3 - Key American experiences  pp. 69-147

Key American experiences

By Daniel Stepniak

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Introduction

The televising of proceedings in American courtrooms has been the subject of countless articles, books, studies and experiments. Consequently, this chapter does not propose to go down the well trodden path of outlining the history and experiences of American courts. Instead, it focuses on those aspects of the American experience which other common law countries regard as precedents, against which their experiences are measured, to which they are compared, and which inevitably serve as reference points in any analysis of the televising of court proceedings.

This chapter begins with an analysis of the virtual banning of cameras from American courtrooms in the early twentieth century in order to facilitate a clearer understanding of the technological, legal and other reasons why courtroom televising was initially banned and has subsequently come to be accepted, though often subject to significant restrictions, in all state jurisdictions in the United States. It also facilitates a consideration of the introduction of televising as a step in the evolution of courtroom reporting.

The dominant role which constitutional rights issues have played in determining the nature of the debate, and the manner in which courtroom reporting is regulated in the United States, are then examined and shown to contain important lessons for other common law jurisdictions.

This chapter's examination of some of the major studies undertaken in American courts not only discloses invaluable precedents for regulation or administration of courtroom televising, but also reveals why such studies are inevitably deemed inconclusive.

3

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Books and Reports

Reference Type: bibliography

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Reference Title: Journal Articles

Reference Type: bibliography

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‘Bar Paves Way for TV Courts’ (1990) 87(6) Law Society 5 (London)
‘Bar Support for Television Pilot Scheme’ (1991) 141 New Law Journal 190 (London)
‘Bar Ushers in Televised Trials’ (1989) 133 Solicitors Journal 668 (London)
‘Bar Working Party Reports’ (1989) May–June Counsel 5 (London)
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Barber, Susanna,‘An Analysis and Review of News Cameras in the Courtroom: a Free Press-Free Trial Debate’ (1989) 11(2) Communications and the Law 61 (Westport, CT)
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Blasi, Vincent, ‘The Checking Value in First Amendment Theory’ (1977) American Bar Foundation Research Journal 523
Blom-Cooper, Louis, ‘The Case for the Camera in Court’ (1988) April–May Counsel 13 (London)
Boehringer, Gill, ‘Review: Through My Eyes’ (2004) 29 Alternative Law Journal 302 (Clayton, Vic.)
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Reference Title: Newspaper and Magazine Articles

Reference Type: bibliography

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Coffey, Michelle, ‘Telecast whets an appetite’, The Australian (Melbourne), 19 May 1995, p. 4
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Coles, Joanna, ‘Judging by the ratings, she's courting stardom’, The Australian (Perth), 30 July 1999
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‘Could it happen here?’ Maclean's (Toronto), 18 July 1994, p. 2
Coulson, Russel, ‘Court venue custom-built’, Herald Sun (Melbourne), 19 August 1996, p. 16
‘Court case televised’, Wairato Times (Hamilton), 14 March 1995
‘Court in Goulburn session’, Shepparton News (Shepparton, Vic.), 28 October 1996, p. 1
‘Court “no place” for TV cameras’, The Press (Christchurch), 7 October 1995
‘Court restrictions limit coverage: TV stations’, Dominion (Wellington), 29 May 1995
‘Courtroom filming a first’, Daily News (Taranaki, NZ), 15 March 1995
‘Courtroom TV cameras given test run’, Timaru Herald (New Zealand), 15 March 1995
‘Courts camera shy’, New Zealand Herald (Napier), 3 June 1995
‘Courts twice turn camera shy’, New Zealand Herald, 31 May 1995
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Fife-Yeomans, Janet,‘Camera on crime’, Weekend Australian (Perth), 26–27 August 1995, p. 22
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Gaunder, Yashwant, ‘World's first Internet coup’, The Australian (Perth), 25–31 May 2000, p. 13
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Gibb, Frances,‘Televising of courts: don't hold your breath’, The Times (London), 18 January 2005, Law 5
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Gregory, Peter, ‘Court allows Yorta Yorta to record land claim for posterity’, The Age (Melbourne), 28 October 1996, p. A4
Gregory, Peter,‘Yorta Yorta People start battle for land they love’, The Age (Melbourne), 29 October 1996, p. A4
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Gregory, Peter and Gibson, Rachel, ‘Killer gets life as “TV judge” makes history’, The Age (Melbourne), 19 May 1995, p. 1
Groner, Jonathan, ‘Who rules? Which rules? Cameras-in-court decision tests power of Judicial Conference’, Legal Times (Detroit), 11 March 1996, p. 2
Grove, Jennifer, ‘MP's study TV house rules’, West Australian (Perth), 18 September 1999, p. 49
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Hainsworth, Jeremy, ‘Internet publication ban on BC trial challenged’, Seattle Times (Seattle), 21 March 2003
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Hawes, Rachel, ‘TV cameras to film murder sentencing’, The Australian (Melbourne), 13 May 1995, p. 1
Hawes, Rachel,‘OJ trial sparks calls for greater access to juries’, Weekend Australian (Melbourne), 7–8 October 1995
Hawes, Rachel,‘Chief Magistrate a safe choice’, The Australian (Melbourne), 8 May 1996, p. 4
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Henderson, Gerard, ‘Judges who court the spotlight’, Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney), 9 April 1996, p. 11
Henderson, Ian, ‘Chief Justice says only sick society would televise court’, The Australian (Sydney), 25 June 2001, p. 4
Henningham, John, ‘At odds with the court of public opinion’, The Australian (Melbourne), 20–26 November 2003, p. 7
Henry, Scott, ‘New Chief Magistrate advocates cases on TV’, The Australian (Melbourne), 25 November 1993, p. 5
Hewitt, Sue, ‘I know fate of Azaria’, Sunday Times (Perth), 4 July 2004, p. 1
Hickman, Belinda, ‘Judge allows cameras for verdict in 40-year manslaughter saga’, The Australian (Melbourne), 25 February 2002, p. 4
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Innes, Prue, ‘Camera shy: why our judges won't show their faces on TV’, The Australian (Perth), 1 April 1999, p. 2
Irving, Mark, ‘Hotelier, TV man in court carpark scuffle’, The Australian (Brisbane), 7 August 1996
Jackson, Sally, ‘Pushing their opinions’, The Australian (Perth), 27 February 2003, p. 4
Jackson, Sally,‘Media companies claim law should be out of court’, The Australian (Perth), 17–23 July 2003, p. 3
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Jameson, Julietta, ‘TV banned from Simpson civil trial’, Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne), 25 August 1996
Jefferies, Pamela, ‘Parties request tribunal confidentiality’, New Zealand Herald, 15 March 1995
Jellie, Dugald, ‘Switch on radio: why a courtroom drama defeated radio’, The Age (Melbourne), 25 May 1995, Green Guide 9
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Johnston, Philip, ‘Judges denounce Blunkett's policy on asylum claims’, Daily Telegraph (London), 1 August 2003, p. 6
Johnston, Tony, ‘Crime and Punishment’, Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne), 13 December 1998, p. 6
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‘Judge gives warning over courtroom TV’, Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney), 21 August 1995
‘Judge limits cameras’, Northern Advocate (Whangarei), 19 May 1995
‘Judge outlaws court cameras’, Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne), 8 October 1995
‘Judge sticks to TV only’, Evening Standard (Palmerston North), 24 May 1995
‘Judge suggests TV execution’, Weekend Australian (Melbourne), 26 July 1994, p. 14
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Judicial Council of California, ‘Cameras in courtroom, juries are focus of latest justice reforms’, Court News (California), December–January 1995–96, p. 1
Judicial Council of California,‘Revised cameras rule reaffirms judicial discretion’, Court News, 1996, p. 4
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‘Jury reveals racial conflict in legal system’, The Australian (Brisbane), 5 October 1995, p. 7
‘Jury to tour massacre site’, West Australian (Perth), 10 February 1999
‘Justice after the OJ Simpson trial’, Weekend Australian (Melbourne), 7–8 October 1995
‘Justice should be seen to be done’, Independent (London), 30 June 1995
Kerin, John and Towers, Katherine, ‘Judge in attack on threat to judiciary’, Weekend Australian (Melbourne), 15–16 October 1994, p. 9
‘Kicking cameras out of courtrooms’, Chicago Tribune (Chicago), 23 September 1994, p. 20
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Kotanides, John Jr, ‘Justice falls in McVeigh delay’, USA Today (New York), 17 May 2001, p. 14A
Krum, Sharon, ‘Lucrative trials of court cable’, The Australian (Melbourne), 9 November 1994, p. 20
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Lampers, Michael N., ‘Keep those cameras out of the Supreme Court’, USA Today (New York), 6 December 2000, p. 24A
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Landesman, Cosmo, ‘Courage of her conviction’, The Australian (Perth), 11 September 1998, p. 13
Lane, Bernard, ‘TV coming to a court near you, says Kirby’, The Australian (Brisbane), 18 August 1997
Lane, Bernard,‘High Court “needs media voice” ’, The Australian (Perth), 11 May 1998, p. 5
Lane, Bernard,‘High Court tests case for Net’, The Australian (Perth), 7 December 1999, p. 3
Laugesen, Ruth, ‘PM predicts Maori move to national structure’, Dominion (Wellington), 15 March 1995
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Lawson, Mark, ‘Smoke that lingers: it's the media – not the courts – that decide guilt or innocence’, Guardian (London), 2 August 2003, p. 21
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‘Lawyers fear effect of television on trials’, Nelson Evening Mail (New Zealand), 1 April 1995
‘Lawyers fear effect of TV cameras in courtrooms’, The News (Westport), 31 March 1995
Laxon, Andrew, ‘Police call to end televised trials’, New Zealand Herald, 24 March 1995
Laxon, Andrew,‘Court TV trial to continue’, New Zealand Herald, 25 March 1995, p. 1
Le Grand, Chip, ‘Rash trio forces lethal to rethink TV’, The Australian (Perth), 25 May 2004, p. 18
Legalbrief News Diary, ‘Sport: King Inquiry runs into obstacles’, Legalbrief News Diary (Durban), 2003
Legge, Kate, ‘Sensationalism dominates justice via cable network’, The Australian (Sydney), 2 August 1991, p. 6
Leonard, Tom, ‘Hutton Inquiry television ban’, Daily Telegraph (London), 6 August 2003, p. 4
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Lewis, J., ‘Jurors fly to Belarus to study “war crimes” site’, Guardian Weekly (Manchester), 21 February 1999, p. 8
Lewis, Robert, ‘Tabloid journalism?’ Maclean's (Toronto), 24 January 1994, p. 2
‘Lights, Camera, Action at Parramatta’ (2004) 4(6) Courtside: Newsletter of the Family Court of Australia 1
Linklater, Magnus, ‘Court on camera: justice done’, The Times (London), November 1994, p. 18
Lipski, Sam, ‘Azaria case reflects journalism's worst – and best’, Bulletin (Sydney), 25 February 1986, p. 86
Lloyd, Megan, ‘People assured of easy access and their say in Environment Resources Development Court’, City Messenger (Adelaide), 17 July 1996, p. 15
‘Lockerbie defense tries to shift blame in trial’, USA Today (New York), 6 December 2000, p. 22A
‘Lords query overhaul of legal system’, West Australian (Perth), 10 March 2004, p. 30
Lose, Joseph, ‘Crim-cams win over lawyers’, Sunday News (New Zealand), 26 March 1995
Louisson, Simon, ‘OJ trial casts doubt on court TV plans’, Evening Post (Wellington), 11 October 1995
Lusetich, Robert, ‘A nation is glued to screens as LA Law meets the Simpsons’, Weekend Australian (Melbourne), 2–3 July 1994, p. 12
Lusetich, Robert,‘Bobbitt stars in uncut porn movie’, The Australian (Melbourne), 3 September 1994
Lusetich, Robert,‘OJ acquittal splits nation’, The Australian (Melbourne), 5 October 1995, p. 1
Lusetich, Robert,‘OJ and the morning after’, The Australian (Melbourne), 5 October 1995, p. 9
Lusetich, Robert,‘No, no nanny’, Weekend Australian (Melbourne), 15–16 November 1997, p. 21
Lyons, John, ‘Showtime for justice’, The Australian Magazine (Melbourne), 21–22 May 1994, p. 12
Lytle, Jeffrey F., ‘Supreme Court should allow live coverage during its election hearings’, Moscow-Pullman Daily News (Moscow, Idaho), 29 November 2000, p. 6A
Macintyre, Ben, ‘A tragedy in black and white’, The Australian (Melbourne), 6 October 1995, p. 14
Mackenzie, Kate, ‘Digital recorders will change the way we watch TV’, The Australian (Perth), 4 December 2002, p. 7
Maclennan, Catriona, ‘Women in the law battle for equality’, Dominion (Wellington), 15 March 1995
MacLeod, Murdo, ‘Top advocate calls for TV cameras to roll in Scott courts’, Scotland on Sunday (Glasgow), 30 June 2002, p. 8
Madigan, Michael, ‘Boat people find new way to Australia’, Courier Mail (Brisbane), 17 September 2001, p. 3
Malatesta, Grace, ‘Trial in style in new courts’, West Australian (Perth), 9 April 1999
Malatesta, Grace,‘Video justice spans two nations’, West Australian (Perth), 5 June 1999, p. 12
Malatesta, Grace,‘Courts put on bad face, says Report’, West Australian (Perth), 8 June 1999, p. 10
Malatesta, Grace,‘WA wins with innovative software’, West Australian (Perth), 8 June 1999, p. 10
Malatesta, Grace,‘Long arm of the law learns digital tricks’, West Australian (Perth), 4 August 1999, p. 26
Malatesta, Grace,‘Media accused of unfair judge attacks’, West Australian (Perth), 7 August 1999, p. 32
Mara, Carol, ‘Is this justice?’ The Australian Magazine (Melbourne), 28–29 October 1995, p. 39
Martin, Roger, ‘Foss moves to make life harder for court nuisances’, West Australian (Perth), 26 September 1998, p. 32
Mason, Hon. Anthony, ‘Justice on the screen’, Herald Sun (Melbourne), 12 June 1995, p. 29
Mathieson, Clive, ‘Digital TV in every house IT networks win frequencies’, The Australian (Melbourne), 10 February 1998, p. 8
Mathieson, Clive,‘Alston holds the control in TV's Brave New World’, The Australian (Melbourne), 9 March 1998
Mathieson, Clive,‘Unlikely allies to fight digital TV monopoly’, The Australian (Melbourne), 12 March 1998, p. 4
Mathieson, Clive,‘Digital signals channel diversity on public TV’, The Australian (Melbourne), 26 March 1998
Mauro, Tony, ‘Cameras to come out of Federal Courts’, USA Today (New York), 21 September 1994, p. 1
McDonnell, Dan, ‘Receptive to Change’, Herald Sun (Melbourne), 8 February 1994, p. 13
McGrath, John, ‘Tribunal TV raises “Judge Judy” fear’, West Australian (Perth), 24 January 2004, p. 190
McGregor, Richard and Balogh, Stefanie, ‘Colston will “die before he faces court” ’, Weekend Australian (Perth), 1–2 May 1999, p. 3
McGuiness, Padraic P., ‘All things being equal, justice must be seen to be done’, The Age (Melbourne), 25 February 1995, p. 23
McLennan, David, ‘High Court decisions must be open to dialogue – Professor Michael Coper’, Canberra Times (Canberra), 22 September 2003, p. 7
McNair, Brian, ‘Counterblast’, Sunday Herald (Sydney), 12 December 1999
McNeil, Wayne, ‘TV turns justice into soap opera’, New Zealand Herald, 25 March 1995
McNicoll, D. D., ‘Conventional wisdom’, The Australian (Melbourne), 26 January 1998
Meade, Amanda, ‘Where the bucks stop’, The Australian (Melbourne), 2 December 1999, p. 11
Meade, Kevin and Hart, Cath, ‘Judge demands trial Web blackout’, The Australian (Perth), 26 January 2005, p. 3
‘Media banned from court hearing’, Gold Coast Bulletin, 29 April 1997, p. 12
Meertens, Grace, ‘Chief Justice defends bench’, West Australian (Perth), 4 August 1998, p. 6
Meertens, Grace,‘Survey finds public unhappy with courts’, West Australian (Perth), 5 September 1998, p. 39
Meertens, Grace,‘Media “threat” to role of judges’, West Australian (Perth), 18 September 1998, p. 26
Meertens, Grace,‘WA's top judge attacks human rights abuse in Asia’, West Australian (Perth), 24 September 1998, p. 30
‘Melba’, The Australian (Brisbane), 25 March 1997, Features 11
Merritt, Chris, ‘Hearsay’, Australian Financial Review (Perth), 5 May 2000 2000, p. 36
Meryment, Elizabeth, Morley, Peter and Metcalf, Fran, ‘Goss's CJC Review “eyed core duties” ’, Courier Mail (Brisbane), 21 February 1997
Messina, Alex, ‘Tricky first hour for Chief Magistrate’, The Age (Melbourne), 25 November 1993, p. 7
Messina, Alex,‘Lights, Camera, Action: they're in court and so are you’, The Age (Melbourne), 7 July 1994, p. 1
Messina, Alex,‘Must justice be seen?’ The Age (Melbourne), 8 July 1994, p. 9
Messina, Alex,‘Federal Court to consider TV move’, The Age (Melbourne), 15 July 1994, p. 7
Messina, Alex and Bruer, Mark, ‘A court in camera’, The Age (Melbourne), 3 February 1994, p. 11
Michaels, Julie, ‘Law in the Age of Images’, Boston College Law School Magazine, Fall 2000, p. 19
Michelmore, Karen, ‘NT Government spends $1 m on Falconio case’, Australian Associated Press, 22 April 2004
Milburn, Caroline, ‘Televise High Court: Sir Ninian’, The Age (Melbourne), 20 August 1998, p. 5
Milligan, Louise, ‘Courting danger’, The Australian (Perth), 13–19 November 2003, p. 4
Milligan, Louise,‘Top judge says electronic age risks right to fair trial’, Weekend Australian (Perth), 29–30 November 2003, p. 7
Milligan, Louise,‘Rape call broadcast criticised’, The Australian (Perth), 4–10 December 2003, p. 3
Mills, Kelly, ‘Oracle holds court with casetrack’, The Australian (Perth), 26 November 2002, p. 8
Montgomery, Bruce, ‘Law's Net revolution has beaks surfing’, The Australian (Perth), 31 August 1999, p. 33
Morris, Rachel, ‘Evidence points to regular court TV’, Daily Telegraph (London), 3 September 1999, p. 7
‘Mother says no to trial coverage’, Daily Post (Rotorua), 27 April 1995
‘Motoring case used as TV practice run’, Gisborne Herald (Gisborne), 15 March 1995
Mottram, Murray, Butcher, Steve and Gray, Darren, ‘Putting the County Court on trial’, Sunday Age (Melbourne), 19 November 1995, p. 8
‘Nanny jury fury: poll rejects guilt verdict’, Sunday Mail (London), 2 November 1997, p. 6
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‘Net gets verdict’, The Australian (Perth), 2 August 1999, p. 2
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New York Daily News, ‘Will the Unreal OJ Please Rise?’ Herald Sun, 5 January 1997
Newsday, ‘A year on, OJ melodrama shakes the faith’, The Age (Melbourne), 12 June 1995
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Nickerson, C., ‘Canadian puts the joke on US’, Boston Globe (Boston), 29 May 2001, p. 1
‘No TV camera at trial’, Wairarapa Times (New Zealand), 28 April 1995
Norton-Taylor, Richard, ‘Your inquisitor awaits, Mr Blair’, Guardian (London), 2 August 2003, p. 1
Noyes, Pete, ‘Court cameras should obey the rules’, Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles), 8 April 1996, p. 73
‘Obituaries, Anna Hauptmann’, The Age (Melbourne), 20 October 1994, p. 16
‘Occupation must end’, Evening Post (Wellington), 14 March 1995
O'Hagan, Maureen, ‘Bid to close hearing in B.C. killings is denied’, Seattle Times (Seattle), 7 December 2002
‘OJKO as pilot allow cameras into Court of Appeal,’ Law Gazette (London), 9 September 2004, www.lawgazette.co.uk/news/pressroundup/view=newsarticle.law?GAZETTENEWSID=191539 at 25 April 2007
‘OJ's trial by media’, Maclean's (Toronto), 31 October 1994, p. 39
‘Old Bailey in Belarus’, The Australian (Perth), 18 February 1999, p. 8
Oldfield, Stewart and Gregory, Peter, ‘Elliott criticises Yorta Claim’, The Age (Melbourne), 31 October 1996
‘Opponents of camera ban pleased by Report’, Legal Intelligencer (Washington), 23 November 1993, p. 5
Palmer, Scot, ‘OJ proves time is right for tribunal TV’, Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne), 8 October 1995, p. 51
Papas, Nicholas, ‘Sentencing is not that simple’, Herald Sun (Melbourne), 5 February 1996
‘Pay-TV court channel possibility in Australia, says Magistrate’, The Press (Christchurch), 20 May 1995
Phillips, John, ‘Milosevic trial stops nation in its tracks’, The Australian (Perth), 14 February 2002, p. 8
‘Photos, radio banned at trial’, Wairato Times (Hamilton), 24 May 1995
Plane, Terry, ‘Suppression city courts secrecy’, The Australian (Perth), 14 November 2001, p. 12
‘Police raise concerns about televised trials’, Ashburton Guardian (New Zealand), 24 March 1995
‘Police speak against cameras in courtrooms’, Dominion (Wellington), 25 March 1995
‘Police want television ban in court’, The Press (Christchurch), 25 March 1995
Power, Samantha, ‘Iraqis should see tyrant's trial up close’, The Australian (Perth), 1 January 2004, p. 11
‘Power shifts to the judges’, Guardian (London), 11 September 2000
Price, Matt, ‘The $44 m battle in courtroom 11’, The Australian (Perth), 18 March 1999, p. 1
Price, Matt,‘Ambush’, The Australian (Perth), 30 October 2003, p. 4
‘Public to peer at new look House of Lords’, West Australian (Perth), 21 January 1999
Purves, Libby, ‘Where is the justice when TV moves in?’, The Times (London), 15 November 1994
‘Radio, photos, banned at trial’, Dominion (Wellington), 24 May 1995
Ramsey, Andrew, ‘Televised hearings plan gets the flick’, The Australian (Perth), 12 December 2001, p. 22
Ratnesar, Romesh, ‘The end of the line’, Time, 9 July 2001, p. 18
Rayner, Moira, ‘Requirements of justice weigh heavily on society's shoulders’, The Age (Melbourne), 15 June 1994, p. 20
Reed, Christopher, ‘Lawyers, lies and videotape’, The Age (Melbourne), 24 September 1993
Reed, Christopher,‘Simpson trial judge lured by the sirens of the screen’, The Age (Melbourne), 18 November 1994, p. 12
Reed, Christopher,‘“Dream team” faces jury probe’, Sunday Age (Melbourne), 8 October 1995, p. 13
Reed, David, ‘WA public can be Net judges’, West Australian (Perth), 6 March 2000, p. 7
Reeves, Phil, ‘OJ: made for TV’, The Age (Melbourne), 17 October 1994, p. 11
‘Right calls on Callinan’, Australian Financial Review (Perth), 22 July 1998, p. 16
Robb, Trevor, ‘Button's long wait nears end’, West Australian (Perth), 23 February 2002, p. 13
Robertson, Geoffrey, QC, ‘Court on candid camera’, Evening Standard (London), 28 September 2000
Robinson, Paul, ‘Contempt of court’, The Age (Melbourne), 12 June 2000, p. 13
Robinson, Paul,‘Federal Court “vendetta” claim’, The Age (Melbourne), 12 June 2000, p. 2
Rodell, Fred, ‘TV or no TV in court?’, New York Times Magazine, 12 April 1964, p. 16
Rollins, Adrian, ‘Australian Broadcasting Corporation first to unveil plans for digital TV’, The Age (Melbourne), 2 September 1998
Rooney, John Flynn, ‘Panel OKs cameras in US Appeals Courts; seen as unlikely here’, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin (Chicago), 13 March 1996, p. 2
Rosenberg, Howard, ‘Please stay tuned for “execution of the week” ’, The Age (Melbourne), 30 April 24
Ross, Michael, ‘Lorena Bobbitt acquitted in mutilation of husband’, Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles), 22 January 1994, p. 1
Rowling, Bill, ‘Courtroom or theatre?’, Nelson Evening Mail (New Zealand), 31 March 1995
Rozenberg, Joshua, ‘We must have a Justice Minister’, Daily Telegraph (London), 12 June 2001, p. 16
Rozenberg, Joshua,‘Woolf to delay retirement over legal reforms’, Daily Telegraph (London), 1 August 2003, p. 6
‘Rule of law relies on a free press’, The Australian (Perth), 24 August 2001, p. 12
‘Ruling asserts public access to court papers’, The Australian (Brisbane), 17 October 1997, p. 2
‘Saddam to be tried in absentia’, The Australian (Perth), 12 December 2003, p. 7
Sage, Adam, ‘Bullying and delays blight Hague Tribunal’, Weekend Australian (Perth), 6–7 July 2002, p. 17
Satterly, Mark, ‘Grusome details’, Maclean's (Toronto), 12 June 1995, p. 4
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