3 - Business strategy and project capability  pp. 56-87

Business strategy and project capability

By Andrew Davies and Michael Hobday

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter

The previous chapter provides the broad context in which project-based activities are undertaken within a wide range of CoPS industries. This chapter shows more specifically how projects are used to improve a firm's operational effectiveness, achieve its strategic business objectives and enhance its competitive position. Drawing upon resource-based theories of the firm (Penrose, 1959; Richardson, 1972; Nelson and Winter, 1982; Wernerfelt, 1984; Teece and Pisano, 1994; Teece et al., 1997), the framework we introduce includes the definitions and concepts required to understand how a firm's project resources and capabilities form the basis of its growth and competitive advantage in project business. Following Penrose's (1959) original contribution, it is now well understood that organisational capabilities are critical to a firm's ability to mobilise and use its resources to grow and compete successfully in rapidly changing technologies and markets (Chandler, 1990; Grant, 2002). However, with a few exceptions (Amsden and Hikino, 1994; Cusumano and Nobeoka, 1998) the resource-based view of the firm has largely ignored the project as an organisational capability and source of competitive advantage.

In addition to the well-known strategic and functional capabilities of the firm described by Chandler (1990), we show how the concept of project capability explains how firms deploy projects to innovate and compete in dynamic markets. Effective bid and project management is necessary to improve a firm's operational performance in an existing technology or customer base. Projects are also used to implement corporate strategies to enter new fields of technology and create new markets.


Reference Type: reference-list

Abdel-Hamid, T. and Madnick, S. E. (1991). Software Project Dynamics: an Integrated Approach, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Abegglen, J. C. (1994). Sea Change: Pacific Asia as the New World Industrial Centre, New York: The Free Press.
Abernathy, W. J. and Clark, K. B. (1985). ‘Innovation: mapping the winds of creative destruction’, Research Policy, 14, 3–22.
Abernathy, W. J. and Utterback, J. M. (1978). ‘Patterns of industrial innovation’, Technology Review, 80 (7), June–July, 41–47.
Acha, V., Davies, A., Hobday, M. and Salter, A. J. (2004). ‘Exploring the capital goods economy: complex product systems in the UK’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 13 (3), 505–529.
Adler, P. S. and Clark, K. B. (1991). ‘Behind the learning curve: a sketch of the learning process’, Management Science, 37 (3), 267–281.
Allen, T. J. (1977). Managing the Flow of Technology: technology Transfer and the Dissemination of Technological Innovation within the R&D Organization, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Amsden, A. H. and Hikino, T. (1994). ‘Project execution capability, organizational know-how and conglomerate corporate growth in late industrialization’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3 (1), 111–147.
Ansoff, H. I. (1957). ‘Strategies for diversification’, Harvard Business Review, September–October, 113–124.
Arena, R. (1983). ‘Méso-analyse et théorie de l’économie industrielle’, in ADEFI, Economica, Paris.
Argyris, C. (1977). ‘Double loop learning in organizations’, Harvard Business Review, September–October, 115–125.
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A. (1999). ‘Chemicals’, in D. Mowery (ed.) US Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance, Washington: National Academy Press.
Arrow, K. (1962). ‘The economic implications of learning by doing’, Review of Economic Studies, June, 155–173.
Arthur, W. B. (1993). ‘Pandora's marketplace’, in New Scientist Supplement, 6 February, 6–8.
Augsdorfer, P. (1996). Forbidden Fruits: An Analysis of Bootlegging, Uncertainty and Learning in Corporate R&D, Aldershot: Averbury.
Aviation Week and Space Technology (1991). March 18 issue.
Ayas, K. and Zeniuk, N. (2001). ‘Project-based learning: building communities of reflective practitioners’, Management Learning, 32 (1), 61–76.
Baden-Fuller, C. and Stopford, J. (1999). Rejuvenating the Mature Business, 2nd edn, London: International Thomson Business Press.
Baker, M. and Rouse, A. (1995). ‘Getting and keeping software quality certification: some associated issues’, in G. Doukidis, B. Galliers, T. Jelassi, H. Kremar and F. Land (eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Information Systems, Athens, Greece.
Balconi, M. (2002). ‘Tacitness, codification of technological knowledge and the organisation of industry’, Research Policy, 31, 357–379.
Barnard, C. I. (1938). The Functions of the Executive, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barney, J. (1991). ‘Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage’, Journal of Management, 17 (1), 99–120.
Baumgartner, J. S. (1963). Project Management, Homewood, IL: Irwin.
Bennis, W. G. (1966). Changing Organizations: Essay on the Development and Evolution of Human Organization, New York: McGraw Hill.
Bennis, W. G. and Slater, P. L. (1968). The Temporary Society, New York: Harper & Row.
Best, M. H. (1990). The New Competition, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Best, M. H.(2003). ‘The geography of systems integration’ in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 201–228.
Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P. and Pinch, T. (eds.) (1987). The Social Construction of Technological Systems, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Boardman, J. (1990). Systems Engineering: an Introduction, New York: Prentice Hall.
Boehm, B. W. (1988). ‘A spiral model of software development and enhancement’, IEEE Computer, May, 61–72.
Boehm, B. W.(1989a). Software Risk Management, Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society Press.
Boehm, B. W.(1989b). ‘Theory-w software project management: principles and examples’, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15 (7), July, 902–916.
Boehm, B. W.(1991). ‘Software risk management: principles and practices’, IEEE Software, January, 32–41.
Bonaccorsi, A. and Giuri, P. (2000). ‘When shakeout doesn't occur: the evolution of the turboprop engine industry’, Research Policy, 29 (7–8), 847–870.
Brady, T. and Davies, A. (2004). ‘Building project capabilities: from exploratory to exploitative learning’, Organizational Studies, 26 (9), 1601–1621.
Brady, T., Marshall, N., Prencipe, A. and Tell, F. (2002). ‘Making sense of learning landscapes in project-based organisations’, presented at the 3rd European Conference on Organizing, Knowledge and Capabilities, Athens, Greece, April.
Brady, T., Rush, H., Hobday, M., Davies, A., Probert, D. and Banerjee, S. (1997). ‘Tools for technology management: an academic perspective’, Technovation, 17 (8), 417–425.
British Aerospace Annual Report (1998). Farnborough, Hants.
Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P. (1991). ‘Organizational learning and communities of practice: Towards a unified view of working, learning, and innovation’, Organization Science, 2 (1), 40–57.
Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P.(2000). The Social Life of Information, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Brusoni, S., Prencipe, A. and Pavitt, K. (2001). ‘Knowledge specialization and the boundaries of the firm: why do firms know more than they make?’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 597–621.
Brusoni, S., Prencipe, A. and Salter, A. (1998). ‘Mapping and measuring innovation in project-based firms’, SPRU mimeo, June.
Burgelman, R. A. (1984). ‘Managing the internal corporate venturing process’, Sloan Management Review, Winter, 33–48.
Burns, T. and Stalker, G. M. (1961). The Management of Innovation (reprinted 1994) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Buttrick, R. (2000). The Interactive Project Workout, 2nd edn, London: Financial Times-Prentice Hall.
Buxton, J. N. and Malcolm, R. (1991). ‘Software technology transfer’, IEEE Software Engineering Journal, 6 (1), 17–23.
Cable & Wireless (1993). ‘Bid document preparation process’, Cable & Wireless Document CW/BN/BM/BMSP001.
Cable & Wireless(1999). ‘Global outsourcing and the networked economy: telecoms’ opportunity to deliver real competitive advantage’, Cable & Wireless.
Carlsson, B. and Eliasson, G. (1994). ‘The nature and importance of economic competence’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3 (4), 687–711.
Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Cawson, A. (1986). Corporatism and Political Theory, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Chambers, G. L. (1986). ‘The systems engineering process: a technical bibliography’, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. SMC–16, No. 5, September/October, 712–722.
Chandler, A. D. (1962). Strategy and Structure, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Chandler, A. D.(1990). Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Charette, R. N. (1989). Software Engineering Risk Analysis and Management, New York: Intertext Publications, McGraw-Hill.
Chesbrough, H. (2003a). Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Chesbrough, H.(2003b). ‘Towards a dynamics of modularity: a cyclical model of technical advance’, in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday, (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 174–198.
Clark, K. B. (1985). ‘The interaction of design hierarchies and market concepts in technological evolution’, Research Policy, 14, 235–251.
Clark, K. B. and Fujimoto, T. (1991). Product Development Performance, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Clark, K. B. and Wheelwright, S. C. (1992). ‘Organizing and leading “heavyweight” development teams’, Californian Management Review, Summer, 34 (3), 9–28.
Cleland, D. and King, W. R. (eds.) (1988). Project Management Handbook, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Coase, R. H. (1937). ‘The nature of the firm’, Economica, 4, 386–405.
Cohen, W. M. and Levinthal, D. A. (1989). ‘Innovation and learning: the two faces of R&D’, The Economic Journal, 99, 569–596.
Cohen, W. M. and Levinthal, D. A. (1990). ‘Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 128–152.
Collins, T. and Bicknell, D. (1997). Crash, London: Simon & Schuster.
Cook, S. D. N. and Brown, J. S. (1999). ‘Bridging epistemologies: the generative dance between organizational knowledge and organizational knowing’, Organization Science, 10 (4), 381–400.
Coombs, R. and Hull, R. (1997). ‘Knowledge management practices and path-dependency in innovation’, Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition (CRIC) Discussion Paper No. 2, Manchester.
Cova, B., Ghauri, P. and Salle, R. (2002). Project Marketing: Beyond Competitive Bidding, Chichester: Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Crichton, M. (1997). Airframe, Arrow Books.
Cringely, R. X. (1992). Accidental Empires: How the Boys of Silicon Valley Make their Millions, Battle Foreign Competition, Still Can't Get a Date, London: Penguin Books.
Culver-Lozo, K. (1995). ‘Software process iteration on large projects: challenges, strategies and experiences’, Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 1, 35–45.
Cusumano, M. A. and Nobeoka, K. (1998). Thinking Beyond Lean: How Multi-Project Management is Transforming Product Development at Toyota and Other Companies, New York: The Free Press.
Cyert, R. M. and March, J. G. (1963). A Behavioural Theory of the Firm, Englewood, Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
D'Adderio, L. (2001). ‘Crafting the virtual prototype: how firms integrate knowledge and capabilities across organisational boundaries’, Research Policy, 30 (9), 1409–1424.
D'Adderio, L.(2002). Bridging Formal Tools with Informal Practices: How Organisations Balance Flexibility and Control, Edinburgh: Research Centre for Social Sciences (RCSS).
Davenport, T. H. (1993). Process Innovation: Reengineering Work Through Information Technology, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
Davenport, T. H.(1996). ‘Why reengineering failed: the fad that forgot people’, Fast Company, Boston, MA: Premiere Issue, 70–74.
Davies, A. (1996). ‘Innovation in large technical systems: the case of telecommunications’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 5 (4), 1143–1180.
Davies, A. (1997a). ‘Ericsson CME R5A Project’, SPRU-CENTRIM CoPS Working Paper.
Davies, A.(1997b). ‘The life cycle of a complex product system’, International Journal of Innovation Management, 1 (3), 229–256.
Davies, A.(2003).‘Integrated solutions: the changing business of systems integration’, in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 333–368.
Davies, A.(2004). ‘Moving base into high-value integrated solutions: a value stream approach’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 13 (5), 727–756.
Davies, A. and Brady, T. (2000). ‘Organisational capabilities and learning in complex product systems: towards repeatable solutions’, Research Policy, 29, 931–953.
Davies, A., Brady, T. and Tang, P. (2003). Delivering Integrated Solutions, Brighton: SPRU-CENTRIM, 1–34.
Davies, A. and Tang, P. (2003). ‘Ericsson Vodafone 3G systems services project’, SPRU-CENTRIM CoPS Working Paper.
Davies, A., Tang, P., Hobday, M., Brady, T., Rush, H. and Gann, D. (2001). Integrated Solutions: The New Economy Between Manufacturing and Services, Brighton: SPRU-CENTRIM, 1–43.
Davis, S. M. and Lawrence, P. R. (1977). Matrix, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
DeFillippi, R. J. (2001). ‘Introduction: project-based learning, reflective practices and learning outcomes’, Management Learning, 32 (1), 5–10.
DeFillippi, R. J. and Arthur, M. B. (1998). ‘Paradox in project-base enterprise: the case of film making’, California Management Review, 40 (2), Winter, 125–139.
DeFillippi, R. J. and Arthur, M. B.(2002). ‘Project-based learning, embedded learning contexts and the management of knowledge’, paper presented at the 3rd European Conference on Organizing, Knowledge and Capabilities, Athens, Greece, April.
DeMarco, T. (1979). Concise Notes on Software Engineering, New York: Yourdon Press.
DeMarco, T. and Miller, A. (1996). ‘Managing large software projects’, IEEE Software, July, 24–27.
Department of Trade and Industry (2002). The Value Added Scoreboard, London: DTI Business, Finance and Investment Unit.
Dickens, L. and Watkins, K. (1999). ‘Action research: rethinking Lewin’, Management Learning, 30 (2), 127–140.
Domberger, S. (1998). The Contracting Organization: A Strategic Guide to Outsourcing, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dosi, G. (1988). ‘Sources, procedures, and microeconomic effects of innovation’, Journal of Economic Literature, 26, 1120–1171.
Dosi, G., Hobday, M., Marengo, L. and Prencipe, A. (2003). ‘The economics of systems integration: towards an evolutionary interpretation’, in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 95–113.
Doty, D. H. and Glick, W. H. (1994). ‘Typologies as a unique form of theory building: towards improved understanding and modeling’, Academy of Management Review, 19 (2), 230–251.
Drucker, P. F. (1977). Management, New York: Harpers.
Dvir, D. and Lechler, T. (2004): ‘Plans are nothing, changing plans is everything: the impact of changes on project success’, Research Policy, 33, 1–15.
Eden, C. and Huxham, C. (1996). ‘Action research for the study of organizations’, in S. R. Clegg, C. Handy and W. R. Nord (eds.) Handbook of Organization Studies, London: Sage, 526–542.
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). ‘Building theories from case study research’, Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 532–550.
Emam, E. El and Madhavji, N. H. (1995). ‘The reliability of measuring organisational maturity’, Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 1, 3–25.
Engwall, M. (2003): ‘No project is an island: linking projects to history and context’, Research Policy, 32, 798–808.
Ericsson (1990). ‘Your guide to PROPS’, Ericsson Publication EN/LZT 101 1020 R1.
Fairburn, A. G. (1995). ‘A systems approach to ventures’, IEE Review, September, 195–198.
Fleck, J. (1988). ‘Innofusion or diffusation? The nature of technological development in robotics’, ESRC Programme on Information and Communication Technologies, Working Paper Series, University of Edinburgh.
Flowers, S. (1996). Software Failure, Management Failure: amazing stories and cautionary tales, Chichester: Wiley.
Flyvbjerg, B., Bruzelius, N. and Rothengatter, W. (2003). Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Follett, M. P. (1918). The New State, London: Longmans.
Foote, N. W., Galbraith, J. R., Hope, Q. and Miller, D. (2001): ‘Making solutions the answer’, The McKinsey Quarterly, 3, 84–93.
Frame, J. D. (1994). The New Project Management: Tools for an Age of Rapid Change, Corporate Reengineering, and Other Business Realities, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Freeman, C. (1974). The Economics of Industrial Innovation, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Freeman, C.(1994). ‘The economics of technical change’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 18, 463–514.
Freeman, C. and Soete, L. (1997). The Economics of Industrial Innovation, 3rd edn, London: Pinter.
French, W. L. and Bell, C. H. (1973). Organization Development: Behavioural Science Interventions for Organization Improvement, 2nd edn, New York: Prentice Hall.
Gaddis, P. O. (1960). ‘The project manager’, Harvard Business Review, May–June, 89–97.
Galbraith, J. R. (1971): ‘Matrix organizational designs – how to combine functional and project forms’, Business Horizons, February, 29–40.
Galbraith, J.(1973). Designing Complex Organizations, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Galbraith, J.(1982). ‘The stages of growth’, Journal of Business Strategy, Summer, 70–79.
Galbraith, J. R.(1983). ‘Strategy and organization planning’, Human Resource Management (reprinted in H. Mintzberg and J. B. Quinn (eds.) The Strategy Process, 2nd edn, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991, 315–324.
Galbraith, J. R.(2002a). ‘Organizing to deliver solutions’, Organizational Dynamics, 31 (2), 194–207.
Galbraith, J. R.(2002b). Designing Organizations: An Executive Guide to Strategy, Structure, and Process, San Francisco: Wiley.
Gann, D. M. (1993). ‘Innovation in the built environment: The rise of digital buildings’, PhD thesis, SPRU, University of Sussex.
Gann, D. M.(2000). Building Innovation: Complex Constructs in a Changing World, London: Thomas Telford.
Gann, D. M. and Salter, A. J. (1998). ‘Learning and innovation management in project-based, service-enhanced firms’, International Journal of Innovation Management, 2 (4), 431–454.
Gann, D. M. and Salter, A.(2000). ‘Innovation in project-based, service-enhanced firms: the construction of complex products and systems’, Research Policy, 29, 955–972.
Gardiner, P. and Rothwell, R. (1985). ‘Tough customers: good designs’, Design Studies, 6 (1), 7–17.
Garvin, D. A. (1993). ‘Building a learning organization’, Harvard Business Review, July–August, 78–92.
Gerstner, L. V. (2002). Who Said Elephants Can't Dance? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround, London: HarperCollins Publishers.
Gessler, F. (2002). ‘The development of wireless infrastructure standards’, doctoral dissertation, Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (Kung Tekniska Högskolan, KTH), Stockholm, March.
Geyer, A. and Davies, A. (2000). ‘Managing project-system interfaces: case studies of railway projects in restructured UK and German markets’, Research Policy, 29, 991–1013.
Gholz, E. (2003). ‘Systems integration in the US defence industry: who does it and why is it important?’ in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 279–306.
Gibbs, W. W. (1994). ‘Software's chronic crisis’, Scientific American, September, 72–81.
Goode, H. H. and Machol, R. E. (1957). System Engineering: An Introduction to the Design of Large-Scale Systems, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Grabher, G. (2001). ‘Ecologies of creativity: the village, the group, and the heterarchic organisation of the British advertising industry’, Environment and Planning A, 33, 351–374.
Grabher, G.(2002a). ‘Cool projects, boring institutions: temporary collaboration in social context’, Regional Studies, 36, 205–214.
Grabher, G.(ed.) (2002b). ‘Fragile sector, robust practice: project ecologies in new media’, Environment and Planning A Theme Issue, 34 (11): 1903–2092.
Grabher, G. (2003). ‘Hanging out, staying in, logging on: Learning in project ecologies’, paper presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Symposium on ‘Knowledge spaces: Multiple contexts for knowledge creation’, Seattle, 1–6 August.
Graham, P. (1995). Mary Parker Follett – Prophet of Management, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Granstrand, O., Patel, P. and Pavitt, K. (1997). ‘Multi-technology corporations: why they have “distributed” rather than “distinctive core” competencies’, California Management Review, 39 (4), 8–25.
Granstrand, O. and Sjölander, S. (1990). ‘Managing innovation in multi-technology corporations’, Research Policy, 19, 35–60.
Grant, R. M. (2002). Contemporary Strategic Analysis: Concepts, Techniques, Applications, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Grieve, A. and Ball, D. F. (1991). ‘The role of process plant contractors in transferring technology’, Paper presented at the R&D conference ‘External acquisition of technological knowledge’, Kiel, 8–10 July.
Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the Revolution, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C. K. (1994). Competing for the Future: Breakthrough Strategies for Seizing Control of Industry and Creating Markets of Tomorrow, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Hammer, M. and Champy, J. (1994). Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution, London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Handy, C. (1993). Understanding Organizations, 4th edn, London: Penguin Books.
Hansen, M. T., Nohria, N. and Tierney, T. (1994) ‘What's your strategy for managing knowledge?’, in Harvard Business Review on Organizational Learning, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School, 61–86.
Hax, A. C. and Wilde, D. L. (1999). ‘The delta model: adaptive management for a changing world’, Sloan Management Review, Winter, 11–28.
Hayes, R. H. and Wheelwright, S. C. (1984). Restoring Our Competitive Edge: Competing Through Manufacturing, US: John Wiley and Sons.
Hedberg, B. and Wolff, R. (2001). ‘Organizing, learning, and strategizing: from construction to discovery’ in M. Dierkes, A. B. Antal, J. Child and I. Nonaka (eds.) Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 535–556.
Henderson, R. M. and Clark, K. B. (1990). ‘Architectural innovation: the reconfiguration of existing product technologies and the failure of established firms’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 9–30.
Hill, T. (1993). Manufacturing Strategy: The Strategic Management of the Manufacturing Function, 2nd edn, London: Macmillan.
Hilmer, F. G. and Donaldson, L. (1996). Management Redeemed: Debunking the Fads that Undermine our Corporations, New York: The Free Press.
Hirshman, A. O. and Lindblom, C. E. (1962). ‘Economic development, research and development, policy making: some converging views’, Behavioral Science, 7, 211–222, reprinted in F. E. Emery (1969) Systems Thinking, Harmondsworth, London: Penguin.
Hobday, M. (1994). ‘The limits of Silicon Valley: a critique of network theory’, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 6 (2), 231–244.
Hobday, M.(1995). Innovation in East Asia: The Challenge to Japan, London: Edward Elgar.
Hobday, M.(1998). ‘Product complexity, innovation and industrial organization’, Research Policy, 26, 689–710.
Hobday, M.(2000). ‘The project-based organisation: an ideal form for managing complex products and systems?’, Research Policy, 29 (7–8), 871–893.
Hobday, M. G. and Brady, T. (2000): ‘A fast method for analysing and improving complex software processes’, R&D Management, 30 (1), 1–21.
Hobday, M., Davies, A. and Prencipe, A. (2004). ‘Systems integration: a core capability of the modern corporation’, submitted to Industrial and Corporate Change.
Hobday, M. and Laursen, K. (2003). ‘International trade in high technology capital goods: an empirical assessment’, mimeo, Complex Product System Innovation Centre, SPRU, England.
Hobday, M. and Rush, H. (1999). ‘Technology management in complex product systems (CoPS): ten questions answered’, International Journal of Technology Management, 17 (6), 618–638.
House of Commons (1998). ‘Environment, transport and regional affairs committee, “Air Traffic Control”’, Fourth Report, Vol. 1, Report and Proceedings of the Committee, 27 March.
Huber, G. P. (1996). ‘Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literatures’, Chapter 6, in M. D. Cohen and L. S. Sproull (eds.) Organizational Learning, California: Sage Publications.
Hughes, T. P. (1983). Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880–1930, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hughes, T. P.(1998). Rescuing Prometheus, New York: Pantheon Books.
Humphrey, W. S. (1989a). Managing the Software Process, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Humphrey, W. S.(1989b). A Discipline for Software Engineering, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Iansiti, M. (1995). ‘Technology integration: managing technological evolution in a complex environment’, Research Policy, 24, 521–542.
Iansiti, M.(1998). Technology Integration: Making Critical Choices in a Dynamic World, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Iansiti, M. and Clark, K. B. (1994). ‘Integration and dynamic capability: evidence from product development in automobiles and mainframe computers’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3 (3), 557–605.
Iansiti, M. and Khanna, Y. (1995). ‘Technological evolution, system architecture and the obsolescence of firm capabilities’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 4 (2), 333–361.
IBM (2002). ‘A history of IBM Global Services’, IBM Corporate Archives 2405SH01.
Johnson, S. B. (1997). ‘Three approaches to big technology: operations research, systems engineering, and project management’, Society for the History of Technology, 891–916.
Jones, C. (1996). ‘Our worst current development practices’, IEEE Software, March, 102–104.
Kanter, R. M. (1985). ‘Supporting innovation and venture development in established companies’, Journal of Business Venturing, 1, 47–60.
Kay, J. (1993). The Foundations of Corporate Success: How Business Strategies Add Value, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Keegan, A. and Turner, R. J. (2001). ‘Quantity versus quality in project-based learning practices’, Management Learning, 32 (1), 77–98.
Keegan, A. and Turner, R. J.(2002). ‘The management of innovation in project-based firms’, Long Range Planning, 35 (4), 367–388.
Kellner, M. I. (1996). Business Process Modeling: Lessons and Tools from the Software World, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University.
Klein, B. (1962). ‘The decision making problem in development’, in ‘The rate and direction of inventive activity: Economic and social factors’, Conference of the Universities-National Bureau Committee for Economic Research and the Committee of the Social Science Research Council, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Klein, B. and Meckling, W. (1958). ‘Application of operations research to development decisions’, Operations Research, 6, 352–363.
Klepper, S. (1996). ‘Entry, exit, growth, and innovation over the product life cycle’, American Economic Review, 86 (3), 562–583.
Kline, S. J. (1990). A Numerical Measure for the Complexity of Systems: The Concept and Some Implications, Report INN-5, Thermosciences Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, California.
Knight, K. (1976). ‘Matrix organization: a review’, The Journal of Management Studies, May, 111–130.
Kotler, P. (1976). Marketing Management: Analysis Planning and Control, 3rd edn, London: Prentice Hall.
Kusunoki, K., Nonaka, I. and Nagata, A. (1998). ‘Organizational capabilities in product development of Japanese firms: a conceptual framework and empirical findings’, Organization Science, 9 (6), November–December, 699–718.
Lake, J. G. (1992). ‘Systems engineering re-energized: impacts of the revised DoD acquisition process’, Engineering Management Journal, 4 (3), September, 8–14.
Landau, R. and Rosenberg, N. (1992). ‘Successful commercialization in the chemical process industries’, in N. Rosenberg, R. Landau and D. Mowery (eds.) Technology and the Wealth of Nations, Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Langlois, R. J. (1992). ‘External economies and economic progress: the case of the microcomputer industry’, Business History Review, 66 (Spring), 1–50.
Langlois, R. J. and Robertson, P. L. (1989). ‘Explaining vertical integration: lessons from the American automobile industry’, Journal of Economic History, 49, 361–375.
Larson, E. W. and Gobeli, D. H. (1987). ‘Matrix management: contradictions and insights’, Californian Management Review, Summer, 29 (4), 126–138.
Larson, E. W. and Gobeli, D. H.(1989). ‘Significance of project management structure on development success’, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 36 (2), 119–125.
Lawrence, P. R. and Lorsch, J. W. (1967). Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration (revised edn 1986), Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Lemley, J. K. (1992). ‘The Channel Tunnel: creating a modern wonder-of-the-world’, PMNetwork, The Professional Magazine of the Project Management Institute, July, 14–22.
Leonard, D. (1995). Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Leonard-Barton, D. (1988). ‘Implementation as mutual adaptation of technology and organization’, Research Policy, 17, 251–267.
Leonard-Barton, D.(1992). ‘Core capabilities and core rigidities: a paradox in managing new product development’, Strategic Management Journal, 13, 111–125.
Lindblom, C. E. (1959). ‘The science of “muddling through”’, Public Administration Review, 19, 79–88.
Lindkvist, L. (2004) ‘Governing project-based firms: promoting market-like processes within hierarchies’, Journal of Management and Governance, 8, 3–25.
Lindkvist, L., Söderlund, J. and Tell, F. (1998) ‘Managing product development projects: on the significance of fountains and deadlines’, Organization Studies, 19 (6), 931–951.
Linx (1997). ETL Internal Newsletter, Issue 28, Ericsson.
Lipschitz, R., Popper, M. and Oz, S. (1996). ‘Building learning mechanisms: the design and implementation of organizational learning mechanisms’, Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 32 (3), 292–305.
Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (1992). ‘The risks of software’, Scientific American, November, 38–43.
Lundin, R. A. and Söderholm, A. (1995). ‘A theory of the temporary organization’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11 (4), 437–455.
Lyytinen, K., Mathiassen, L. and Ropponen, J. (1995). ‘A framework for software risk management’, Paper Presented at the Third European Conference on Information Systems, Athens, Greece, 1–3 June.
MacCrimmon, K. R. (1993). ‘Do firm strategies exist?’, Strategic Management Journal, 14, Winter, 113–130.
March, J. G. (1991). ‘Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning’, Organization Science, 2 (1), 71–87.
March, J. G. and Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations, New York: Wiley.
Marquis, D. G. (1969). ‘Ways of organising projects’, Innovation, 5, 22–33.
Marshak, T. A. (1962). ‘Strategy and organization in a system development project’, in ‘The rate and direction of inventive activity: Economic and social factors’, Conference of the Universities-National Bureau Committee for Economic Research and the Committee of the Social Science Research Council, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Mayntz, R. and Hughes, T. P. (eds.) (1988). The Development of Large Technical Systems, Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.
Metcalfe, J. S. and de Liso, N. (1995). Innovation, Capabilities and Knowledge: the Epistemic Connection, University of Manchester, Department of Economics, mimeo.
Meurling, J. and Jeans, J. (1994). ‘The mobile phone book: The invention of the mobile phone industry’, Ericsson Radio Systems AB, Communications Week International, London.
Middleton, C. J. (1967). ‘How to set up a project organization’, Harvard Business Review, March–April, 73–82.
Miles, R. E. and Snow, C. C. (1986). ‘Organizations: new concepts for new forms’, Californian Management Review, Spring, 28 (3), 62–73.
Miller, R. and Cote, M. (1987). Growing the Next Silicon Valley: A Guide for Successful Regional Planning, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.
Miller, R., Hobday, M., Leroux-Demers, T. and Olleros, X. (1995). ‘Innovation in complex systems industries: the case of flight simulation’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 4 (2), 363–400.
Miller, R. and Lessard, D. R. (2000). The Strategic Management of Large Engineering Projects: Shaping Institutions, Risks, and Governance, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Mintzberg, H. (1979). The Structuring of Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mintzberg, H.(1983). Structures in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mintzberg, H.(1989). Mintzberg on Management: Inside Our Strange World of Organizations, New York: The Free Press.
Mintzberg, H.(1996). ‘Crafting strategy’, in H. Mintzberg and J. B. Quinn, The Strategy Process: Concepts, Contexts and Cases, 3rd edn, New Jersey: Prentice Hall International, Inc., 101–110.
Mintzberg, H.(2004). Managers not MBAs: A Hard Look at the Soft Practice of Managing and Management Development, London: FT Prentice Hall.
Mölleryd, B. G. (1997). ‘The building of a world industry – the impact of entrepreneurship on Swedish mobile telephony’, TELDOK, Stockholm.
Morgan, G. (1986). Images of Organization, London: Sage.
Morgan, G.(1996). Images of Organization, 2nd edn, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Morgan, F., Brady, T. and Davies, A. (1997). The Turnkey Project Start-up Guide, Ericsson publication EN/LZTG 501 R1.
Morris, P. W. G. (1994). The Management of Projects, London: Thomas Telford.
Morris, P. W. G. and Hough, G. H. (1987). The Anatomy of Major Projects: A Study of the Reality of Project Management, Chichester: John Wiley.
Moss, S. (1981). An Economic Theory of Business Strategy, Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Mowery, D. C. and Rosenberg, N. (1982a). ‘Technical change in the commercial aircraft industry, 1925–1975’, in N. Rosenberg, Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 163–177.
Mowery, D. C. and Rosenberg, N. (1982b). ‘The commercial aircraft industry’, in R. Nelson (ed.) Government and Technical Progress: a Cross-Industry Analysis, New York: Pergamon Press.
Mowery, D. C. and Rosenberg, N.(1989). Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mueller, D. C. and Tilton, J. E. (1976). ‘Research and development costs as a barrier to entry’, Canadian Journal of Economics, 2, 570–579.
Mullins, L. J. (1994). Management and Organisational Behaviour, 3rd edn, London: Pitman Publishing.
Nelson, R. R. (1991). ‘Why do firms differ, and how does it matter?’, Strategic Management Journal, 12, 61–74.
Nelson, R. R. and Rosenberg, N. (1993). ‘Technical innovations and national systems’, in R. R. Nelson (ed.) National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis, New York: Oxford University Press.
Nelson, R. R. and Winter, S. G. (1982). An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Nightingale, P. (2000). ‘Economies of scale in experimentation: knowledge and technology in pharmaceutical R&D’, Industrial Corporate Change, 9 (2), 315–359.
Nightingale, P., Brady, T., Davies, A. and Hall, J. (2003). ‘Capacity utilisation revisited: software, control and large technical systems’, Industrial Corporate Change, 12 (3), 477–517.
Nightingale, P. and Poll, R. (2000). ‘Innovation in investment banking: The dynamics of control systems within the Chandlerian firm’, Industrial Corporate Change, 9 (2), 315–359.
Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995). The Knowledge-Creating Company, New York: Oxford University Press.
Obeng, E. (1995). ‘The role of project management in implementing strategy’, in The Financial Times Handbook of Management, London: Pearson Education, 178–193.
Oliva, R. and Kallenberg, R. (2003). ‘Managing the transition from products to services’, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 14 (2), 160–172.
Orlikowski, W. J. (2002). ‘Knowing in practice: enacting a collective capability in distributed organizing’, Organization Science, 13 (3), 249–273.
Orr, J. (1987). ‘Narratives at work: story telling as cooperative diagnostic activity’, Field Service Manager, June, 47–60.
Orr, J.(1990). ‘Talking about machines: An ethnography of a modern job’, doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.
Owen, D. (1997). ‘GEC Alstom in career discussions’, Financial Times, 19 November.
Packendorff, J. (1995). ‘Inquiring into the temporary organization: new directions for project management research’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11 (4), 319–333.
Parnas, D. L. and Clements, P. C. (1986). ‘A rational design process: how and why to fake it’, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-12, February, 251–257.
Paulk, M. C. (1993). ‘Capability maturity model, version 1.1’, IEEE Software, 10 (4), 18–27.
Paulk, M. C.(1995a). ‘The evolution of the SEI's capability maturity model for software’, Software Process: Improvement and Practice, Pilot Issue, 3–15.
Paulk, M. C.(1995b): ‘The rational planning of (software) projects’, Proceedings of the First World Congress for Software Quality, San Francisco, CA, 20–22 June, Section 4.
Pavitt, K. (1990). ‘What we know about the strategic management of technology’, California Management Review, Spring, 16–26.
Pavitt, K.(1994). ‘Key characteristics of large innovating firms’, in M. Dodgson and R. Rothwell (eds.) The Handbook of Industrial Innovation, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Pavitt, K.(2003). ‘Specialization and systems integration: where manufacture and services still meet’, in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 78–91.
Pavitt, K. and Rothwell, R. (1976). ‘A comment on “a dynamic model of process and product innovation”’, OMEGA, the International Journal of Management Science, 4 (4), 375–377.
Peltu, M. (1992). ‘Project process management’, Integration, September, 51–55.
Penrose, E. (1959). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Penrose, E.(1960). ‘The growth of the firm: a case study: the Hercules Powder Company’, Business History Review, 34 (1), Spring.
Penrose, E.(1995). ‘Forward to the third edition’, The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, Oxford University Press.
Peters, T. (1987). Thriving on Chaos: Handbook for a Management Revolution, London: Macmillan.
Petroski, H. (1996). Invention by Design: How Engineers Get From Thought to Thing, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pinto, J. K. and Covin, J. G. (1989). ‘Critical factors in project implementation: a comparison of construction and R&D projects’, Technovation, 9, 49–62.
Pinto, J. K. and Kharbanda, O. P. (1995). ‘Lessons for an accidental profession’, Business Horizons, March–April, 41–50.
Pinto, J. K. and Prescott, J. E. (1988). ‘Variations in critical success factors over the stages in the project life cycle’, Journal of Management, 14 (1), 5–18.
Piore, M. J. and Sabel, C. F. (1984). The Second Industrial Divide, New York: Basic Books.
Pisano, G. (1997). The Development Factory, Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Popper, M. and Lipschitz, R. (1995). Organizational Learning Mechanisms: A Structural/Cultural Approach to Organizational Learning, Haifa, Israel: University of Haifa.
Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, New York: The Free Press.
Porter, M. E.(1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, New York: The Free Press.
Porter, M. E.(1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations, London: Macmillan Press.
Porter, M. E.(1996). ‘What is strategy?’, Harvard Business Review, November–December, 61–78.
Potter, S. and Roy, R. (1996). ‘The development of high speed trains’, 5–76, Innovation: Design, Environment and Strategy: Block 4 Case Studies, Milton Keynes: The Open University.
Prahalad, C. K. (1993). ‘The role of core competencies in the corporation’, Research/Technology Management, November–December, 40–47.
Prahalad, C. K. and Ramaswamy, V. (2000). ‘Co-opting customer competence’, Harvard Business Review, January–February, 79–87.
Prencipe, A. (1997). ‘Technological competencies and product's evolutionary dynamics: a case study from the aero-engine industry’, Research Policy, 25, 1261–1276.
Prencipe, A.(2003). ‘Corporate strategy and systems integration capabilities: managing networks in complex systems industries’, in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 114–132.
Prencipe, A., Davies, A. and Hobday, M. (eds.) (2003). The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Prencipe, A. and Tell, F. (2001). ‘Inter-project learning: processes and outcomes of knowledge codification in project-based firms’, Research Policy, 30, 1373–1394.
Pulford, K., Kuntzmann-Combelles, A. and Shirlaw, S. (1996). A Quantitative Approach to Software Management, Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley.
Quinn, J. B. (1980). Strategies for Change: Logical Incrementalism, Homewook, IL: Irwin.
Quinn, J. B.(1992). Intelligent Enterprise: A Knowledge and Service Based Paradigm for Industry, New York: The Free Press.
Ramo, S. (1969). The Cure for Chaos: Fresh Solutions to Social Problems Through the Systems Approach, New York: David McKay Company.
Rich, B. R. and Janos, L. (1994). Skunk Works: A Personal Memoir of My Years at Lockheed, London: Warner Books.
Richardson, G. B. (1972). ‘The organisation of industry’, Economic Journal, 82, 883–896.
Robertson, D. and Ulrich, K. (1998). ‘Planning for product platforms’, Sloan Management Review, Summer, 19–31.
Rosenberg, N. (1963). ‘Technological change in the machine tool industry, 1840–1910’, The Journal of Economic History, 23 (4), 413–443.
Rosenberg, N.(1976). ‘Marx as a student of technology’, Monthly Review, 28, 56–77.
Rosenberg, N.(1982). ‘Learning by using’, in N. Rosenberg (ed.) Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 120–140.
Rothwell, R. (1992). ‘Successful industrial innovation: critical factors for the 1990s’, R&D Management, 22 (3), 221–239.
Rothwell, R. and Gardiner, P. (1989). ‘The strategic management of re-innovation’, R&D Management, 19 (2), 147–160.
Rout, T. P. (1995). ‘SPICE: a framework for software process assessment’, Software Process: Improvement and Practice, Pilot Issue, 57–66.
Rumelt, R. (1974). Strategy, Structure and Economic Performance, Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sage, A. P. (1981). ‘Systems engineering: fundamental limits and future prospects’, Proceedings of the IEEE, 69 (2), February, 158–166.
Sahal, D. (1985). ‘Technological guideposts and innovation avenues’, Research Policy, 14, 61–82.
Sahlin-Andersson, K. and Söderholm, A. (2002) Beyond Project Management: new perspectives on the temporary-permanent dilemma, Malmö: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Sako, M. (2003). ‘Modularity and outsourcing: the nature of co-evolution of product architecture and organization architecture in the global automotive industry’, in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 229–253.
Sandberg, R. and Werr, A. (2003). ‘The three challenges of corporate consulting’, MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring, 59–66.
Sapolsky, H. M. (1972). The Polaris System Development: Bureaucratic and Programmatic Success in Government, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sapolsky, H. M.(2003). ‘Inventing systems integration’, in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 15–34.
Sapsed, J., Gann, D., Marshall, N. and Salter, A. J. (2005). ‘From here to eternity?: the practice of knowledge transfer in dispersed and co-located project organisations’, Special Issue of European Planning Studies on ‘Location, innovation and knowledge management’, 13, 6.
Sapsed, J. and Salter, A. J. (2004). ‘Postcards from the edge: local communities, global programs and boundary objects’, Organization Studies, 25(9), 1515–1534.
Schön, D. A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner, New York: Basic Books.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1947). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Senge, P. M. (1990). ‘The leader's new work: building learning organizations’, Sloan Management Review, 7, Fall, 7–23.
Senge, P. M.(1999). The Fifth Discipline, New York: Doubleday.
Shenhar, A. J. (1993). ‘From low- to high-tech project management’, R&D Management, 23 (3), 199–214.
Shenhar, A. J.(1994a). ‘Systems engineering management: a framework for the development of a multidisciplinary discipline’, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 24 (2), February, 327–332.
Shenhar, A. J.(1994b). ‘A new conceptual framework for modern project management’, in T. M. Khalil and B. A. Bayraktar (eds.) Management of Technology, IV, Institute of Industrial Engineers.
Shenhar, A. J., Dvir, D. and Levy, O. (1994). ‘Mapping the dimensions of project success’, in T. M. Khalil and B. A. Bayraktar (eds.) Management of Technology, IV, Institute of Industrial Engineers.
Shepherd, C. and Ahmed, P. K. (2000). ‘From product innovation to solutions innovation: a new paradigm for competitive advantage’, European Journal of Innovation Management, 2, 100–106.
Simon, H. A. (1955). ‘A behavioural model of rational choice’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 69, 99–118.
Simon, H. A.(1993). ‘Strategies and organizational evolution’, Strategic Management Journal, 14, Winter, 131–142.
Slywotzky, A. J. (1996). Value Migration: How to Think Several Moves Ahead of the Competition, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Slywotzky, A. J. and Morrison, D. J. (1998). The Profit Zone: How Strategic Business Design Will Lead You to Tomorrow's Profits, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Smith, D. J. (1994). ‘Software quality and reliability’, in D. Lock (ed.) Gower Handbook of Quality Management, 2nd edn, Hampshire: Gower.
Starbuck, W. H. (1983). ‘Organizations as action generators’, American Sociological Review, 48, 91–102.
Starbuck, W. H.(1985). ‘Acting first and thinking later: theory versus reality in strategic change’, in M. Pennings and Associates, Organizational Strategy and Change: New Views on Formulating and Implementing Strategic Decisions, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 336–372.
Stata, R. (1989). ‘Organisational learning – the key to management innovation’, Sloan Management Review, 63, Spring, 63–74.
Stinchcombe, A. L. and Heimer, C. A. (1983). Organization Theory and Project Management, Oslo: Norwegian University Press.
Sturgeon, T. (2002). ‘Modular production networks: a new American model of industrial organization’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 11 (3), 451–496.
Summerton, J. (ed.) (1994). Changing Large Technical Systems, Oxford: Westview Press.
Sydow, J., Lindkvist, L. and DeFillippi, R. (2004). ‘Project-based organizations, embeddedness and repositories of knowledge: editorial’, Organization Studies, 25 (9), 1475–1489.
Taylor, F. W. (1911). Principles and Methods of Scientific Management, New York: Harper and Row.
Teece, D. J. (1986). ‘Profiting from technological innovation: implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy’, Research Policy, 15, 285–305.
Teece, D. J.(1996). ‘Firm organization, industrial structure, and technological innovation’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 31, 193–224.
Teece, D. J. and Pisano, G. (1994). ‘The dynamic capabilities of firms: an introduction’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3, 537–556.
Teece, D. J., Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. (1997). ‘Dynamic capabilities and strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 18 (7), 509–533.
Teece, D. J., Rumelt, R., Dosi, G. and Winter, S. (1994). ‘Understanding corporate coherence: theory and evidence’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 23, 1–30.
Tidd, J., Bessant, J. and Pavitt, K. (1997). Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Toffler, A. (1970). Future Shock, New York: Bantam Books.
Toffler, A.(1985). The Adaptive Corporation, London: Pan Books.
Turner, R. J. (1999). The Handbook of Project-Based Management: Improving the Processes for Achieving Strategic Success, 2nd edn, London: McGraw-Hill.
Turner, R. J. and Müller, R. (2003). ‘On the nature of the project as a temporary organization’, International Journal of Project Management, 21, 1–8.
Tushman, M. and Anderson, P. (1986). ‘Technological discontinuities and organizational environments’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 439–465.
Tyson, S. and Jackson, T. (1992). The Essence of Organizational Behaviour, New York: Prentice Hall.
Utterback, J. M. (1994). Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation: How Companies Can Seize Opportunities in the Face of Technological Change, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Utterback, J. M. and Abernathy, W. J. (1975). ‘A dynamic model of process and product innovation’, OMEGA, The International Journal of Management Science, 3 (6), 639–656.
Utterback, J. M. and Suarez, F. F. (1993). ‘Innovation, competition, and industry structure’, Research Policy, 22 (1), 1–21.
Vernon, R. (1960). Metropolis 1985: an Interpretation of the Findings of the New York Metropolitan Region Study, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Vernon, R.(1966). ‘International investment and international trade in the product cycle’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 80, 190–207.
Vincenti, W. G. (1990). What Engineers Know and How They Know It, Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
von Hippel, E. (1988). The Sources of Innovation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Walker, W., Graham, M. and Harbor, B. (1988). ‘From components to integrated systems: technological diversity and integration between the military and civilian sectors’, in P. Gummett and J. Reppy (eds.) The Relations Between Defence and Civil Technologies, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Welch, J. with Bryne, J. A. (2001). Jack: What I've Learned Leading a Great Company and Great People, London: Headline Book Publishing.
Wernerfelt, B. (1984). ‘A resource-based view of the firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171–180.
Williamson, O. E. (1971). ‘The vertical integration of production: market failure considerations’, American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 61, 112–123.
Williamson, O. E.(1975). Markets and Hierarchies, New York: The Free Press.
Winch, G. (1997). ‘Thirty years of project management. What have we learned?’, presented at the British Academy of Management, Aston University.
Wise, R. and Baumgartner, P. (1999). ‘Go downstream: the new profit imperative in manufacturing’, Harvard Business Review, September–October, 133–141.
Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T. and Roos, D. (1991). The Machine that Changed the World, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Womack, J. P. and Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Woodward, J. (1958). Management and Technology, London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office.
Woodward, J.(1965). Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice, 2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yourdon, E. (1978). Structured Walkthroughs, 2nd edn, New York: Yourdon Press.
Zuboff, S. (1988). In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power, Oxford: Heinemann.