manifestation of cerebral ischaemic attack. J. Formos. Med. Assoc., 99, 653–5.
Luzzi, S., Pucci, E., Di Bella, P. and Piccirilli, M. (2000). Topographical disorientation consequent to amnesia of spatial location in a patient with right parahippocampal damage. Cortex, 36, 427–34.
Maguire, E. A., Burke, T., Phillips, J. and Staunton, H. (1996a). Topographical disorientation following unilateral temporal lobe lesions in humans. Neuropsychologia, 34, 993–1001.
Maguire, E. A., Frackowiak, R. S. and Frith, C. D. (1996b). Learning to find your way: A role for the human hippocampal formation. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci., 263, 1745–50.
Martinez-Fernandez, E., Gil-Neciga, E., Boza-Garcia, F., Montes, E. and Donaire, A. (2003). Topographical disorientation associated with infarction in the territory of the right posterior cerebral artery. Revista de Neurologica, 36, 224–6.
McCarthy, R. A., Evans, J. J. and Hodges, J. R. (1996). Topographic amnesia: Spatial memory disorder, perceptual dysfunction, or category specific semantic memory impairment? J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 60, 318–25.
Mendez, M. F. and Cherrier, M. M. (2003). Agnosia for scenes in topographagnosia. Neuropsychologia, 41, 1387–95.
Meyer, O. (1900). Ein-und doppelseitige homonyme Hemianopsie mit Orientierungstoerungen. Monatschr. Psychiatr. Neurol., 8, 40–56.
Milner, B. (1965). Visually-guided maze learning in man: Effects of bilateral hippocampal, bilateral frontal and unilateral cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia, 3, 317–38.
Murai, T., Toichi, M., Sengoku, A., Miyoshi, K., Morimune, S. (1997). Reduplicative paramnesia in patients with focal brain damage. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol. Behav. Neurol., 10(3), 190–6.
Nunn, J. A., Graydon, F. J., Polkey, C. E. and Morris, R. G. (1999). Differential spatial memory impairment after right temporal lobectomy demonstrated using temporal titration. Brain, 122(Pt 1), 47–59.
Obi, T., Bando, M., Takeda, K. and Sakuta, M. (1992). A case of topographical disturbance following a left medial parieto-occipital lobe infarction. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 32, 426–9.
Ohra, S., Otsuki, M., Omura, E., et al. (2000). A case of agnosia for streets and houses unaccompanied by prosopagnosia of familiar faces due to the right occipital lobe infarction. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 40, 891–5.
Pai, M. C. (1997). Topographic disorientation: Two cases. J. Formos. Med. Assoc., 96, 660–3.
Pallis, C. A. (1955). Impaired identification of locus and places with agnosia for colours. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 18, 218–24.
Rey, A. (1959). Test de copie d'une figure complexe. Editions du centre de psychologie appliquée.
Sato, K., Sakajiri, K., Komai, K. and Takamori, M. (1998). A patient with amnesic syndrome with defective route finding due to left posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. No To Shinkei, 50, 69–73.
Stracciari, A., Lorusso, S. and Pazzaglia, P. (1994). Transient topographical amnesia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57, 1423–5.
Suzuki, K., Yamadori, A., Hayakawa, Y. and Fujii, T. (1998). Pure topographical disorientation related to dysfunction of the viewpoint dependent visual system. Cortex, 34, 589–99.
Takahashi, N. and Kawamura, M. (2002). Pure topographical disorientation – the anatomical basis of landmark agnosia. Cortex, 38, 717–25.
Whiteley, A. M. and Warrington, E. K. (1978). Selective impairment of topographical memory: A single case study. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 41, 575–8.
Yoshimura, N. and Otsuki, M. (2002). A case of topographic disorientation without right occipital lesion. No To Shinkei, 54, 601–4.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Aldrich, M. S., Alessi, A. G., et al. (1987). Cortical blindness: Etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis. Ann. Neurol., 21(2), 149–58.
Beniczky, S., Keri, S., et al. (2002). Complex hallucinations following occipital lobe damage. Eur. J. Neurol., 9(2), 175–6.
Bogousslavsky, J., Regli, F., et al. (1983). Unilateral occipital infarction: Evaluation of the risks of developing bilateral loss of vision. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 46(1), 78–80.
Brandt, T., Steinke, W., et al. (2000). Posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts: Clinical features, infarct topography, causes and outcome. Multicenter results and a review of the literature. Cerebrovasc. Dis., 10(3), 170–82.
Caplan, L. R. (1980). Top of the basilar syndrome. Neurology, 30(1), 72–9.
Celesia, G. G., Archer, C. R., et al. (1980). Visual function of the extrageniculo-calcarine system in man: Relationship to cortical blindness. Arch. Neurol., 37(11), 704–6.
Chavez, C. J. and Caplan, L. (2001). Posterior cerebral artery syndromes. In Stroke Syndromes, ed. L. C. J. Bogousslavsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 479–89.
Danckert, J., Revol, P., et al. (2003). Measuring unconscious actions in action-blindsight: Exploring the kinematics of pointing movements to targets in the blind field of two patients with cortical hemianopia. Neuropsychologia, 41(8), 1068–81.
Finkelstein, J. I. and Johnson, L. N. (1989). Relative scotoma and statokinetic dissociation (Riddoch's phenomenon) from occipital lobe dysfunction. Trans. Pa. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol., 41, 789–92.
Fisher, C. M. (1986). The posterior cerebral artery syndrome. Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 13(3), 232–9.
Gloning, I., Gloning, K., et al. (1967). On optic hallucinations. A study based on 241 patients with lesions of the occipital lobe and its surrounding regions verified by autopsy or surgery. Wien Z Nervenheilkd Grenzgeb, 25(1), 1–19.
Goldenberg, G. (1992). Loss of visual imagery and loss of visual knowledge – a case study. Neuropsychologia, 30(12), 1081–99.
Goldenberg, G., Mullbacher, W., et al. (1995). Imagery without perception – a case study of anosognosia for cortical blindness. Neuropsychologia, 33(11), 1373–82.
Heeney, D. J. and Koo, A. H. (1980). Bilateral cortical blindness associated with carotid stenosis in a patient with a persistent trigeminal artery: Case report. J. Neurosurg., 52(5), 709–11.
Hess, C. W., Meienberg, O., et al. (1982). Visual evoked potentials in acute occipital blindness. Diagnostic and prognostic value. J. Neurol., 227(4), 193–200.
Jay, W. M., Shah, M. I., et al. (2003). Bilateral occipital-parietal hemorrhagic infarctions following chiropractic cervical manipulation. Semin. Ophthalmol., 18(4), 205–9.
Julkunen, L., Tenovuo, O., et al. (2003). Rehabilitation of chronic post-stroke visual field defect with computer-assisted training: A clinical and neurophysiological study. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 21(1–2), 19–28.
Kasten, E., Wust, S., et al. (1998). Computer-based training for the treatment of partial blindness. Nat. Med., 4(9), 1083–7.
Keane, J. R. (1980). Blindness following tentorial herniation. Ann. Neurol., 8(2), 186–90.
Kerkhoff, G., Munssinger, U., et al. (1994). Neurovisual rehabilitation in cerebral blindness. Arch. Neurol., 51(5), 474–81.
Kolmel, H. W. (1985). Complex visual hallucinations in the hemianopic field. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 48(1), 29–38.
Lance, J. W. (1976). Simple formed hallucinations confined to the area of a specific visual field defect. Brain, 99(4), 719–34.
Levin, L. A. (2005). Topical diagnosis of chiasmal and retrochiasmal disorders. Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-ophthalmology, 6th edition, ed. N. R. Miller, N. J. Newman, V. Biousse and J. B. Kerrison. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 503–73.
Liu, G. T., Volpe, N. J. and Galetta, S. L. (2001). Neuro-ophthalmology: Diagnosis and Management. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company.
Mestre, D. R., Brouchon, M., et al. (1992). Perception of optical flow in cortical blindness: A case report. Neuropsychologia, 30(9), 783–95.
Moen, M., Levine, S. R., et al. (1988). Bilateral posterior cerebral artery strokes in a young migraine sufferer. Stroke, 19(4), 525–8.
Pambakian, A., Currie, J., et al. (2005). Rehabilitation strategies for patients with homonymous visual field defects. J. Neuroophthalmol., 25(2), 136–42.
Perenin, M. T., Ruel, J., et al. (1980). Residual visual capacities in a case of cortical blindness. Cortex, 16(4), 605–12.
Safran, A. B. and Glaser, J. S. (1980). Statokinetic dissociation in lesions of the anterior visual pathways. A reappraisal of the Riddoch phenomenon. Arch. Ophthalmol., 98(2), 291–5.
Sahraie, A., Weiskrantz, L., et al. (1997). Pattern of neuronal activity associated with conscious and unconscious processing of visual signals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94(17), 9406–11.
Spehlmann, R., Gross, R. A., et al. (1977). Visual evoked potentials and postmortem findings in a case of cortical blindness. Ann. Neurol., 2(6), 531–4.
Stoerig, P. and Cowey, A. (1997). Blindsight in man and monkey. Brain, 120(Pt 3), 535–59.
Symonds, C. and Mackenzie, I. (1957). Bilateral loss of vision from cerebral infarction. Brain, 80(4), 415–55.
Vaphiades, M. S., Celesia, G. G., et al. (1996). Positive spontaneous visual phenomena limited to the hemianopic field in lesions of central visual pathways. Neurology, 47(2), 408–17.
Vighetto, A. (2004). Accidents vasculaires cérébraux du territoire vertébro-basilaire. Neuro-ophtalmologie, ed. A. B. Safran, A. Vighetto, T. Landis and E. Cabanis. Paris: Masson 477–85.
Weiskrantz, L. (2004). Roots of blindsight. Prog. Brain Res., 144, 229–41.
Widdig, W., Pleger, B., et al. (2003). Repetitive visual stimulation: A neuropsychological approach to the treatment of cortical blindness. NeuroRehabilitation, 18(3), 227–37.
Yong, W. H., Robert, M. E., et al. (1992). Cerebral hemorrhage with biopsy-proved amyloid angiopathy. Arch. Neurol., 49(1), 51–8.
Zeki, S. (1991). Cerebral akinetopsia (visual motion blindness). A review. Brain, 114(Pt 2), 811–24.
Zeki, S. and Ffytche, D. H. (1998). The Riddoch syndrome: Insights into the neurobiology of conscious vision. Brain, 121(Pt 1), 25–45.
Zihl, J. (1995). Visual scanning behavior in patients with homonymous hemianopia. Neuropsychologia, 33(3), 287–303.
Zihl, J. (2000). Rehabilitation of Visual Disorders After Brain Injury. In Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: A Modular Handbook. Hove: Psychology Press

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: bibliography

Al-Khawaja, I. and Haboubi, N. H. (2001). Neurovisual rehabilitation in Balint's syndrome. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 70(3), 416.
Allison, R. S., Hurwitz, L. J., et al. (1969). A follow-up study of a patient with Balint's syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 7, 319–33.
Andersen, R. A. (1997). Multimodal integration for the representation of space in the posterior parietal cortex. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 352, 1421–8.
Astafiev, S. Y., Shulman, G. I., et al. (2003). Functional organisation of human parietal and frontal cortex for attending, looking and pointing. J. Neurosci., 23, 4689–99.
Auerbach, S. H. and Alexander, M. P. (1981). Pure agraphia and unilateral optic ataxia associated with a left superior parietal lobule lesion. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 44(5), 430–2.
Badal, J. (1888). Contribution à l'étude des cécités psychiques: Alexie, agraphie, hémianopsie inférieure, trouble du sens de l'espace. Arch. Ophthalmol., 140, 97–117.
Bálint, R. (1909). Seelenlähmung des Schauens, optische Ataxie, raümliche Störung der Aufmerksamkeit. Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 25, 51–81.
Battaglia-Mayer, A., Caminiti, R., et al. (2003). Multiple levels of representation of reaching in the parieto-frontal network. Cereb. Cortex, 13, 1009–22.
Battaglia-Mayer, A., Ferraina, S., et al. (2000). Early coding of reaching in the parietooccipital cortex. J. Neurophysiol., 83, 2374–91.
Bellebaum, C., Hoffmann, K. P., and Daum, I. (2005). Post-saccadic updating of visual space in the posterior parietal cortex in humans. Behav. Brain Res., 163, 194–203.
Binkofski, F., Buccino, G., et al. (1999). Mirror agnosia and mirror ataxia constitute different parietal lobe disorders. Ann. Neurol., 46, 51–61.
Binkofski, F., Dohle, C., et al. (1998). Human anterior intraparietal area subserves prehension: a combined lesion and functional MRI activation study. Neurology, 50(5), 1253–9.
Brain, R. (1941). Visual discrimination with special reference to lesions of the right hemisphere. Brain, 64, 244–72.
Carey, D. P., Coleman, R. J., et al. (1997). Magnetic misreaching. Cortex, 33(4), 639–52.
Castaigne, P., Rondot, P., et al. (1975). Ataxie optique localisée au côté gauche des deux hémichamps visuels homonymes. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 131(1), 23–8.
Classen, J., Kunesch, E., et al. (1995). Subcortical origin of visuomotor apraxia. Brain, 118, 1365–74.
Cogan, D. G. and Adams, R. D. (1953). A type of paralysis of conjugate gaze (ocular motor apraxia). Arch. Ophthalmol., 50(4), 434–42.
Colby, C. L. and Goldberg, M. E. (1999). Space and attention in parietal cortex. Ann. Rev. Neurosci., 22, 319–49.
Crawford, J. D., Medendorp, W. P., et al. (2004). Spatial transformations for eye-hand coordination. J. Neurophysiol., 92, 10–19.
Damasio, A. R. and Benton, A. L. (1979). Impairment of hand movements under visual guidance. Neurology, 29, 170–4.
De Renzi, E. (1989). Balint-Holmes syndrome. In Classic Cases in Neuropsychology. Hove: Psychology Press, pp.123–43.
Duhamel, J. R., Colby, C. L., et al. (1992). The updating of the representation of visual space in parietal cortex by intended eye movements. Science, 255 (5040), 90–2.
Ferro, J. M. (1984). Transient inaccuracy in reaching caused by a posterior parietal lobe lesion. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 47(9), 1016–19.
Friedman-Hill, S. R., Robertson, L. C., et al. (1995). Parietal contributions to visual feature binding: Evidence from a patient with bilateral lesions. Science, 269(5225), 853–5.
Galletti, C., Kutz, D. F., et al. (2003). Role of the medial parieto-occipital cortex in the control of reaching and grasping movements. Exp. Brain Res., 153(2), 158–70. Epub 2003 Sep 27.
Garcin, R., Rondot, P., et al. (1967). Ataxie optique localisée aux deux hémichamps visuels homonymes gauches. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 116(6), 707–14.
Girotti, F., Milanese, C., et al. (1982). Oculomotor disturbances in Balint's syndrome: Anatomoclinical findings and electrooculographic analysis in a case. Cortex, 18(4), 603–14.
Goodale, M. A. and Milner, A. D. (1992). Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends Neurosci., 15, 20–5.
Gottlieb, D., Calvanio, R., et al. (1991). Reappearance of the visual percept after intentional blinking in a patient with Balint's syndrome. J. Clin. Neuroophthalmol., 11(1), 62–5.
Guard, O., Perenin, M. T., et al. (1984). Syndrome pariétal bilatéral ressemblant au syndrome de Balint. Rev. Neurol., 140(5), 358–67.
Hecaen, H. and De Ajuriaguerra, J. (1954). Balint's syndrome (psychic paralysis of visual fixation) and its minor forms. Brain, 77(3), 373–400.
Heide, W., Blankenburg, M., et al. (1995). Cortical control of double-step saccades: Implications for spatial orientation. Ann. Neurol., 38, 739–48.
Holmes, G. (1918). Disturbances of visual orientation. Brit. J. Ophthalmol., 2, 449–68, 506–18.
Hijdra, A. and Meerwaldt, J. D. (1984). Balint's syndrome in a man with border-zone infarcts caused by atrial fibrillation. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg., 86(1), 51–4.
Husain, M. and Stein, J. (1988). Rezso Balint and his most celebrated case. Arch. Neurol., 45(1), 89–93.
Inoue, A., Sato, K., et al. (1988). A case of multiple cerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy. No Shinkei Geka, 16(Suppl. 5), 544–9.
Inouye, T. (1904). Cited by Rizzo and Vecera (2002).
Jackson, S. R., Newport, R., et al. (2005). Where the eye looks, the hand follows; limb-dependent magnetic misreaching in optic ataxia. Curr. Biol., 15(1), 42–6.
Jakobson, L. S., Archibald, Y. M., et al. (1991). A kinematic analysis of reaching and grasping movements in a patient recovering from optic ataxia. Neuropsychologia, 29(8), 803–9.
Jeannerod, M., Decety, J., et al. (1994). Impairment of grasping movements following bilateral posterior parietal lesion. Neuropsychologia, 32, 369–80.
Karnath, H. O. and Perenin, M. T. (2005). Cortical control of visually guided reaching: Evidence from patients with optic ataxia. Cereb. Cortex, 15(10), 1561–9.
Kase, C. S., Troncoso, J. F., et al. (1977). Global spatial disorientation. Clinico-pathologic correlations. J. Neurol. Sci., 34(2), 267–78.
Kerkhoff, G. (2000). Neurovisual rehabilitation: Recent developments and future directions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr., 68, 691–706.
Kerkhoff, G. (2001). Neurovisual rehabilitation in Balint's syndrome: Reply. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 70, 416.
Luria, A. R. (1959). Disorders of simultaneous perception in a case of occipito-parietal brain injury. Brain, 82, 437–49.
Mendez, M. F., Tomsak, R. L. and Remler, B. (1990). Disorders of the visual system in Alzheimer's disease. J. Clin. Neuroophthalmol., 10, 62–9.
Michel, F. and Henaff, M. A. (2004). Seeing without the occipito-parietal cortex: Simultagnosia as a shrinkage of the attentional visual field. Behav. Neurol., 15(1-2), 3–13.
Michel, F., Jeannerod, M., et al. (1963). Un cas de désorientation visuelle dans les trois dimensions de l'espace (A propos du syndrome de Balint et du syndrome décrit par G Holmes). Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 108, 983–4.
Montero, J., Pena, J., et al. (1982). Balint's syndrome. Report of four cases with watershed parieto-occipital lesions from vertebrobasilar ischemia or systemic hypotension. Acta Neurol. Belg., 82(5), 270–80.
Müri, R. M., Iba-Zizen, M. T., et al. (1996). Location of the human posterior eye field with functional magnetic resonance imaging. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 60, 445–48.
Perenin, M. T. and Vighetto, A. (1988). Optic ataxia: A specific disruption in visuomotor mechanisms. I. Different aspects of the deficit in reaching for objects. Brain, 111(Pt 3), 643–74.
Perez, F. M., Tunkel, R. S., et al. (1996). Balint's syndrome arising from bilateral posterior cortical atrophy or infarction: Rehabilitation strategies and their limitation. Disabil. Rehabil., 18(6), 300–4.
Pierrot-Deseilligny, C., Gautier, J. C., et al. (1988). Acquired ocular motor apraxia due to bilateral frontoparietal infarcts. Ann. Neurol., 23(2), 199–202.
Pierrot-Deseilligny, C., Gray, F., et al. (1986). Infarcts of both inferior parietal lobules with impairment of visually guided eye movements, peripheral visual inattention and optic ataxia. Brain, 109, 81–97.
Pisella, L., Grea, H., et al. (2000). An ‘automatic pilot’ for the hand in human posterior parietal cortex: Toward reinterpreting optic ataxia. Nat. Neurosci., 3(7), 729–36.
Prado, J., Clavagnier, S., et al. (2005). Two cortical systems for reaching in central and peripheral vision. Neuron, 48, 849–58.
Rapcsak, S. Z., Cimino, C. R., et al. (1988). Altitudinal neglect. Neurology, 38(2), 277–81.
Riddoch, G. (1935). Visual disorientation in homonymous half-fields. Brain, 58, 376–82.
Rizzo, M. and Hurtig, R. (1987). Looking but not seeing: Attention, perception, and eye movements in simultanagnosia. Neurology, 37, 1642–8.
Rizzo, M. and Vecera, S. P. (2002). Psychoanatomical substrates of Balint's syndrome. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 72(2), 162–78.
Rizzolatti, G. and Matelli, M. (2003). Two different streams form the dorsal visual system: anatomy and functions. Exp. Brain Res., 153(2), 146–57.
Rondot, P., de Recondo, J., et al. (1977). Visuomotor ataxia. Brain, 100(2), 355–76.
Rosselli, M., Ardila, A., et al. (2001). Rehabilitation of Balint's syndrome: A single case report. Appl. Neuropsychol., 8(4), 242–7.
Rossetti, Y. (1998). Implicit short-lived motor representations of space in brain damaged and healthy subjects. Consciousness and Cognition, 7, 520–58.
Rossetti, Y., Pisella, L., et al. (2003). Optic ataxia revisited: Visually guided action versus immediate visuomotor control. Exp. Brain Res., 153(2), 171–9.
Rossetti, Y., Revol, P., et al. (2005). Visually guided reaching: Bilateral posterior parietal lesions cause a switch from fast visuomotor to slow cognitive control. Neuropsychologia, 43(2), 162–77.
Roy, A. C., Stefanini, S., et al. (2004). Early movement impairments in a patient recovering from optic ataxia. Neuropsychologia, 42(7), 847–54.
Schindler, I., Rice, N. J., et al. (2004). Automatic avoidance of obstacles is a dorsal stream function: Evidence from optic ataxia. Nat. Neurosci., 7(7), 779–84.
Schluppeck, D., Glimcher, P. and Heeger, D. J. (2005). Topographic organization for delayed saccades in human posterior parietal cortex. J. Neurophysiol., 94, 1372–84.
Tang-Wai, D. F., Graff-Radford, N. R., et al. (2004). Clinical, genetic, and neuropathologic characteristics of posterior cortical atrophy. Neurology, 63(7), 1168–74.
Tyler, H. R. (1968). Abnormalities of perception with defective eye movements (Balint's syndrome). Cortex, 4, 154–71.
Valenza, N., Murray, M. M., et al. (2004). The space of senses: Impaired crossmodal interactions in a patient with Balint syndrome after bilateral parietal damage. Neuropsychologia, 42(13), 1737–48.
Verfaellie, M., Rapcsak, S. Z., et al. (1990). Impaired shifting of attention in Balint's syndrome. Brain Cogn., 12(2), 195–204.
Vighetto, A. and Perenin, M. T. (1981). Ataxie optique: Analyse des réponses oculaires et manuelles lors du pointage vers des cibles visuelles. Rev. Neurol., 137(5), 357–72.
Watson, R. T. and Rapcsak, S. Z. (1989). Loss of spontaneous blinking in a patient with Balint's syndrome. Arch. Neurol., 46(5), 567–70.
Woldorff, M. G., Hazlitt, C. J., et al. (2004). Functional parcellation of attentional control region of the brain. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 16, 149–65.
Zihl, J. (2000). Rehabilitation of visual disorders after brain injury. In Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: A Modular Handbook. Hove: Psychology Press Ltd.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Agniel, A., Joanette, Y., Doyon, B. and Duchein, C. (1992). Protocole Montréal-Toulouse, Évaluation des Gnosies Visuelles et Auditives. Isbergues: L'ortho édition.
Assal, G., Favre, C. and Anderes, J. (1984). Nonrecognition of familiar animals by a farmer: Zooagnosia or prosopagnosia for animals. Rev. Neurol., 140, 580–4.
Barton, J. (2003). Disorders of face perception and recognition. Neurol. Clin., 21(2), 521–48.
Barton, J. J., Cherkasova, M. V., Press, D. Z., Intriligator, J. M. and O'Connor, M. (2004). Perceptual functions in prosopagnosia. Perception, 33(8), 939–56.
Barton, J. J., Press, D. Z., Keenan, J. P. and O'Connor, M. (2002). Lesions of the fusiform face area impair perception of facial configuration in prosopagnosia. Neurology, 58, 71–8.
Behrmann, M. and Moscovitch, M. (2001). Face recognition: Evidence from intact and impaired performance. In Handbook of Neuropsychology, Vol. 4, ed. F. Boller and J. Grafman Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 181–206.
Benton, A. L. (1986). Reaction time and brain disease: Some reflections. Cortex, 22, 129–40.
Benton, A. L., Sivan, A. B., Hamsher, K., Varney, N. R. and Spreen, O. (1983). Contributions to Neuropsychological Assessment: A Clinical Manual. New York: Oxford University Press.
Beyn, E. S. and Knyazeva, G. R. (1962). The problem of prosopagnosia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 25, 154–8.
Bodamer, J. (1947). Die Prosop-Agnosie (Die Agnosie des Physiognomieerkennens). Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkr., 179, 6–54. English translation by Ellis, H. D. and Florence, M. (1990). Cogn. Neuropsychol., 7, 81–105.
Boutsen, L. and Humphreys, G. W. (2003). The effect of inversion on the encoding of normal and “thatcherized” faces. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 56(6), 955–75.
Bouvier, S. E. and Engel, S. A. (2006). Behavioral deficits and cortical damage loci in cerebral achromatopsia. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 183–91.
Brandt, T., Steinke, W., Thie, A., Pessin, M. S. and Caplan, L. R. (2000). Posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts: Clinical features, infarct topography, causes and outcome. Multicenter results and a review of the literature. Cerebrovasc. Dis., 10, 172–82.
Bruyer, R., Laterre, C., Seron, X., et al. (1983). A case of prosopagnosia with some preserved covert remembrance of familiar faces. Brain Cogn., 2, 257–84.
Bukach, C. M., Bub, D. M., Gauthier, I. and Tarr, M. J. (2006). Perceptual expertise effects are not all or none: Local perceptual expertise for faces in a case of prosopagnosia. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 18, 48–63.
Buser, P. and Imbert, M. (1987). Vision. Paris: Hermann.
Caldara, R., Schyns, P., Mayer, E., et al. (2005). Does prosopagnosia take the eyes out from faces? Evidence for a defect in the use of diagnostic facial information in a brain-damaged patient. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 17, 1652–66.
Cals, N., Devuyst, G., Afsar, N., Karapanayiotides, T. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2002). Pure superficial posterior cerebral artery territory infarction in the Lausanne stroke registry. J. Neurol., 249, 855–61.
Cavanagh, P. (1992). Attention-based motion perception. Science, 257, 1563–5.
Charcot, J. M. (1883). Un cas de suppression brusque et isolée de la vision mentale des signes et des objets (formes et couleurs). Progr. Med., 11, 568–71.
Clarke, S., Lindemann, A., Maeder, P., Borruat, F. X. and Assal, G. (1997). Face recognition and postero-inferior hemispheric lesions. Neuropsychologia, 35, 1555–63.
Damasio, H. and Damasio, A. R. (1989). Lesion Analysis in Neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H. and Van Hoesen, G. W. (1982). Prosopagnosia: Anatomic basis and behavioural mechanisms. Neurology, 32, 331–41.
Damasio, A. R., Tranel, D. and Damasio, H. (1990). Face agnosia and the neural substrates of memory. Ann. Rev. Neurosci., 13, 89–109.
Davidoff, J. and Landis, T. (1990). Recognition of unfamiliar faces in prosopagnosia. Neuropsychologia, 28(11), 1143–61.
De Renzi, E. (1986). Current issues on prosopagnosia. In Aspects of Face Processing, ed. H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. G. Newcombe and A. Young. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 243–52.
De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., Grossi, D. and Nichelli, P. (1991). Apperceptive and associative forms of prosopagnosia. Cortex, 27, 213–21.
De Renzi, E., Perani, D., Carlesimo, G. A., Silveri, M. C. and Fazio, F. (1994). Prosopagnosia can be associated with damage confined to the right hemisphere – an MRI and PET study and a review of the literature. Neuropsychologia, 8, 893–902.
Delvenne, J. F., Seron, X., Coyette, F. and Rossion, B. (2004). Do perceptual deficits always co-occur with visual (prosop)agnosia? Evidence from neuropsychological investigation in a single-case study. Neuropsychologia, 42, 597–612.
Duchaine, B. and Weidenfeld, A. (2003). An evaluation of two commonly used tests of unfamiliar face recognition. Neuropsychologia, 41, 713–20.
Ellis, H. D., Shepherd, J. W. and Davies, G. M. (1979). Identification of familiar and unfamiliar faces from internal and external features: Some implications for theories of face recognition. Perception, 8, 431–9.
Ellis, H. D. and Young, A. W. (1988). Training in face-processing skills for a child with acquired prosopagnosia. Develop. Neuropsychol., 4, 283–94.
Ettlin, T. M., Beckson, M., Benson, D. F., et al. (1992). Prosopagnosia: A bihemispheric disorder. Cortex, 28, 129–34.
Evans, J. J., Heggs, A. J., Antoun, N. and Hodges, J. R. (1995). Progressive prosopagnosia with associated selective right temporal lobe atrophy: A new syndrome? Brain, 118, 1–13.
Farah, M. J. (1990). Visual Agnosia. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Farah, M., Levinson, K. L. and Klein, K. L. (1995). Face perception and within-category discrimination in prosopagnosia. Neuropsychologia, 33, 661–74.
Gauthier, I., Behrmann, M. and Tarr, M. J. (1999). Is prosopagnosia a general deficit in subordinate-level categorization? J. Cogn. Neurosci., 11, 349–70.
Ginsburg, A. P. (2003). Contrast sensitivity and functional vision. Int. Ophthalmol. Clin., 43, 5–15.
Glowic, C. and Violon, A. (1981). Un cas de prosopagnosie régressive. Acta Neurol. Belgica., 81, 86–97.
Goldsmith, Z. G. and Liu, G. T. (2001). Facial recognition and prosopagnosia: Past and present concepts. Neuro-Ophthal., 25, 177–92.
Grüsser, O. J. and Landis, T. (1991). Faces lost: Prosopagnosia. In Visual Agnosias and Other Disturbances of Visual Perception and Cognition: Vision and Visual Dysfunction, Vol. 12, Amsterdam: MacMillan, pp. 259–86.
Habib, M. and Sirigu, A. (1987). Pure topographical disorientation: A definition and anatomical basis. Cortex, 23, 73–85.
Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. A. and Gobbini, M. I. (2000). The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends Cogn. Sci., 4, 223–33.
Hécaen, H. and Angelergues, R. (1962). Agnosia for faces (prosopagnosia). Arch. Neurol., 7, 92–100.
Hécaen, H. and Angelergues, R. (1963). La Cécité Psychique, Paris: Masson.
Henke, K., Schweinberger, S. R., Grigo, A., Klos, T. and Sommer, W. (1998). Specificity of face recognition: Recognition of exemplars of non-face objects in prosopagnosia. Cortex, 34, 289–96.
Hillger, L. A. and Koenig, O. (1991). Separable mechanisms in face processing: Evidence from hemispheric specialization. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 3, 42–58.
Hoff, H. and Pötzl, O. (1937). Über eine optisch-agnostische Störung des “Physiognomie-Gedächtnisses”. Z. Ges. Neurol. Psychiat., 159, 367–95.
Joubert, S., Felician, O., Barbeau, E., et al. (2003). Impaired configurational processing in a case of progressive prosopagnosia associated with predominant right temporal lobe atrophy. Brain, 126, 2537–50.
Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J. and Chun, M. (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. J. Neurosci., 1711, 4302–11.
Kumral, E., Bayulkem, G., Ataç, C. and Alper, Y. (2004). Spectrum of superficial posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts: Clinical and outcome correlates. Eur. Neurol., 11, 237–46.
Laeng, B. and Caviness, V. S. (2001). Prosopagnosia as a deficit in encoding curved surface. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 13, 556–76.
Landis, T. (2004). Désorientation topographique. In Neuro-ophtalmologie, ed. A. B. Safran, A. Vighetto, T. Landis and E. A. Cabanis. Paris: Masson, pp. 130–4.
Landis, T., Regard, M., Bliestle, A. and Kleihues, P. (1988). Prosopagnosia and agnosia for non-canonical views: An autopsied case. Brain, 111, 1287–97.
Leveroni, C. L., Seidenberg, M., Mayer, A. R., et al. (2000). Neural systems underlying the recognition of familiar and newly learned faces. J. Neurosci., 20, 878–86.
Marotta, J. J., Genovese, C. R. and Behrmann, M. (2001). A functional MRI study of face recognition in patients with prosopagnosia. Neuroreport, 13, 1581–7.
Marotta, J. J., McKeeff, T. J. and Behrmann, M. (2002). The effects of rotation and inversion on face processing in prosopagnosia. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 19, 31–47.
Mattson, A. J., Levin, H. S. and Grafman, J. (2000). A case of prosopagnosia following moderate closed head injury with left hemisphere focal lesion. Cortex, 36, 125–37.
Maurer, D., Le Grand, R. and Mondloch, C. J. (2002). The many faces of configural processing. Trends Cogn. Sci., 6, 255–60.
Mayer, E., Fistarol, P. and Valenza, N. (1999). Prise en charge neuropsychologique d'une patiente prosopagnosique. In La Rééducation en Neuropsychologie: Études de Cas, ed. P. Azouvi, D. Perrier and M. Van der Linden. Marseille: Solal.
McNeil, J. E. and Warrington, E. K. (1993). Prosopagnosia: A face specific disorder. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 46A, 1–10.
Meadows, J. C. (1974). The anatomical basis of prosopagnosia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 37, 489–501.
Michel, F., Poncet, M. and Signoret, J. L. (1989). Les lésions responsables de la prosopagnosie sont-elles toujours bilatérales? Rev. Neurol., 145, 764–70.
Milandre, L., Brosset, C., Botti, G. and Khalil, R. (1994). Etude de 82 infarctus du territoire des artères cérébrales postérieures. Rev. Neurol., 150, 133–41.
Nadler, M. P., Miller, D. and Nadler, D. J. (1990). Glare and Contrast Sensitivity for Clinicians, New York: Springer-Verlag.
O'Donnell, C. and Bruce, V. (2001). Familiarisation with faces selectively enhances sensitivity to changes made to the eyes. Perception, 30, 755–64.
Pessin, M. S., Lathi, E. S., Cohen, M. B., et al. (1987). Clinical features and mechanism of occipital infarction. Ann. Neurol., 21, 290–9.
Polster, M. R. and Rapcsak, S. Z. (1996). Representations in learning new faces: Evidence from prosopagnosia. J. Int. Neuropsych. Soc., 2, 240–8.
Quaglino, A. and Borelli, G. (1867). Emiplegia sinistra con amaurosi – guarigione – perdita totale della percezione dei colori e della memoria della configurazione degli oggetti. Giornale d'Oftalmologia Italiano, 10, 106–17.
Riddoch, M. J. and Humphreys, G. W. (1993). Birmingham object recognition battery. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Rizzo, M., Corbett, J. J., Thompson, H. S. and Damasio, A. R. (1986). Spatial contrast sensitivity in facial recognition. Neurology, 36, 1254–6.
Rossion, B., Caldara, R., Seghier, M., et al. (2003a). A network of occipito-temporal face-sensitive areas besides the right middle fusiform gyrus is necessary for normal face processing. Brain, 126, 2381–95.
Rossion, B., de Gelder, B., Dricot, L., et al. (2000). Hemispheric asymmetries for whole-based and parts-based face processing in the human fusiform gyrus. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 12, 793–802.
Rossion, B., Joyce, C., Cottrell, G. W. and Tarr, M. J. (2003b). Early lateralization and orientation tuning for face, word and object processing in the visual cortex. Neuroimage, 20, 1609–24.
Rossion, B. and Pourtois, G. (2004). Revisiting Snodgrass and Vanderwart's object pictorial set: The role of surface detail in basic-level object recognition. Perception, 33(2), 217–36.
Rossion, B., Schiltz, C., Robaye, L., Pirenne, D. and Crommelinck, M. (2001). How does the brain discriminate familiar and unfamiliar faces: A PET study of face categorical perception. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 13, 1019–34.
Schiltz, C., Sorger, B., Caldara, R., et al. (2006). Anomalous response to facial identity in the right middle fusiform gyrus underlies impaired face identification in acquired prosopagnosia. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 574–86.
Schweich, M. and Bruyer, R. (1993). Heterogeneity in the cognitive manifestations of prosopagnosia: The study of a group of single cases. Cogn. Neuropsych., 10, 529–47.
Sergent, J., Otha, S. and MacDonald, B. (1992). Functional neuroanatomy of face and object processing. A positron emission tomography study. Brain, 115, 15–36.
Sergent, J. and Signoret, J. L. (1992). Varieties of functional deficits in prosopagnosia. Cerebral Cortex, 2, 375–88.
Sergent, J. and Villemure, J. G. (1989). Prosopagnosia in a right hemispherectomized patient. Brain, 112, 975–95.
Seron, X., Mataigne, F., Coyette, F., et al. (1995). Etude d'un cas de métamorphopsie limitée aux visages et à certains objets familiers. Rev. Neurol., 151, 691–8.
Snodgrass, J. G. and Vanderwart, M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. J. Exp. Psycho. [Learn. Mem. Cogn.], 6, 174–215.
Spreen, O. and Strauss, E. (1998). A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests, 2nd edn. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tranel, D., Damasio, A. R. and Damasio, H. (1988). Intact recognition of facial expression, gender, and age in patients with impaired recognition of face identity. Neurology, 38, 690–6.
Uttner, I., Bliem, H. and Danek, A. (2002). Prosopagnosia after unilateral right cerebral infarction. J. Neurol., 249, 933–5.
Wada, Y. and Yamamoto, T. (2001). Selective impairment of facial recognition due to a haematoma to the right fusiform and lateral occipital region. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 71, 254–7.
Warrington, E. K. (1984). Recognition Memory Test. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
Warrington, E. K. (1996). The Camden Memory Tests: Manual. Hove: Psychology Press.
Warrington, E. K. and James, M. (1991). The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. Bury St Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Company.
Whitely, A. M. and Warrington, E. K. (1977). Prosopagnosia: A clinical, psychological, and anatomical study of three patients. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 40, 395–403.
Wigan, A. L. (1844). A New View of Insanity: The Duality of the Mind. London: Longman.
Wilbrand, H. (1887). Die Seelenblindheit als Herderscheinung und ihre Beziehungen zur homonymen Hemianopsie. Wiesbaden: J. F. Bergmann.
Wilbrand, H. (1892). Ein Fall von Seelenblindheit und Hemianopsie mit Sectionsbefund. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk., 2, 361–87.
Wilson, B. (2003). The theory and practice of neuropsychological rehabilitation: An overview. In Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, ed. B. Wilson. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Yamamoto, Y., Georgiadis, A. L., Chang, H. M. and Caplan, L. R. (1999). Posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts in the New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry. Arch. Neurol., 56, 824–32.
Zeki, S. M. (1990). A century of cerebral achromatopsia. Brain, 113, 1721–77.
Zihl, J. and Cramon, D. von (1986). Zerebrale Sehstörungen. Kohlhammer: Stuttgart.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Adler, A. (1944). Disintegration and restoration of optic recognition in visual agnosia. Analysis of a case. Arch. Neurol., 51, 243–59.
Adler, A. (1950). Course and outcome of visual agnosia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 111, 41–51.
Benson, D. F. and Greenberg, J. P. (1969). Visual form agnosia – a specific defect in visual discrimination. Arch. Neurol., 20, 82–9.
Cals, N., Devuyst, G., Afsar, N., Karapanayiotides, T., and Bogousslavsky, J. (2002). Pure superficial posterior cerebral artery territory infarction in The Lausanne Stroke Registry. J. Neurol., 249, 855–61.
Cowey, A. and Stoerig, P. (1991). The neurobiology of blindsight. Trends Neurosci., 14, 140–5.
Damasio, A. R., Yamada, T., Damasio, H., Corbett, J. and McKee, J. (1980). Central achromatopsia: Behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic aspects. Neurology, 30, 1064–71.
De Renzi, E. and Saetti, M. C. (1997). Associative agnosia and optic aphasia: Qualitative or quantitative difference? Cortex, 33, 115–30.
Done, D. J. and Hajilou, B. B. (2004). Loss of high-level perceptual knowledge of object structure in DAT. Neuropsychologia, 43, 60–8.
Freund, C. S. (1889). Ueber optische Aphasie und Seelenblindheit. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 20, 276–97, 371–416.
Gainotti, G. (2004). A metanalysis of impaired and spared naming for different categories of knowledge in patients with a visuo-verbal disconnection. Neuropsychologia, 42, 299–319.
Gainotti, G., Silveri, M. C., Villa, G. and Caltagirone, C. (1983). Drawing objects from memory in aphasia. Brain, 106, 613–22.
Gloning, K., Hoff, H. and Tschabitscher, H. (1962). Die Rückbildung der kortikalen Blindheit. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 74, 406–7.
Goldenberg, G. (1992). Loss of visual imagery and loss of visual knowledge – a case study, Neuropsychologia, 30, 1081–99.
Goldenberg, G. (2002a). Goldstein and Gelb's case Schn. – a classic case in neuropsychology? In Classic Cases in Neuropsychology, Vol. 2, ed. C. Code et al. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 281–99.
Goldenberg, G. (2002b). Neuropsychologie - Grundlagen, Klinik, Rehabilitation, 3. Auflage Urban and Fischer, München.
Goldenberg, G., Hartmann, K. and Schlott, I. (2003). Defective pantomime of object use in left brain damage: Apraxia or asymbolia? Neuropsychologia, 41, 1565–73.
Goldenberg, G. and Karlbauer, F. (1998). The more you know the less you can tell: Inhibitory effects of visuo-semantic activation on modality specific visual misnaming, Cortex, 34, 471–92.
Goldstein, K. and Gelb, A. (1918). Psychologische Analysen hirnpathologischer Fälle auf Grund von Untersuchungen Hirnverletzter – I. Abhandlung. Zur Psychologie des optischen Wahrnehmungs- und Erkennungsvorganges. Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 41, 1–142.
Goodale, M. A., Jakobson, L. S., Milner, A. D., et al. (1994). The nature and limits of orientation and pattern processing supporting visuomotor control in a visual form agnosic. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 6, 46–56.
Humphreys, G. W. and Riddoch, M. J. (1987). The fractionation of visual agnosia. In Visual Object Processing: A Cognitive Neuropsychological Approach, ed. G. W. Humphreys and M. J. Riddoch. Hove London Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 281–306.
Jellinger, K. A. (2002). Alzheimer disease and cerebrovascular pathology: An update. J. Neural Transm., 109, 813–36.
Landis, T., Graves, R., Benson, D. F. and Hebben, N. (1982). Visual recognition through kinaesthetic mediation. Psychol. Med., 12, 515–31.
Lhermitte, F. and Beauvois, M. F. (1973). A visual-speech disconnection syndrome. Report of a case with optic aphasia, agnosic alexia and colour agnosia. Brain, 96, 695–714.
Liepmann, H. (1908). Ueber die agnostischen Stoerungen, Neurologisches Centralblatt, 27, 609–17, 664–75.
Lissauer, H. (1890). Ein Fall von Seelenblindheit nebst einem Beitrag zur Theorie derselben. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 21, 222–70.
Marr, D. (1982). Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co.
Meadows, J. C. (1974). Disturbed perception of colours associated with localized cerebral lesions. Brain, 97, 615–32.
Milner, A. D., Perrett, D. I., Johnston, R. S., et al. (1991). Perception and action in "visual form agnosia'. Brain, 114, 405–28.
Plaut, D. C. and Shallice, T. (1993). Perseverative and semantic influences on visual object naming errors in optic aphasia: A connectionist account. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 5, 89–117.
Poeck, K. (1984). Neuropsychological demonstration of splenial interhemispheric disconnection in a case of "optic anomia'. Neuropsychologia, 22, 707–14.
Riddoch, M. J. and Humphreys, G. W. (1987). Visual object processing in optic aphasia: A case of semantic access agnosia. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 4, 131–85.
Sacks, O. (1995). The case of the colorblind painter. In An Anthropologist on Mars. New York: Vintage Books, pp. 3–41.
Schnider, A., Benson, D. F. and Scharre, D. W. (1994). Visual agnosia and optic aphasia: Are they anatomically distinct? Cortex, 30, 445–58.
Sitton, M., Mozer, M. C. and Farah, M. J. (2001). Superadditive effects of multiple lesions in a connectionist architecture: Implications for the neuropsychology of optic aphasia. Psychol. Rev., 107, 709–34.
Sparr, S. A., Jay, M., Drislane, F. W. and Venna, N. (1991). A historical case of visual agnosia revisited after 40 years. Brain, 114, 789–800.
Steeves, J. K. E., Humphrey, G. K., Culham, J. C., et al. (2004). Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for a contribution of color and texture information to scene classification in a patient with visual form agnosia. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 16, 955–65.
Teixeira-Ferreira, C., Giusiano, B., Ceccaldi, M. and Poncet, M. (1997). Optic aphasia: Evidence of the contribution of different neural systems to object and action naming. Cortex, 33, 499–514.
Turnbull, O. H., Driver, J. and McCarthy, R. (2004). 2D but not 3D: Pictorial-depth deficits in a case of visual agnosia. Cortex, 40, 723–38.
Wilson, B. A. and Davidoff, J. (1993). Partial recovery from visual object agnosia: A 10 year follow-up study. Cortex, 29, 529–42.
Zeki, S. (1990). A century of cerebral achromatopsia. Brain, 113, 1721–77.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: bibliography

Albert, M. L. and Bear, D. (1974). Time to understand. A case study of word deafness with reference to the role of time in auditory comprehension. Brain, 97, 373–84.
Assal, G. (1973). Aphasie de Wernicke sans amusie chez un pianiste. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 129, 251–5.
Auerbach, S. H., Allard, T., Naeser, M., Alexander, M. P. and Albert, M. L. (1982). Pure word deafness: Analysis of a case with bilateral lesions and a defect at the prephonemic level. Brain, 105, 271–300.
Augustin, J., Guegan-Massardier, E., Levillain, D., et al. (2001). Musical hallucinosis following infarction of the right middle cerebral artery. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 157, 289–92.
Ayotte, J., Peretz, I., Rousseau, I., Bart, C. and Bojanowski, M. (2000). Patterns of music associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts? Brain, 123, 1926–38.
Basso, A. and Capitani, E. (1985). Spared musical abilities in a conductor with global aphasia and ideomotor apraxia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 48, 407–21.
Bogaert, van L. (1927). L'hallucinose pédonculaire. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 43, 608–17.
Buchman, A., Garron, D. C., Trost-Cardamoze, J. E., Wichter, M. D. and Schwartz, M. (1986). Word deafness: One hundred years later. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 49, 489–99.
Cambier, J., Decroix, J. P. and Masson, C. (1987). Auditory hallucinations in lesions of the brain stem. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 143, 255–62.
De la Sayette, V., Dupuy, B., Eustache, F., et al. (1994). Multimodal or multisensorial agnosia? Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 150, 346–53.
Denes, G. and Semenza, C. (1975). Auditory modality-specific anomia: Evidence from a case of pure word deafness. Cortex, 11, 401–11.
Ellis, A. W., Franklin, S. and Crerar, A. (1994). Cognitive neuropsychology and the remediation of disorders of spoken language. In M. S. Riddoch and G. W. Humphreys, eds., Cognitive Neuropsychology and Cognitive Rehabilitation. Hove: L. E. A. pp. 287–315.
Evers, S. and Ellger, T. (2004). The clinical spectrum of musical hallucinations. J. Neurol. Sci., 227, 55–65.
Godefroy, O., Leys, D., Furby, A., et al. (1995). Psychoacoustical deficits related to bilateral subcortical hemorrhages. A case with apperceptive auditory agnosia. Cortex, 31, 149–59.
Grawemeyer, B., Cox, R. and Lum, C. (2000). AUDIX: A knowledge-based system for speech-therapy auditory discrimination exercises. Stud. Health Informat., 77, 568–72.
Griffiths, T. D., Rees, A., Witton, C., et al. (1997). Spatial and temporal auditory processing deficit following right hemisphere infarction. A psychophysical study. Brain, 120, 785–94.
Howard, D. and Patterson, K. (1992). The Pyramids and Palm Trees Test: A Test of Semantic Access from Words and Pictures. Bury, St Edmunds: Thames Valley test Co.
Kay, J., Lesser, R. and Coltheart, M. (1992). The Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kazui, S., Naritomi, H., Sawada, T., Inoue, N. and Okuda, J. (1990). Subcortical auditory agnosia. Brain Lang., 38, 476–87.
Kemp, D. T. (1978). Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 64, 1386–91.
Kussmaull, A. (1884). Disturbances of speech. In Cyclopedia of the Practice of Medicine, ed. H. Von Ziemssen. New York: William Wood, 14, 581–875. Les troubles de la parole (trad. française: Rueff A.) – Baillière et fils, Paris.
Lambert, J. (1997). Troubles de la perception du langage parlé: Approche cognitive et orientations thérapeutiques, In Perception Auditive et Compréhension du Langage. Etat Initial, État Stable et Pathologie, ed. J. Lambert and J. L. Nespoulous. Marseille: Solal, pp. 151–66.
Le Gros Clark, W. E. and Russell, W. R. (1938). Cortical deafness without aphasia. Brain, 61, 375–83.
Lechevalier, B. (2003). Le Cerveau de Mozart, vol. 1, Paris: Odile Jacod.
Lechevalier, B., Eustache, F. and Rossa, Y. (1985). Les Troubles de la Perception de la Musique d'Origine Neurologique, Paris: Masson.
Lechevalier, B., Lambert, J., Eustache, F. and Platel, H. (1999). Agnosies auditives et syndromes voisins: Etude clinique, cognitive et psychopathologique. Encycl. Méd. Chir. Paris: Elsevier, Neurologie, 17021 B20, 9p.
Lechevalier, B., Rossa, Y., Eustache, F., et al. (1984). Un cas de surdité corticale épargnant en partie la musique. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 3, 190–201.
Lichtheim, L. (1885). On aphasia. Brain, 7, 433–84.
Liégeois-Chauvel, C., Peretz, I., Babaï, M., Laguitton, V. and Chauvel, P. (1998). Contribution of different cortical areas in the temporal lobes to music processing. Brain, 121, 1853–67.
Liepmann, H. and Storch, E. (1902). Der mikroskopische gehirnbefund be idem fall Gorstelle. Monatssch. Psychiatr. Neurol., 11, 115–20.
Luria, A. R., Tsvetkova, L. and Futer, J. (1965). Aphasia in a composer. J. Neurol. Sci., 2, 288–92.
Mahoudeau, D., Lemoyne, J., Foncin, J. F. and Dubrisay, J. (1958). Considérations sur l'agnosie auditive (A propos d'un cas anatomoclinique). Rev. Neurol., 99, 454–71.
Mazzoni, M., Moretti, P., Pardossi, L., Vista, M. and Muratorio, A. (1993). A case of music imperception. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 56, 322.
Mazzuchi, A., Marchini, C., Budai, R. and Parma, M. (1982). A case of receptive amusia with prominent timbre perception defect. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 45, 644–7.
Miceli, G. (1982). The processing of speech sounds in a patient with cortical auditory disorder. Neuropsychologia, 20, 5–20.
Michel, F. (1993). L'hémianacousie, un symptôme aussi fréquent que méconnu. Rev. Neuropsychol., 3, 365–75.
Morris, J., Franklin, S., Ellis, A., Turner, E. and Bayley, P. J. (1996). Remediating a speech perception deficit in an aphasic patient. Aphasiology, 10, 137–58.
Pasquier, F., Leys, D., Steinling, M., et al. (1991). Agnosie auditive unilatérale droite consécutive à une hémorragie lenticulaire gauche. Rev. Neurol., 147, 129–37.
Peretz, I. (1990). Processing of local and global musical information by unilateral brain-damaged patients. Brain, 113, 1185–205.
Peretz, I. (2001) Brain specialization for music: New evidence from congenital amusia. In R. J. Zatorre and I. Peretz, eds., The Biological Foundations of Music, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 930, 153–65.
Phillips, D. P. and Farmer, M. E. (1990). Acquired word deafness, and the temporal grain of sound representation in the primary auditory cortex. Behav. Brain Res., 40, 85–94.
Penfield, W. and Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. A final summary and discussion. Brain, 86, 595–696.
Platel, H., Baron, J. C., Desgranges, B., Bernard, F. and Eustache, F. (2003). Semantic and episodic memory of music are subserved by distinct neural networks. NeuroImage, 20, 244–56.
Platel, H., Price, C., Baron, J. C., et al. (1997). The structural components of music perception: A functional anatomical study. Brain, 120, 229–43.
Praamstra, P., Hagoost, P., Maassen, B. and Crul, T. (1991). Word deafness and auditory cortical function. Brain, 114, 1197–225.
Rauschecker, J. P., Tian, B., Pons, J. and Mishkin, M. (1997). Serial and parallel processing in rhesus monkey auditory cortex. J. Comp. Neurol., 382, 89–103.
Saffran, E. M., Marin, O. S. and Yeni-Komshian, G. H. (1976). An analysis of speech perception in word deafness. Brain Lang., 3, 209–28.
Seashore, C. E. (1935). Measurement of musical talent, University of Iowa, Studies in the Psychology of Music, Vol. 2.
Sidtis, J. J. and Feldmann, E. (1990). Transient ischemic attacks presenting with a loss of pitch perception. Cortex, 26, 469–71.
Signoret, J. L., Van Eeckout Ph., Poncet, M. and Castaigne, P. (1987). Aphasie sans amusie chez un organiste aveugle. Rev. Neurol., 143, 172–81.
Tanaka, Y., Yamadori, A. and Mori, E. (1987). Pure word deafness following bilateral lesions. A psychological analysis. Brain, 110, 381–403.
Wang, E., Peach, R., Xu, P., Schneck, M. and Manry, C. (2000). Perception of dynamic acoustic patterns by an individual with unilateral verbal auditory agnosia. Brain Lang., 73, 442–55.
Wertheim, N. and Botez, M. I. (1959). Plan d'investigation des fonctions musicales. L'Encéphale, 48, 246–55.
Yaqub, B., Gascon, G., Alnosha, M. and Whitaker, H. (1988). Pure word deafness (acquired verbal auditory agnosia) in an arabic speaking patient, Brain, 111, 457–66.
Ziegler, D. K. (1952). Word deafness and Wernicke aphasia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 67, 323–31.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Percheron, G. (1976b). Les artères du thalamus humain, II: Artères et territoire thalamiques paramédians de l'artère basilaire communicante. Rev. Neurol., 132, 309–24.
Perret, E. (1974). The left frontal lobe of man and the suppression of habitual responses in verbal categorical behaviour. Neuropsychologia, 12, 323–40.
Pillon, B., Deweer, B., Agid, Y. and Dubois, B. (1993). Explicit memory in Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases. Arch. Neurol., 50, 374–9.
Pohjasvaara, T., Leskela, M., Vataja, R., et al. (2002). Post-stroke depression, executive dysfunction and functional outcome. Eur. J. Neurol., 9, 269–75.
Pohjasvaara, T., Mantyla, R., Salonen, O., et al. (2000). How complex interactions of ischemic brain infarcts, white matter lesions, and atrophy relate to poststroke dementia. Arch. Neurol., 57, 1295–300.
Pohjasvaara, T., Mantyla, R., Ylikoski, R., Kaste, M. and Erkinjuntti, T. (2003). Clinical features of MRI-defined subcortical vascular disease. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord., 17, 236–42.
Posner, M. I. and Petersen, S. E. (1990). The attention system of the human brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 13, 25–42.
Powell, J. H., al-Adawi, S., Morgan, J. and Greenwood, R. J. (1996). Motivational deficits after brain injury: Effects of bromocriptine in 11 patients. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 60, 416–21.
Premack, D. and Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behav. Brain Sci., 1, 515–26.
Ramier, A. M. and Hécaen, H. (1970). Rôles respectifs des lésions frontales et de la latéralisation lésionnelle dans les déficits des fluences verbales. Rev. Neurol., 123, 17–22.
Rasquin, S. M., Lodder, J., Ponds, R. W., et al. (2004). Cognitive functioning after stroke: A one-year follow-up study. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord., 18, 138–44.
Rasquin, S. M., Verhey, F. R., Lousberg, R., Winkens, I. and Lodder, J. (2002). Vascular cognitive disorders: Memory, mental speed and cognitive flexibility after stroke. J. Neurol. Sci., 203–4, 115–19.
Robert, P. H., Clairet, S., Benoit, M., et al. (2002). The Apathy Inventory: Assessment of apathy and awareness in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry, 17, 1099–105.
Roberts, A. C., Robbins, T. W. and Weiskrantz, L. (1996). Executive and cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 351B, 1387–527.
Robertson, I. H., Manly, T., Andrade, J., Baddeley, B. T. and Yiend, J. (1997). ‘Oops!’: Performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects. Neuropsychologia, 35, 747–58.
Robertson, I. H., Ward, T., Ridgeway, V. and Nimmo-Smith, I. (1996). The structure of normal human attention: The Test of Everyday Attention. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 2, 525–34.
Rogers, R. D., Owen, A. M., Middleton, H. C., et al. (1999). Choosing between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards activates inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex. J. Neurosci., 19, 9029–38.
Rolls, E. T. (2000). Memory systems in the brain. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 51, 599–630.
Rolls, E. T., Critchley, H. D., Mason, R. and Wakeman, E. A. (1996). Orbitofrontal cortex neurons: Role in olfactory and visual association learning. J. Neurophysiol., 75, 1970–81.
Rousseaux, M., Godefroy, O., Cabaret, M., Benaim, C. and Pruvo, J. P. (1996). Analyse et évolution des déficits cognitifs après rupture d'un anéurysme de l'artère communicante anterieure. Rev. Neurol., 152, 678–87.
Roussel-Pieronne, M., Godefroy, O., Dujardin, K., et al. Perturbations de la mémoire de travail dans la pathologie cérébrale focale. Rev. Neuropsychol. (in press).
Rowe, A. D., Bullock, P. R., Polkey, C. E. and Morris, R. G. (2001). ‘Theory of mind’ impairments and their relationship to executive functioning following frontal lobe excisions. Brain, 124, 600–16.
Rueckert, L. and Grafman, J. (1996). Sustained attention deficits in patients with right frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 34, 953–63.
Rueckert, L. and Grafman, J. (1998). Sustained attention deficits in patients with lesions of posterior cortex. Neuropsychologia, 36, 653–60.
Rylander, G. (1939). Personality changes after operations on the frontal lobes. A clinical study of 32 cases. Acta Psychiatr. Neurol. Scand., Suppl 20, 3–327.
Sachdev, P. S., Brodaty, H., Valenzuela, M. J., et al. (2004). The neuropsychological profile of vascular cognitive impairment in stroke and TIA patients. Neurology, 23, 912–19.
Saint-Cyr, J. A. (2003). Frontal-striatal circuit functions: Context, sequence, and consequence. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 9, 103–27.
Sanides, F. and Sas, E. (1970). Persistence of horizontal cells of the Cajal foetal type and of the subpial granular layer in parts of the mammalian paleocortex. Z. Mikrosk. Anat. Forsch., 82, 570–88.
Sarazin, M., Michon, A., Pillon, B., et al. (2003). Metabolic correlates of behavioral and affective disturbances in frontal lobe pathologies. J. Neurol., 250, 827–33.
Schmahmann, J. D. (2003). Vascular syndromes of the thalamus. Stroke, 34, 2264–78.
Schnider, A. and Ptak, R. (1999). Spontaneous confabulators fail to suppress currently irrelevant memory traces. Nat. Neurosci., 2, 677–81.
Schnider, A., Ptak, R., von Daniken, C. and Remonda, L. (2000). Recovery from spontaneous confabulations parallels recovery of temporal confusion in memory. Neurology, 55, 74–83.
Shallice, T. (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B298, 199–209.
Shallice, T. and Burgess, P. (1991). Deficits in strategy application after frontal lobe damage in man. Brain, 114, 727–41.
Shallice, T. and Burgess, P. (1996). The domain of supervisory processes and temporal organization of behaviour. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B351, 1405–12.
Shallice, T., Burgess, P. W., Schon, F. and Baxter, D. M. (1989). The origins of utilization behaviour. Brain, 112, 1587–98.
Shallice, T. and Vallar, G. (1990). The impairment of auditory-verbal short term storage. In G. Vallar and T. Shallice, eds., Neuropsychological Impairment of Short Term Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 11–53.
Shammi, P. and Stuss, D. T. (1999). Humour appreciation: A role of the right frontal lobe. Brain, 122, 657–66.
Shankle, W. R., Nielson, K. A. and Cotman, C. W. (1995). Low-dose propranolol reduces aggression and agitation resembling that associated with orbitofrontal dysfunction in elderly demented patients. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord., 9, 233–7.
Sirigu, A., Zalla, T., Pillon, B., et al. (1995). Selective impairments in managerial knowledge following prefrontal cortex damage. Cortex, 31, 301–16.
Stablum, F., Umilta, C., Mogentale, C., Carlan, M. and Guerrini, C. (2000). Rehabilitation of executive deficits in closed head injury and anterior communicating artery aneurysm patients. Psychol. Res., 63, 265–78.
Starkstein, S. E., Robinson, R. G., Berthier, M. L. and Price, T. R. (1988). Depressive disorders following posterior circulation as compared with middle cerebral artery infarcts. Brain, 111, 375–87.
Stone, V. E., Baron-Cohen, S. and Knight, R. T. (1998). Frontal lobe contributions to theory of mind. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 10, 640–56.
Stuss, D. T. (1991). Disturbances in self-awareness after frontal system damage. In G. Prigatano and D. Schacter, eds., Awareness of Deficit After Brain Injury. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 63–83.
Stuss, D. T. and Alexander, M. P. (1999). Affectively burnt in: A proposed role of the right frontal lobe. In E. Tulving, ed., Memory, Consciousness and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Philadelphia: Psychology Press, pp. 215–27.
Stuss, D. T. and Alexander, M. P. (2000). Executive functions and the frontal lobes: A conceptual view. Psychol. Res., 63, 289–98.
Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., Hamer, L., et al. (1998). The effects of focal anterior and posterior brain lesions on verbal fluency. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 4, 265–78.
Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., Palumbo, C. L., et al. (1994). Organizational strategies of patients with unilateral or bilateral frontal lobe injury in word list learning tasks. Neuropsychology, 8, 355–73.
Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., Shallice, T., et al. (2005). Multiple frontal systems controlling response speed. Neuropsychologia, 43, 396–417.
Stuss, D. T. and Benson, D. F. (1986). The Frontal Lobes. New York: Raven Press.
Stuss, D. T., Binns, M. A., Murphy, K. J. and Alexander, M. P. (2002). Dissociations within the anterior attentional system: Effects of task complexity and irrelevant information on reaction time speed and accuracy. Neuropsychology, 16, 500–13.
Stuss, D. T., Bisschop, S. M., Alexander, M. P., et al. (2001a). The Trail Making Test: A study in focal lesion patients. Psychol. Assess., 13, 230–9.
Stuss, D. T., Delgado, M. and Guzman, D. A. (1987). Verbal regulation in the control of motor impersistence: A proposed rehabilitation procedure. J. Neurol. Rehabil., 1, 19–24.
Stuss, D. T., Floden, D., Alexander, M. P., Levine, B. and Katz, D. (2001b). Stroop performance in focal lesion patients: Dissociation of processes and frontal lobe lesion location. Neuropsychologia, 39, 771–86.
Stuss, D. T., Gallup, G. G. and Alexander, M. P. (2001c). The frontal lobes are necessary for ‘theory of mind’. Brain, 124, 279–86.
Stuss, D. T. and Levine, B. (2002). Adult clinical neuropsychology: Lessons from studies of the frontal lobes. Annu. Rev. of Psychol., 53, 401–33.
Stuss, D. T., Levine, B., Alexander, M. P., et al. (2000a). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in patients with focal frontal and posterior brain damage: Effects of lesion location and test structure on separable cognitive processes. Neuropsychologia, 38, 388–402.
Stuss, D. T., Murphy, K. J., Binns, M. A. and Alexander, M. P. (2003). Staying on the job: The frontal lobes control individual performance variability. Brain, 126, 2363–80.
Stuss, D. T., van Reekum, R. and Murphy, K. J. (2000b). Differentiation of states and causes of apathy. In J. Borod, ed., The Neuropsychology of Emotion. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 340–63.
Stuss, D. T., Stethem, L. L., Hugenholtz, H., et al. (1989). Reaction time after head injury: Fatigue, divided and focused attention, and consistency of performance. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 52, 742–8.
Sunderland, A., Bowers, M. P., Sluman, S. M., Wilcock, D. J. and Ardron, M. E. (1999). Impaired dexterity of the ipsilateral hand after stroke and the relationship to cognitive deficit. Stroke, 30, 949–55.
Tariot, P. N., Erb, R., Podgorski, C. A., et al. (1998). Jan Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for agitation and aggression in dementia. Am. J. Psychiatry, 155, 54–61.
Tariot, P. N., Jakimovich, L. J., Erb, R., et al. (1999). Withdrawal from controlled carbamazepine therapy followed by further carbamazepine treatment in patients with dementia. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 60, 684–9.
Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., Paik, M., et al. (1993). Clinical determinants of dementia related to stroke. Ann. Neurol., 33, 568–75.
Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., Stern, Y., et al. (1994). Cognitive impairement after stroke: Frequency, patterns, and relationship to functional abilities. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 57, 202–7.
Tidswell, P., Dias, P. S., Sagar, H. J., Mayes, A. R. and Battersby, R. D. (1995). Cognitive outcome after aneurysm rupture: Relationship to aneurysm site and perioperative complications. Neurology, 45, 875–82.
Troyer, A. K., Moscovitch, M., Winocur, G., Alexander, M. P. and Stuss, D. (1998). Clustering and switching on verbal fluency: The effects of focal frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia, 36, 499–504.
Truelle, J. L., Le Gall, D., Aubin, G., Derouesné, C. and Lezak, M. (1995). Movements disturbances following frontal lobe lesions: Qualitative analysis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol. Behav. Neurol., 8, 14–19.
Tullberg, M., Fletcher, E., DeCarli, C., et al. (2004). White matter lesions impair frontal lobe function regardless of their location. Neurology, 63, 246–53.
Umilta, C., Nicoletti, R., Simion, F., Tagliabue, M. E. and Bagnara, S. (1992). The cost of a strategy. Eur. J. Cogn. Psychol., 4, 21–40.
Van der Werf, Y. D., Scheltens, P., Lindeboom, J., et al. (2003). Deficits of memory, executive functioning and attention following infarction in the thalamus; A study of 22 cases with localised lesions. Neuropsychologia, 41, 1330–44.
Van der Werf, Y. D., Witter, M. P., Uylings, H. B. and Jolles, J. (2000). Neuropsychology of infarctions in the thalamus: A review. Neuropsychologia, 38, 613–627.
Vataja, R., Pohjasvaara, T., Mantyla, R., et al. (2003). MRI correlates of executive dysfunction in patients with ischaemic stroke. Eur. J. Neurol., 10, 625–31.
Weiller, C., Ringelstein, E. B., Reiche, W., Thron, A. and Buell, U. (1990). The large striatocapsular infarct. A clinical and pathophysiological entity. Arch. Neurol., 47, 1085–91.
Wheeler, M. A. and Stuss, D. T. (2003). Remembering and knowing in patients with frontal lobe injuries. Cortex, 39, 827–46.
Wheeler, M. A. Stuss, D. T. and Tulving, E. (1995). Frontal lobe damage produces episodic memory impairment. J. Internat. Neuropsychol. Soc., 1, 525–36.
Wiegersma, S., Van der Scheer, E. and Human, R. (1990). Subjective ordering, short term memory and the frontal lobes. Neuropsychologia, 28, 95–8.
Wilkins, A. J., Shallice, T. and McCarthy, R. (1987). Frontal lesions and sustained attention. Neuropsychologia, 25, 359–65.
Wilson, B. A., Alderman, N., Burgess, P. W., Emslie, H., and Evans, J. J. (1996). Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome. Reading, England: Thames Valley Company.
Wilson, B. A., Evans, J. J., Emslie, H., Alderman, N. and Burgess, P. W. (1998). The development of an ecologically valid test for assessing patients with a dysexecutive syndrome. Neuropsychol. Rehabil., 8, 213–28.
Winocur, G. and Moscovitch, M. (1990). Hippocampal and prefrontal cortex contributions to learning and memory: Analysis of lesion and aging effects on maze learning in rats. Behav. Neurosci., 104, 544–51.
Wolfe, N., Linn, R., Babikian, V. L., et al. (1990). Frontal systems impairment following multiple lacunar infarcts. Arch. Neurol., 47, 129–32.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Alexander, M. P. and Freedman, M. (1984). Amnesia after anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture. Neurology, 34, 752–7.
Alexander, M. P. and Stuss, D. T. (2000). Disorders of frontal lobe functioning. Sem. Neurol., 20, 427–37.
Alexander, M. P., Stuss, D. T., et al. (2003). California Verbal Learning Test: Performance by patients with focal frontal and non-frontal lesions. Brain, 126, 1493–503.
Baddeley, A. and Wilson, B. A. (1994). When implicit learning fails: Amnesia and the problem of error elimination. Neuropsychologia, 32, 53–68.
Brain, W. R. (1941). Visual disorientation with special reference to lesions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Brain, 64, 244–72.
Brown, J. A., Lutsep, H., et al. (2003). Motor cortex stimulation for enhancement of recovery after stroke: A case report. Neurol. Res., 25, 815–18.
Caplan, L. R. (1980). “Top of the basilar” syndrome. Neurology, 30, 72–9.
Caplan, L. R. and Hedley-Whyte, T. (1974). Cuing and memory dysfunction in alexia without agraphia. Brain, 97, 251–62.
Carmichael, S. T. (2003). Plasticity of cortical projections after stroke. Neuroscientist, 9, 64–75.
Cermak, L. S. and O'Connor, M. (1983). The anterograde and retrograde retrieval ability of a patient with amnesia due to encephalitis. Neuropsychologia, 21, 213–34.
Chayer, C. and Freedman, M. (2001). Frontal lobe functions. Curr. Neurol. Neurosci. Rep., 1, 547–52.
Corsellis, J. A., Goldberg, G. J., et al. (1968). “Limbic encephalitis” and its association with carcinoma. Brain, 91, 481–96.
Cremonini, W., De Renzi, E., et al. (1980). Contrasting performance of right- and left-hemisphere patients on short-term and long-term sequential visual memory. Neuropsychologia, 18, 9.
Cummings, J. L., Tomiyasu, U., et al. (1984). Amnesia with hippocampus lesions after cardiopulmonary arrest. Neurology, 34, 679–81.
D'Esposito, M., Alexander, M. P., et al. (1996). Recovery of memory and executive function following anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 2, 565–70.
Damasio, A. R. and Damasio, H. (1983). The anatomic basis of pure alexia. Neurology, 33, 1573–83.
Damasio, A. R., Eslinger, P. J., et al. (1985a). Multimodal amnesic syndrome following bilateral temporal and basal forebrain damage. Arch. Neurol., 42, 252–9.
Damasio, A. R., Graff-Radford, N. R., et al. (1985b). Amnesia following basal forebrain lesions. Arch. Neurol., 42, 263–71.
Deluca, J. and Cincerone, K. D. (1991). Confabulation following aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Cortex, 27, 417–23.
De Olmos, J. S. (1990). Amygdala. In The Human Nervous System, ed. J. Paxinos. New York: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 583–710.
De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., et al. (1977a). Spatial memory and hemispheric locus of lesion. Cortex, 13, 424–33.
De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., et al. (1977b). Topographical amnesia. J. Neurol., Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 40, 498–505.
De Renzi, E., Zambolin, A., et al. (1987). The pattern of neuropsychological impairment associated with left posterior cerebral artery infarcts. Brain, 110, 1099–116.
Evans, J. J., Wilson, B. A., et al. (2003). Who makes good use of memory aids? Results of a survey of people with acquired brain injury. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 9, 925–35.
Fisher, C. M. (1992). Concerning the mechanism of recovery in stroke hemiplegia. Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 19, 57–63.
Fletcher, P. C. and Henson, R. N. (2001). Frontal lobes and human memory: Insights from functional neuroimaging. Brain, 124, 849–81.
Gade, A. and Mortensen, E. L. (1990). Temporal gradient in the remote memory impairment of amnesic patients with lesions in the basal forebrain. Neuropsychologia, 28, 985–1001.
Gaffan, D. (2002). Against memory systems. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Bio.], 357, 1111–21.
Gentilini, M., De Renzi, E., et al. (1987). Bilateral paramedian thalamic artery infarcts: Report of eight cases. J. Neuro., Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 50, 900–9.
Geschwind, N. and Fusillo, M. (1966). Color-naming defects in association with alexia. Arch. Neurol., 15, 137–46.
Ghika-Schmid, F. and Bogousslavsky, J. (2000). The acute behavioral syndrome of anterior thalamic infarction: A prospective study of 12 cases. Ann. Neurol., 48, 220–7.
Glisky, E. L., Schacter, D. L., et al. (1986). Learning and retention of computer-related vocabulary in memory-impaired patients: Method of vanishing cues. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 8, 292–312.
Godfrey, H. P. and Knight, R. G. (1985). Cognitive rehabilitation of memory functioning in amnesiac alcoholics. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 53, 555–7.
Goldstein, L. B. (1997). Influence of common drugs and related factors on stroke outcome. Curr. Opin. Neurol., 10, 52–7.
Graff-Radford, N. R., Damasio, H., et al. (1985). Nonhaemorrhagic thalamic infarction. Brain, 108, 485–516.
Harris, J. E. and Sunderland, A. (1981). A brief survey of the management of memory disorders in rehabilitation units in Britain. Int. Rehab. Med., 3, 206–9.
Heilman, K. M., Schwartz, H. D., et al. (1975). Defective motor learning in ideomotor apraxia. Neurology, 25, 1018–20.
Hillary, F. G., Schulthesis, M. T., et al. (2003). Spacing of repetitions improves learning and memory after moderate and servere TB1. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol., 25, 49–58.
Hyman, B. T., Van Hoesen, G. W., et al. (1984). Alzheimer's disease: Cell-specific pathology isolates the hippocampal formation. Science, 225, 1168–70.
Irle, E., Wowra, B., et al. (1992). Memory disturbances following anterior communicating artery rupture. Ann. Neurol., 31, 473–80.
Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., et al. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychol. Bull., 114, 3–28.
Jones, M. K. (1974). Imagery as a mnemonic aid after left temporal lobectomy: Contrast between material-specific and generalized memory disorders. Neuropsychologia, 12, 21–30.
Katz, D. I., Alexander, M. P., et al. (1987). Dementia following strokes in the mesencephalon and diencephalon. Arch. Neurol., 44, 1127–33.
Kawamata, T., Ren, J., et al. (1998). Intracisternal osteogenic protein-1 enhances functional recovery following focal stroke. Neuroreport, 9, 1441–5.
Komatsu, S., Mimura, M., et al. (2000). Errorless and effortful processes involved in learning of face-name associations by patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome. Neuropsychol. Rehab., 10, 113–32.
Kozlowski, D. A. and Schallert, T. (1998). Relationship between dendritic pruning and behavioral recovery following sensorimotor cortex lesions. Behav. Brain Res., 97, 89–98.
Liepert, J., Bauder, H., et al. (2000). Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke, 31, 1210–6.
Liepmann, H. and Mass, O. (1907). Ein Fall von linksseitiger Agraphie und Apraxie bei rechtsseitiger Lahmung. J. Psychol. Neurol., 10, 214–27.
Lindqvist, G. and Norlen, G. (1966). Korsakoff's syndrome after operation on ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 42, 24–34.
Lipton, S. A. (1989). Growth factors for neuronal survival and process regeneration. Implications in the mammalian central nervous system. Arch. Neurol., 46, 1241–8.
Luft, A. R., McCombe-Waller, S., et al. (2004). Repetitive bilateral arm training and motor cortex activation in chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 292, 1853–61.
Madureira, S., Guerreiro, M., et al. (1999). A follow-up study of cognitive impairment due to inferior capsular genu infarction. J. Neurol., 246, 764–9.
Magavi, S. S., Leavitt, B. R., et al. (2000). Induction of neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult mice. Nature, 405, 951–5.
Mair, W. G. P., Warrington, E. K., et al. (1979). Memory disorder in Korsakoff's psychosis: A neuropathological and neuropsychological investigation of two cases. Brain, 102, 749–83.
Martinsson, L. and Eksborg, S. (2004). Drugs for stroke recovery: The example of amphetamines. Drugs and Aging, 21, 67–79.
Milner, B., Petrides, M., et al. (1985). Frontal lobes and the temporal organization of memory. Hum. Neurobiol., 4, 137–42.
Mishkin, M. (1978). Memory in monkeys severely impaired by combined but not separate removal of the amygdala and hippocampus. Nature, 273, 297–8.
Mohr, J. P., Leicester, J., et al. (1971). Right hemianopia with memory and color deficits in circumscribed left posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. Neurology, 21, 1104–13.
Moscovitch, M. and Winocur, G. (1995). Frontal lobes, memory, and aging. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 769, 119–50.
Naeser, M. A., Martin, P. I., et al. (2005). Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca's area: An open-protocol study. Brain Lang., 93, 95–105.
Nauta, W. J. (1961). Fibre degeneration following lesions of the amygdaloid complex in the monkey. J. Anat., 95, 515–31.
Oliveri, M., Bisiach, E., et al. (2001). rTMS of the unaffected hemisphere transiently reduces contralesional visuospatial hemineglect. Neurology, 57, 1338–40.
Papez, J. W. (1995). A proposed mechanism of emotion. 1937. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 7, 103–12.
Park, C. K., Nehls, D. G., et al. (1988). The glutamate antagonist MK-801 reduces focal ischemic brain damage in the rat. Ann. Neurol., 24, 543–51.
Prigatano, G. P., Fordyce, D. J., et al. (1984). Neuropsychological rehabilitation after closed head injury in young adults. J. Neurol., Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 47, 505–13.
Risse, G. L., Rubens, A. B., et al. (1984). Disturbances of long-term memory in aphasic patients. Brain, 107, 605–17.
Rosene, D. L. and Van Hoesen, G. W. (1987). The hippocampal formation of the primate brain: A review of some comparative aspects of cytoarchitecture and connections. In Cerebral Cortex, ed. E. G. Jones and A. Peters. Plenum Publishing Corporation, pp. 345–456.
Ross, E. D. (1980a). Sensory-specific and fractional disorders of recent memory in man. I. Isolated loss of visual recent memory. Arch. Neurol., 37, 193–200.
Ross, E. D. (1980b). Sensory-specific and fractional disorders of recent memory in man. II. Unilateral loss of tactile recent memory. Arch. Neurol., 37, 267–72.
Rothi, L. J. and Heilman, K. M. (1984). Acquisition and retention of gestures by apraxic patients. Brain Cogn., 3, 426–37.
Schnyer, D. M., Verfaellie, M., et al. (2004). A role for right medial prefontal cortex in accurate feeling-of-knowing judgements: Evidence from patients with lesions to frontal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 42, 957–66.
Scoville, W. B. and Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. J. Neurol., Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 20, 11–21.
Seitz, R. J., Azari, N. P., et al. (1999). The role of diaschisis in stroke recovery. Stroke, 30, 1844–50.
Squire, L. R., Amaral, D. G., et al. (1989). Description of brain injury in the amnesic patient N.A. based on magnetic resonance imaging. Exp. Neurol., 105, 23–35.
Stablum, F., Umilta, C., et al. (2000). Rehabilitation of executive deficits in closed head injury and anterior communicating artery aneurysm patients. Psychol. Res., 63, 265–78.
Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., et al. (1978). An extraordinary form of confabulation. Neurology, 28, 1166–72.
Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., et al. (1994). Organizational strategies of patients with unilateral or bilateral frontal lobe injury in word list learning tasks. Neuropsychology, 8, 355–73.
Swanson, L. W. (1978). The anatomical organization of septo-hippocampal projections. In Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System. Ciba Foundation Symposium, pp. 25–43.
Swanson, L. W. and Cowan, W. M. (1975). Hippocampo-hypothalamic connections: Origin in subicular cortex, not Ammon's horn. Science, 189, 303–4.
Swanson, L. W. and Cowan, W. M. (1977). An autoradiographic study of the organization of the efferent connections of the hippocampal formation in the rat. J. Comp. Neurol., 172, 49–84.
Takaku, A., Tanaka, S., et al. (1979). Postoperative complications in 1,000 cases of intracranial aneurysms. Surg. Neurol., 12, 137–44.
Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., et al. (1992). Confusion and memory loss from capsular genu infarction: a thalamocortical disconnection syndrome? Neurology, 42, 1966–79.
Verfaellie, M., Rapcsak, S. Z., et al. (2004). Elevated false recognition in patients with frontal lobe damage is neither a general nor a unitary phenomenon. Neuropsychology, 18, 94–103.
Victor, M., Adams, R. D., et al. (1971). The Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Oxford, England, Blackwells.
Victor, M., Angevine, J. B., et al. (1961). Memory loss with lesions of hippocampal formation. Arch. Neurol., 5, 244–63.
Von Cramon, D. Y., Hebel, N., et al. (1985). A contribution to the anatomical basis of thalamic amnesia. Brain, 108, 993–1008.
Von Cramon, D. Y., Hebel, N., et al. (1988). Verbal memory and learning in unilateral posterior cerebral infarction. Brain, 111, 1061–77.
Ween, J. E., Verfaellie, M., et al. (1996). Verbal memory function in mild aphasia. Neurology, 47, 795–801.
Werhahn, K. J., Conforto, A. B., et al. (2003). Contribution of the ipsilateral motor cortex to recovery after chronic stroke. Ann. Neurol., 54, 464–72.
Whitehouse, P. J., Price, D. L., et al. (1982). Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia: Loss of neurons in the basal forebrain. Science, 215, 1237–9.
Wilson, B. (1982). Success and failure in memory training following a cerebral vascular accident. Cortex, 18, 581–94.
Wilson, B. A., Evans, J. J., et al. (1997). Evaluation of NeuroPage: A new memory aid. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 63, 113–15.
Zola-Morgan, S., Squire, L. R., et al. (1982). The neuroanatomy of amnesia: Amygdala-hippocampus versus temporal stem. Science, 218, 1337–9.

Reference Title: REFERENCES

Reference Type: reference-list

Amberla, K., Wäljas, M., Tuominen, S., et al. (2004). Insidious cognitive decline in CADASIL. Stroke, 35, 1598–602.
Baddeley, A. (1966). Short-term memory for word sequences as a function of acoustic, semantic and formal similarity. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 18, 362–5.
Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends Cogn. Sci., 4, 417–23.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 4, 829–39.
Baddeley, A. D. and Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G. Bower, ed., The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 8, New York: Academic Press, pp. 47–90.
Baddeley, A. D., Papagno, C. and Vallar, G. (1988). When long-term learning depends on short-term storage. J. Mem. Lang., 27, 586–95.
Bartha, B. and Benke, T. (2003). Acute conduction aphasia: An analysis of 20 cases. Brain Lang., 85, 93–108.
Basso, A., Spinnler, H., Vallar, G. and Zanobio, M. E. (1982). Left hemisphere damage and selective impairment of auditory verbal short-term memory. A case study. Neuropsychologia, 20, 263–74.
Belleville, S., Peretz, I. and Arguin, M. (1992). Contribution of articulatory rehearsal to short-term memory: Evidence from a case of selective disruption. Brain Lang., 43, 713–46.
Collette, F. and Van der Linden, M. (2002). Brain imaging of the central executive component of working memory. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 26, 105–25.
Collette, F., Van der Linden, M., Laureys, S., et al. (2005). Exploring the unity and diversity of the neural substrates of executive functioning. Human Brain Mapping, 25, 409–23.
Dagenbach, D., Kubat-Silman, A. K. and Absher, J. R. (2001). Human verbal working memory impairments associated with thalamic damage. Int. J. Neurosci., 111, 67–87.
Della Sala, S., Logie, R. H., Beschin, N. and Denis, M. (2004). Preserved visuo-spatial transformations in representational neglect. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1358–64.
Francis, D. R., Clark, N. and Humphreys, G. W. (2003). The treatment of an auditory working memory deficit and the implications for sentence comprehension abilities in mild “receptive” aphasia. Aphasiology, 17, 723–50.
Freedman, M. and Martin, R. C. (2001). Dissociable components of short-term memory and their relation to long-term learning. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 18, 193–226.
Kessels, R. P. C., Van Zandvoort, M. J. E., Postma, A., Kappelle, L. J. and De Haan, E. H. F. (2000). The Corsi block-tapping task: Standardization and normative data. Appl. Neuropsychol., 7, 252–8.
Leskelä, M., Hietanen, M., Kalska, H., et al. (1999). Executive functions and speed of mental processing in elderly patients with frontal or nonfrontal ischemic stroke. Eur. J. Neurol., 6, 653–61.
Majerus, S., Laureys, S., Collette, F., et al. (2003). Phonological STM networks after recovery of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Human Brain Mapping, 19, 133–44.
Majerus, S., Van der Kaa, M. A., Renard, C., Van der Linden, M. and Poncelet, M. (2005). Treating verbal short-term memory deficits by increasing the duration of temporary phonological representations: A case study. Brain Lang., 95(1), 174–75.
Majerus, S., Van der Linden, M., Poncelet, M. and Metz-Lutz, M.-N. (2004). Can phonological and semantic STM be dissociated? Further evidence from Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 21, 491–512.
Malhotra, P., Jäger, H. R., Parton, A., et al. (2005). Spatial working memory capacity in unilateral neglect. Brain, 128, 424–35.
Malm, J., Kristensen, B., Karlsson, T., et al. (1998). Cognitive impairment in young adults with infratentorial infarcts. Neurology, 51, 433–40.