2 - The interface of national constitutional systems with international law and institutions on using military forces: changing trends in executive and legislative powers  pp. 39-60

The interface of national constitutional systems with international law and institutions on using military forces: changing trends in executive and legislative powers

By Lori Fisler Damrosch

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter

The perplexities of the twenty-first century over national decision-making in support of international security are an outgrowth of centuries-long trends concerning subordination of military power to constitutional control. Civilian control over the military has been inextricably connected with the strengthening of domestic constitutionalism and safeguards for citizens' liberties in many different democracies.

Along with the establishment of constitutional structures for regulating national military power, national constitutions have contributed to the evolution of contemporary international law prohibiting the use or threat of force in international relations. Milestones along this path begin with the French Constitution of 1791 – the first national constitution to renounce wars of conquest – and include the renunciation of war in the post-Second World War constitutions of Germany and Japan and other countries. Such constitutional provisions have helped consolidate the norm of international law against the use of force embodied in Article 2(4) of the UN Charter: “All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.” National constitutional law in various countries likewise manifests commitments to collective security made within the framework of international organizations.

National constitutional law may have a constraining effect on the external behavior of states, both by restricting the circumstances in which military force may lawfully be deployed and by establishing the procedural framework for taking decisions to use force.


Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: bibliography

Andenæs, Johs., Statsforfatningen i Norge (Oslo, Tano, 1964)
Annan, Kofi, “Two Concepts of Sovereignty” (1999) 352 The Economist, issue 8137, 49
Appathurai, James and Ralph Lysyshyn, “Lesson Learned From the Zaire Mission” (1998) 5(2) Canadian Foreign Policy 93–106
Archibugi, Daniele and David Held (eds.), Cosmopolitan Democracy: An Agenda for a New World Order (Cambridge, MA, Polity Press, 1995)
Asmus, Ronald D., German Strategy and Opinion After the Wall 1990–1993 (Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 1994)
Auerswald, David P., “Inward Bound: Domestic Institutions and Military Conflicts” (1999) 53(3) International Organization 459
Bailey, Sydney D. and Sam Daws, The Procedure of the UN Security Council (3rd edn., Oxford University Press, 1998)
Bentham, Jeremy, A Plan for an Universal and Perpetual Peace (1789)
Benton, Thomas Hart, Abridgment of the Debates of Congress, from 1789 to 1856 (New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1857)
Berger, Thomas U., “Norms, Identity, and National Security in Germany and Japan” in P. J. Katzenstein (ed.), The Culture of National Security. Norms and Identity in World Politics (New York, Columbia University Press, 1996)
Biersteker, T. and C. Weber (eds.), State Sovereignty as Social Construct (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996)
Blackstone, William, Commentaries on the Laws of England (London, S. Sweet, R. Pheney, A. Maxwell, and Stevens & Sons, 1829), vol. I
Blaustein, A. and G. Flanz (eds.), Constitutions of the Countries of the World (Dobbs Ferry, NY, Oceana Publishers, 1971)
Bogdanor, Vernon (ed.), The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Science (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1991)
Bognetti, Giovanni, “The Role of Italian Parliament in the Treaty-making Process” in Stefan A. Riesenfeld and Frederick M. Abbott (eds.), Parliamentary Participation in the Making and Operation of Treaties: A Comparative Study (Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff, 1994)
Bonjour, Edgar, Swiss Neutrality: Its History and Meaning (London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1946)
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, An Agenda for Peace (2nd edn., New York, United Nations, 1995)
Bowden, Mark, Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War (New York, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999)
Bradley, A. W. and K. D. Ewing, Constitutional and Administrative Law (12th edn., London, Longman, 1997)
Brahimi, Lakhdar, Report of the “Groupe d'Etude sur les Opérations de Paix,” United Nations, New York, August 17, 2000
Bratt, Duane, “Rehabilitating the Military: Canadian Peacekeeping in the Post-Somalia Era,” paper presented at the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Academic Council on the United Nations System (Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, June 17–19, 1998)
Brown, Michael E., et al. (eds.), Debating the Democratic Peace (Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1996)
Bull, Hedley, The Anarchical Society – A Study of Order in World Politics (London, Macmillan, 1977)
Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (ed.), Einsaetz der Bundeswehr im Ausland (Bonn, 2000)
Bush, George and Brent Scowcroft, A World Transformed (New York, Knopf, 1998)
Careless, J. M. S., Canada: A Story of Challenge (Toronto, Macmillan, 1970)
Carew, Tim, Korea: The Commonwealth at War (London, Cassell, 1967)
Cassese, Antonio, “Ex Iniuria Ius Oritur: Are We Moving Towards International Legitimation of Forcible Humanitarian Countermeasures in the World Community?” (1999) 10 European Journal of International Law 23
Castberg, Frede, “Statsrettslige spørsmål i forbindelse med felleskommando og felles styrker for Atlanterhavspakens land” (Oslo, Utredning, Justidepartementet, February 26, 1951)
Catley, Bob, “Hegemonic America: The Arrogance of Power” (1999) 21 Contemporary Southeast Asia 157
Chirac, Jacques, “Discours du President de la République devant le comité des Présidents de l'Assemblée Parlementaire de l'UEO et les auditeurs de l'IHEDN” (Palais de l'Elysée, May 30, 2000)
Clark, Susan L., “Russia in a Peacekeeping Role” in Leon Aron and Kenneth M. Jensen (eds.), The Emergence of Russian Foreign Policy (Washington, DC, US Institute of Peace Press, 1994)
Clark, General Wesley K., Waging Modern War (New York, Public Affairs, 2001)
Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Legacy, Vols. I–V (Ottawa, Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1997)
Cordesman, Anthony H., Lessons and Non-lessons of the Air and Missile Campaign in Kosovo (Westport, CN, Praeger, 2001)
Corwin, Edward S., The President: Office and Powers: 1787–1951 (4th rev. edn., New York, New York University Press, 1957)
Crawford, James, “Democracy and International Law” (1994) 64 The British Yearbook of International Law 118
Daalder, Ivo H., “Knowing When to Say No: The Development of US Policy for Peacekeeping” in William J. Durch (ed.), UN Peacekeeping, American Policy and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s (New York, NY, St. Martins Press, 1996), pp. 35–68
Daalder, Ivo H. and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly: North Atlantic Treaty Organization's War to Save Kosovo (Washington, DC, The Brookings Institution, 2000)
Dahl, Robert A., Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition (New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1971)
Dahl, Robert A., On Democracy (New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1998)
Dahl, Robert A., “Can International Organizations be Democratic? A Skeptic's View” in Ian Shapiro and Casiano Hacker-Cordón (eds.), Democracy's Edges (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 19–36
Dalsjo, Robert, “Sweden and Balkan Blue Helmet Operations” in Lars Ericson (ed.), Solidarity and Defence. Armed Forces in International Peacekeeping Operations During the 19th and 20th Centuries (Sweden, Svenska Militarhistoriska Commissionen, 1995)
Damrosch, Lori Fisler, “The Constitutional Responsibility of Congress for Military Engagement” (1995) 89 American Journal of International Law 58
Damrosch, Lori Fisler, “Is There a General Trend in Constitutional Democracies Toward Parliamentary Control Over War-and-peace Decisions?” (1996) American Society of International Law, Proceedings of the 90th Annual Meeting, p. 36
Dashwood, Hevina S., “Canada's Participation in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization-led Intervention in Kosovo” in Maureen Appel Molot and Fen Osler Hampson (eds.), Vanishing Borders: Canada Among Nations (Toronto, Oxford University Press, 2000)
Dau, K., “Die militärische Evakuierungsoperation ‘Libelle’ – ein Paradigma der Verteidigung?” (1998) Neue Zeitschrift für Wehrrecht 99
Daudet, Yves, “Les Aspects juridiques, budgétaires et financiers” in Brigitte Stern (ed.), La Vision française des opérations de maintien de la paix (Paris, Montchrestien, 1997), pp. 63–115
de Smith, S. and R. Brazier, Constitutional and Administrative Law (8th edn., London, Penguin, 1998)
de Visscher, Paul, “La Constitution belge et le droit international” (1986) 19(1) Revue belge de droit international 5
Dewitt, David B. and John J. Kirton, Canada as a Principal Power (Toronto, John Wiley & Sons, 1983)
Dicey, A. V., Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (10th edn., London, Macmillan, 1959)
Diehl, Paul F., International Peacekeeping (Baltimore, MD, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993)
Downer, Alexander, “East Timor – Looking Back on 1999” (2000) 54(1) Australian Journal of International Affairs 5
Duke, Simon, Hans-Georg Ehrhart, and Matthias Karadi, “The Major European Allies: France, Germany, and the United Kingdom” in Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), Kosovo and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2000), p. 128
Durch, William J. (ed.), UN Peacekeeping, American Policy, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s (New York, St. Martin's Press, 1996)
Eckhoff, Torstein, Tidsskrift for Rettsvitenskap (Oslo, Universitetsforlaget, 1964)
Ehrhart, Hans-Georg, “Germany and the Peacekeeping Challenge” in H.-G. Ehrhart and D. G. Haglund (eds.), The “New Peacekeeping” and European Security: German and Canadian Interests and Issues (Baden-Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1995)
Eide, Espen Barth, “Intervening Without the UN: A Rejoinder” (1999) 30 Security Dialogue 91–5
Eide, Espen Barth, “Natos Kosovokrig – ett aer ettet” (2000) 58(1) Internasjonal Politikk 27–63
Eide, Espen Barth, Vegrad V. Hansen, and Bengt Holmen, Nordisk samarbeid om internasjonale fredsoperasjoner, NUPI background paper (Oslo, 1997)
Ely, John Hart, “Suppose Congress Wanted a War Powers Act That Worked?” (1988) 88 Columbia Law Review 1379
Ely, John Hart, War and Responsibility (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1993)
Emerson, William, “Franklin Roosevelt as Commander in Chief in World War II” (1958–9) Military Affairs 202
English, John, The Worldly Years: The Life of Lester Pearson, Vol. II 1949–1972 (Toronto, Alfred A. Knopf, 1992)
Evans, Gareth, Cooperating for Peace: The Global Agenda for the 1990s and Beyond (St. Leonards, Allen & Unwin, 1993)
Falk, Richard and Andrew Strauss, “Toward a Global Parliament” (2001) 80(1) Foreign Affairs 212–20
Farrand, M. (ed.), The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (4 vols., New Haven, Yale University Press, 1966)
Farrar-Hockley, Anthony, The British Part in the Korean War (London, HMSO, 1990)
Federov, V. N., OON i Problemi Voyni i Mira [The UN and Problems of War and Peace] (Moscow, International Relations, 1988)
Ferguson, James and Barbara Levesque, “The Best Laid Plans: Canada's Proposal for a United Nations Rapid Reaction Capability” (1996–7) 52(1) International Journal 118
Fink, U., “Verfassungsrechtliche und verfassungsprozeβrechtliche Fragen im Zusammenhang mit dem Kosovo-Einsatz der Bundeswehr” (1999) Juristenzeitung 1016
Finkelstein, Larry S. and Marina S. Finkelstein, Collective Security (San Francisco, Chandler Publishing, 1966)
Fisher, Louis, “Congressional Abdication: War and Spending Powers” (1999) 43 St. Louis University Law Journal 931
Fisher, Louis, “The Korean War: On What Legal Basis did Truman Act?” (1995) 89(1) American Journal of International Law 21
Flanz, Gisbert H. (ed.), Constitutions of the World (20 vols., Dobbs Ferry, NY, Oceana Publications, May 1995), vol. V, release 95–3, p. 79
Flanz, Gisbert H. (ed.), Constitutions of the Countries of the World, (Dobbs Ferry, NY, Oceana Publications, June 1998), vol. Ⅻ, release 98–4, p. 45
Forsthoff, E., “Rechtsgutachten zu Wehrbeitrag und Grundgesetz” in Der Kampf um den Wehrbeitrag (Munich, 1953), vol. II, p. 312
Forte, David, “Bill Clinton, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, and the Unmaking of American Foreign Policy” in his Essays on Our Time (Washington, DC, Free Congress Foundation, 1993)
Franck, Thomas M., The Tethered Presidency: Congressional Restraints on Executive Power (New York, New York University Press, 1981)
Franck, Thomas M., Political Questions – Judicial Answers: Does the Rule of Law Apply to Foreign Affairs? (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1992)
Franck, Thomas M., “The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance” (1992) 86(1) American Journal of International Law 46
Franck, Thomas M. and Michael J. Glennon, United States Foreign Relations and National Security Law (2nd edn., St. Paul, MN, West Pub. Co., 1993)
Franck, Thomas M., Edward C. Luck, et al., “Sidelined in Kosovo? The United Nations' Demise has been Exaggerated” (1999) 78(4) Foreign Affairs 116
Franck, Thomas M. and Faiza Patel, “UN Police Action in Lieu of War: ‘The Old Order Changeth’” (1991) 85 American Journal of International Law 63
Frowein, Jochen Abr. and Torsten Stein, Rechtliche Aspekte einer Beteiligung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland an Friedenstrupper der Vereinten Nationen (Berlin and New York, Springer-Verlag, 1990)
Frydenberg, Per (ed.), Peacekeeping: Experiences and Evaluation – the Oslo Papers (Oslo Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 1964)
Gardam, Col. John, The Canadian Peacekeeper (Burnstown, General Store Publishing, 1992)
Gillund, Catherine E., United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon: A Closer Look at Norway's Withdrawal (unpublished paper, Oslo, 1999)
Glennon, Michael J., “The War Powers Resolution Ten Years Later: More Politics Than Law” (1984) 78 American Journal of International Law 571
Glennon, Michael J., “Mr. Sofaer's War Powers ‘Partnership’” (1986) 80 American Journal of International Law 584
Glennon, Michael J., “United States Mutual Security Treaties: The Commitment Myth” (1986) 24 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 509
Glennon, Michael J., “The Gulf War and the Constitution” (1991) 70 Foreign Affairs 84
Glennon, Michael J., “The Constitution and Chapter VII of the UN Charter” (1991) 85 American Journal of International Law 74
Glennon, Michael J., “Sovereignty and Community after Haiti: Rethinking the Collective Use of Force” (1995) 89(1) American Journal of International Law 70
Glennon, Michael J., “The New Interventionism” (1999) 78(3) Foreign Affairs 2
Godechot, Jacques, “Constitution du 3 septembre 1791, Titre VI” in Les Constitutions de la France depuis 1789 (Paris, Garnier-Flammarion, 1970), p. 65
Goodwin, G. L., Britain and the United Nations (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1957)
Goot, Murray and Rodney Tiffen (eds.), Australia's Gulf War (Carlton, Vic., Melbourne University Press, 1992)
Gordon, Edward, et al., “International Law and the United States Action in Grenada: A Report” (1984) 18 The International Lawyer 331–80
Gordon, Nancy, “Beyond Peacekeeping: Somalia, the United Nations and the Canadian Experience” in Maureen Appel Molot and Harald von Riekhoff (eds.), A Part of the Peace: Canada Among Nations (Ottawa, Carleton University Press, 1994)
Gosewinkel, D., Adolf Arndt (Bonn, Verlag J. H. W. Dietz Nachf, 1991)
Granatstein, J. L., Canada's War: The Politics of the Mackenzie King Government, 1939–1945 (Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1975)
Granatstein, J. L., “Peacekeeping: Did Canada Make a Difference? And What Difference Did Peacekeeping Make to Canada?” in John English and Norman Hillmer (eds.), Making a Difference? Canada's Foreign Policy in a Changing World Order (Toronto, Lester Publishing, 1992)
Granatstein, J. L. and David J. Bercuson, War and Peacekeeping: From South Africa to the Gulf – Canada's Limited Wars (Toronto, Key Porter Books, 1991)
Greenwood, Christopher, “Is There a Right of Humanitarian Intervention?” (1993) 49(2) The World Today 34–40
Greenwood, Christopher, “International Humanitarian Law and United Nations Military Operations” in H. Fischer (ed.), Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (The Hague, A. M. C. Asser Institute, 1998), vol. I, pp. 3–34
Greenwood, Christopher, The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999)
Grewe, Wilhelm G. (ed.), Sources Relating to the History of the Law of Nations (Berlin, W. de Gruyter, 1988)
Haekkerup, Per, “Scandinavia's Peace-keeping Forces for U.N.” (1964) 42 Foreign Affairs 675
Hay, John, “Canada's Intervention in the Great Lakes Crisis,” unpublished paper (Ottawa, The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, 1999)
Heckscher, August, Woodrow Wilson: A Biography (New York, Collier Books, 1991)
Heiberg, Marianne, Norway and Keeping the Peace in Lebanon (NUPI NOTAT 317, Oslo, 1995)
Heinrich, L. William, Akiho Shibata, and Yoshihide Soeya, United Nations Peace-keeping Operations: A Guide to Japanese Policies (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 1999)
Held, David, Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1995)
Held, David, “Transformation of Political Community: Rethinking Democracy in the Context of Globalization” in Ian Shapiro and Casiano Hacker-Cordón (eds.), Democracy's Edges (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 84–111
Hemleben, John Sylvester, Plans for World Peace Through Six Centuries (Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 1943)
Henkin, Louis, Foreign Affairs and the U.S. Constitution (Mineola, NY, Foundation Press, 1972)
Henkin, Louis, How Nations Behave (2nd edn., New York, Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1979)
Henkin, Louis, et al., “Editorial Comments: North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Kosovo Intervention” (1999) 93 American Journal of International Law 824
Higgins, R., United Nations Peacekeeping: Documents and Commentary, Vol. IV Europe 1946–1979 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1981)
Hillen, John, Blue Helmets: The Strategy of UN Military Operations (Washington, DC, Brassey's, 2000)
Hirsch, John L. and Robert B. Oakley, Somalia and Operation Restore Hope: Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping (Washington, DC, United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995)
Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991)
Holmes, John W., Canada: A Middle-aged Power (Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1976)
Holsti, Kalevi J., Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order 1648–1989 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991)
Hoopes, Townsend and Douglas Brinkley, FDR and the Creation of the UN (New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1997)
Hull, Cordell, “Memorandum by the Secretary of State to President Roosevelt (29 December 1943),” in United States Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States (1944), p. 621
Ikeda, Tadashi, The Road to Cambodian Peace (Tokyo, Toshi Shuppan, 1996)
Inoguchi, Takashi, Edward Newman, and John Keane, “Introduction: The Changing Nature of Democracy” in Takashi Inoguchi, Edward Newman, and John Keane (eds.), The Changing Nature of Democracy (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 1998)
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, Report of, The Responsibility to Protect (Ottawa, International Development Research Centre, 2001)
International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance, 2001–2002 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001)
Jervas, Gunnar, “The View of the Political Parties on Peace Keeping and Peace Enforcing Efforts” in Gunnar Jervas and Rutger Lindahl (eds.), Skall Sverige Tvinga fram fred? [Should Sweden Force the Establishment of Peace?] (Research Report 19 The Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, 1994)
Kahan Report, The, (1983) 22 ILM 473
Kamp, K. H., “Die Zukunft der Bundeswehr: die Diskussion in der CDU/CSU” in Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (Beilage zur Wochenzeitung “Das Parlament”) (B 43/2000), October 20, 2000, pp. 29–33
Kant, Immanuel, Eternal Peace and Other International Essays (trans. by W. Hastie) (Boston, MA, The World Peace Foundation, 1914)
Kant, Immanuel, “To Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch” in Perpetual Peace and Other Essays on Politics, History and Morals (trans. Ted Humphrey) (Indianapolis, Hackett Pub. Co., 1983), pp. 107–39
Kaplan, Roger (ed.) “The Comparative Survey of Freedom: 2000, Freedom around the World” (2001) 28 Freedom Review 1
Kelleher, Catherine M., “Security in the New Order: Presidents, Polls, and Use of Force” in D. Yankelovich and I. Destler (eds.), Beyond the Beltway: Engaging the Public in U.S. Foreign Policy (New York, W. W. Norton, 1994), p. 225
Kennedy, Michael, Ireland and the League of Nations, 1919–1946: International Relations, Diplomacy and Politics (Dublin, Irish Academic Press, 1996)
Keohane, Robert O., “International Institutions: Can Interdependence Work?” (1998) 110 Foreign Policy 82
Keohane, Robert O., “Governance in a Partially Globalized World: Presidential Address, American Political Science Association” (2001) 95(1) American Political Science Review 1–13
Kettenacker, L., Germany since 1945 (Oxford, 1997)
Khan, Daniel-Erasmus and Markus Zockler, “Germans to the Front? or Le Malade Imaginaire” (1992) 3 European Journal of International Law 163
Kirgis, Frederic L., “The Legal Background on the Use of Force to Induce Iraq to Comply with Security Council Resolutions” (1997) ASIL Insight (http://www.asil.org/insigh12.htm)
Kirgis, Frederic L., “North Atlantic Treaty Organization Interdiction of Oil Tankers Bound for Yugoslavia” (1999) ASIL Insight (http://www.asil.org/insigh33.htm)
Kohno, Masaharu, Peace Initiatives: Cambodian Diplomacy (Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1999)
Kommers, D. P., The Constitutional Jurisprudence of the Federal Republic of Germany (2nd edn., Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 1997)
Kozai, Shigeru, UN Peacekeeping Operations [Kokuren no Heiwa iji Katsudo] (Tokyo, Yuhikaku, 1991)
Kress, C., “The External Use of German Armed Forces – the 1994 Judgment of the Bundesverfassungsgericht” (1995) 44 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 414–26
Kress, C., “Die Rettungsoperation der Bundeswehr in Albanien am 14. März 1997 aus völkerrechtlicher und verfassungsrechtlicher Sicht” (1997) 57 Zeitschrift für ausländisches offentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 356
Kristiansen, Rolf, Norsk militærinnsats for de Forente Nasjoner (1949–1970) (Oslo, Forsvarets Krigshistoriske Avdeling, 1970)
Kudriavtsev, Yu. (ed.), Kommentariy k Konstitutzii Rossiyskoy Federatzii [Commentary to the Constitution of the Russian Federation] (Moscow, 1996)
Kull, Steven and I. M. Destler, Misreading the Public: The Myth of a New Isolationism (Washington DC, Brookings Institution Press, 1999)
Kuperman, Alan J., The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda, (Washington, DC, Brookings, 2001)
Kuyper, P. J., and K. C. Wellens, “Deployment of Cruise Missiles in Europe: The Legal Battles in the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany and Belgium” (1987) 8 Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 174
Lamy, François, “Report to the Defense Commission on November 25, 1998” (1998) Assemblée Nationale, Commission de la Défense Nationale et des Forces Armées, Compte rendu No. 15
Lauren, Paul Gordon, The Evolution of International Human Rights: Visions Seen (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998)
Layritz, S., “Der Nato-Doppelbeschluss: Westliche Sicherheitspolitik im Spannungsfeld von Innen-, Bündnis-, und Aussenpolitik” (Kieler Schriften zur Politischen Wissenschaft 7, Frankfurt, Lang, 1992)
Lenarcic, David A., “Meeting Each Other Halfway: The Departments of National Defence and External Affairs During the Congo Peacekeeping Mission, 1960–64,” YCISS Occasional Paper No. 37, CDISP Special Issue No. 1 (Toronto, York University, August 1996)
Lester, Lord and D. Oliver (eds.), Constitutional Law and Human Rights (London, Butterworths, 1997)
Limon, D. and W. R. McKay, Erskine May's Treatise on the Law, Privileges, Proceedings and Usage of Parliament (22nd edn., London, Butterworths, 1997)
Lobel, Jules and Michael, Ratner, “Bypassing the Security Council: Ambiguous Authorizations to Use Force, Cease-fires and the Iraqi Inspection Regime” (1999) 93(1) American Journal of International Law 124
Locke, John, The Second Treatise on Civil Government (Buffalo, NY, Prometheus Books, 1986)
Loth, W., “The Korean War and the Reorganization of the European Security System 1948–1955”, in R. Ahmann et al. (eds.), The Quest for Stability: Problems of West European Security 1918–1957 (Oxford, German Historical Institute, 1993)
Luttwak, Edward, “Give War a Chance” (1999) 78 Foreign Affairs 41
MacDonald, Callum, Britain and the Korean War (Cambridge, MA, B. Blackwell, 1990)
Mackintosh, J. P., People and Parliament (Farnborough, Saxon House, 1978)
Madison, James, Letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson (April 2, 1798) in Gaillard Hunt (ed.), Writings of James Madison (9 vols., New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906), vol. VI, p. 312
Maier, C. S., “The Making of ‘Pax Americana’: Formative Moments of United States Ascendancy” in R. Ahmann et al. (eds.), The Quest for Stability: Problems of West European Security 1918–1957 (Oxford, German Historical Institute, 1993), p. 389
Maksoud, Clovis, “The Arab World's Quandary” (1993) 8 World Policy Journal 551
Malnes, Raino, National Interests, Morality and International Law (Oslo, Scandinavian University Press, 1994)
Malone, David, “The Security in the 1990s: Inconsistent, Improvisational, Indispensable” in Ramesh Thakur and Edward Newman (eds.), New Millennium, New Perspectives: The United Nations, Security, and Governance (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2000), pp. 21–45
Mangoldt, H. v. and F. Klein, Das Bonner Grundgesetz (3 vols., Berlin, Vahlen, 1964), vol. II
Martin, Pierre and Michel Fortmann, “Canadian Public Opinion and Peacekeeping in a Turbulent World” (1995) 50(2) International Journal 370
Matz, W., “Artikel 23” in G. Leibholz and H. v. Mangoldt (eds.), Entstehungsgeschichte der Artikel des Grundgesetzes (Jahrbuch des öffentlichen Rechts, 1) (Tubingen, 1951), p. 222
Mawby, S., Containing Germany (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999)
McCoubrey, H. and N. D. White, The Blue Helmets: The Legal Regulation of United Nations Operations (Dartmouth, Aldershot, 1996)
Meisler, Stanley, United Nations: The First Fifty Years (New York, The Atlantic Monthly Press 1995)
Melady, John, Korea: Canada's Forgotten War (Toronto, Macmillan of Canada, 1983)
Millar, T. B., Australia in Peace and War: External Relations 1788–1977 (Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1978)
Montesquieu, L'Esprit des Lois (London, G. Bell and Sons, 1902)
Moore, Thomas and James Anderson, International Peacekeeping (Washington, DC, Heritage Foundation Reports, 1998)
Morrison, Alex and James Kiras (eds.), UN Peace Operations and the Role of Japan (Toronto, The Canadian Peacekeeping Press, 1996)
Mörth, Ulrika and Bengt Sundelius, “Sweden and the United Nations” in Keith Krause and W. Andy Knight (eds.), State, Society, and the UN System. Changing Perspectives on Multilateralism (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 1995)
Morton, Desmond, “What Is To Be Done? Canada's Military Security in the 1990s” (1990) Peace and Security 5
Mueller, John, Retreat from Doomsday: The Obsolescence of Major War (New York, Basic Books, 1989)
Munro, John A. and Alex I. Inglis (eds.), Mike: Memoirs of the Right. Honourable Lester B. Pearson, Vol II 1948–1957 (Scarborough, New American Library of Canada, 1975)
Nakamura, Akira, Article 9 of the Constitution and Post-War Politics (Tokyo, Chuokeizaisha, 1996)
Nambiar, Satish, “India: An Uneasy Precedent” in Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), Kosovo and the Challenge to Humanitarian Intervention (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2000), pp. 260–9
Neumann, Iver and Ståle Ulriksen, “Norsk forsvars- og sikkerhetspolitikk” in Torbjørn Knutsen, Svein Gjerdåker, and Gunnar Sørbo (eds.), Norsk utenrikspolitikk (Oslo, Cappelens Akademiske Forlag, 1996), pp. 94–124
Nolte, G., “Ermächtigung der Exekutive zur Rechtsetzung” (1993) 118 Archiv des Öffentlichen Rechts 378
Nolte, G., “Bundeswehreinsätze in kollektiven Sicherheitssystemen” (1994) 54 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 652–85
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, “The Alliance's Strategic Concept,” Approved by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Washingtion, DC (April 23 and 24, 1999)
Norton, Roy, “Posturing and Policy Making in Canada–US Relations: Evaluating the First Two Mulroney and Chrétien Years” (1998) 5 Canadian Foreign Policy 2
Nye, Jr., Joseph S., “Globalization's Democratic Deficit” (2001) 80 Foreign Affairs 4
Oda, Shigeru and Hisashi Owada (eds.), The Practice of Japan in International Law 1961–1970 (Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1982)
Okun'kov, L. (ed.), Kommentariy k Konstitutzii Rossiyskoy Federatzii [Commentary to the Constitution of the Russian Federation] (Moscow, 1996)
Oliver, D. “The Scott Report” (1996) Public Law 357
Olson, Mancur and Richard Zekhauser, “An Economic Theory of Alliances” (1996) 48 Review of Economics and Statistics 266
Ouellet, André, “Towards a UN Rapid Reaction Capability” (1995) 3 Canadian Foreign Policy 2
Oxman, Bernard H., “The Relevance of the International Order to the Internal Allocation of Powers to Use Force” (1995) 50 University of Miami Law Review 129
Paphiti, A. S., “Rules of Engagement Within Multinational Land Operations” (1996) 1 Militair Rechtelijk Tijdschrift [Military Law Review] 1
Patton, D. F., Cold War Politics in Postwar Germany (London, Macmillan, 1999)
Paulmier, Thierry, L'Armée française et les opérations de maintien de la paix (Paris, LGDJ, 1997)
Pierre, Andrew J., “De-Balkanizing the Balkans: Security and Stability in Southeastern Europe,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 3, 5 (September 20, 1999)
Quinn, Dennis J. (ed.), The Goldwater–Nichols DOD Reorganization Act: A Ten-year Retrospective (Washington DC, National Defense University Press, 1999)
Ratner, Steven R., The New UN Peacekeeping: Building Peace in Lands of Conflict After the Cold War (New York, St. Martin's Press, 1996)
Rawls, John, The Law of Peoples (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1999)
Reddy, T. Ramakrishna, India's Policy in the United Nations (Rutherford, NJ, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1968)
Reveley III, W. Taylor, War Powers of the President and Congress: Who Holds the Arrows and Olive Branch? (Charlottesville, VA, University Press of Virginia, 1981)
Rielly, John E., “Americans and the World: A Survey at Century's End” (1999) 114 Foreign Policy 100
Roberts, Adam, “From San Francisco to Sarajevo: The UN and the Use of Force” (1995–6) 37(4) Survival 7–28
Roberts, Adam, “North Atlantic Treaty Organization's ‘Humanitarian War’ Over Kosovo” (1999) Survival 106
Roellecke, G., “Bewaffnete Auslandseinsätze – Krieg, Auβenpolitik oder Innenpolitik?” (1995) 34 Der Staat 415
Rønnfeldt, Carsten and Henrik Thune, “Conflicting Global Orders: The Principle of Non-intervention and Human Rights” in Anthony McDermott (ed.), Sovereign Intervention (PRIO Report 2/99, Oslo, 1999)
Roosevelt, Franklin D., Statement to the Press; “Department of State Bulletin” (June 15, 1944), reprinted in United States Department of State (1944), p. 642
Ross, J. F. L., Neutrality and International Sanctions (New York, Praeger, 1989)
Rossignol, Michel, “International Conflicts: Parliament, the National Defence Act, and the Decision to Participate,” Background Paper BP-303E (Ottawa, Research Branch, Political and Social Affairs Division, Library of Parliament, August 1992)
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, Discours sur l'origine et les fondamens de l'inégalité parmi les hommes (Editions Flammarion, 1996 [1755])
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, A Lasting Peace through the Federation of Europe and the State of War (trans. by C. E. Vaughan) (London, Constable, 1917)
Rowe, P., Defence: The Legal Implications (London, Brassey's, 1987)
Rudner, Martin, “Canada, the Gulf Crisis, and Collective Security” in Fen Osler Hampson and Christopher J. Maule (eds.), After the Cold War: Canada Among Nations 1990–91 (Ottawa, Carleton University Press, 1991), pp. 241–80
Russell, R. B. and J. B. Muther, A History of the United Nations Charter: The Role of the United States, 1940–1945 (Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Press, 1958)
Russett, Bruce, Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a Post-Cold War World (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1993)
Sands, Phillippe, “Oil Blockage Threatens International Law of the Sea” (1999) ASIL Insight (http://www.asil.org/insigh34.htm)
Sarkees, Meredith Reid, “The Correlates of War Data on War: An Update to 1997” (2000) 18(1) Conflict Management and Peace Science 123–44
Sarooshi, Danesh, The United Nations and the Development of Collective Security: The Delegation by the UN Security Council of its Chapter VII Powers (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999)
Schachter, Oscar, “Authorized Uses of Force by the United Nations and Regional Organizations” in Lori F. Damrosch and David J. Scheffer (eds.), Law and Force in the New International Order (Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1991), pp. 65–93
Schnabel, Albrecht and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), Kosovo and the Challenge to Humanitarian Intervention (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2000)
Schwartz, T. A., America's Germany: John J. McCloy and the Federal Republic of Germany (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1991)
Sens, Allen G., Somalia and the Changing Nature of Peacekeeping: Implications for Canada: A Study Prepared for the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia (Ottawa, Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1997)
Serrano, Monica, “Latin America: The Dilemma of Intervention” in Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), Kosovo and the Challenge to Humanitarian Intervention (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2000), p. 223
Seymour-Ure, C., “War Cabinets in Limited Wars: Korea, Suez and the Falklands” (1984) 62 Public Administration 181
Shawcross, William, Deliver Us From Evil: Peacekeepers, Warlords, and a World of Endless Conflict (New York, Simon & Schuster, 2000)
Shibata, Akiho, “Japanese Peacekeeping Legislation and Recent Developments in UN Operations” (1994) 19 Yale Journal of International Law 307
Siekmann, Robert C. R., National Contingents in United Nations Peace-keeping Forces (Dordrecht and Boston, Martinus Nijhoff, 1991)
Siekmann, Robert C. R., “The Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel: Its Scope of Application” in E. Denters and N. Schrijver (eds.), Reflections on International Law from the Low Countries – In Honour of Paul de Waart (The Hague, Boston, and London, Kluwer Law International, 1998), pp. 315–23
Siekmann, Robert C. R., “The Fall of Srebrenica and the Attitude of Dutchbat from an International Legal Perspective” in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (The Hague, 1998), vol. I, pp. 301–12
Siekmann, Robert C. R., “Peace-keeping in the Middle East: Establishing the Concept” in Alfred E. Kellermann, Kurt Siehr, and Talia Einhorn (eds.), Israel among the Nations – International and Comparative Law Perspectives on Israel's 50th Anniversary (The Hague, Boston, and London, Kluwer Law International, 1998), pp. 367–80
Simma, Bruno, “North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the UN and the Use of Force: Legal Aspects” (1999) 10 European Journal of International Law 1
Simma, Bruno et al. (eds.), The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994)
Smith, R., Under the Blue Flag (Dublin, Aherlow Publishers, 1980)
Sobakin, V. K., Kollektivnaya Bezopasnost' – Garantiya Mirnogo Suschestvovaniya [Collective Security – the Guarantee of Peaceful Coexistence] (Moscow, International Relations, 1962)
Soeya, Yoshihide, “Japan's Peacekeeping Policies” (2000) 73 Keio Law Review 117
Sofaer, Abraham, War, Foreign Affairs and Constitutional Power: The Origins (Cambridge, MA, Ballinger Publishing Company, 1976)
Souleyman, Elizabeth V., The Vision of World Peace in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century France (New York, NY, Putnam, 1941)
Soutou, Georges-Henri, “France and the German Rearmament Problem 1945–1955” in R. Ahmann et al. (eds.), The Quest for Stability: Problems of West European Security 1918–1957 (Oxford, German Historical Institute, 1993)
Stein, Eric, “International Integration and Democracy: No Love at First Sight” (2001) 95(3) American Journal of International Law 489–534
Stern, Brigitte (ed.), La Vision française des opérations de maintien de la paix (Paris, Montchrestien, 1997); also published in English as United Nations Peace-keeping Operations: A Guide to French Politics (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 1998)
Stromseth, Jane E., “Rethinking War Powers: Congress, the President, and the United Nations” (1993) 81 Georgetown Law Journal 597
Stromseth, Jane E., “Collective Force and Constitutional Responsibility: War Powers in the Post-Cold War Era” (1995) 50 University of Miami Law Review 145
Stromseth, Jane E., “Understanding Constitutional War Powers Today: Why Methodology Matters” (1996) 106 Yale Law Journal 845
Stütz, Horan, “The Views of the Swedes on Peace Keeping Efforts” in Gunnar Jervas and Rutger Lindahl (eds.), Skall Sverige tvinga fram fred? [Should Sweden Force the Establishment of Peace?] (Research Report 19, The Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, 1994)
Sutterlin, James S., The United Nations and the Maintenance of International Security: A Challenge to be Met (Westport, CT, Praeger, 1995)
Tálas, Peter and László Valki, “The New Entrants: Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic” in Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), Kosovo and the Challenge to Humanitarian Intervention (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2000) p. 201
Tamnæs, Rolf, Oljealder 1965–1995. Norsk utenrikspolitisk historie (Oslo, Universitetsforlaget, 1998)
Tanaka, Akihiko, “United Nations Peace-keeping Operations and Japan” in T. Nishihara and S. Harrison (eds.), United Nations PKO and Japan–US Security (Tokyo, Aki Shobo, 1995)
Taylor, Alistair, David Cox, and J. L. Granatstein (eds.), Peacekeeping: International Challenge and Canadian Response (Toronto, The Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 1968)
Thakur, Ramesh, Peacekeeping in Vietnam: Canada, India, Poland and the International Commission (Edmonton, University of Alberta Press, 1984)
Thakur, Ramesh, The Government and Politics of India (London and New York, Macmillan and St. Martin's Press, 1995)
Thakur, Ramesh, “A Changing of the Guard in India” (1998) 38(6) Asian Survey 603
Thakur, Ramesh, “South Asia and the Politics of Non-Proliferation” (1999) 54(3) International Journal 404
Thakur, Ramesh (ed.), What is Equitable Geographic Representation in the Twenty-first Century (Tokyo, The United Nations University, 1999)
Thakur, Ramesh and Carlyle A. Thayer (eds.), A Crisis in Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s (Boulder, CO, Westview, 1995)
Thorne, C., The Limits of Foreign Policy (London, Hamish Hamilton, 1972)
Thränert, O., “Die Reform der Bundeswehr: die Debatte bei den Regierungsparteien SPD und Bündnis 90/die Grünen” in Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (Beilage zur Wochenzeitung “Das Parlament”) (B 43/2000), October 20, 2000, p. 24
Thucydides, The Peloponnesian Wars (Penguin Classics, Harmondsworth, 1982)
Towell, Pat, “Congress Set to Provide Money but no Guidance for Kosovo Mission” (1999) 57 Congressional Quarterly 18
Towell, Pat and Donna Cassara, “House Votes to Block Clinton from Sending Peacekeepers” (1995) Congressional Quarterly 3549
Towell, Pat and Donna Cassara, “Congress Takes Symbolic Stand on Troop Deployment” (1995) Congressional Quarterly 3817
Tribe, L. H., American Constitutional Law, vol. I (3rd edn., New York, Foundation Press, 1999)
Tunkin, G. I., Teoriya Mezhdunarodnogo Prava [Theory of International Law] (Moscow, International Relations, 1970)
Turpin, C., British Government and the Constitution (4th edn., London, Butterworths, 1999)
Tuzmukhamedov, B., “Russian Forces in the Commonwealth of Independent States” in Dieter Fleck (ed.), The Handbook on the Law of Visiting Forces (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 417–41
United Nations, The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peace-keeping (2nd edn., New York, United Nations, 1990)
United Nations, The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peace-keeping (3rd edn, New York, United Nations, 1996)
United Nations, The United Nations and Somalia 1992–1996 (The United Nations Blue Books Series, vol. 8) (New York, United Nations Department of Public Information, 1996)
United Nations, 50 Years, 1948–1998, UN Peacekeeping (New York, United Nations Department of Public Information, 1998)
Verdross, A., The Permanent Neutrality of Austria (Vienna, Verl. F. Geschichte u. Politik, 1978)
Voelckel, Michel, “Faut-il encore déclarer la guerre?” (1991) AFDI 7
von Hippel, Karin, “Democracy by Force: Renewed Commitment to Nation-building” (2000) Washington Quarterly 95
Wæver, Ole, “Securitization and Desecuritization” in Ronnie D. Lipschutz (ed.), On Security (Columbia University Press, New York, 1995)
Walters, F. P., A History of the League of Nations (London, Oxford University Press, 1952)
Weart, Spencer R., Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another (New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1998)
Weiler, Joseph, The Constitution of Europe: Do the New Clothes have an Emperor? And Other Essays on European Integration (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999)
Weller, Marc, “Current Development: the International Response to the Dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia” (1992) 86 American Journal of International Law 569
Weller, M. (ed.), Iraq and Kuwait: The Hostilities and their Aftermath (Cambridge, Grotius, 1993)
White, N. D., Keeping the Peace: The United Nations and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security (2nd edn., Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1997)
White, N. D., “From Korea to Kuwait: The Legal Basis of United Nations' Military Action” (1998) 20 International History Review 600
White, N. D. and R. Cryer, “Unilateral Enforcement of Resolution 687: A Threat too Far?” (1999) 29 California Western International Law Journal 272
Wiegandt, Manfred H., “Germany's International Integration: The Rulings of the German Federal Constitutional Court on the Maastricht Treaty and the Out-of-area Deployment of German Troops” (1995) 10 American University Journal of International Law and Policy 889–916
Wild, M., “Verfassungsrechtliche Möglichkeiten und Grenzen für Auslandseinsätze der Bundeswehr nach dem Kosovo-Krieg” (2000) Die Öffentliche Verwaltung 622
Wilson, Woodrow, “The Fourteen Points” (Address to Congress, January 8, 1918)
Wilson, Woodrow, War and Peace (ed. by Ray Stanard Baker and William E. Dodd) (8 vols., New York, Harper and Brothers, 1927), vol. I
Yasuda, Hiroshi (ed.), Peace, Security and the Law (Tokyo, Naigaishuppan, 1996)
Yoo, John C., “The Continuation of Politics by Other Means: The Original Understanding of War Powers” (1996) 84 California Law Review 167
Zoller, Elisabeth, Droit des relations extérieures (Paris, Presses universitaires de Paris, 1990)