2 - The Search for Harmony: The Convention System in the Party Period  pp. 18-61

The Search for Harmony: The Convention System in the Party Period

By John F. Reynolds

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter

“Do you know much about politics?” inquired the editor of the San Francisco Examiner of reporter Annie Laurie in the late summer of 1890. “Of course I do,” she shot back. “I always have a candidate, and I would vote for him if I could and – and that's all there is in it, isn't it?” The editor peered at her pensively. After a long silence he suggested that the Democratic State Convention at nearby San Jose would be “an object lesson for you.” Laurie eagerly got packing. For three full days she sat demurely in the reporters' gallery with a male colleague she deferred to as “Mr. Worldly Wise.” Laurie learned about “bolts” and “breaks” and “trades” and the many happenings on the convention floor that were not at all what they seemed. And she learned to be grateful. “I never think of the turmoil and excitement of those eventful hours without thanking my lucky stars that I do not have the vote.”

Laurie's visit to the convention left her with some vivid memories. Above all, she recalled the noise and congestion that rattled her composure. Men and women packed the galleries and the aisles. Delegates and spectators emitted a low roar as they awaited the opening gavel. “Every single man was in earnest – dead earnest. So much so that he never listened to a word his friends said, but just talked on, as if unconscious that there was another voice raised in the place.”


Reference Title: Books

Reference Type: bibliography

Abbott, Carl. Colorado: A History of the Centennial State. Boulder, Colo., 1976.
Aldrich, John H. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago, 1995.
Altschuler, Glenn C., and Stuart M. Blumin. Rude Republic: Americans and Their Politics in the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, N.J., 2000.
Argersinger, Peter H. Structure, Process and Party: Essays in American Political History. Armonk, N.Y., 1992.
Bensel, Richard Franklin. The Political Economy of Industrialization, 1877–1900. Cambridge, U.K., 2000.
Boots, Ralph Simpson. The Direct Primary in New Jersey. New York, 1917.
Bryce, James. The American Commonwealth. Edited and abridged by Louis M. Hacker. G. P. Putnam's Sons edition. 2 vols. New York, 1959.
Bullough, William A. The Blind Boss and His City: Christopher Augustine Buckley and Nineteenth Century San Francisco. Berkeley, Calif., 1979.
Burner, David. The Politics of Provincialism: The Democratic Party in Transition, 1918–1932. New York, 1967.
Chambers, William Nisbet, and Walter Dean Burnham, eds. The American Party Systems: Stages of Political Development. New York, 1967.
Chase, James S. Emergence of the Presidential Nominating Convention, 1789–1832. Urbana, Ill., 1973.
Cherney, Robert W. American Politics in the Gilded Age. Wheeling, Ill., 1997.
Clemens, Elizabeth S. The People's Lobby: Organizational Innovation and the Rise of Interest Group Politics in the United States. Chicago, 1997.
Connolly, James J. The Triumph of Ethnic Progressivism: Urban Political Culture in Boston, 1900–1925. Cambridge, Mass., 1998.
Croly, Herbert. Progressive Democracy. New York, 1914.
Dallinger, Frederick W. Nominations for Elective Office in the United States. New York, 1903.
Darcy, R., and Richard C. Rohrs. A Guide to Quantitative History. Westport, Conn., 1995.
David, Paul T. Party Strength in the United States. Charlottesville, Va., 1972.
Davis, Winfield J. History of Political Conventions in California, 1849–1892. Sacramento, Calif., 1893.
Dill, R. G. The Political Campaigns of Colorado with Complete Tabulated Statements of the Official Vote. Denver, 1895.
Diner, Steven J. A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era. New York, 1998.
Dobie, Edith. The Political Career of Stephen Mallory White: A Study of Party Activities Under the Convention System. Stanford, Calif., 1927.
Donnelly, Thomas C. Rocky Mountain Politics. Albuquerque, N.Mex., 1940.
Epstein, Leon D. Political Parties in the American Mold. Madison, Wis., 1986.
Ethington, Philip J. The Public City: The Political Construction of Urban Life in San Francisco, 1850–1900. Cambridge, U.K., 1994.
Finegold, Kenneth. Experts and Politicians: Reform Challenges to Machine Politics in New York, Cleveland and Chicago. Princeton, N.J., 1995.
Flint, Winston Allen. The Progressive Movement in Vermont. Washington, D.C., 1941.
Fredman, L. E. The Australian Ballot: The Story of an American Reform. East Lansing, Mich., 1968.
Goebel, Thomas. A Government by the People: Direct Democracy in America, 1890–1940. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2002.
Hichborn, Franklin. Story of the Session of the California Legislature of 1909. San Francisco, 1909.
Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. New York, 1948.
Issel, William, and Robert W. Cherney. San Francisco, 1865–1932: Politics, Power and Urban Development. Berkeley, Calif., 1986.
Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–1896. Chicago, 1971.
Josephson, Matthew. The Politicos, 1865–1896. New York, 1938.
Katznelson, Ira, and Helen V. Milner, eds. Political Science: The State of the Discipline. New York, 2002.
Keating, Edward. The Gentleman from Colorado. Denver, 1961.
Keller, Morton. Affairs of State: Public Life in Late Nineteenth Century America. Cambridge, Mass., 1977.
Key, V. O., Jr. Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups. 5th ed. New York, 1964.
Key, V. O., Jr. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York, 1949.
Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. New York, 2000.
Kousser, J. Morgan. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One Party South, 1880–1910. New Haven, Conn., 1974.
Leonard, Thomas C. The Power of the Press: The Birth of American Political Reporting. New York, 1986.
Link, Arthur S., and Richard L. McCormick. Progressivism. Arlington Hts., Ill., 1983.
Lovejoy, Allen Fraser. Robert M. La Follette and the Establishment of the Direct Primary in Wisconsin, 1890–1904. New Haven, Conn., 1941.
Marcus, Robert D. Grand Old Party: Political Structure in the Gilded Age, 1880–1896. New York, 1971.
Martin, Boyd A. The Direct Primary in Idaho. New York, 1947.
McCormick, Richard L. From Realignment to Reform: Political Change in New York State, 1893–1910. Ithaca, N.Y., 1981.
McCormick, Richard L. The Party Period in Public Policy: American Politics from the Age of Jackson to the Progressive Era. New York, 1986.
McCormick, Richard P. The History of Voting in New Jersey: A Study of the Development of Election Machinery, 1664–1911. New Brunswick, N.J., 1953.
McCormick, Richard P. The Presidential Game: The Origins of American Presidential Politics. New York, 1982.
McCormick, Richard P. The Second American Party System: Party Formation in the Jacksonian Era. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1966.
McGerr, Michael E. The Decline of Popular Politics: The American North, 1865–1928. New York, 1986.
McSeveney, Samuel T. The Politics of Depression: Political Behavior in the Northeast, 1893–1896. New York, 1972.
Merriam, Charles Edward, Harold F. Gosnell, and Louise Overacker. Primary Elections. Chicago, 1928.
Millspaugh, Arthur Chester. Party Organization and Machinery in Michigan Since 1890. Baltimore, 1917.
Morgan, Edmund S. Inventing the People: Popular Sovereignty in England and America. New York, 1988.
Mowry, George L. The California Progressives. Berkeley, Calif., 1951.
National Conference on Practical Reform of Primary Elections. Proceedings of the National Conference on Practical Reform of Primary Elections, January 20 and 21, 1898. Chicago, 1898.
Noble, Ransom E. New Jersey Progressivism Before Wilson. Princeton, N.J., 1946.
Pegram, Thomas R. Partisans and Progressives: Private Interest and Public Policy in Illinois, 1870–1922. Urbana, Ill., 1992.
Philipp, Emanuel L. Political Reform in Wisconsin. Madison, Wis., 1973.
Pollock, James K. The Direct Primary in Michigan, 1909–1935. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1943.
Polsby, Nelson W. Consequences of Party Reform. Oxford, 1983.
Ranney, Austin. Curing the Mischiefs of Faction: Party Reform in America. Berkeley, Calif., 1975.
Rapport, George C. The Statesman and the Boss. New York, 1961.
Remsen, Daniel S. Primary Elections: A Study for Improving the Basis of Party Organization. New York, 1895.
Reynolds, John F. Testing Democracy: Electoral Behavior and Progressive Reform in New Jersey, 1880–1920. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1988.
Rogin, Michael Paul, and John L. Shover. Political Change in California: Critical Elections and Social Movements. Westport, Conn., 1970.
Schattschneider, E. E. The Semi-Sovereign People. New York, 1960.
Shafer, Byron E. Partisan Approaches to Postwar American Politics. New York, 1998.
Shafer, Byron E., and Anthony J. Badger. Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775–2000. Lawrence, Kans., 2001.
Shefter, Martin. Political Parties and the State: The American Historical Experience. Princeton, N.J., 1993.
Silbey, Joel H. The American Political Nation, 1838–1893. Stanford, Calif., 1991.
Smith, Hedrick. The Power Game: How Washington Works. New York, 1987.
Sorauf, Frank J. Party Politics in America. 2nd ed. Boston, 1972.
Summers, Mark Wahlgren. Party Games: Getting, Keeping, and Using Power in Gilded Age Politics. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2004.
VanderMeer, Philip R. The Hoosier Politician: Officeholding and Political Culture in Indiana, 1896–1920. Urbana, Ill., 1985.
Ware, Alan. The American Direct Primary: Party Institutionalization and Transformation in the North. Cambridge, U.K., 2002.
Ware, Alan. The Breakdown of Democratic Party Organization, 1940–1980. Oxford, 1985.
Wattenberg, Martin P. The Rise of Candidate-Centered Politics: Presidential Elections of the 1980s. London, 1991.
Wiebe, Robert H. The Search for Order, 1877–1920. New York, 1967.
Wiebe, Robert H. Self-Rule: A Cultural History of American Democracy. Chicago, 1995.
Williams, R. Hal. The Democratic Party and California Politics, 1880–1896. Stanford, Calif., 1973.
Woodruff, Clinton Rogers, ed. Proceedings of the New York Conference for Good City Government and the Sixth Annual Meeting of the National Municipal League [1900]. Philadelphia, 1900.
Woodruff, Clinton Rogers, ed. Proceedings of the Rochester Conference for Good City Government and the Seventh Annual Meeting of the National Municipal League [1901]. Philadelphia, 1901.
Woodruff, Clinton Rogers, ed. Proceedings of the Chicago Conference for Good City Government and the Tenth Annual Meeting of the National Municipal League [1904]. Philadelphia, 1904.
Woodruff, Clinton Rogers, ed. Proceedings of the New York Conference for Good City Government and the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the National Municipal League [1905]. Philadelphia, 1905.
Wright, James Edward. The Politics of Populism: Dissent in Colorado. New Haven, Conn., 1974.

Reference Title: Articles

Reference Type: bibliography

Anonymous. “Doubts about the Direct Primary.” Literary Digest, Oct. 10, 1914, pp. 672–73.
Aylsworth, Leon E. “Primary Elections – Legislation of 1909–1910.” American Political Science Review 6 (Feb. 1912): 60–74.
Beard, Charles A. “The Direct Primary Movement in New York.” Proceedings of the American Political Science Association 7 (1910): 187–98.
Becker, Carl. “The Unit Rule in National Nominating Conventions.” American Historical Review 5 (Oct. 1899): 64–82.
Bernheim, A. C. “Party Organizations and Their Nominations to Public Office in New York City.” Political Science Quarterly 3 (Mar. 1888): 99–122.
Blair, Emily Newell. “Every Man His Own Campaign Manager.” The Outlook, Feb. 25, 1911, pp. 426–33.
Bogue, Allan G., Jerome M. Clubb, Carroll R. McKibbin, and Santa A. Traugott. “Members of the House of Representatives and the Process of Modernization, 1789–1960.” Journal of American History 63 (Sept. 1976): 291–305.
Bonaparte, Charles J. “An Elective Boss.” The Outlook, Dec. 4, 1909, pp. 773–76.
Boots, Ralph S. “Party Platforms in State Politics.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 106 (Mar. 1923): 72–82.
Brickner, Issac M. “Direct Primaries Versus Boss Rule.” The Arena 41 (Aug. 1909): 550–56.
Buenker, John D. “The Mahatma and Progressive Reform: Martin Lomasney as Lawmaker, 1911–17.” New England Quarterly 44 (Sept. 1971): 397–419.
Buenker, John D. “The Politics of Resistance: The Rural-Based Yankee Republican Machines of Connecticut and Rhode Island.” New England Quarterly 47 (June 1974): 212–37.
Buenker, John D. “Sovereign Individuals and Organic Networks: Political Cultures in Conflict During the Progressive Era.” American Quarterly 40 (June 1988): 187–204.
Burnham, Walter Dean. “The System of 1896: An Analysis.” In The Evolution of American Electoral Systems, ed. Paul Kleppner, Walter Dean Burnham, Ronald P. Formisano, Samuel P. Hays, Richard Jensen, and William G. Shade. 147–202. Westport, Conn., 1981.
Chrislock, Carl H. “Sidney M. Owen: An Editor in Politics.” Minnesota History 36 (Dec. 1958): 109–26.
Committee on Political Parties of the American Political Science Association. “Toward a More Responsible Two Party System.” American Political Science Review 44 (Sept. 1950): 15–84.
Cox, Ora Ellen. “The Socialist Party in Indiana Since 1896.” Indiana Magazine of History 12 (June 1916): 95–130.
Crossley, James Judson. “The Regulation of Primary Elections by Law.” Iowa Journal of History and Politics 1 (Apr. 1903): 165–92.
Dunn, Arthur Wallace. “The Direct Primary: Promise and Performance.” Review of Reviews 46 (Oct. 1912): 439–45.
Easley, Ralph M. “The Sine Qua Non of Caucus Reform.” Review of Reviews 16 (Sept. 1897): 322–24.
Ethington, Philip J. “The Metropolis and Multicultural Ethics: Direct Democracy Versus Deliberative Democracy in the Progressive Era.” In Progressivism and the New Democracy, ed. Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur. 192–225. Amherst, Mass., 1999.
Evans, Frank B. “Wharton Barker and the Republican National Convention of 1880.” Pennsylvania History 27 (Jan. 1960): 28–43.
Filene, Peter G. “An Obituary for the Progressive Movement.” American Quarterly 22 (Spring 1970): 20–34.
Ford, Henry Jones. “The Direct Primary.” North American Review 190 (July 1909): 1–14.
Formisano, Ronald P. “The Concept of Political Culture.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 31 (Winter 2001): 393–426.
Geiser, Karl F. “Defects in the Direct Primary.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 106 (Mar. 1923): 31–39.
Godkin, E. L. “The Nominating System.” Atlantic Monthly 79 (Apr. 1897): 450–67.
Green, George Walton. “Facts About the Caucus and the Primary.” North American Review 137 (Sept. 1883): 257–69.
Haigh, Henry A. “The Alger Movement of 1888.” Michigan History Magazine 9 (1925): 173–214.
Hand, Samuel B., Jeffrey D. Marshall, and D. Gregory Sanford. “‘Little Republics’: The Structure of State Politics in Vermont, 1854–1920.” Vermont History 53 (Summer 1985): 141–66.
Hays, Samuel P. “The Politics of Reform in Municipal Government in the Progressive Era.” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 55 (Oct. 1964): 157–69.
Hein, Clarence J. “The Adoption of Minnesota's Direct Primary Law.” Minnesota History 35 (Dec. 1957): 341–51.
Hemstreet, William. “Theory and Practice of the New Primary Law.” The Arena 28 (Dec. 1902): 585–95.
Holli, Melvin G. “Mayor Pingree Campaigns for the Governorship.” Michigan History 57 (Summer 1973): 151–73.
Hopkins, John S. “Direct Nomination of Candidates by the People.” The Arena 19 (June 1898): 729–39.
Horack, Frank Edward. “The Operation of the Primary Election Law in Iowa.” Iowa Journal of History and Politics 19 (Jan. 1921): 94–124.
Horack, Frank Edward. “Primary Elections in Iowa.” Proceedings of the American Political Science Association 7 (1910): 175–86.
Hotchkiss, William H. “The Movement for Better Primaries.” Review of Reviews 17 (May 1898): 583–89.
Insley, Edward. “How to Reform the Primary Election System.” The Arena 17 (June 1897): 1013–23.
Insley, Edward. “Needed Political Reforms.” The Arena 29 (Jan. 1903): 71–75.
Kernell, Samuel. “Toward Understanding Nineteenth Century Congressional Careers: Ambition, Competition, and Rotation.” American Journal of Political Science 21 (Nov. 1977): 669–93.
Key, V. O., Jr. “The Direct Primary and Party Structure: A Study of State Legislative Nominations.” American Political Science Review 58 (Mar. 1954): 1–26.
Kleppner, Paul. “Voters and Parties in the Western States, 1876–1900.” Western Historical Quarterly 14 (Jan. 1983): 49–68.
Lederle, John W., and Rita Feiler Aid. “Michigan State Party Chairmen, 1882–1956.” Michigan History 41 (Sept. 1957): 257–68.
Ludington, Arthur. “Election Laws: The New Geran Law in New Jersey.” American Political Science Review 5 (Nov. 1911): 579–85.
Lukes, Timothy J. “Progressivism Off-Broadway: Reform Politics in San Jose, California, 1880–1920.” Southern California Quarterly 76 (Winter 1994): 377–400.
Mann, Ralph. “National Party Fortunes and Local Political Structure: The Case of Two California Mining Towns, 1850–1870.” Southern California Quarterly 57 (Fall 1975): 271–96.
McClosky, Herbert. “Are Political Conventions Undemocratic?” New York Times Magazine, Aug. 4, 1968, p. 10.
McCormick, Richard L. “The Party Period and Public Policy: An Exploratory Hypothesis,” Journal of American History 66 (Sept. 1970): 279–98.
Merriam, Charles Edward. “Some Disputed Points in Primary Election Legislation.” Proceedings of the American Political Science Association 4 (1907): 179–88.
Milholland, John E. “The Danger Point in American Politics.” North American Review 164 (Jan. 1897): 97–105.
Millspaugh, Arthur C. “The Operation of the Direct Primary in Michigan.” American Political Science Review 10 (Nov. 1916): 710–26.
Noble, David W. “Progressivism.” In Encyclopedia of American Political History, ed. Jack P. Greene. Vol. 4. 992–1004. New York, 1984.
Petersen, Eric Falk. “The Adoption of the Direct Primary in California.” Southern California Quarterly 54 (Winter 1972): 363–78.
Petersen, Eric Falk. “The Struggle for the Australian Ballot in California.” California Historical Quarterly 51 (Fall 1972): 227–43.
Reynolds, John F., and Richard L. McCormick. “Outlawing ‘Treachery’: Split Tickets and Ballot Laws in New York and New Jersey, 1880–1914.” Journal of American History 72 (Mar. 1986): 835–58.
Rodgers, Daniel T. “In Search of Progressivism.” Reviews in American History 10 (Dec. 1982): 113–32.
Roosevelt, Theodore. “Machine Politics in New York City.” The Century 33 (Nov. 1886): 74–82.
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. “Faded Glory.” New York Times Magazine, July 12, 1992, p. 14.
Shaw, William B. “The Direct Primary on Trial.” The Outlook, Oct. 24, 1908, pp. 383–89.
Shefter, Martin. “Regional Receptivity to Reform: The Legacy of the Progressive Era.” Political Science Quarterly 98 (Autumn 1983): 459–83.
Starring, Charles R. “Hazen S. Pingree: Another Forgotten Eagle.” Michigan History 32 (June 1948): 129–49.
Taylor, William B., and Elliott West. “Patron Leadership at the Crossroads: Southern Colorado in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Pacific Historical Review 17 (Aug. 1973): 335–57.
Throne, Mildred. “Electing an Iowa Governor, 1871: Cyrus Clay Carpenter.” Iowa Journal of History 48 (Oct. 1950): 335–70.
Truman, David B. “Party Reform, Party Atrophy, and Constitutional Change: Some Reflections.” Political Science Quarterly 99 (Winter 1984–85): 637–55.
Wallace, Schuyler C. “Pre-Primary Conventions.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 106 (Mar. 1923): 97–104.
Warden, G. B. “The Caucus and Democracy in Colonial Boston.” New England Quarterly 43 (Mar. 1970): 19–45.
Weeks, O. Douglas. “The White Primary, 1944–1948.” American Political Science Review 42 (June 1948): 500–510.
West, Victor J. “Round Table on Nominating Methods: The Development of a Technique for Testing the Usefulness of a Nominating Method.” American Political Science Review 20 (Feb. 1926): 139–43.
Westbrook, Robert B. “Politics as Consumption: Managing the Modern American Election.” In The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880–1980, eds. Richard Wrightman Fox and T. J. Jackson Lears. 145–73. New York, 1983.
Wicker, Tom. “Let Some Smoke In.” New York Times Magazine, June 14, 1992, p. 34.

Reference Title: Unpublished Theses and Dissertations

Reference Type: bibliography

Sarasohn, Stephen B. “The Regulation of Parties and Nominations in Michigan: The Politics of Election Reform.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1953.
Warner, Robert Mark. “Chase S. Osborn and the Progressive Movement.” Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1957.
Wolfe, Arthur Coffman. “The Direct Primary in American Politics.” Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1966.

Reference Title: Manuscript Collections

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: The Archives at the University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries

Reference Type: bibliography

William Penn Collins Collection.
Colorado Federation of Women's Clubs Collection.
Edward P. Costigan Papers.
Edward Keating Papers.
George J. Kindel Papers.
National Republican League. “Souvenir of the Seventh Annual Convention of the National Republican League Meeting in Denver, June 26, 1894.”
T. J. O'Donnell Papers.
Harper M. Orahood Papers.
Thomas M. Patterson Papers.
Jose Urbano Vigil Papers.

Reference Title: Bancroft Library – University of California at Berkeley

Reference Type: bibliography

Daniel M. Burns Papers.
Committee of Fifty. “Address of the Committee of Fifty to the People [1882].”
League of Republican Clubs. “Plans for Effective County Organization.”
George Cooper Pardee Papers.
Pillsbury, Arthur Judson. “Plans for Effective County Organization of the Republican Party in California.” Tulare, Calif., 1898.
Republican Party of California. “Proceedings of the Republican State Convention, Sacramento, June 18th to June 19th, 1861.”
Republican Party of California. “Proceedings of the Union State Convention Held at Sacramento on the 17th and 18th Days of June, 1862.” San Francisco, 1862.
Republican Party of California. “Roll Call of the Republican State Convention, 1882.”
Republican Party of San Francisco, California. “By-laws and Rules of the Republican County Committee for 1873–74.”
Republican Party of San Francisco, California. “Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Platt's Hall, San Francisco, June 11th, 1872 … to Ratify the Nominations of U. S. Grant and Henry Wilson.”
Republican Party of San Francisco, California. “Rules and Regulations of the Republican Party of San Francisco.” 1881.

Reference Title: Bentley Historical Library – University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Reference Type: bibliography

Rice Aner Beal Papers.
Ferry Family Papers.
Harrison Greer Papers.
Chase S. Osborn Papers.

Reference Title: California State Library, Sacramento

Reference Type: bibliography

California League of Republican Clubs. “Second Biennial Convention of the California League of Republican Clubs, Held at Los Angeles, Apr. 27–28, 1900.”
California Republican Club. “Proceedings of the Republican League of 1900.”
James N. Gillett Papers.
Warren T. Sexton Papers.

Reference Title: Colorado Historical Society – Denver

Reference Type: bibliography

Colorado Federation of Jane Jefferson Clubs Collection
Job Adams Cooper Papers.
John Franklin Shaforth Papers.

Reference Title: Denver Public Library

Reference Type: bibliography

William A. Hamill Papers.
Henry Moore Teller Collection.
Joel F. Vaille Papers.

Reference Title: Department of Special Collections at the Stanford University Library

Reference Type: bibliography

Stephen Mallory White Papers.