3 - Oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure and non-invasive ventilation  pp. 32-53

Oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure and non-invasive ventilation

By Ian Clement, Leigh Mansfield and Simon Baudouin

Chapter Abstract

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a standard of care for some patient groups with acute respiratory failure and a number of national and international bodies have produced guidelines. Novel uses of NIV continue to be explored, although not all trials have demonstrated successful outcomes when compared with traditional alternatives. Research in the field continues at a pace with recent reports including possible use in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and motor neuron disease. This chapter presents in three parts an overview of three related fields. The first part discusses the issues of oxygen therapy both alone and in conjunction with non-invasive support. The second part surveys the use and role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which remains a valuable alternative to ventilation. The final part focuses on NIV and includes a summary of the available evidence base, and covers some of the more practical issues of machine and patient interfaces.


Keywords:

oxygen therapy; continuous positive airway pressure; non-invasive ventilation; SARS;