13 - European immigration in the people's court  pp. 327-361


By Jack Citrin and John Sides

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



Introduction

What is Europe to do about immigration? Mortality is up and fertility is down, resulting in an ageing population and a steadily shrinking workforce in most European countries (United Nations Population Division 2000). Until the invention of robots paying taxes, the policies required to preserve the kind face of European capitalism are either painful or unfeasible. Are Europeans prepared to have more children, work until the age of seventy-five, pay steeper taxes, or accept reduced retirement and health-care benefits? Because immigrants tend to be younger than the native-born populations of European countries and to have larger families, an active immigration policy seems an obvious response to the dictates of demography and economy (Joppke 2002:259). And there is no shortage of people clamoring to get in. Nevertheless, since the 1970s, most European governments have tried to “stem” rather than to “solicit” migrants (Joppke 2002; but see also Freeman 1995).

For all the talk of post-nationalism and globalization among scholars, the movement of people across borders remains less politically acceptable than that of capital or goods. As this chapter will show, among European publics enduring cultural loyalties seemingly trump the economist's rational calculus in which workers are infinitely substitutable. The current phase of European integration is supposed to produce common immigration and asylum rules. Yet most EU leaders have rejected proposals to establish a Union-wide immigration quota as a response to the numbers of workers and refugees eager to get in.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Alba, Richard D. and Victor Nee 2003 Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Antecol, Heather, Robin Cohen and Stephen J. Trejo 2003 “Immigration Policy and the Skills of Immigrants to Australia, Canada, and the United States.” Journal of Human Resources 38(1) (Winter): 192–218.
Bledsoe, Caroline H. 2004 “Reproduction at the Margins: Migration and Legitimacy in the New Europe.” Special Collection 3, Article 4. Rostock, Germany: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. April 17. www.demographic-research.org/special/3/4/s3-4.pdf.
Boeri, T., F. Fasani and D. Tabasso 2004 “Immigrazione e assistenza sociale,” in M. C. Guerra and A. Zanardi (eds) La finanza pubblica italiana – Rapporto 2004. Il Mulino, Bologna.
Brettell, Caroline and James F. Hollifield 2000 Migration Theory: Talking across Disciplines. New York, London: Routledge.
Brubaker, Rogers 2001 “The Return of Assimilation? Changing Perspectives on Immigration and Its Sequels in France, Germany, and the United States.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 24(4): 531–48.
Camarota, Steven A. 2005 “Immigration in an Aging Society: Workers, Birth Rates, and Social Security.” Backgrounder. Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies. April. www.cis.org/articles/2005/back505.pdf.
Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller 2003 The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. 3rd edn. New York: Guilford Press.
Chiswick, Barry R. 1979 “The Economic Progress of Immigrants: Some Apparently Universal Patterns” in Contemporary Economic Problems, 1979, William John Fellner (ed). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 357–99.
Chiswick, Barry R. 1988 “Immigration Policy, Source Countries and Immigrant Skills: Australia, Canada and the United States,” in The Economics of Immigration, Lyle Baker and Paul W. Miller (eds). Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service, 163–206.
Chiswick, Barry R. and Timothy J. Hatton 2002 “International Migration and the Integration of Labor Markets.” IZA Discussion Paper No 559. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. August. ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp559.pdf.
Demeny, Paul 2004 “Closing Remarks” presented at the conference Immigration in a Cross-National Context: What Are the Implications for Europe? Bourglinster, Luxembourg, June 21–22.
Eurostat 2004 “European Demography in 2003: EU25 Population up by 0.4% to reach 456 million.” STAT/04/105. Luxembourg: Eurostat, August 31.
Feldstein, Martin 2005 “Rethinking Social Insurance.” NBER Working Paper No. 11250. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, March.
Frieden, Jeffry A. 1991 “Invested Interests: The Politics of National Economic Policies in a World of Global Finance.” International Organization 45 (Autumn): 425–51.
Friedman, Thomas L. 2000 The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization. New York: Anchor Books.
Garrett, Geoffrey 2001 “Globalization and Government Spending Around the World.” Studies in Comparative International Development 35(4): 3–29.
Guiraudon, Virginie 2000 Les politiques d'immigration en Europe. Paris: L'Harmattan.
Guiraudon, Virginie 2005 “Drawing the EU's Borders: Immigration Policy” in The State of the European Union: with US or against US?, Vol 7, Craig Parsons and Nicolas Jabko (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 325–44.
Guiraudon, Virginie and Christian Joppke (eds) 2001 Controlling a New Migration World. New York: Routledge.
Hay, Colin 2000 “Contradictions of Capitalism: Contemporary Capitalism, Globalization, Regionalization and the Persistence of National Variation.” Review of International Studies 26(4): 609–32.
Inglehart, R. 1990 Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Islamicpopulation.com 2005. “European Muslim Population.” Accessed June 27, 2005. Available from www.islamicpopulation.com/europe_general.html.
Joppke, Christian 2000 Immigration and the Nation-State: The United States, Germany, and Great Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Joppke, Christian and Ewa T. Morawska (eds) 2003 Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kitschelt, Herbert 1994 The Transformation of European Social Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lemaitre, Georges 2005 “The Comparability of International Migration Statistics.” Statistics Brief No 9. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. July. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/4/41/35082073.pdf.
Lewis-Beck, Michael S. (ed) 2004 The French Voter: Before and after the 2002 Elections. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Luchtenberg Sigrid (ed) 2004 Migration, Education and Change. New York: Routledge.
Martin, Philip L. 2003 Sustainable Migration Policies in a Globalizing World. Geneva: International Labour Organization (International Institute for Labour Studies). www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inst/download/migration.pdf.
Massey, Douglas S., and Committee on South–North Migration of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population 1998 Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mazzoleni, Gianpietro, and Winfried Schultz 1999 “‘Mediatization’ of Politics: A Challenge for Democracy.” Political Communication 16(247): 261.
Mitchell, Katharyne 2004 “Geographies of Identity: Multiculturalism Unplugged.” Progress in Human Geography 28(5) (October): 641–51.
Mudde, Cas 1999 “The Single-Issue Party Thesis: Extreme Right Parties and the Immigration Issue.” West European Politics 22(3): 182–97.
OECD 2004 OECD in Figures: 2004 Edition. 012004071E1. Paris: OECD.
OECD 2005 Labour Force Statistics 1983–2003. Paris: OECD.
Passel, Jeffrey S. 2005 Unauthorized Migrants: Numbers and Characteristics. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/46.pdf.
Pedersen, Peder J., Mariola Pytlikova and Nina Smith 2004 “Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990–2000.” IZA Discussion Paper No 1104. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. April. ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp1104.pdf.
Priore, Michael J. and Charles F. Sable 1984 The Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity. New York: Basic Books.
Rodrik, Dani 1998 “Why do more open economies have Bigger Governments?” Journal of Political Economy 106(5) (October) 997.
Salt, J. and J. Clarke 2000 “International Migration in the UNECE Region: Patterns, Trends, Policies.” International Social Science Journal 165 (September): 313–28.
Samuelson, Robert J. 2005 “The End of Europe.” The Washington Post, June 15, A25.
Sassen, Saskia 1999 Guests and Aliens. New York: New Press.
SOPEMI: Systeme d'Observation Permanente sur les Migrations 2005 Trends in International Migration: 2004 edition. Paris: OECD.
Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M., Carola Suárez-Orozco and Desiree Qin-Hilliard 2001 Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the New Immigration. New York: Routledge.
Swanson, David L. and Paolo Mancini 1996 Politics, Media and Modern Democracy: An International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and their Consequences. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Tonry, Michael H. 1997 Ethnicity, Crime and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-national Perspectives. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
United Nations 2002 “International Migration 2002.” New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
United Nations 2003 World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision. New York: United Nations.
United Nations 2005 “Social Indicators: Indicators on Child-Bearing.” New York. Accessed June 30, 2005. Available from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/childbr.htm.
Zlotnik, Hania 1999 “Trends of International Migration since 1965: What Existing Data Reveal.” International Migration 37(1): 21–61.
Zolberg, Aristide R. and Long Litt Woon 1999 “Why Islam Is Like Spanish: Cultural Incorporation in Europe and the United States.” Politics and Society 27(1) (March): 5–38.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Annan, Kofi 2004 “Why Europe needs an immigration strategy” www.un.org/News/ossg/sg/stories/sg-29jan2004.htm
Demeny, Paul 1997 “Replacement-level fertility: The implausible endpoint of the demographic transition,” in Gavin W. Jones, Robert M. Douglas, John C. Caldwell and Rennie M. D'souza (eds) The Continuing Demographic Transition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 94–110
McEvedy, Colin and Richard Jones 1978 Atlas of World Population History. New York: Penguin Books
United Nations, Population Division 2000 Replacement Migration: Is It a Solution to Declining and Ageing Populations? New York: United Nations
United Nations, Population Division 2005 World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision. Population Database. http://esa.un.org/unpp/

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bauer, Thomas, Gil S. Epstein and Ira N. Gang 2002 “Herd Effects or Migration Networks? The Location Choice of Mexican Immigrants in the U.S.” IZA Discussion Paper No 551. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor, August ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp551.pdf
Boeri, Tito, Gordon H. Hanson and Barry McCormick 2002 Immigration Policy and the Welfare System- A Report for the Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Borjas, George J. 1987 “Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants.” American Economic Review 77(4) (September): 531–53.
Borjas, George J. 1994 “Immigration and Welfare, 1970–1990.” NBER Working Paper No 4872. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, September
Borjas, George J. 1999a “Immigration and Welfare Magnets.” Journal of Labor Economics 17(4, Part 1) (October): 607–37.
Borjas, George J. 1999b Heaven's Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Borjas, George J. 1999c “The Economic Analysis of Immigration.” Chapter 28 in Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3A, Orley Ashenfelter and David Card (eds). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, North-Holland, 1697–1760
Carrington, William J., Enrica Detragiache and Tara Vishwanath 1996 “Migration with Endogenous Moving Costs.” American Economic Review 86(4): 909–30.
Chiquiar, Daniel and Gordon H. Hanson 2002 “International Migration, Self-Selection, and the Distribution of Wages: Evidence from Mexico and the United States.” 9242. NBER
Chiswick, Barry R. 1986 “Is the New Immigration Less Skilled Than the Old?” Journal of Labor Economics 4(2): 168–92.
Chiswick, Barry R. 2000 “Are Immigrants Favorably Self-Selected? An Economic Analysis,” in Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines, Caroline Brettell and James Frank Hollifield (eds) New York: Routledge, 61–76
Chiswick, Barry R., and Timothy J. Hatton 2002 “International Migration and the Integration of Labor Markets.” IZA Discussion Paper No 559. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. August. ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp559.pdf
Epstein, Gil S. 2002 “Information Cascades and Decision to Migrate.” IZA Discussion Paper No 445. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. March. ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp445.pdf
Fertig, Michael and Christoph M. Schmidt 2000 “Aggregate-Level Migration Studies as a Tool for Forecasting Future Migration Streams.” IZA Discussion Paper No 183. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. August. ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp183.pdf
Hammarstedt, Mats 2000 “The Receipt of Transfer Payments by Immigrants in Sweden.” International Migration 38(2): 239–68.
Harris, John R. and Michael P. Todaro 1970 “Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis.” American Economic Review 60(1): 126–42.
Hatton, Timothy J. and Jeffrey G. Williamson 2002 “What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?” 9159 National Bureau of Economic Research
Heitmueller, Axel 2003 “Coordination Failures in Network Migration.” IZA Discussion Paper No 770. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. April. ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp770.pdf
Hicks, Sir John R. 1963 The Theory of Wages. 2nd edn. London: Macmillan
Holmlund, Bertil 1984 Labor Mobility: Studies of Labor Turnover and Migration in the Swedish Labor Market. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International
Jackman, Richard and Sawas Savouri 1991 Regional Migration in Britain: An Analysis of Gross Flows Using NHS Central Register Data. London: Centre for Economic Performance, 27
Jasso, Guillermina and Mark R. Rosenzweig 1990 “Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants: Comments.” American Economic Review 80(1): 298–304.
Massey, Douglas S, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and J. Edward Taylor 1993 “Theories of International Migration: Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review 19(3): 431–66.
Mayda, Anna Maria 2004 “International Migration: A Panel Data Analysis of Economic and Non-Economic Determinants.” Discussion Paper Series No 1590 Institute for the Study of Labor (12A). Germany: Bonn May
Mincer, Jacob 1978 “Family Migration Decisions.” The Journal of Political Economy 86(5): 749–73.
Pedersen, Peder J., Mariola Pytlikova and Nina Smith 2004 “Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990–2000.” IZA Discussion Paper No 1104. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. April. ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp1104.pdf
Riphahn, Regina T. 1999 “Immigrant Participation in Social Assistance Programs: Evidence from German Guestworkers.” CEPR Discussion Series No 2318 (December). London: Center for Economic Policy Research
Roy, Andrew D. 1951 “Some Thoughts on the Distribution of Earnings.” Oxford Economic Papers, New Series, 3(2) (June 1951): 135–46.
Sjaastad, Larry A. 1962 “The Costs and Returns of Human Migration.” The Journal of Political Economy 70(5): 80–93.
Stark, Oded 1991 The Migration of Labor. Oxford: Blackwell
Storesletten, Kjetil 2003 “Fiscal Implications of Immigration–Net Present Value Calculation.” Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 105(3): 487–506.
Urrutia, C. 2001 “On the Self-Selection of Immigrants.” Manuscript, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Wadensjö, Eskil and Helena Orrje 2002 Immigration and the Public Sector in Denmark. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press
Zavodny, Madeline 1997 “Welfare and the Locational Choices of New Immigrants.” Economics Review (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas), Second Quarter: 2–10.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Adserà, Alicia and Barry R. Chiswick forthcoming “Are There Gender and Country of Origin Differences in Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes across European Destinations?” Journal of Population Economics
Antecol, Heather, Deborah Cobb-Clark and Stephen Trejo 2002 “Human Capital and Earnings of Female Immigrants to Australia, Canada and the United States.” Unpublished manuscript. Department of Economics, Claremont McKenna College
Baker, Michael and Dwayne Benjamin 1997 “The Role of the Family in Immigrants’ Labor-Market Activity.” American Economic Review 87(4) (September): 705–27.
Biswal, Urvashi D. 1999 “Testing the Family ‘Common Preference’ Model for Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Women's Labour Supply.” Canadian Public Policy 25(s1) (November): 95–114. http://economics.ca/cgi/jab?journal=cpp&view=v25s1/CPPv25s1p095.pdf.
Boyle, Paul, Thomas J. Cooke, Keith Halfacree and Darren Smith 2001 “A Cross-National Comparison of the Impact of Family Migration on Women's Employment Status.” Demography 38(2) (May): 201–13.
Chiswick, Barry R. 1978 “The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-Born Men.” Journal of Political Economy 86(5) (October): 897–921.
Chiswick, Barry R. 1979 “The Economic Progress of Immigrants: Some Apparently Universal Patterns,” in Contemporary Economic Problems, 1979, William John Fellner (ed.). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 357–99
Chiswick, Barry R. 1980 “An Analysis of the Economic Progress and Impact of Immigrants.” PB80–200454. Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration, US Department of Labor. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service, August
Chiswick, Barry R. 1986 “Human Capital and the Labor Market Adjustment of Immigrants: Testing Alternative Hypotheses.” Research in Human Capital and Development 4: 1–26.
Chiswick, Barry R. and Paul W. Miller 1994 “Language Choice among Immigrants in a Multi-lingual Destination.” Journal of Population Economics 7(2): 119–31.
Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. and Marie D. Connolly 2001 “A Family Affair: The Labor Market Experiences of Immigrant Spouses.” Social Science Quarterly 82(4) (December): 796–811.
Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. and T. F. Crossley 2006 “Gender, Comparative Advantage and Labour Market Activity in Immigrant Families.” Journal of Labor Economics.
Duleep, Harriet Orcutt and Seth Sanders 1993 “The Decision to Work by Married Immigrant Women.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 46(4) (July): 677–90.
Evans, M. D. R. 1984 “Immigrant Women in Australia: Resources, Family, and Work.” International Migration Review 18(4) (Special Issue) (Winter): 1063–90.
LeClere, Felicia B. and Diane K. McLaughlin. 1997 “Family Migration and Changes in Women's Earnings: A Decomposition Analysis.” Population Research and Policy Review 16(4) (August): 315–35.
Long, James E. 1980 “The Effect of Americanization on Earnings: Some Evidence for Women.” Journal of Political Economy 88(3) (June): 620–29.
MacPherson, David A. and James B. Stewart 1989 “The Labor Force Participation and Earnings Profiles of Married Female Immigrants.” Quarterly Review of Economics and Business 29(3) (Autumn): 57–72.
Reimers, Cordelia W. 1985 “Cultural Differences in Labor Force Participation among Married Women.” American Economic Review 75(2) (May): 251–55.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bauer, Thomas 1997 “Do Immigrants Reduce Native Wages? Evidence from Germany.” Münchner Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge 97. Munich: University of Munich
Bauer, Thomas and Klaus F. Zimmerman 1997 “Looking South and East, Labor Market Implications of Migration in Europe and Developing Countries,” in Globalization of Labor Markets; Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and the Less Developed Countries, Olga Memedovic, Arie Kuyvnhoven, and Willem Molle (eds). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 75–103
Bauer, Thomas, Magnus Lofstrom and Klaus F. Zimmerman 2000 “Immigration Policy, Assimilation of Immigrants, and Natives’ Sentiments towards Immigrants: Evidence from 12 OECD Countries.” Swedish Economic Policy Review 7(2): 11–53.
Blau, Francine D. 1984 “The Use of Transfer Payments by Immigrants.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37(2): 222.
Boeri, T. and H. Brücker 2005 “Why are Europeans so tough on migrants?” Economic Policy 44: 629–703.
Bonin, Holger 2001 “Fiskalische Effekte der Zuwanderung nach Deutschland: Eine Generationenbilanz.” IZA Discussion Paper No 305. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor, June
Bonin, Holger, Bernd Raffelhuschen, and Jan Walliser 2000 “Can Immigration Alleviate the Demograhic Burden?” Finanzarchiv 57(1): 1–21.
Borjas, George J. 1995 “The Economic Benefits from Immigration.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 9(2): 3–22.
Borjas, George J. 2001 “Does Immigration Grease the Wheels of the Labor Market?” Brookings Institution: Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1.
Borjas, George J. 2003 “The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 118(4) (November): 1335–74.
Börsch-Supan, Axel H. 1994 “Migration, Social Security Systems, and Public Finance Source,” in Migration: A Challenge for Europe, Horst Siebert (ed). Tubingen: Mohr, 111–14
Brücker, Herbert. 2002 “Can International Migration Solve the Problems of European Labor Markets?” Economic Survey of Europe (2): 109–42.
Brücker, Herbert, J. P. Kreyenfeld and M. Schräpler 2001 “Trade and Migration: Impact on Wages, Employment and Labor Mobility in Western Germany.” Mimeo. Berlin: DIW
Brücker, Herbert and Michael Kohlhaas 2004 Migration, Qualification, and Labor Markets – International Immigration to Germany: How much is it Worth? Mimeo. Berlin: DIW
Büchel, Felix and Joachim R. Frick 2004 “Immigrants in the UK and in West Germany: Relative Income Positions, Income Portfolio, and Redistribution Effects.” Journal of Population Economics 17(3) (August): 553–81.
Büchel, Felix and Joachim R. Frick 2005 “Immigrant's Economic Performance Across Europe – Does Immigration Policy Matter?” Population Research and Policy Review 24(2): 175–212
Cass, David 1965 “Optimal Growth in an Aggregative Model of Capital Accumulation.” Review of Economic Studies 32(3) (July): 233–40
Coleman, David A. 1992. “Does Europe Need Immigrants? Population and Work Force Projections.” International Migration Review 26(2): 413–61.
Constant, Amelie and Klaus F. Zimmermann 2003 “Circular Movements and Time Away from the Host Country,” IZA Discussion Paper No 960. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor
DeNew, John H. and Klaus F. Zimmermann 1994a “Native Wage Impacts of Foreign Labor: A Random Effects Panel Analysis.” Journal of Population Economics 7: 177–92.
DeNew, John H. and Klaus F. Zimmermann 1994b “Blue Collar Labor Vulnerability: Wage Impacts of Migration,” in The Economic Consequences of Immigration to Germany, Gunter Steinmann and Ralf E. Ulrich (eds). Heidelberg: Physica, 81–9
Felderer, Bernhard 1994 “Can Immigration Policy Help to Stabilize the Social Security Systems?” in Economic Aspects of International Migration, Herbert Giersch (ed). Berlin: Springer, 197–226.
Friedberg, Rachel M. and Jennifer Hunt 1995 “The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 9(2): 23–44.
Gang, Ira N. and Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz 1996 “Labor Market Effects of Immigration in the United States and Europe: Substitution vs Complementarity.” Journal of Population Economics 7(2): 157–75.
Gang, Ira N. and Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz 1999 “Immigrants and Unemployment in Europe.” IZA Discussion Paper 70. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor
Gavasto, A., Venturini, A. and Villosio, C. 1999 “Do Immigrants Compete with Natives?” Labour 13: 603–22.
Gross, Dominique 1999 “Three Million Foreigners, Three Million Unemployed? Immigration and the French Labour Market.” International Monetary Fund, Working Paper 99/124. Washington, D. C
Haisken-DeNew, John P. and Joachim R. Frick 2005 “Desktop Companion to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (GSOEP)” Version 8.0, update to Wave 21, Berlin: DIW
Haisken-DeNew, John P. and Klaus F. Zimmermann 1995 “Wage and Mobility Effects of Trade and Migration.” CEPR Discussion Paper 1318. London
Hanson, Gordon H. and Matthew J. Slaughter 2002 “Labor Market Adjustment in Open Economies: Evidence from US States.” Journal of International Economics 57: 3–29.
Harris, John R. and Michael P. Todaro 1970 “Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis.” American Economic Review 60: 126–42.
Heijdra, Ben J., Christian Keuschnigg and Wilhelm Kohler 2002 “Eastern Enlargement of the EU: Jobs, Investment and Welfare in Present Member Countries.” CESifo Working Paper No 718. Munich: CESifo, May
Hofer, Helmut and Peter Huber 1999 “Eastward Enlargement, Trade and Migration: Impact on the Austrian Labor Market.” Vienna: Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS)
Hunt, Jennifer 1992 “The Impact of the 1962 Repatriates from Algeria on the French Labor Market.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45 (April): 556–72.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2003 “Balance of Payments Yearbook – World Development Indicators,” in Global Development Finance: Striving for Stability in Development Finance, World Bank (ed). Washington, DC: World Bank
Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) 2004 “Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Rücküberweisungen von Migranten,” in Gutachten im Auftrag des Sachverständigenrates für Zuwanderung und Integration. Berlin: Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM), 53–9
Keuschnigg, Christian and Wilhelm Kohler 2002 “Eastern Enlargement of the EU: How Much is it Worth for Austria?” Review of International Economics 10(2): 324–42.
Kohler, Wilhelm 2003 “Eastern Enlargement of the EU: A Comprehensive Welfare Assessment.” Department of Economics Working Paper No 0316. Linz: Johannes Kepler University, December
Koopmans, Tjalling C. 1965 “On the Concept of Optimal Economic Growth,” in Pontifical Academy of Sciences, The Econometric Approach to Development Planning. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 255–87
Migration News 2004 11(1). Davis, CA: University of California
Mühleisen, Martin and Klaus F. Zimmerman 1994 “A Panel Analysis of Job Changes and Unemployment.” European Economic Review 38 (April): 793–801.
Pischke, Jörn-Steffen and Johannes Velling 1997 “Employment Effects of Immigration to Germany: An Analysis Based on Local Labor Markets.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 79(4): 594–604.
Ramsey, Frank P. 1928 “A Mathematical Theory of Saving.” Economic Journal (38) (December). 543–59.
Riphahn, Regine 1998 “Immigrant Participation in the German Welfare Program.” Finanzarchiv 55: 163–185.
Simon, Julian L. 1984 “Immigrants, Taxes and Welfare in the United States.” Population and Development Review 10 (March): 55–69.
Simon, Julian L. 1994 “The Economic Consequences of Immigration: Lesson for Immigration Policies,” in Economic Aspects of International Migration, Herbert Giersch (ed). Berlin: Springer, 227–48
Simon, J. 2004 “The Economic Consequences of Immigration: Lesson for Immigration Policies,” in Economic Aspects of International Migration, Herbert Giersch (ed). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 227–48
SOEP 1998 German Socio-Economic Panel Study 1998. Berlin: DIW
SOEP 2000 German Socio-Economic Panel Study 2000. Berlin: DIW
Solow, R M. 1956 “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 70: 65–94.
Storesletten, Kjetil 2000 “Sustaining Fiscal Policy through Immigration.” Journal of Political Economy 108(2): 300–23.
Straubhaar, Thomas and Klaus F Zimmermann 1993 “Towards a European Migration Policy.” Population Research and Policy Review 12(3): 225–41.
Taylor, Marcia 1993 British Household Panel Survey User Manual: Introduction, Technical Report and Appendices. Vol. A. London: Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
Trabold, H. and P. Trübswetter 2003 “Schätzung der Beschäftigungs- und Lohneffekte der Zuwanderung,” in Migration: Potential und Effekte für den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt, H. Brücker, H. Trabold, P. Trübswetter and C. Weise (eds). Baden Baden: Nomos, 101–37
Trefler, Daniel 1997 “Immigrants and Natives in General Equilibrium Trade Models.” NBER Working Paper No 6209. Cambridge, MA: NBER, October
UN Population Division 2004 “World Population Reports – Population Database.” Accessed 16 April 5 AD Available from http://esa.un.org/unpp/
United Nations 2000 Replacement Migration: Is It a Solution to Declining and Aging Populations? New York: United Nations
Venables, A.J. 1999 “Trade Liberalization and Factor Mobility: An Overview,” in Migration: The Controversies and the Evidence, Riccardo Faini, Jaimi De Melo and Klaus F Zimmermann (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 23–48
Venturini, Alessandra and Claudia Villosio 2002 “Are Immigrants Competing with Natives in the Italian Labor Market? The Employment Effect.” IZA Discussion Paper No 467. Bonn: IZA April
Wagner, G. G., R. V. Burkhauser and F. Behringer 1993 “The English Language Public Use File of the German Socio-Economic Panel.” Journal of Human Resources 28(2) (Spring): 429–33.
Winkelmann, R. and Klaus F. Zimmerman 1993 “Aging, Migration, and Labor Mobility,” in Labor Markets in an Aging Europe, Paul Johnson and Klaus F. Zimmerman (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 255–83
Winter-Ebmer, R. and Josef Zweimüller 1994 “Do Immigrants Displace Native Workers? The Austrian Experience.” CEPR Discussion Paper 991. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research
Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf and Klaus F. Zimmermann 1999 “East–West Trade and Migration: the Austro-German Case,” in Migration: The Controversies and the Evidence, Riccardo Faini, Jaimi De Melo and Klaus F. Zimmermann (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 296–328
Wirtz, Christine and Lene Mejer 2002 “European Data Watch.” Schmollers Jahrbuch 122(1): 143–54.
Wong, Kar-yiu 1995 International Trade in Goods and Factor Mobility. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Antecol, Heather 2000 “An Examination of Cross-Country Differences in the Gender Gap in Labor Force Participation Rates.” Labour Economics 7(4) (July): 409–26.
Australian Office of Multicultural Affairs 1988 “Issues in Multicultural Australia.” Distributed by Australian Social Science Data Archive, Canberra Australia [data file]
Blalock, Hubert M. Jr. 1967 Toward a Theory of Minority-Group Relations. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Blau, Peter Michael and Otis Dudley Duncan 1967 The American Occupational Structure. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Borjas, George J. 1987 “Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants.” American Economic Review 77(4) (September): 531–53.
Borjas, George J. 1988 International Differences in the Labor Market Performance of Immigrants. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Borjas, George J. 1992 “Ethnic Capital and Intergenerational Mobility.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 107(1) (February): 123–50.
Borjas, George J. 1999 Heaven's Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Brierley, Peter W. 1997 World Churches Handbook: Based on the Operation World Database by Patrick Johnstone, WEC International. London: Christian Research
Browne, W. J. 2002 “MCMC Estimation in MLwiN.” Accessed 2002. Available from http://multilevel.ioe.ac.uk/
Byers, John A. 2003 “Great Circle Distances Calculated between Points on Earth.” Accessed 2002. Last updated on 7 August. Available from http://www.wcrl.ars.usda.gov/cec/moregen.htm
Chiswick, Barry R. 1978 “The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-Born Men.” Journal of Political Economy 86(5) (October): 897–921.
Chiswick, Barry R. 1979 “The Economic Progress of Immigrants: Some Apparently Universal Patterns,” in Contemporary Economic Problems, 1979, William John Fellner (ed). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 357–99
Chiswick, Barry R. 1999 “Are Immigrants Favorably Self-Selected?” American Economic Review 89(2) (May): 181–85.
Chiswick, Barry R. and Paul W. Miller 2001 “A Model of Destination-Language Acquisition: Application to Male Immigrants in Canada.” Demography 38(3) (August): 391–409.
Chiswick, Barry R. and Paul W. Miller 2002 “Immigrant Earnings: Language Skills, Linguistic Concentrations and the Business Cycle.” Journal of Population Economics 15(1) (January): 31–57.
Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. 1993 “Immigrant Selectivity and Wages: The Evidence for Women.” American Economic Review 83(4) (September): 986–93.
Eurostat 1998 The European Union Labour Force Survey: Methods and Definitions 1998. Luxembourg: Eurostat
Eurostat 2003 “European Union Labour Force Survey, 1992–2002.” Luxembourg: Eurostat [data file]
Ganzeboom, Harry B. G. 2005 “Tools for Standardizing Occupation Codes into ISCO-88.” Accessed 2003. Available from http://home.scw.vu.nl/%7Eganzeboom/occisco/
Ganzeboom, Harry B. G., Paul M. De Graaf and Donald J. Treiman 1992 “A Standard International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status.” Social Science Research 21(1) (March): 1–56.
Ganzeboom, Harry B. G. and Donald J. Treiman 1996 “Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations.” Social Science Research 25(3) (September): 201–39.
Ganzeboom, Harry B. G. and Donald J. Treiman 2003. “Conversion Tools ISCO-88 into ISEI.” Accessed 2003. Available from http://home.scw.vu.nl/%7Eganzeboom/occisco/
Grimes, Barbara F. (ed) 2000 Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 14th edn. Dallas, TX: SIL International
Jasso, Guillermina and Mark Richard Rosenzweig 1990 The New Chosen People: Immigrants in the United States. The Population of the United States in the 1980s. New York: Russell Sage Foundation for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census
Karatnycky, Adrian and Aili Piano (eds) 2002 Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, 2001–2002. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers
Lambert, Pat 2003 “Conversion Tools Occupations US 1990 Census into ISCO-88.” Accessed 2003. Last updated on 27 May. Available from http://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/CAMSIS/occunits/distribution.html
Lenski, Gerhard Emmanuel, Jean Lenski and Patrick Nolan 1991 Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. 6th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill
Li, Peter S. 1977 “Occupational Achievement and Kinship Assistance among Chinese Immigrants in Chicago.” Sociological Quarterly 18(4) (Autumn): 478–89.
McAllister, Ian 1995 “Occupational Mobility among Immigrants: The Impact of Migration on Economic Success.” International Migration Review 29(2) (Summer): 441–68.
Model, Suzanne 1997 “An Occupational Tale of Two Cities: Minorities in London and New York.” Demography 34(4) (November): 539–50.
Model, Suzanne and David Ladipo 1996 “Context and Opportunity: Minorities in London and New York.” Social Forces 75(2) (December): 485–510.
Model, Suzanne and Lang Lin 2002 “The Cost of Not Being Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada.” International Migration Review 36(4) (Winter): 1061–92.
Model, Suzanne, Gene Fisher and Roxane Silberman 1999 “Black Caribbeans in Comparative Perspective.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 25(2) (April): 187–212.
OECD 1999 Classifying Educational Programmes: Manual for ISCED-97 Implementation in OECD Countries. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 2000 International Migration Statistics. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Owen, Carolyn A., Howard C. Eisner and Thomas R. McFaul 1981 “A Half-Century of Social Distance Research: National Replication of the Bogardus Studies.” Sociology and Social Research 66(1) (October): 80–98.
Pineo, Peter C. 1977 “The Social Standing of Ethnic and Racial Groupings.” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 14(2) (May): 147–57.
Portes, Alejandro and Robert L. Bach 1985 Latin Journey: Cuban and Mexican Immigrants in the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Portes, Alejandro and Rubén G. Rumbaut 1996 Immigrant America: A Portrait. 2nd edn. Berkeley: University of California Press
Portes, Alejandro and Rubén G. Rumbaut 2001 Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Poston, Dudley L. Jr. 1994 “Patterns of Economic Attainment of Foreign-Born Male Workers in the United States.” International Migration Review 28(3) (Autumn): 478–500.
Quillian, Lincoln 1995 “Prejudice as a Response to Perceived Group Threat: Population Composition and Anti-Immigrant and Racial Prejudice in Europe.” American Sociological Review 60(4) (August): 586–611.
Raijman, Rebecca and Moshe Semyonav 1995 “Modes of Labor Market Incorporation and Occupational Cost among New Immigrants to Israel.” International Migration Review 29(2) (Summer): 375–94.
Raudenbush, Stephen W. and Anthony S. Bryk 2002 Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Reitz, Jeffrey G. 1998 Warmth of the Welcome: The Social Causes of Economic Success for Immigrants in Different Nations and Cities. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Reitz, Jeffrey G. (ed) 2003 Host Societies and the Reception of Immigrants. La Jolla, CA: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diego
Sanders, Jimy M. and Victor Nee 1987 “Limits of Ethnic Solidarity in the Enclave Economy.” American Sociological Review 52(6) (December): 745–67.
Schoeni, Robert F. 1998 “Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrant Women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.” International Migration Review 32(1) (Spring): 57–77.
Shields, Michael A. and Stephen Wheatley Price 2002 “The English Language Fluency and Occupational Success of Ethnic Minority Immigrant Men Living in English Metropolitan Areas.” Journal of Population Economics 15(1) (January): 137–60.
Snijders, T. A. B. and R. J. Bosker 1999 Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling. London: Sage Publications
Statistics Canada 1991 “1991 Census Public Use Microdata File.” Distributed by Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada [data file]
Statistics Canada 1996 “1996 Census Public Use Microdata File.” Distributed by Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada [data file]
US Census Bureau 1980 “1980 US Census 1 Percent Public Use Microdata Sample.” Distributed by Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan [data file]
US Census Bureau 1990 “1990 US Census 1 Percent Public Use Microdata Sample.” Distributed by Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan [data file]
van Tubergen, Frank 2004 “The International File of Immigration Surveys.” Utrecht: ICS/Department of Sociology [data file]
van Tubergen, Frank, Ineke Maas and Henk Flap 2004 “The Economic Incorporation of Immigrants in 18 Western Societies: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects.” American Sociological Review 69(5) (October): 704–27.
van Tubergen, Frank and Matthijs Kalmijn 2005 “Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective: A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries.” American Journal of Sociology 110(5) (March): 1412–57.
Wanner, Richard A. 1998 “Prejudice, Profit, or Productivity: Explaining Returns to Human Capital among Male Immigrants to Canada.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 30(3): 24–55.
Wilson, Kenneth L. and Alejandro Portes 1980 “Immigrant Enclaves: An Analysis of the Labor Market Experiences of Cubans in Miami.” American Journal of Sociology 86(2) (September): 295–319.
World Bank 2001 World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank, CD-ROM
Zhou, Min and John R. Logan 1989 “Returns on Human Capital in Ethnic Enclaves: New York City's Chinatown.” American Sociological Review 54(5) (October): 809–20.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Abrahamson, Peter 1999 “The Welfare Modelling Business.” Social Policy and Administration 33 (4) (December): 394–415.
Banting, Keith 2000 “Looking in Three Directions: Migration and the European Welfare State in Comparative Perspective,” in Immigration and Welfare: Challenging the Borders of the Welfare State, Michael Bommes and Andrew Geddes (eds). London: Routledge, 13–33
Berthoud, Richard 1998 “The Incomes of Ethnic Minorities.” ISER Report 98–1. Colchester: Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex. November
Blume, Kræn, Björn Gustafsson, Peder J. Pedersen and Mette Verner 2003 “A Tale of Two Countries: Poverty among Immigrants in Denmark and Sweden since 1984.” WIDER Discussion Paper No 2003/36. Helsinki: United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research, April. www.wider.unu.edu/publications/dps/dps2003/dp2003–36.pdf
Boje, Thomas P. 2003 “Age and Gender Differences in Labor-Force Participation and Employment,” in Post-Industrial Labour Markets: Profiles of North America and Scandinavia, Thomas P. Boje and Bengt Furker (eds). London: Routledge
Boje, Thomas P. and Bengt Furker 2003 Post-Industrial Labour Markets: Profiles of North America and Scandinavia. London: Routledge
Bommes, Michael and Andrew Geddes 2000 Immigration and Welfare: Challenging the Borders of the Welfare State. London: Routledge
Borjas, George J. 1999 “Immigration and Welfare Magnets.” Journal of Labor Economics 17 (4, Part 1) (October): 607–37.
Büchel, Felix and Joachim R. Frick 2003 “Immigrants’ Economic Performance across Europe: Does Immigration Policy Matter?” EPAG Working Paper 2003–42. Colchester: European Panel Analysis Group, University of Essex. www.iser.essex.ac.uk/epag/pubs/workpaps/pdf/2003-42.pdf
Craig, Gary 1999 “‘Race,’ Social Security and Poverty,” in Introduction to Social Security: Policies, Benefits, and Poverty, John Ditch (ed). London: Routledge, 206–26
Ditch, John (ed) 1999 Introduction to Social Security: Policies, Benefits, and Poverty. London: Routledge
Esping-Andersen, G⊘sta 1990 The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press
Faist, Thomas 1996 “Immigration, Integration and the Welfare State,” in The Challenge of Diversity: Integration and Pluralism in Societies of Immigration, Rainer Bauböck, Agnes Heller, and Aristide R. Zolberg (eds). Aldershot: Avebury, 227–50
Faist, Thomas 1998 “Immigration, Integration und Wohlfartsstaaten. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland in vergleichender Perspektive,” in Migration in nationalen Wohlfahrtsstaaten: theoretische und vergleichende Untersuchungen, Michael Bommes and Jost Halfmann (eds). Osnabrück: Universitätsverlag Rasch
Ferrera, Maurizio 1996 “The ‘Southern Model’ of Welfare in Social Europe.” Journal of European Social Policy 6(1): 17–37.
Förster, Michael 1994 “Family Poverty and the Labor Market.” Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper No 114. Syracuse, NY: Center for Policy Research, Syracuse University, July
Gallie, Duncan (ed) 2004 Resisting Marginalization: Unemployment Experience and Social Policy in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Gallie, Duncan and Serge Paugam (eds) 2000 Welfare Regimes and the Experience of Unemployment in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Goodin, Robert E., Bruce Headey, Ruud Muffels and Henk-Jan Dirven 1999 The Real Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Goul Andersen, J⊘rgen and Per H. Jensen (eds) 2002 Changing Labour Markets, Welfare Policies and Citizenship. Bristol: Policy Press
Guiraudon, Virginie 2000 Les politiques d'immigration en Europe. Paris: L'Harmattan
Korpi, Walter and Joakim Palme 1998 “The Paradox of Redistribution and Strategies of Equality: Welfare State Institutions, Inequality, and Poverty in the Western Countries.” American Sociological Review 63(5): 661–87.
Leibfried, Stephan 1992 “Towards a European Welfare State? On Integrating Poverty Regimes into the European Community,” in Social Policy in a Changing Europe, Zsuzsa Ferge and Jon Eivind Kolberg (eds). Frankfurt-am-Main: Campus Verlag, 245–79
McGinnity, Frances 2004 Welfare for the Unemployed in Britain and Germany: Who Benefits? Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Modood, Tariq and Richard Berthoud (eds) 1997 Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage. London: Policy Studies Institute
OECD 2000 Employment Outlook 2000. Paris: OECD
Platt, Lucinda 2002 Parallel Lives? Poverty among Ethnic Minority Groups in Britain. London: Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG)
Ringen, Stein 1987 The Possibility of Politics: A Study in the Political Economy of the Welfare State. Oxford: Clarenden Press
Sarfati, Hedva and Giuliano Bonoli (eds) 2002 Labour Market and Social Protection Reforms in International Perspective: Parallel or Converging Tracks? Aldershot: Ashgate
Saunders, Peter 1994 “Immigrants and the Distribution of Income: National and International Comparisons.” Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper No 123. Syracuse, NY: Center for Policy Research, Syracuse University, December
Schierup, Carl-Ulrik 1993 Pkulturens slagmark: mindretal og st⊘rretal om Danmark. Esbjerg: Sydjysk Universitetsforlag
Smeeding, T. M. 2006 “Government Programs and Social Outcomes: The United States in Comparative Perspective,” in Poverty, Public Policy, and the Distribution of Income, A. Auerbach, D. Card and J. Quigley (eds). New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 149–218
Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu 1994 Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Systeme d'Observation Permanente sur les Migrations (SOPEMI) 2004 Trends in International Migration: SOPEMI – 2003 Edition. Annual report, 2003 edn, OECD Emerging Economies. Paris: OECD

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bedford, Richard 2003 “New Zealand: The Politicization of Immigration.” Washington, DC. Accessed 14 June, 2005. Last updated in January 2003. Available from www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?id=86
Borjas, George J. 1995 “Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human-Capital Externalities.” American Economic Review 85(3) (June): 365–90.
Borjas, George J. 1999 “Ethnic Capital.” Chapter 8 in Heaven's Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 146–60
Brown, Giorgina, John Micklewright, Sylke V. Schnepf and Robert Waldmann 2005 “Cross-National Surveys of Learning Achievement: How Robust Are the Findings?” S3RI Applications and Policy Working Paper. Southampton: Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute. http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/16250/01/s3ri-workingpaper-a05-05.pdf
Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller 2003 “New Ethnic Minorities and Society.” Chapter 10 in The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern world. New York: Guilford Press, 220–54
Demie, Feyisa 2001 “Ethnic and Gender Differences in Educational Achievement and Implications for School Improvement Strategies.” Educational Research 43(1) (Spring): 91–106.
Entorf, Horst and Nicoleta Minoiu 2005 “‘What a Difference Immigration Policy Makes:’ A Comparison of PISA scores in Europe and Traditional Countries of Immigration.” German Economic Review 6(3) (August): 355–76. ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp1021.pdf
Ganzeboom, Harry B. G., Paul M. De Graaf and Donald J. Treiman 1992 “A Standard International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status.” Social Science Research 21(1) (March): 1–56.
Glick, Jennifer E. and Michael J. White 2003 “The Academic Trajectories of Immigrant Youths: Analysis within and across Cohorts.” Demography 40(4) (November): 759–83.
Inglis, Christine 2004 “Australia's Continuing Transformation.” Washington, DC. Accessed January 25, 2006. Last updated in August. Available from www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?id=242
Mullis, Ina V. S., Michael O. Martin, Eugenio J. Gonzalez, Kelvin D. Gregory, Robert A. Garden, Kathleen M. O'Connor, Steven J. Chrostowski and Teresa A. Smith 2000 TIMSS 1999 International Mathematics Report: Findings from IEA's Repeat of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study at the Eighth Grade. Chestnut Hill, MA: International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College. http://timss.bc.edu/timss1999i/math_achievement_report.html
Mullis, Ina V. S., Michael O. Martin, Eugenio J. Gonzalez and Ann M. Kennedy 2003 PIRLS 2001 International Report: IEA's Study of Reading Literacy Achievement in Primary School in 35 Countries. Chestnut Hill, MA: International Study Center, Lynch School of Ecuation, Boston College. http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001i/PIRLS2001_Pubs_IR.html
Oaxaca, Ronald 1973 “Male–Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets.” International Economic Review 14(3) (October): 693–709.
OECD 2001 Knowledge and Skills for Life–First Results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD. www.pisa.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/53/33691596.pdf.
Ray, Brian 2002 “Canada: Policy Legacies, New Directions, and Future Challenges.” Washington, DC. Accessed June 14, 2005. Last updated in May. Available from www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=20.
Riphahn, Regina T. 2003 “Cohort Effects in the Educational Attainment of Second Generation Immigrants in Germany: An Analysis of Census Data.” Journal of Population Economics 16(4) (Winter): 711–37
Rivkin, Steven G. 1994 “Residential Segregation and School Integration.” Sociology of Education 67(4) (October): 279–92.
Schmid, Carol L. 2001 “Educational Achievement, Language-Minority Students, and the New Second Generation.” Sociology of Education 74: 71–87.
Schnepf, Sylke V. 2003 “Inequalities in Secondary School Attendance in Germany.” S3RI Applications and Policy Working Paper No A03/16. Southampton: Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute. http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/212/
Systeme d'Observation Permanente sur les Migrations (SOPEMI) 2004 Trends in International Migration: SOPEMI – 2003 Edition. Annual report, 2003 edn. OECD Emerging Economies. Paris: OECD
van Ours, Jan C. and Justus Veenman 2003 “The Educational Attainment of Second Generation Immigrants in The Netherlands.” Journal of Population Economics 16(4) (Winter): 739–54 www.uvt.nl/osa/producten/wop/oswp01_11.pdf.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Banton, Michael 2001 “National Integration in France and Britain.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 27(1) (January, 1): 151–68.
Brubaker, Rogers 1992 Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller 1993 The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.
Coenen, Elisabeth M. 2001 ‘Word niet zoals wij!’: de veranderende betekenis van onderwijs bij Turkse gezinnen in Nederland. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis
Crul, Maurice 1994 “Springen over je eigen schaduw. De onderwijsprestaties van Marokkanen en Turken van de tweede generatie.” Migrantenstudies 10(3): 168–86.
Crul, Maurice and Jeroen Doomernik 2003 “The Turkish and Moroccan Second Generation in the Netherlands: Divergent Trends between and Polarization within the Two Groups.” International Migration Review 37 (4(144)) (Winter): 1039–64.
Crul, Maurice and Hans Vermeulen 2003 “The Second Generation in Europe.” International Migration Review 37 (4(144)) (Winter): 965–86.
Doomernik, Jeroen 1998 The Effectiveness of Integration Policies towards Immigrants and their Descendants in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Geneva: Conditions of Work Branch, International Labour Office
EFFNATIS 2001 “Effectiveness of National Integration Strategies towards Second Generation Migrant Youth in a Comparative European Perspective.” Bamberg: European Forum for Migration Studies. 29 March
Faist, Thomas 1995 Social Citizenship for Whom? Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Fase, Willem 1994 Ethnic Divisions in Western European Education. New York: Waxmann
Herzog-Punzensberger, Barbara 2003 “Ethnic Segmentation in School and Labor Market – 40 Year Legacy of Austrian Guestworker Policy.” International Migration Review 37 (4(144)) (Winter): 1120–44.
Joppke, Christian 2000 Immigration and the Nation-State: The United States, Germany and Great Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Karpat, Kemal 1995 “The Turks in America,” in Turcs d'Europe – et d'ailleurs, 3, Stéphane de Tapia (ed). Paris: ERISM: Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, 231–52
Lesthaeghe, Ron J. 1997 Diversiteit in sociale verandering: Turkse en Marokkaanse vrouwen in Belg ie. Brussels: Vubpress
Mahnig, Hans 1998 Integrationspolitik in Grossbritannien, Frankreich, Deutschland und den Niederlanded. Vol Forschungsbericht No 10. Neuenburg: Schweizerisches Forum für Migrationsstudien an der Universität Neuenburg
Mollenkopf, John H. 2000 “Assimilating Immigrants in Amsterdam: A Perspective from New York.” The Netherlands’ Journal of Social Sciences 36(2): 12–145.
Muus, Philip 2003 “An International Comparison of Migration and Immigrant Policy with respect to Immigrants from Turkey and their Participation in the Labour Market,” in Integrating Immigrants in the Netherlands: Cultural versus Socio-Economic Integration, L. Hagendoorn, J. Veenman and W. Vollenbergh (eds). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd 17–40
Özüekren, Sule and Ronald van Kempen (eds) 1997 “Turks in European Cities: Housing and Urban Segregation.” Research in Migration and Ethnic Relations. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Seifert, Wolfgang 1992 “Die zweite Auslandergeneration in der Bundesrepublik. Langsschnittbeobachtungen in der Berufseinstiegsphase.” Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 44(4) (December): 677–96.
Simon, Patrick 2003 “France and the Unknown Second Generation: Preliminary Results on Social Mobility.” International Migration Review 37 (4[144]) (Winter): 1091–1119.
Timmerman, Christiane, Els Vanderwaeren and Maurice Crul 2003 “The Second Generation in Belgium.” International Migration Review 37 (4[144]) (Winter): 1065–90.
Tribalat, Michèle 1995 Faire France: Une Grande Enquête sur les Immigrés et leurs Enfants. Paris: Editions La Découverte
Veenman, J. 1996 Keren de Kansen? de Tweede-Generatie Allochtonen in Nederland. Assen: Van Gorcum
Vermeulen, Hans 1997 Immigrant Policy for a Multicultural Society: A Comparative Study of Integration, Language and Religious Policy in Five Western European countries. Brussels: Migration Policy
Vermeulen, Hans and Rinus Penninx (eds). 2001 Immigrant Integration: The Dutch Case. Amsterdam: Aksant Academic Publishers
Worbs, Suzanne 2003 “The Second Generation in Germany: Between School and Labor Market.” International Migration Review 37(4[144]) (Winter): 1001–38.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

AlSayyad, Nezar and Manual Castells 2002 Muslim Europe or Euro-Islam: Politics, Culture, and Citizenship in the Age of Globalization. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books
Amiraux, Valérie 2001 Acteurs de l'islam entre Allemagne et Turquie. Paris: L'Harmattan
Baker, Don 1997 “World Religions and National States: Competing Claims in East Asia.” Chapter 6 in Transnational Religion and Fading States, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, and James P. Piscatori (eds) Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Benchenane, Mustapha 1983 Pour un Dialogue Euro-Arabe. Paris: Berger-Levrault
Bentley, Arthur Fisher 1949 The Process of Government: A Study of Social Pressures. Evanston, IL: Principia Press of Illinois
Bleich, Erik 2003 Race Politics in Britain and France: Ideas and Policymaking since the 1960's. New York: Cambridge University Press
Bouzar, Dounia 2004 “Etude de 12 associations à référence musulmane: l'islam entre mythe et religion: le nouveau discours religieux dans las associations socio-culturelles musulmanes.” Les Cahiers de la Sécurité Intérieure No 54. Paris: Institut National des Hautes Etudes de Sécurité (IHESI)
Boyer, Alain 1998 L'Islam en France. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France Organized. Organized Hypocrisy.
Caldwell, Christopher 2004 “Islamic Europe? When Bernard Lewis Speaks.” The Weekly Standard, October 4. www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/004/685ozxcq.asp
Cesari, Jocelyne 1994 Étre Musulman en France: Associations, Militants et Mosquées. Paris: Karthala
Dassetto, Felice, Brigitte Maréchal, J⊘rgen S. Nielsen and Stefano Allievi 2001 Convergences Musulmanes: Aspects Contemporains de L'islam dans l'Europe Élargie. Paris: Harmattan
De Galembert, Claire 2000 “État, nation et religion dans l'allemagne réunifiée.” Vingtième Siècle No. 66 (April–June): 37–51
De Galembert, Claire 2001 “La Régulation Étatique du Religieux à L’épreuve de la Globalisation” in La Globalisation du Religieux, Jean Pierre Bastian, Françoise Champion, and Kathy Rousselet (eds). Paris: L'Harmattan
Eickelman, Dale F. 1997 “Trans-State Islam and Security,” in Transnational Religion and Fading States, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph and James P. Piscatori (eds). Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Evans, Peter B., Dietrich Rueschemeyer and Theda Skocpol (eds) 1985 Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Favell, Adrian 1998 Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain. 1st edn. New York: St. Martin's Press in association with Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick
Ferguson, Niall 2004 “Eurabia?” New York Times, Sunday, April 4, 13
Fetzer, Joel S. and J. Christopher Soper 2005 Muslims and the State in Britain, France, and Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Geisser, Vincent and Khadija Finan 2002 “L'Islam à l’École.” Paris: Institut National des Hautes Etudes de Sécurité
Gresh, Alain and Tariq Ramadan 2000 L'Islam en Questions. Paris: Sindbad/Actes Sud
Grillo, Ralph 2004 “Islam and Transnationalism.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30(5) (September): 861–78.
Gritti, Roberto and Magdi Allam 2001 Islam, Italia: Chi Sono e Cosa Pensano i Musulmani Che Vivono Tra Noi. Milano: Guerini
Hammar, Tomas 1990 Democracy and the Nation State: Aliens, Denizens, and Citizens in a World of International Migration. Aldershot: Avebury
Heclo, Hugh 1974 Modern Social Politics in Britain and Sweden: From Relief to Income Maintenance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Hunter, Shireen 1998 The Future of Islam and the West: Clash of Civilizations or Peaceful Coexistence? Westport, CT: Praeger
Hunter, Shireen 2002 Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape. Westport, CT: Praeger
Kepel, Gilles 1991 Les Banlieues de l'Islam: Naissance d'une Religion en France. Paris: Editions du Seuil
Koopmans, Ruud 1999 “Germany and Its Immigrants: An Ambivalent Relationship.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 25(4) (October): 627–47.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1999 Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Laurence, Jonathan 2001 “(Re)constructing Community in Berlin: Turks, Jews, and German Responsibility.” German Politics and Society 19(2) (Summer): 22–61.
Laurence, Jonathan (guest editor) 2005 “The French Council for the Muslim Religion.” French Politics, Culture and Society 23(1).
Laurence, Jonathan 2006 “Knocking on Europe's Door: Islam in Italy.” US Europe Analysis Brief. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute
Lemmen, Thomas 2000 Islamische Organisationen in Deutschland. Bonn: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
Long, Littwoon and Aristide Zolberg 1999 “Why Islam is like Spanish.” Politics and Society 27(1): 5–38.
Maréchal, Brigitte 2001 “Mosquées, organisations et leadership,” in Convergences Musulmanes: Aspects Contemporains de l'Islam dans l'Europe Élargie Felice Dassetto, Brigitte Maréchal, J⊘rgen S. Nielsen, and Stefano Allievi (eds). Paris: Harmattan
Markell, Patchen 2003 Bound by Recognition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
McConnell, Michael W. 2000 “Believers as Equal Citizens.” Chapter 3 in Obligations of Citizenship and Demands of Faith: Religious Accommodation in Pluralist Democracies, Nancy L. Rosenblum (ed). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Mendes-Flohr, Paul R. and Jehuda Reinharz 1995 The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History. 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press
Minkenberg, Michael 2003 “The Policy Impact of Church–State Relations: Family Policy and Abortion in Britain, France, and Germany.” West European Politics 26(1): 195–217.
Modood, Tariq 1998 “Multiculturalism, Secularism and the State.” Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy (CRISPP) 1(3) (Autumn): 79–97.
Noiriel, Gérard 1988 Le Creuset Français: Histoire de l'Immigration, ⅩⅨe-ⅩⅩe siècles. Paris: Seuil
Parekh, Bhikhu C. 2000 Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Rémond, René 1999 Religion and Society in Modern Europe. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
Rosenblum, Nancy L. (ed.) 2000 Obligations of Citizenship and Demands of Faith: Religious Accommodation in Pluralist Democracies. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, Roger D. Masters and Judith R. Masters 1978 On the Social Contract, with Geneva Manuscript and Political Economy. New York: St. Martin's Press
Roy, Olivier 2002 L'Islam Mondialisé. Paris: Editions du Seuil
Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber 1997 “Introduction: Religion, States, and Transnational Civil Society,” in Transnational Religion and Fading States, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph and James P. Piscatori (eds). Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Sartori Giovanni 2000 Pluralismo, Multiculturalismo e Estranei: Saggio Sulla Società Multietnica. 1st edn. Milano: Rizzoli
Savage, Timothy M. 2004 “The Changing Face of Islam.” The Washington Quarterly (Summer): 25–50.
Shore, Zachary 2004 “Breeding New bin Ladens: America's New Western Front.” Watch on the West (A Newsletter of the Foreign Policy Research Institute's Center for the Study of America and the West) 5(11) (December) www.fpri.org/ww/0511.200412.shore.newbinladens.html.
Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu 1994 Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Warnerm, Carolyn M. and Manfred W. Wenner 2002 “Organizing Islam for Politics in Western Europe.” PRPES Working Paper No 17. Cambridge, MA: Project on Religion, Political Economy, and Society; Weatherhead Center for International Affairs; Harvard University, Summer. www.wcfia.harvard.edu//papers/554_WarnerWennerIslampaper.doc
Weber, Eugen Joseph 1976 Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Wright, Lawrence 2004 “The Terror Web: Were the Madrid Bombings Part of a New, Far-reaching Jihad being Plotted on the Internet?” The New Yorker, August 2
Ye-or, Bat 2005 Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press
Zaptcioglu, Dilek 2004 “Turkey's Religion Council: Setting Guidelines for Islam and Politics.” www.quantara.de, May 10

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Ackah, W. 2000 “Diasporas of Faith: Exploring Ethnic and Religious Identity in the Ghanaian Seventh Day Adventist Community in Britain.” Paper presented to the Colloquium on New African Diasporas, SOAS, May 5
Adepoju, Aderanti 1995 “Emigration Dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa.” International Migration 33(3–4): 315–90.
Ambrosini, M. 2003 “Per un inquadramento teorico del tema: il modello italiano di immigrazione e le funzioni delle reti etniche,” in Percorsi migratori tra reti etniche, istituzioni e mercato del lavoro, Michele La Rosa and Laura Zanfrini (eds). Milano: F. Angeli, 9–23
Anastasia, B. 1992 “Il settore del mobile in Veneto: Evoluzione storica e distribuzione geografica.” Oltre Il Ponte 40: 15–47.
Anastasia, B. and G. Coro 1992 “I distretti industriali in Veneto: Una proposta di individuazione.” Oltre Il Ponte 38: 24–55.
Anastasia, B., S. Bragato, and M. Rasera 2004 “Dopo la ‘grande regolarizzazione’ del 2002. Percorsi lavorativi degli immigrati e impatto sul mercato del lavoro,” in I sommersi e i sanati: le regolarizzazioni degli immigrati in Italia, Marzio Barbagli, Asher Columbo, and Giuseppe Sciortino (eds). Bologna: Il mulino, 103–38
Andall, Jacqueline 1999 “Cape Verdean Women on the Move: ‘Immigration Shopping’ in Italy and Europe.” Modern Italy 4(2) (November): 241–57.
Andall, Jacqueline 2000 Gender, Migration and Domestic Service: The Politics of Black Women in Italy. Aldershot: Ashgate
Andall, Jacqueline 2005 “Cape Verdeans in Comparison to other Migrant Groups in Italy.” Paper presented to conference on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora, Lisboa, April 6–8
Angelillo, A. and F. Occari 1988 “Il distretto industriale dell'occhiale: struttura ed evoluzione.” Oltre Il Ponte 22: 87–121.
Anwar, Muhammad 1979 The Myth of Return: Pakistanis in Britain. London: Heinemann
Basch, Linda G., Nina Glick Schiller and Cristina Szanton Blanc 1994 Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-states. Basel: Gordon and Breach
Brydon, Lynne 1985 “Ghanaian Responses to the Nigerian Expulsions of 1983.” African Affairs 84 (337) (October): 561–85.
Carfagna, Massimo and Franco Pittau 2003 “Italia: 20 anni di regolarizzazioni,” in Immigrazione dossier statistico, Caritas de Roma (ed). Rome: Anterem, 129–38
Caritas di Roma 1992 Immigrazione: dossier statistico. Rome: Sinnos editrice
Caritas di Roma 2002 Immigrazione: dossier statistico 2001. Rome: Anterem
Caritas di Roma 2003 Immigrazione: dossier statistico 2002. Rome: Anterem
Caritas di Roma 2004 Immigrazione: dossier statistico 2003. Rome: Anterem
Carling, Jorgen 2002 “Migration in the Age of Involuntary Immobility.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(1) (January): 5–42.
Castles, Stephen 2004 “Why Migration Policies Fail.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 27(2) (March): 205–27.
CGIL Vicenza 2004 “Le difficoltà produttive e occupazionali a Vicenza.” unpublished manuscript. February 19
Cohen, Robin 1997 Global Diasporas: An Intoduction. London: UCL Press
Country Watch 2004 “Ghana 2004.” Houston, TX: Country Watch Inc
De Filippo, E. 1993 “I Ghanesi” in L'Arcipelago immigrazione: caratteristiche e modelli migratori dei lavoratori stranieri in Italia, Giovanni Mottura and Giovanna Altieri (eds). Rome: Ediesse, 277–87
De Filippo, E. 1994 “Le lavoratrici ‘giorno e notte’,” in Le mani invisibili: la vita e il lavoro delle donne immigrate, Giovanna Vicarelli (ed). Rome: Ediesse, 65–72
Ente Bilaterale Artigianato Veneto (EBAV) 2001 L'Azienda artigiana della concia. Arzignano: Grafiche Cora
Guolo, R. 2001 “Religione, Economia e Societa locale nel nordest.” Economia e societa regionale 3: 5–17.
Makinwa-Adebusoye, P. K. 1995 “Emigration dynamics in West Africa.” International Migration 33 (3–4): 435–67.
Mollel, A. 2000 “New African Diasporas: Transnational Practices of Ghanaians.” Paper presented to the Colloquium on New African Diasporas, SOAS. May 5
Morokvasic, Mirjana 2003 “Transnational Mobility and Gender: A View from Post-Wall Europe,” in Crossing Borders and Shifting Boundaries, Volume 1, Gender on the Move, M. Morokvasic, Umut Erel and Kyoko Shinozaki (eds). Opladen: Leske & Budrich, 101–33
Morokvasic, Mirjana 2004 “‘Settled in Mobility’: Engendering Post-Wall Migration in Europe.” Feminist Review 77: 7–25.
Niewsand, B. 2004 “Ghanaians in Germany – Transnational Fields and Social Status.” Accessed May 28, 2004. Available from www.eth.mpg.de/people/nieswand/project.html
Nyonator, F., D. Dovlo and K. Sagoe 2004 “The Health of the Nation and the Brain Drain in the Health Sector.” Paper presented to conference on Migration and Development in Ghana, Accra, September
Owusu, T. Y. 2000 “The Role of Ghanaian Immigrant Association in Toronto, Canada.” International Migration Review 34(4) (Winter): 1155–81.
Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar 2001 Servants of Globalization: Women, Migration and Domestic Work. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Peach, Ceri 1996 Ethnicity in the 1991 Census. Vol 2. The Ethnic Minority Populations of Great Britain. London: HMSO
Peil, M. 1995 “Ghanaians Abroad.” African Affairs 94(376) (July): 345–67.
Pérouse de Montclos, Marc-Antoine 2003 “A Refugee Diaspora: When the Somali Go West,” in New African Diasporas, Khalid Koser (ed). London: Routledge, 37–55
Portes, A., L. E. Guarnizo and P. Landolt 1999 “The Study of Transnationalism: Pitfalls and Promise of an Emergent Research Field.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22(2) (March): 217–37.
Pugliese, E. 1990 “Gli immigrati nel mercato del lavoro.” Polis IV (1): 71–93.
Reyneri, Emilio 1998 “The Mass Legalization of Migrants in Italy: Permanent or Temporary Emergence from the Underground Economy?” South European Society & Politics 3(3) (Winter): 83–104.
Reyneri, Emilio 2004 “Immigrants in a Segmented and often Undeclared Labour Market.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 9(1) (Spring): 71–93.
Riccio, B. 1999 “Senegalese Street-sellers, Racism and the Discourse on ‘Irregular Trade’ in Rimini.” Modern Italy 4(2): 225–39.
Rotte, R. 2000 “Immigration Control in United Germany.” International Migration Review 34 (2) (Summer): 357–389.
Spanò, A. and A. Zaccaria 2003 “Il mercato delle collaborazioni domestiche a Napoli: il caso delle ucraine e delle polacche,” in Percorsi migratori tra reti etniche, istituzioni e mercato del lavoro, Michele La Rosa and Zaccaria 2003 Laura Zanfrini (eds). Milano: F. Angeli, pp. 193–224
van Hear, Nicholas 1998 New Diasporas: The Mass Exodus, Dispersal and Regrouping of Migrant Communities. London: UCL Press Ltd
Vandamme, Francois 2000 “Labour Mobility within the European Union: Findings, Stakes and Prospects.” International Labour Review 139(4): 437–55.
Veneto Lavoro 2001 “Lavoratori Extracomunitari in Veneto: Un guadro aggiornato.” Mimeo
Williams, Allan M. and Vladimir Baláž 2002 “Trans-Border Population Mobility at a European Crossroads: Slovakia in the Shadow of EU Accession.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(4) (October): 647–64.
Yeboah, Y. F. 1986 “The Crisis of International Migration in an Integrating West Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria and Ghana.” Africa Development 11(4): 217–56.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Adam, Ilke, Nadia Ben Mohammed, Bonaventure Kagne, Marco Martiniello, and Andrea Rea 2002 Histoires sans-papiers 1. Brussels: Vista Editions
Assante, Franca 1978 Il movimento migratorio italiano dall'Unitá nazionale ai giorni nostri. Geneva: Droz
Caestecker, Frank 2000 Alien Policy in Belgium, 1840–1940. New York: Berghahn Books
Caritas/Migrantes 2004 Immigrazione. Dossier Statistico 2004. ⅪⅤ Rapporto sull’ immigrazione, Rome: Caritas/Migrantes
Castles, Stephen 2002, “Migration and Community Formation under Conditions of Globalization.” International Migration Review 36: 4, 1143–68.
Castles, Stephen and Godula Kosack 1985 Immigrant Workers and Class Structure in Western Europe. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller 2003 The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. 3rd edn. New York: Guilford Press
Collinson, Sarah 1993 Beyond Borders: West European Migration Policy towards the 21st Century. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs
Commission of the European Communities 2000 “Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on a Community Immigration Policy,” COM (2000) 757 final. Brussels
Commission of the European Communities 2003 “Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on Immigration, Integration and Employment,” COM (2003) 336 final. Brussels
Commission of the European Communities 2004 “Green Paper on an EU Approach to Managing Economic Migration,” COM (2004) 811 final. Brussels
Entzinger, Han B., Marco Martiniello and Catherine Wihtol de Wenden 2004 Migration between States and Markets. Burlington, VT: Aldershot, Hants
Enzenberger, Hans M. 1994 Civil Wars: From LA to Bosnia. New York: New Press
Favell, Adrian (1998) Philosophies of Integration. Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain. London: Macmillan Press
Groenendijk, Kees and Hampsink, René (1994) Temporary Employment of Migrants in Europe. Nijmegen: Reeks Recht & Samesleving
Hammar, Tomas 1985 European Immigration Policy: A Comparative Study. New York: Cambridge University Press
Hollifield, James F. 1997 L'immigration et l'Etat-nation à la recherche d'un modèle national. Paris: L'Harmatton
Joly, Daniele, Lynette Kelly and Clive Nettleton 1997 Refugees in Europe: The Hostile New Agenda. London: Minority Rights Group
Layton-Henry, Zig 1992 The Politics of Immigration: Immigration, “Race” and “Race” Relations in Post-War Britian. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
Martens, Albert 1976 Les Immigrés: Flux et reflux d'une main-d'oeuvre d'appoint: La Politique belge de l'immigration de 1945 à 1970. Leuven: Universitaire Pers
Martiniello Marco and Govaere, Inge (1989) “Place de l'immigration et politiques migratoires dans l'Europe de demain.” Contradictions 56: 143–61.
Martiniello M. and Andrea Rea 2001 Et si on racontait … Une histoire de l'immigration en Belgique. Brussels: Communauté Française de Belgique
Martiniello, Marco 2001 La Nouvelle Europe Migratoire: Pour Une Politique Proactive de l’ immigration. Brussels: Labor
Noiriel, Gérard 1988 Le Creuzet Français: Histoire de l'immigration, ⅩⅨe–ⅩⅩe siècles. Paris: Seuil
Sayad, Abdelmalek 1991 L'immigration, ou, Les Paradoxes de l'altérité. Brussels: De Boeck Université
Sayad, Abdelmalek (ed.) 1999 La Double Absence: des illusions de l’émigré aux souffrances de l'immigré. Paris: Seuil
Smith, Anthony D. 1986 The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Smith, Anthony D. 1995 Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press
Verdusco G. 2004 “The Mexican Labor Force and Economic Interaction in North America,” in H. Entzinger, M. Martiniello, and C. Withol de Wenden (eds) Migration between States and Markets. Aldershot and Burlington Ashgate: Research in Migration and Ethnic Relations Series, 133–51

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Adorno, Theodor W., Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel J. Levinson and R. Nevitt Sanford 1950 The Authoritarian Personality. 1st edn. New York: Harper
Allport, G. W. 1954 The Nature of Prejudice. Oxford: Addison-Wesley
Anderson, Benedict R. O'G. 1983 Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso
Brubaker, Rogers 2001“The Return of Assimilation? Changing Perspectives on Immigration and Its Sequels in France, Germany, and the United States.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 24(4): 531–48.
Chong, Dennis 2000 Rational Lives: Norms and Values in Politics and Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Citrin, Jack, Donald P. Greene, Christopher Muste and Cara Wong 1997 “Public Opinion toward Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations.” Journal of Politics 59(3) (August): 858–81.
Citrin, Jack and John Sides 2004 “More than Nationals: How Identity Choice Matters in the New Europe.” Chapter 8 in Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU, Richard K. Herrmann, Thomas Risse-Kappen and Marilynn B. Brewer (eds). London: Rowman and Littlefield
Esping-Andersen, G ⊘ sta 1990 The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press
Esses, Victoria M., Lynne M. Jackson and Tamara L. Armstrong 1998 “Intergroup Competition and Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration: An Instrumental Model of Group Conflict.”Journal of Social Issues 54(4) (Winter): 699–724.
Favell, Adrian 2003“Integration Nations: The Nation-State and Research on Immigrants in Western Europe.” Comparative Social Research 22: 13–42.
Fetzer, Joel 2000 Public Attitudes toward Immigration in the United States, France, and Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Freeman, Gary P. 1995 “Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States.” International Migration Review 29(4) (Winter): 881–902.
Gabel, Matthew 1998 “Public Support for European Integration: An Empirical Test of Five Theories.”Journal of Politics 60(2) (May): 333–54.
Gellner, Ernest 1983 Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Hagendoorn, A. and Shervin Nekuee (eds) 1999 Education and Racism: A Cross National Inventory of Positive Effects of Education on Ethnic Tolerance. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate
Hardin, Russell 1995 One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Hollinger, David A.1995 Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism. New York: BasicBooks
Hood, M. V. Ⅲ and Irwin L. Morris 1997 “¿Amigo o Enemigo?: Context, Attitudes, and Anglo Public Opinion toward Immigration.” Social Science Quarterly 78(2) (June): 309–23.
Jackman, Robert W. and Karin Volpert 1996 “Conditions Favouring Parties of the Extreme Right in Western Europe.” British Journal of Political Science 26(4) (October): 501–21.
Joppke, Christian 2002 “European Immigration Policies at the Crossroads.” Chapter 14 in Developments in West European Politics 2, Paul Heywood, Erik Jones and Martin Rhodes (eds). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 259–75
Lahav, Gallya 2004 Immigration and Politics in the New Europe: Reinventing Borders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Leiken, Robert S. 2005 “Europe's Majahideen: Where Mass Imigration Meets Global Terrorism.” Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies, April. www.cis.org/articles/2005/back405.html
Leudtke, A. 2005 “European Integration, Public Opinion, and Immigration Policy: Testing the Impact of National Identity.” European Union Politics vol. 6, No. 1.
Luke, Douglas A. 2004 Multilevel Modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
McLaren, Lauren 2001 “Immigration and the New Politics of Inclusion and Exclusion in the European Union.” European Journal of Political Research 39: 81–108.
Money, Jeannette 1999 Fences and Neighbors: The Political Geography of Immigration Control. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
OECD 2004 Trends in International Migration SOPEMI 2003. Paris: OECD
Perrineau, Pascal 1985 “Le Front National: un électorat autoritaire.” Revue Politique et Parlementaire 87: 24–31.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1998 “Reactions toward the New Minorities of Western Europe.”Annual Review of Sociology 24: 77–103.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. and R. W. Meertens 1995 “Subtle and Blatant Prejudice in Western Europe.” European Journal of Social Psychology 25(1) (January–February): 57–75.
Putnam, Robert D. 2000 Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster
Quillian, Lincoln 1995 “Prejudice as a Response to Perceived Group Threat: Population Composition and Anti-Immigrant and Racial Prejudice in Europe.”American Sociological Review 60(4) (August): 586–611.
Raudenbush, Stephen W. and Anthony S. Bryk 2002 Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Scheve, Kenneth F. and Matthew Slaughter 2001 “Labor Market Competition and Individual Preferences over Migration Policy.” Review of Economics and Statistics 83(1) (February): 133–45.
Sears, David O. 1993 “Symbolic Politics: A Socio-Psychological Theory,” in Explorations in Political Psychology, Shanto Iyengar and William James McGuire (eds). Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 113–49
Sniderman, Paul M., Louk Hagendoorn and Markus Prior 2004 “Predisposing Factors and Situational Triggers: Exclusionary Reactions to Immigrant Minorities.” American Political Science Review 98(1): 35–49.
Steenbergen, Marco R. and Bradford S. Jones 2002 “Modeling Multilevel Data Structures.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (1) (January): 218–37.
Torpey, John 2000 “States and the Regulation of Migration in the Twenty-first Century North Atlantic World.” Chapter 3 in The Wall Around the West: State Borders and Immigration Controls in North America and Europe, Peter Andreas and Timothy Snyder (eds). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 31–54
United Nations Population Division 2000 “Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Ageing Populations?” ESA/P/WP.160. New York: United Nations, March 21. www.un.org/esa/population/publications/migration/migration.htm
Zaller, John 1992 The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Andersen, Kristi 1979 The Creation of a Democratic Majority, 1928–1936. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Bleich, Erik 2003 Race Politics in Britain and France: Ideas and Policymaking since the 1960s. New York: Cambridge University Press
Calvez, Correntin 1969 “Le Problème de travailleurs étrangers.” Journal Officiel de la Republique Française, Avis et Rapports du Conseil Economique et Social, March 27: 315
Carter, Bob, Clive Harris and Shirley Joshi 1987 “The 1951–55 Conservative Government and the Racialization of Black Immigration.” Immigrants and Minorities 6(3): 335–47.
Commission of the European Communities 2000 “Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on a Community Immigration Policy.” COM(2000) 757 final. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. November 22. http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/cnc/2000/com2000_0757en01.pdf
Degler, Carl N. 1991 In Search of Human Nature: The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought. New York: Oxford University Press
Feldblum, Miriam 1999 Reconstructing Citizenship: The Politics of Nationality Reform and Immigration in Contemporary France. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press
Foot, Paul 1965 Immigration and Race in British Politics. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books
Frasure, Robert C. 1971 “Constituency Racial Composition and the Attitudes of British MPs.” Comparative Politics 3(2) (January): 201–10.
Freeman, Gary P. 1995 “Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States.” International Migration Review 29(4) (Winter): 881–902.
Freeman, Gary P. 1989 “Immigrant Labour and Racial Conflict: The Role of the State,” in Migrants in Modern France: Population Mobility in the Later Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Philip E. Ogden and Paul White (eds). London: Unwin Hyman
Geddes, Andrew 2003 The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe. London: Sage
Giddings, Franklin Henry 1896 The Principles of Sociology: An Analysis of the Phenomena of Association and of Social Organization. New York: Macmillan Company
Gimpel, James G. and Karen Kaufmann 2001 “Impossible Dream or Distant Reality? Republican Efforts to Attract Latino Voters.” Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies, August. www.cis.org/articles/2001/back901.html
Glazer, Nathan 1954 “Ethnic Groups in America: From National Culture to Ideology,” in Freedom and Control in American Society, Morroe Berger, Theodore Page and Charles H. Abel (eds). New York: Van Nostrand
Hansen, Randall 2000 Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain: The Institutional Origins of a Multicultural Nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Higham, John 1963 Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925. New York: Atheneum
Ireland, Patrick R. 1994 The Policy Challenge of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Kilson, Martin 1975 “Blacks and Neo-Ethnicity in American Political Life.” Chapter 8 in Ethnicity: Theory and Experience, Nathan Glazer, Daniel P. Moynihan and Corinne Saposs Schelling (eds). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
King, Desmond S. 2000 Making Americans: Immigration, Race, and the Origins of the Diverse Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Lamont, Michèle 2000 The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Lodge, Henry Cabot 1891 “The Distribution of Ability in the United States.” Century Magazine 42(5) (September): 687–95. http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABP2287-0042-165.
Lowi, Theodore J. 1969 The End of Liberalism: Ideology, Policy, and the Crisis of Public Authority. New York: Norton
Martin, Pierre 1998 “Qui vote pour le Front national français?” in L'extrême droite en France et an Belgique, Pascal Delwit, Jean-Michel De Waele, and Andrea Rea (eds). Brussels: Éditions Complexe
Mayer, Nonna 1999 Ces Français qui votent FN. Paris: Flammarion
Messina, Anthony M. 1989 Race and Party Competition in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Miles, Robert and Annie Phizacklea 1984 White Man's Country: Racism in British Politics. London: Pluto Press
Mink, Gwendolyn 1986 Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party, and State, 1985–1920. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Money, Jeannette 1999 Fences and Neighbors: The Political Geography of Immigration Control. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Nelkin, Dorothy and Mark Michaels 1998 “Biological Categories and Border Controls: The Revival of Eugenics in Anti-Migration Rhetoric.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 18 (5–6): 35–63.
Paul, Kathleen 1997 Whitewashing Britain: Race and Citizenship in the Postwar Era. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Rath, Jan and Shamit Saggar 1992 “Ethnicity as a Political Tool in Britain and The Netherlands,” in Ethnic and Racial Minorities in Advanced Industrial Democracies, Anthony M. Messina, Luis R. Fraga, Laurie A. Rhodebeck and Frederick D. Wright (eds). New York: Greenwood Press, 210–13
Salyer, Lucy 1989 “Captives of Law: Judicial Enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Laws, 1891–1905.” Journal of American History 76 (June): 91–117.
Schain, Martin A. 1985 “Immigrants and Politics in France,” in The French Socialist Experiment, John S. Ambler (ed). Philadelphia, PA: Institute for the Study of Human Issues
Schattschneider, Elmer E. 1960 The Semisovereign People: A Realist's View of Democracy in America. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
SOPEMI (Systeme d'Observation Permanente sur les Migrations) 2004 Trends in International Migration: SOPEMI – 2003 Edition. Annual Report, 2003 edn. OECD Emerging Economies. Paris: OECD
Spencer, Ian R. G. 1997 British Immigration Policy since 1939: The Making of Multi-Racial Britain. New York: Routledge
Studlar, Donley T. and Susan Welch 1992 “Voting for Minority Candidates in Local British and American Elections,” in Ethnic and Racial Minorities in Advanced Industrial Democracies, Anthony M. Messina, Luis R. Fraga, Laurie A. Rhodebeck and Frederick D. Wright (eds). New York: Greenwood Press, 147–49
Taguieff, Pierre-André 1988 Le force du préjugé: essai sur le racisme et ses doubles. Paris: La Découverte
Viet, Vincent 1998 La France immigrée: construction d/une politique, 1914–1997. Paris: Fayard
Waldinger, Roger and Mehdi Bozorgmehr 1993 “From Ellis Island to LAX.” Unpublished manuscript. Department of Sociology, UCLA. 1993. August

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bommes, Michael and Andrew Geddes 2000 Immigration and Welfare: Challenging the Borders of the Welfare State. London: Routledge
Bonoli, Giuliano 2004 “Modernising Post-war Welfare States. Explaining diversity in patterns of adaptation to new social risks.” Unpublished manuscript. University of Fribourg, Fribourg
Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge 2004 Migration. Nürnberg: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge
Castles, Stephen 1989 Migrant Workers and the Transformaton of Western Societies. Ithaca, NY: Center for International Studies, Cornell University
Cerny, Philip G. 1997 “Paradoxes of the Competition State: The Dynamics of Political Globalization.” Government and Opposition 32 (2) (Spring): 241–74.
Contel, Michele and Rosaria De Biase 1999 “Italy,” in Asylum and Migration Policies in the European Union, Steffan Angenendt (ed). Berlin: Research Institute of the German Society for Foreign Affairs, 228–42
Daguerre, Anne and Peter Taylor-Gooby 2004 “Neglecting Europe: Explaining the Predominance of American Ideas in New Labour's Welfare Policies since 1997.” Journal of European Social Policy14(1) (February): 25–39.
Der Spiegel 2004 “Land ohne Lachen” [A country without laughter] 2004, January 5, P 38
Esping-Andersen, G⊘sta 1990 The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press
Esping-Andersen, G⊘sta 1996 Welfare States in Transition: National Adaptations in Global Economies. London: Sage Publications Inc.
Fargion, V. 2001 “Italy: Moving from the Southern Model,” in International Social Policy: Welfare Regimes in the Developed World, Peter Alcock and Gary Craig (eds). Basingstoke: Palgrave, 183–202
Ferrera, Maurizio 1996 “The ‘Southern Model’ of Welfare in Social Europe.” Journal of European Social Policy 6(1): 17–37.
Ferrera, Maurizio and Elisabetta Gualmini 2000 “Italy: Rescue from Without?” in Welfare and Work in the Open Economy: Diverse Responses to Common Challenges in Twelve Countries, Vivien A. Schmidt and Fritz W. Scharpf (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 351–98
Freeman, Gary P 1986 “Migration and the Political Economy of the Welfare State.” Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Sciences 485(1) (May): 51–63.
Geddes, Andrew 2003 The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe. London: Sage
Gott, Ceri and Karl Johnston 2002 “The Migrant Population in the UK: Fiscal Effects.” Research Development and Statistics Directorate Occasional Paper, No 77. London: Home Office, Communications Development Office. www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/occ77migrant.pdf
Great Britain Home Office 2004 Control of Immigration: Statistics, United Kingdom 203. London: Stationery Office
Grimlat, Joseph-Alfred 2003 “Des scenarios d'immigration pour une Europe viellissante [Immigration scenarios for an aging Europe].” Esprit (December): 92–101.
Guiraudon, Virginie and Christian Joppke (eds) 2001 Controlling a New Migration World. New York: Routledge
Hammar, Tomas 1985 European Immigration Policy: A Comparative Study. New York: Cambridge University Press
Harris, Nigel and David Coleman 2003 “Does Britain Need More Immigrants? A Debate.” World Economics 4(2) (April–June): 57–102.
Italian Ministry of the Interior 2000 “Rapporto Immigrazione (Report on Immigration).” Accessed April 5, 2004. Available from www.stranierinitalia.it
Lahav, Gallya 2004 Immigration and Politics in the New Europe: Reinventing Borders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Leibfried, Stephan 2000 “Towards a European Welfare State?” in The Welfare State Reader, Christopher Pierson and Francis G. Castes (eds). Cambridge: Polity Press, 190–206
Marshall, Barbara 2001 The New Germany and Migration in Europe. Manchester: Manchester University Press
Menz, Georg 2002 “Patterns in EU Labour Immigration Policy: National Initiatives and European responses.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(4) (October 1): 723–42.
Menz, Georg 2006 The Future of European Migration. Boulder, CO: Lynner Rienner
Office for National Statistics 2005 “Labour Force Survey.” 28/2005. London: Office for National Statistics
Pierson, Christopher 1998 Beyond the Welfare State? The New Political Economy of Welfare. Cambridge: Polity Press
Pierson, Paul 1994 Dismantling the Welfare State? Reagan, Thatcher, and The Politics of Retrenchment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Piore, Michael J. 1979 Birds of Passage: Migrant Labor and Industrial Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Regeringskansliet 2001 Sweden in 2000 – A Country of Migration: Past, Present, Future. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet
Regeringskansliet 2002 “Swedish Integration Policy for the 21st Century.” 2001/02:129. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet. June
Regeringskansliet 2003 “Sweden's Action Plan against Poverty and Social Exclusion 2003–2005.” S2003:032. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet. July
Sassen, Saskia 1991 The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Sciortino, Giuseppe 1999 “Planning in the Dark: The Evolution of Italian Immigration Control,” in Mechanisms of Immigration Control: A Comparative Analysis of Euroepan Regulation Policies, Grete Brochmann and Tomas Hammar (eds). Oxford: Berg, 233–60
Soederberg, Susanne, Georg Menz and Philip G. Cerny 2005 Internalizing Globalization: The Rise of Neoliberalism and the Decline of National Varieties of Capitalism. Baskingstoke: Palgrave
Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan, Laurence Cooley and Howard Reed 2005 “Paying Their Way: The Fiscal Contribution of Immigrants in the UK.” London: Institute for Public Policy Research, April 27. www.ippr.org.uk/publicationsandreports/publication.asp?id=280
Vaillant, Emmanuel 1996 L'immigration. Toulouse: Milan

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Cichowski, Rachel A. 1998 “Integrating the Environment: The European Court and the Construction of Supranational Policy.” Journal of European Public Policy 5(3): 387–405.
European Commission 1985 “Council Resolution of 16 July 1985 on Guidelines for a Community Policy on Migration.” COM (85) 48. Brussels: European Commission, March 7
European Commission 2000 “A Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on a Community Immigration Policy.” COM(2000) 757 final. Brussels: European Commission, November 22. http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2000-com2000_0755en01.pdf
European Council 1999 “Presidency Conclusions: Tampere European Council, 15 and 16 October.” Brussels: European Council. www.parliament.cy/parliamentgr/101/conclusion_tampere.pdf
European Council 2002 “Draft Council Directive Concerning the Status of Third-Country Nationals who are Long-Term Residents.” Interinstitutional File: 2001/0074 (CNS), Working Party on Migration and Expulsion. Brussels: European Council
European Parliament 2001 “Movement and Residence of EU Citizens. A5-0207/2000.” Official Journal of the European Communities 44(May 7): 189–93. http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2001/c_135/c_13520010507en01890193.pdf
Garrett, Geoffrey R., Daniel Kelemen and Heiner Schulz 1998 “The European Court of Justice, National Governments, and Legal Integration in the European Union.” International Organization 52(1) (Winter): 149–76.
Geddes, Andrew 2000 Immigration and European Integration: Towards Fortress Europe? Manchester: Manchester University Press
Givens, Terri G. 2002 “The Role of Socioeconomic Variables in the Success of Radical Right Parties.” Chapter 7 in Shadows over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe, Martin Schain, Aristide R. Zolberg and Patrick Hossay (eds). New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 137–58
Givens, Terri and Adam Luedtke 2004 “The Politics of European Union Immigration Policy: Institutions, Salience, and Harmonization.” Policy Studies Journal 32(1) (February): 145–65.
Givens, Terri and Adam Luedtke 2005 “European Immigration Policies in Comparative Perspective: Issue Salience, Partisanship and Immigrant Rights.” Comparative European Politics 3: 1–22.
Guild, Elspeth 1998 “Competence, Discretion and Third Country Nationals: The European Union's Legal Struggle with Migration.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 24(4) (October): 613–25.
Guiraudon, Virginie 1998 “Third Country Nationals and European Law: Obstacles to Rights’ Expansion.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 24(4) (October): 657–74.
Guiraudon, Virginie 2000 “European Integration and Migration Policy: Vertical Policy-making as Venue Shopping.” Journal of Common Market Studies 38(2): 251–71.
Guiraudon, Virginie and Gallya Lahav 2000 “A Reappraisal of the State Sovereignty Debate: The Case of Migration Control.” Comparative Political Studies 33(2) (March): 163–95.
Hailbronner, Kay and Jörg Polakiewicz 1992 “Non-EC Nationals in the European Community: The Need for a Coordinated Approach.” Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 3(1): 49–88.
Hix, Simon 1995 “The 1996 Intergovernmental Conference and the Future of the Third Pillar.” Briefing Paper No 20. Brussels: Churches’ Commission for Migrants in Europe
Hix, Simon and Jan Niessen 1997 “Reconsidering European Migration Policies: The 1996 IGC and the Reform of the Maastricht Treaty.” Brussels: Migration Policy Group
Hooghe, Liesbet 2001 The European Commission and the Integration of Europe: Images of Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association. 2003 “ILPA Response to Proposed EC Directive on the Status of Third Country Nationals Long-Term Residence.” London: ILPA. www.ilpa.org.uk/submissions/residents.html
Joppke, Christian 2000 Immigration and the Nation-State: The United States, Germany, and Great Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Luedtke, Adam 2005 “European Integration, Public Opinion and Immigration Policy: Testing the Impact of National Identity.” European Union Politics 6(1): 83–112.
Mattli, Walter and Anne-Marie Slaughter 1998 “Revisiting the European Court of Justice.” International Organization 52(1) (Winter): 177–209.
Monar, Jörg 1998 “Justice and Home Affairs.” Journal of Common Market Studies 36 (Annual): 121–37.
Moravcsik, Andrew 1998 The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Papademetriou, Demetrios 1996 Coming Together or Pulling Apart? The European Union's Struggle with Immigration and Asylum. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Pollack, Mark A. 1998 “The Engines of Integration? Supranational Autonomy and Influence in the European Union,” in European Integration and Supranational Governace, Wayne Sandholtz and Alec Stone Sweet (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 217–49
Schain, Martin, Aristide R. Zolberg and Patrick Hossay 2002 “The Development of Radical Right Parties in Western Europe.” Chapter 1 in Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe, 1st edn, Martin Schain, Aristide R. Zolberg, and Patrick Hossay (eds). London: Palgrave Macmillan
Sniderman, Paul M., Pierangelo Peri, Rui J. P. de Figueiredo, Jr., and Thomas Piazza 2002 The Outsider: Prejudice and Politics in Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Statewatch 2003 “Statewatch Comments for House of Lords Select Committee on the European Union Proposed Directive on Long-Term Residents.” London: Statewatch
Stone Sweet, Alec 2000 Governing with Judges: Constitutional Politics in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Stone Sweet, Alec and James A. Caporaso 1998 “From Free Trade to Supranational Polity: The European Court and Integration.” Chapter 3 in European Integration and Supranational Governance, Wayne Sandholt, and Alec Stone Sweet (eds.) Oxford: Oxford University Press, 92–133.
Stone Sweet, Alec and Wayne Sandholtz 1998 “Integration, Supranational Governance and the Institutionalization of the European Polity.” Chapter 1 in European Integration and Supranational Governance, Wayne Sandholtz and Alec Stone Sweet (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1–26
Stone Sweet, Alec, Neil Fligstein and Wayne Sandholtz 2001 “The Institutionalization of European Space.” Chapter 1 in The Institutionalization of Europe, Alec Stone Sweet, Wayne Sandholtz, and Neil Fligstein (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Uçarer, Emek M. 2001 “From the Sidelines to Center Stage: Sidekick No More? The European Commission in Justice and Home Affairs.” European Integration Online Papers (EIoP) 5(5) (May 17) http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/2001-005a.htm.
Weiler, J. H. H. 1993 “Thou Shalt Not Oppress a Stranger (Ex: 23:9): On the Judicial Protection of the Human Rights of Non-EC Nationals,” in Free Movement of Persons in Europe: Legal Problems and Experiences, Henry G. Schermers (ed). Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff, 248–71
Weiler, J. H. H. 1994 “A Quiet Revolution: The European Court of Justice and Its Interlocutors.” Comparative Political Studies 26 (January): 510–34.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Beck, Nathaniel 2001 “Time-Series-Cross-Section Data: What Have We Learned in the Past Few Years?” Annual Review of Political Science 4(1)(June): 271–93. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.polisci.4.1.271.
Beck, Nathaniel and Jonathan N. Katz 1995 “What to Do (and Not to Do) with Time-Series-Cross-Section Data.” American Political Science Review 89(3) (September): 634–47.
Böcker, Anita and Tetty Havinga 1998 “Asylum Migrations in the European Union: Patterns and Trends and the Effects of Policy Measures.” Journal of Refugee Studies 11(3) (September): 245–66.
Borjas, George J. 1990 Friends or Strangers: The Impact of Immigrants on the US Economy. New York: Basic Books
Cornelius, Wayne A., Philip L. Martin and James F. Hollifield 2004 Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective. 2nd edn. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Crisp, Jeff 1999 “‘Who Has Counted the Refugees?’ UNCHR and the Politics of Numbers.” New Issues in Refugee Research Working Paper No 12. Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, June. www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/research/opendoc.pdf?tbl=RESEARCH&id=3ae6a0c22
European Council on Refugees and Exiles 2000 “Non-State Agents of Persecution and the Inability of the State to Protect: The German Interpretation.” European Legal Network on Asylum (ELENA) Research Paper. London: ECRE, September. www.ecre.org/research/nsagentsde.pdf
Fassmann, Heinz and Rainer Münz 1992 “Patterns and Trends of International Migration in Western Europe.” Population and Development Review 18(3) (September): 457–80.
Freeman, Gary P. 1994 “Can Liberal States Control Unwanted Migration.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 534 (July): 17–30.
Guiraudon, Virginie and Gallya Lahav 2000 “A Reappraisal of the State Sovereignty Debate: The Case of Migration Control.” Comparative Political Studies 33(2) (March): 163–95.
Hailbronner, Kay 1993 “The Concept of ‘Safe Country’ and Expeditious Asylum Procedures: A Western European Perspective.” International Journal of Refugee Law 5(1): 31–65.
Harris, John R. and Michael P. Todaro 1970 “Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis.” American Economic Review 60(1): 126–142.
Hatton, Timothy J. 2004 “Seeking Asylum in Europe.” Economic Policy 38 (April): 5–62.
Havinga, Tetty and Anita Böcker 1999 “Country of Asylum by Choice or by Chance: Asylum-Seekers in Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 25(1) (January): 43–61.
Hicks, Alexander M. 1994 “Introduction to Pooling,” in The Comparative Political Economy of the Welfare State, Thomas Janoski and Alexander M. Hicks (eds). New York: Cambridge University Press, 169–88
Holzer, Thomas and Gerald Schneider 2002 Asylpolitik auf Abwegen: nationalstaatliche und europäische Reaktionen auf die Globalisierung der Flüchtlingsströme. Opladen: Leske and Budrich
Holzer, Thomas, Gerald Schneider and Thomas Widmer 2000 “The Impact of Legislative Deterrence Measures on the Number of Asylum Applications in Switzerland (1986–1995).” International Migration Review 34(4) (Winter): 1182–1216.
Hugo, Graeme J. 1981 “Village-Community Ties, Village Norms, and Ethnic and Social Networks,” in Migration Decision Making: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Microlevel Studies in Developed and Developing Countries, Gordon F. De Jong and Robert W. Gardner (eds). New York: Pergamon Press, 186–225
Jacobson, David 1996 Rights across Borders: Immigration and the Decline of Citizenship. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press
Joppke, Christian 1997 “Asylum and State Sovereignty: A Comparison of the United States, Germany, and Britain.” Comparative Political Studies 30 (June): 259–98.
Joppke, Christian 1998 “Why Liberal States Accept Unwanted Immigration.” World Politics 50(2) (January): 266–93.
Kjaergaard, Eva 1994 “The Concept of ‘Safe Third Country’ in Contemporary European Refugee Law.” International Journal of Refugee Law 6(4): 649–55.
Kritz, Mary M., Lin Lean Lim and Hania Zlotnik (eds) 1992 International Migration Systems: A Global Approach. New York: Oxford University Press
Kunz, E. F. 1981 “Exile and Resettlement: Refugee Theory.” International Migration Review 15(142): 42–51.
Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor 1993 “Theories of International Migration: Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review 19(3): 431–66.
Meyers, Eytan 2000 “Theories of International Immigration Policy: A Comparative Analysis.” International Migration Review 34(4): 1245–82.
Neumayer, Eric 2004 “Asylum Destination Choice: What Makes some West European Countries more Attractive than Others.” European Union Politics 5(2): 155–80.
Noll, Gregor 2000 Negotiating Asylum: The EU Acquis, Extrateritorial Protection, and the Common Market of Deflection. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Pierson, Paul 2000 “Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics.” American Political Science Review 94(2) (June): 251–67.
Ranis, Gustav and John C. H. Fei 1961 “A Theory of Economic Development.” American Economic Review 51(4) (September): 533–65.
Robinson, Vaughan and Jeremy Segrott 2002 “Understanding the Decision-Making of Asylum Seekers.” Home Office Research Study 243. London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, July. www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hors243.pdf
Sassen, Saskia 1996 Losing Control? Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization. New York: Columbia University Press
Sjaastad, Larry A. 1962 “The Costs and Returns of Human Migration.” The Journal of Political Economy 70(5): 80–93.
SOPEMI: Systeme d'Observation Permanente sur les Migrations. Various years. Trends in International Migration: SOPEMI. OECD Emerging Economies. Paris: OECD
Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu 1994 Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Stimson, James A. 1985 “Regression in Space and Time: A Statistical Essay.” American Journal of Political Science 29 (November): 914–47.
Taylor, J. Edward 1986 “Differential Migration, Networks, Information and Risk,” in Migration, Human Capital and Development. Research in Human Capital and Development, Vol 4, Oded Stark (ed). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 147–71
Thielemann, Eiko R. 2003 “Between Interests and Norms: Explaining Burden-Sharing in the European Union.” Journal of Refugee Studies 16(3): 253–73.
Thielemann, Eiko R. 2004 “Why European Policy Harmonization Undermines Refugee Burden-Sharing.” European Journal of Migration and Law 6(1): 43–61.
Thielemann, Eiko R. 2005 “Symbolic Politics or Effective Burden-Sharing? The European Refugee Fund.” Journal of Common Market Studies 43(4): 807–24.
Todaro, Michael P. 1989 Economic Development in the Third World. 4th edn. New York: Longman
US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants 1980–2002 World Refugee Survey. Washington, DC: USCRI. www.refugees.org/worldmap.aspx
United Kingdom Home Office 2002 “Reducing Asylum Applications.” Internal working paper in preparation for the Ministerial meeting of 15 May, on file with author
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1999 Refugees, Asylum Seekers, and Others of Concern to UNCHR: Statistical Overview. Various years Geneva: UNHCR Population Data Unit. www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home?page=statistics
Zolberg, Aristide R., Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo 1989 Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World. New York: Oxford University Press