1 - States and their citizens abroad  pp. 1-23

States and their citizens abroad

By Laurie A. Brand

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While scholars remain divided as to whether population movement in the post 1945 period in fact surpasses the magnitudes of earlier periods, the issues of who, why, when, how, and to what effect people move from farm to city, town to town, or country to country have received increasing scholarly and policy attention in recent years. Researchers across disciplines have sought to answer these and related questions, focusing on a variety of levels and units of analysis, and drawing upon myriad theoretical frameworks and empirical tools. While some have looked at the micro-level questions of individual decisions to migrate and their impact, often emphasizing economic cost–benefit calculations or push-pull factors, others have posed community or societal-level questions, as they have sought to understand the cultural impact of immigration, various historical aspects of the immigrant experience, or the possibilities for integration or assimilation in the new host country. In the fields of political science and international relations, explanations have often been sought for governmental response to immigration, with some analysts locating their explanations at the level of the state, others in the international political economy, and still others in changes in international norms.

If migration or immigration studies have been remarkable in terms of the diversity of treatment and disciplinary interest noted above, they have, conversely, been, in their majority, surprisingly limited geographically: most of the work that has been done on the question of the permeability of borders, border controls, citizenship and migration or immigration (as opposed to work solely on citizenship) has dealt with Western Europe and the United States.


Reference Title: Bibliography

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Awraq ʿAmal wa Munaqashat al-Muʾtamar al-Awwal l-il-Mughtaribin al-Urdunniyyin (Working Papers and Discussions of the First Conference for Jordanian Expatriates) (Amman, 1985).
Awraq ʿAmal wa Munaqashat al-Muʾtamar al-Thani l-il-Mughtaribin al-Urdunniyyin, (Working Papers and Discussions of the Second Conference for Jordanian Expatriates) (Amman, 1987).
Harfush, Nabil. Al-Hudur al-Lubnani f-il-ʿAlam, Volume I (Juniyyah: Dar Kurayyam, 1974); Volumes II and III (Beirut: Dar al-Funun, n.d.).
Al-Jumhuriyyah al-Lubnaniyyah, Majlis al-Nuwwab. al-Dawr al-Tashriʿi al-Thani ʿashr, al-ʿAqd al-ʿAdi al-Thani, 1992, Mahdar al-Jalsah al-Thalithah, 9–10 November 1992.
Al-Jumhuriyyah al-Lubnaniyyah, Majlis al-Nuwwab.al-Dawr al-Tashriʿ i al-Thaniʿashr, al-ʿAqd al-ʿAdi al-Awwal, 16 March 1993.
Al-Kitab al-Abyad: Wizarat al-Mughtaribin – matlab wa-ʿathirat wa-baramij ʿamal (Beirut: Ministry of Expatriates, 1994).
Al-Lajnah al-Qitaʿiyyah l-il-Tanmiyyah al-Ijtimaʿiyyah w-al-Tadamun al-Watani, Wizarat al-Shuʾun al-Ijtimaʿiyyah. Mutabiʿat Tanfiz al-Mukhattat al-Tasiʿ (1997–98) (Tunis, 1998).
Majlis al-Inmaʿ w-al-ʾIʿmar. Mashruʿ al-ʾIʿmar (Beirut: n.p., 1978).
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah, Majlis al-ʾIʿ mar al-Urdunni. Barnamij al-Sanawat al-Khamis l-il-Tanmiyah al-Iqtisadiyyah, 1962–67 (n.p., n.d.).
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah, Majlis al-ʾIʿ mar al-Urdunni.Barnamij al-Sanawat al-Sabiʿl-il-Tanmiyyah al-Iqtisadiyyah, 1964–1970 (n.p., 1965).
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah, Al-Majlis al-Qawmi l-il-Takhtit. Khittat al-Tanmiyah al-Thulathiyyah, 1973–75 (n.p., n.d.).
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Salamah, Mazen. “Al-Fashl Yulahiq Muʾtamarat al-Mughtaribin,” Al-Urdunn al-Jadid 10 Spring 1988: 70–73.
Wizarat al-ʿAmal (w-al-Tanmiyah al-Ijtimaʿiyyah). Al-Taqrir al-Sanawi. (Amman: Daʾirat al-Abhath), 1980–97.
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A dossier of brochures from La Fondation Hassan II describing its activities.
L'Action (Tunisia)
Al-ʿAlam (Morocco)
Al-Anbaʾ (Morocco)
L'Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord
Al-ʿAmal (Tunisia)
Al-Anwar (Lebanon)
Al-Bayan (Morocco)
Al-Bayane (Morocco-French)
Billedi (Tunisia)
Les Cahiers de L'Est (Lebanon)
Daily Star (Lebanon)
Demain (Morocco)
Al-Diyar (Lebanon)
L'Etoile du Nord (Morocco, Tangiers)
Al-Hadath (Tunisia)
Al-Hawadith (Lebanon)
Al-Hurriyyah (Tunisia)
Al-ʾIʿlam (Tunisia)
Al-Ittihad al-Ishtiraki (Morocco)
Jeune Afrique (Paris)
Jordan Times
Le Journal (Morocco)
Lettre d'Information du Ministère de la Communauté Marocaine à l'Etranger
Libération (Morocco)
Al-Liwaʾ (Lebanon)
Maghreb Resources Humaines
Al-Maghrib (Morocco)
Le Matin du Sahara (Morocco)
Al-Munʿatif (Morocco)
Al-Nahar (Lebanon)
L'Opinion (Morocco)
El País (Spain)
Parfum du Pays (Tunisia)
La Presse (Tunisia)
Al-Raʾy (Jordan)
Réalités (Tunisia)
Le Renouveau (Tunisia)
Rivages (Morocco)
Risalat al-Ummah (Morocco)
Al-Sabah (Tunisia)
Al-Safir (Lebanon)
Al-Sahara (Morocco)
Al-Sayyad (Lebanon)
Al-Shiraʾ (Morocco)
Le Temps (Tunisia)
La Vie Economique (Morocco)
Al-Wahdah (Tunisia)
Al-Wasat (Lebanon)
http://www.Emigrants.gov.lb (the Website of the Lebanese Ministry of Emigrants)


Reference Type: bibliography

De Bel-Air, Françoise. “Expression, émigration, état rentier. Migration et politique en Jordanie depuis 1973.” Paper presented at the Third Mediterranean Social and Political Research Meeting, Florence, 20–24 March 2002, Mediterranean Programme, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute.
Hamdan, Kamal. “Lebanon: Emigration Policies, Trends and Mechanisms” [Lubnan: Siyasat al-Hijrah wa-Tayyaratuha wa-Anthimatuha]. Paper presented at the ILO/UNDP Seminar on Migration Policies in the Arab Labor-Sending Countries, Cairo, 2–4 May 1992.
Hernandez, Juan, Omar de la Torre and Julie M. Weise. “Mexico's New Public Policies for its Citizens Abroad.” Paper presented at the Metropolis Conference, Rotterdam, 28 November 2001.
Khasawneh, Saleh. “Labor Migration in Jordan: Policies, Flows, Organization.” Paper presented at the ILO/UNDP Seminar on Migration Policies in the Arab Labor-Sending Countries, Cairo, 2–4 May 1992.
Michalak, Laurence. “A Comparison of Morocco and Tunisian Labor Migration Policies in the New Global Economy.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Middle East Studies Association, Phoenix, Arizona, 19–22 November 1994.
Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger. “Nadwah Wataniyyah l-il-Tunisiyyin f-il-Kharij, Waraqat ʿAmal Lajnah: al-Ajyal al-Jadidah l-il-Hijrah bayna al-Muhafizah ʿala al-Hawiyyah w-al-Indimaj fi-Buldan al-Iqamah” (7 August 2002).
Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger.“Nadwah Wataniyyah l-il-Tunisiyyin f-il-Kharij, Waraqat ʿAmal Lajnah: Taʾthirat Ahdath 11/9/2001 ʿala Wadʿ al-Muhajirin bi-Buldan al-Iqamah” (7 August 2002).
Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger.“La politique d'encadrement des Tunisiens à l'étranger.”
Raad, Milad Raad. “The Participation of Lebanese Emigrants in the Legislative Elections of Lebanon.” Master's thesis, American University of Beirut, 1998.
Take, Khaled. “The Role of Lebanese Emigrants in the National Development of Lebanon.” Master's thesis, American University of Beirut, 1998.

Reference Title: INTERVIEWS

Reference Type: bibliography

ʿAbd al-Jabir, Taysir. Former Minister of Labor, Commissioner of the Jordan Securities Commission, Amman, 12 July 1999.
Abul-Hisn, Latif. Former Ambassador to Australia, Adjunct Professor, American University of Beirut, Beirut, 19 December 2002.
Abu-Odeh, ʿAdnan. Former Minister of Information, Court Chamberlain and Advisor to King Husayn and King ʿAbdallah II, Amman, 15 May 2003.
Ahaidar, Marzuk. Former MRE parliamentary representative, Tangier, 15 July 2002.
Amiyar, Jamal. Journalist and publisher of Les Nouvelles du Nord (Tangier), Tangier, 25 June 2000.
al-ʿAql, Jihad. Section head for Emigrés and Emigration, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates, Beirut, 28 October 2002.
Baouab, ʿAbdelmajid. Director-General of Consular Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tunis, 10 August 2002.
Belguendouz, Abdelkrim. Professor, Faculty of Law, Mohammed V University, Rabat, 11 June 2002.
Ben Feguir, Khaled. Director-Adjoint, Tunisian National Radio, Tunis, 12 August 2002.
Bouzaidi, ʿAbd al-ʿAziz. Responsible for TREs, Rassemblement constitutionnel démocratique, Tunis, 9 August 2002.
Cassarino, Jean-Pierre. International Migration Organization representative with the Fondation Hassan II Observatoire project, Rabat, 28 May 2002.
al-Ghazi, ʿAkka. Former MRE parliamentary representative, Rabat, 19 July 2002.
Ghurrah, Edward. Former Ambassador and former Director-General of the Mudiriyyat al-Mughtaribin in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beirut, 20 November 2002.
Gueddara, ʿAbd al-Moneim. Partenariat Pole, Fondation Hassan II, Rabat, June 2000.
Harfush, Nabil. Former Secretary-General of the World Lebanese Cultural Union, Beirut, 6 November 2002.
Hart, Laurence. Chargé de Programme, International Migration Organization, Tunis, 9 August 2002.
Ismaʿil, Fouad. Director of Marketing, Banque Populaire (al-Bank al-Chaabi), Tangiers, 28 June 2000.
El-Jemaʿi, Beshir. Director-General, Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger, Tunis, 9 August 2002.
Jumʿah, Haytham. Director General, Ministry of Expatriates, Beirut, 21 October 2002.
Kalaʿi, Mondher. Director of Programs, Channel 7 (Tunisia's satellite channel), Tunis, 12 August 2002.
Khamlichi, Farideh. Ministry of Human Rights, Rabat, 13 June 2002.
Khiddar, Rachid. Head of Istiqlal Committee on MREs, Rabat, 3 July 2002.
Labaki, Butros. Emigration expert and Chairman, Lebanese Institute for Economic and Social Development, Beirut, 11 November 2002.
Lahlou, Rachid. Former Ambassador and MRE parliamentary representative, Rabat, 5 July 2002.
El-Mahdaoui, Kamel. Bureau of European Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rabat, 20 June 2002.
Messaouden, Djellal. Communications Pole, Fondation Hassan II, Rabat, 30 June 2000.
Rahahla, Naseem. National Competitiveness Team, Ministry of Planning, Amman, 23 June 1999 and 24 July 2000.
Snoussi, ʿAdel. Agence Tunisienne pour la Coopération Technique, Tunis, 12 August 2002.
Tabbara, Riadh. Former Ambassador to the United States, demographer and migration expert, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Beirut, 12 November 2002.
Tlili, Fathi. President, Union des Travailleurs Immigrés Tunisiens, Tunis, 14 August 2002.
Trabelsi, Mohammed. Assistant Secretary-General for International Relations and Immigration, Union Général des Travailleurs Tunisiens (UGTT), Tunis, 14 August 2002.
al-Turk, Fuʾad. Ambassador and former Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates, Beirut, 7 October 2002.
Yusuf, ʿAli. General-Director, Jordanian Businessmen's Association, Amman, 28 June 1999.
Zahi, Abderrahman. Director-General, Fondation Hassan II, Rabat, 21 June 2000.