4 - Introduction to elements of war crimes listed in Article 8 of the Rome Statute  pp. 15-16

Introduction to elements of war crimes listed in Article 8 of the Rome Statute

By Knut Dörmann, Louise Doswald-Beck and Robert Kolb

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



In addition to the issues dealt with in the General Introduction, it was realised that certain points were particularly relevant to all crimes under Art. 8 ICC Statute. The PrepCom decided therefore to include in the EOC document an introduction which is specifically applicable to all these crimes. The substance must be read in conjunction with the elements defined for each crime. The introduction reads as follows:

The elements for war crimes under article 8, paragraph 2(c) and (e), are subject to the limitations addressed in article 8, paragraph 2(d) and (f), which are not elements of crimes.

The elements for war crimes under article 8, paragraph 2, of the Statute shall be interpreted within the established framework of the international law of armed conflict including, as appropriate, the international law of armed conflict applicable to armed conflict at sea.

With respect to the last two elements listed for each crime:

  • There is no requirement for a legal evaluation by the perpetrator as to the existence of an armed conflict or its character as international or non-international;
  • In that context there is no requirement for awareness by the perpetrator of the facts that established the character of the conflict as international or non-international;
  • There is only a requirement for the awareness of the factual circumstances that established the existence of an armed conflict that is implicit in the terms ‘took place in the context of and was associated with’.

4

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Abi-Saab, G., ‘Non-international Armed Conflicts’ in UNESCO/Henry Dunant Institute (eds.), International Dimensions of Humanitarian Law (Martinus Nijhoff, Geneva, Paris and Dordrecht, 1988)
Annotated Supplement to the Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (NWP 9[Rev. A]/FMFM 1–10), 1989
Australian Defence Force, Law of Armed Conflict – Commander's Guide, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994
Bernhardt, R. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Public International Law (North Holland, Amsterdam, Lausanne, New York, Oxford, Shannon, Singapore and Tokyo, 1997), vols. II and IV
Bothe, M., K. J. Partsch and W. A. Solf, New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts, Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Boston and London, 1982)
Burgers, J. H. and H. Danelius, The United Nations Convention against Torture, A Handbook on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, Boston and London, 1988)
Cambridge International Dictionary of English (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995)
Cheng, B., General Principles of Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunals (Stevens & Sons, London, 1953)
David, E., Principes de droit des conflits armés (2nd edn, Bruylant, Brussels, 1999)
Fauchille, P., Traité de droit international public (8th edn, Rousseau, Paris, 1921–6)
Fauteux, P., ‘The Use of the Environment as an Instrument of War in Occupied Kuwait’ in H. B. Schiefer (ed.), Verifying Obligations Respecting Arms Control and Environment: A Post Gulf War Assessment (Department of External Affairs, Ottawa, 1992)
Favre, C., M. Pellet and P. Stoudmann, Code Pénal annoté (Ed. Bis et Ter, Lausanne, 1997)
Feliciano, F. P., ‘Marine Pollution and Spoliation of Natural Resources as War Measures: A Note on Some International Law Problems in the Gulf War’ (1995) 39 Ateneo Law Journal no. 2, 27
Fenrick, W. J., ‘A First Attempt to Adjudicate Conduct of Hostilities Offences: Comments on Aspects of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia Trial Decision in the Prosecutor v. Tihomir Blaskic’ (2000) 13 Leiden Journal of International Law 939
Fleck, D. (ed.), Handbuch des Humanitären Völkerrechts in bewaffneten Konflikten (Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich, 1994)
Fleck, D. (ed.), The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995)
Frowein, J. A. and W. Peukert, Europäische Menschen Rechts Konvention (2nd edn, N. P. Engel, Kehl, Strasbourg and Arlington, 1996)
Garner, J. W., ‘Treatment of Enemy Aliens’, (1919) 13 American Journal of International Law 24
Garner, J. W., International Law and the World War (Longmans, London and New York, 1920), vols. I and II
von Glahn, G., The Occupation of Enemy Territory: A Commentary on the Law and Practice of Belligerent Occupation (University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1957)
Green, L. C., ‘The Environment and the Law of Conventional Warfare’ (1991) 24 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 222
Greenspan, M., The Modern Law of Land Warfare (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1959)
Handboek Militair (Ministerie van Defensie, 1995)
Harris, D. and S. Livingstone (eds.), The Inter-American System of Human Rights (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1998)
Harris, D., M. O'Boyle and C. Warbrick, Law of the European Convention on Human Rights (Butterworths, London and Dublin, 1995)
von der Heydte, F. A., Völkerrecht, Ein Lehrbuch (Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne, 1960), vol. II
Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992
International Committee of the Red Cross, ‘The SIrUnited States of America Project and Reviewing the Legality of New Weapons’, Background Paper (June 1999)
Jescheck, H. H., Lehrbuch des Strafrechts, Allgemeiner Teil (3rd edn, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, 1982)
Jones, R. W. D., The Practice of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (2nd edn, Transnational Publishers, Ardsley, NY, 2000)
LaFave, W. R. and A. W. Scott, Jr, Criminal Law (Hornbook, Pocket Part, 1995)
Lee, R. S. (ed.), The International Criminal Court, The Making of the Rome Statute, Issues, Negotiations, Results (Kluwer Law International, The Hague, London and Boston, 1999)
Loewy, A. H., Criminal Law (2nd edn, West Publishing Co., St Paul, MN, 1987)
McGoldrick, D., The Human Rights Committee (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991)
Merle, R. and A. Vitu, Traité de droit criminel, Droit pénal spécial (Ed. Cujas, Paris, 1982)
Mullins, C., The Leipzig Trials: An Account of the War Criminals Trials and a Study of the German Mentality (H. F. & G. Witherby, London, 1921)
New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112 (Wellington, November 1992)
Noll, P. and S. Trechsel, Schweizerisches Strafrecht, Allgemeiner Teil (2nd edn, Schulthess, Zurich 1986), vol. I
Nowak, M., United Nations Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, CCPR Commentary (N. P. Engel, Kehl, Strasbourg and Arlington, 1993)
Office of the Judge Advocate, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, http://www.dnd.ca/jag/operational/_pubs/_e.html@top
Oppenheim, L., International Law. A Treatise, ed. H. Lauterpacht (7th edn, Longmans, London, 1952), vol. II: ‘Disputes, War and Neutrality’
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (Oxford, 1992)
Pictet, Jean S. (ed.), Commentary I Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field (International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, 1958)
Pictet, Jean S. (ed.), Commentary III Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, 1960)
Pictet, Jean S. (ed.), Commentary IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, 1958)
Plant, G., Environmental Protection and the Law of War: A ‘Fifth Geneva’ Convention on the Protection of the Environment in Time of Armed Conflict (Belhaven, London and New York, 1992)
Pradel, J. and M. Danti-Juan, Droit pénal spécial (Ed. Cujas, Paris, 1995)
Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava, 1988)
Rassat, M. L., Droit pénal spécial (4th edn, Dalloz, Paris, 1976)
Règlement suisse, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f (1987)
Roberts, A., ‘What is a Military Occupation?’, (1984) 53 British Yearbook of International Law 249
Röling, B. V. A. and C. F. Rüter (eds.) The Tokyo Judgment (University Press, Amsterdam, 1977)
Rousseau, C., Le droit des conflits armés (A. Pedone, Paris, 1983)
San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995)
Sandoz, Y., Des armes interdites en droit de la guerre (Imprimerie Grounauer, Geneva, 1975)
Sandoz, Y., C. Swinarski and B. Zimmermann (eds.), Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (International Committee of the Red Cross, Martinus Nijhoff, Geneva, 1987)
Sassòli, M., Bedeutung einer Kodifikation für das allgemeine Völkerrecht mit besonderer Beachtung der Regeln zum Schutze der Zivilbevölkerung vor den Auswirkungen von Feindseligkeiten (Helbing & Lichtenhahn, Basle and Frankfurt am Main, 1990)
Schönke, A. and H. Schröder, Strafgesetzbuch (25th edn, Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich, 1997)
Schwarzenberger, G., International Law – As Applied by International Courts and Tribunals: The Law of Armed Conflict (Stevens & Sons, London, 1968), vol. II
Smith, J. C. and B. Hogan, Criminal Law (7th edn, Butterworths, London, Dublin and Edinburgh, 1992)
Stratenwerth, G., Schweizerisches Strafrecht, BT I (4th edn, Stämpfli, Berne, 1993)
Strupp, K., Das Internationale Landkriegsrecht (J. Baer, Frankfurt am Main, 1914)
Swedish Ministry of Defence (ed.), International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict (Regeringskansliets, Offsetcentral, Stockholm, 1991)
The Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, prepared by the Oceans Law and Policy Department of Transportation, United States of America Coast Guard), (1995) (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, 1989)
The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1958)
Thomas, C. W. and D. M. Bishop, Criminal Law (Newbury Park, London, 1987)
Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie (1993)
Triffterer, O. (ed.), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Nomos, Baden-Baden, 1999)
United States of America Department of the Air Force, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations (1976)
United States of America Department of the Army, Field Manual, FM 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare (1956)
Verri, P., Dictionary of the International Law of Armed Conflict (International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva 1988)
Weissbrodt, D. and R. Wolfrum (eds.), The Right to a Fair Trial (Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 1998)
Whiteman, M., Digest of International Law (United States of America Gov. Printing Office, Washington, 1968)
Woolsey, L. H., ‘Forced Transfer of Property in Enemy Occupied Territories’, (1943) 37 American Journal of International Law 285