1 - States and their citizens abroad  pp. 1-23

States and their citizens abroad

By Laurie A. Brand

Image View Previous Chapter Next Chapter



While scholars remain divided as to whether population movement in the post 1945 period in fact surpasses the magnitudes of earlier periods, the issues of who, why, when, how, and to what effect people move from farm to city, town to town, or country to country have received increasing scholarly and policy attention in recent years. Researchers across disciplines have sought to answer these and related questions, focusing on a variety of levels and units of analysis, and drawing upon myriad theoretical frameworks and empirical tools. While some have looked at the micro-level questions of individual decisions to migrate and their impact, often emphasizing economic cost–benefit calculations or push-pull factors, others have posed community or societal-level questions, as they have sought to understand the cultural impact of immigration, various historical aspects of the immigrant experience, or the possibilities for integration or assimilation in the new host country. In the fields of political science and international relations, explanations have often been sought for governmental response to immigration, with some analysts locating their explanations at the level of the state, others in the international political economy, and still others in changes in international norms.

If migration or immigration studies have been remarkable in terms of the diversity of treatment and disciplinary interest noted above, they have, conversely, been, in their majority, surprisingly limited geographically: most of the work that has been done on the question of the permeability of borders, border controls, citizenship and migration or immigration (as opposed to work solely on citizenship) has dealt with Western Europe and the United States.

1

Reference Title: Bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: SOURCES IN ENGLISH, FRENCH AND SPANISH

Reference Type: bibliography

Abou Fadel, Henri, Jean Malha and Ibrahim Kaidy (eds.). Lebanon: Its Treaties and Agreements (Beirut: Maktab Khayyat, 1966).
Abou Fadel, Henri, Jean Malha and Ibrahim Kaidy (eds.).La République Libanaise et ses relations extérieures: traités et conventions internationaux conclus par la République Libanaise 1966–1972, 2 vols. (Beirut: Librairie du Liban, 1972).
Abu-Odeh, Adnan. Jordanians, Palestinians, and the Hashemite Kingdom in the Middle East Peace Process (Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace, 1999).
Alouane, Youssef. Droits de l'homme et émigrés tunisiens en Europe (Tunis: SAGEP, 1992).
L'Annuaire de l'émigration marocaine, ed. Kacem Basfao and Hinde Taarji (Rabat: Fondation Hassan II pour les Marocains Résidant à l'Etranger, 1994).
Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).
Arango, Joanquin, and Martin Baldwin-Edwards. Immigrants and the Informal Economy in Southern Europe (New York: Frank Cass, 1999).
L'Association Marocaine d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Migrations. La migration clandestine: enjeux et perspectives (Rabat: Papeterie Al Karamah, 2000).
Baccar, Tawfic, and Ali Sanaa. “La genèse des politiques d'emploi et d'émigration en Tunisie,” in Emploi, émigration, éducation et population (Tunis: Ministère du Plan et du Développement, 1990).
Barkin, J. Samuel, and Bruce Cronin. “The State and the Nation: Changing Norms and the Rules of Sovereignty in International Relations,” International Organization 48 (1) Winter 1994: 107–30.
Basch, Linda, Nina Glick Schiller and Cristina Szanton Blanc. Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States (Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach, 1994).
Bauböck, Rainer. Transnational Citizenship: Membership and Rights in International Migration (Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar, 1994).
Bauböck, Rainer. “Towards a Political Theory of Migrant Transnationalism,” International Migration Review 37 (2) Fall 2003: 700–23.
Beau, Nicolas, and Jean-Pierre Tuquoi. Notre ami Ben Ali (Paris: Editions de la Découverte, 1999).
Beaugé, Gilbert, and Friedmann Buttner. Les migrations dans le monde arabe (Paris: CNRS, 1991).
Belguendouz, Abdelkrim. La communauté marocaine à l'étranger et la nouvelle marche marocaine (Kenitra: Boukili Impressions, 1999).
Belguendouz, Abdelkrim. Les marocains à l'étranger: citoyens et partenaires (Kenitra: Boukili Impressions, 1999).
Belguendouz, Abdelkrim. L'ahrig du Maroc: l'Espagne et l'UE, plus de Europe … securitaire (Kenitra: Boukili Impressions, 2002).
Bendourou, Omar. Le régime politique marocain (Rabat: Dar al-Qalam, 2000).
Bennouna, Mehdi. Héros sans gloire: échec d'une révolution, 1963–73 (Casablanca: Tarik Editions, 2002).
Bensimon, Agnes. Hassan et les juifs: histoire d'une émigration secrète (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1991).
Biersteker, Thomas J., and Cynthia Weber (eds.). State Sovereignty as Social Construct (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Boehning, Roger. “The ILO and the New UN Convention on Migrant Workers: the Past and Future,” International Migration Review 25 (4): 698–709.
Boubakri, Hassan. “Le Maghreb et les nouvelles configurations migratoires internationales: mobilités et réseaux,” Correspondances 68 (October–December 2001): 8–15.
Boukhari, Ahmed. Le Secret: Ben Barka et le Maroc, un ancien agent des services spéciaux parle (Neuilly-sur-Seine: Editions Michel Lafou, 2002).
Bourchachen, Jamal. Statistiques sur la migration internationale dans les pays mediterranéens: rapport de mission Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie, Eurostate Working Papers, Population et conditions sociales 3/1999/E/n11 (n.p.: European Commission, 1999).
Brand, Laurie A. Palestinians in the Arab World: Institution Building and the Search for State (New York: Columbia, 1988).
Brand, Laurie A.Jordan's Inter-Arab Relations: The Political Economy of Alliance Making (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994).
Brand, Laurie A.“Palestinians and Jordanians: A Crisis of Identity,” Journal of Palestine Studies 24/4 (96) 1995: 46–61.
Braziel, Jana Evans, and Anita Mannur. Theorizing Diaspora (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003).
Brettell, Caroline, and James F. Hollifield (eds.). Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines (New York: Routledge, 2000).
Brubaker, William Rogers. Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).
Brubaker, William Rogers. “Comments on ‘Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States,’” International Migration Review 24 (4) winter 1995: 903–8.
Brubaker, William Rogers (ed.). Immigration and the Politics of Citizenship in Europe and North America (New York: University Press of America, 1989).
Butenschon, Nils A., Uri Davis and Manuel Hassassian (eds.). Citizenship and the State in the Middle East: Approaches and Applications (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2000).
Buzan, Barry, Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde. Security: a New Framework for Analysis (Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 1998).
Carlsnaes, Walter, et al. (eds.). Handbook of International Relations (Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2002).
Cassarino, Jean-Pierre. Tunisian New Entrepreneurs and their Past Experiences of Migration in Europe: Resource Mobilization, Networks, and Hidden Disaffection (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2000).
Castles, Stephen. Here for Good: Western Europe's New Ethnic Minorities (London: Pluto Press, 1984).
Castles, Stephen, and Mark Miller. The Age of Migration: International Population Movement in the Modern World (London: Macmillan, 1998).
Centre de Documentation Tunisie-Maghreb. La communauté maghrebine immigrée en France et ses perspectives d'insertion dans l'Europe de 1993 (Tunis: CDTM, 1990).
Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (CERES). Migration internationale, contenu – effets – enjeux: cas de la Tunisie, Série Géographie 16 (Tunis: Cahiers du CERES, 1996).
CERES and Communauté Economique Européenne (CEE). Analyse des mouvements migratoires dans le sud et le sud-est du basin mediterranéen en direction de la CEE: le cas de la Tunisie (Tunis: CERES, 1992).
Chattou, Zoubir. Migrations marocaines en Europe: le paradoxe des itinéraires (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1998).
Cohen, Robin. Global Diasporas: An Introduction (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997).
Cornelius, Wayne A., Philip L. Martin and James F. Hollifield (eds.). Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994).
Davis, Uri. Citizenship and the State: A Comparative Study of Citizenship Legislation in Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Syria and Lebanon (Reading: Ithaca Press, 1997).
Discours et interviews de S. M. le Roi Hassan II (Rabat: Ministère de la Communication, 1998).
Dowty, Alan. Closed Borders: The Contemporary Assault on Freedom of Movement (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).
El-Khazen, Farid. The Communal Pact of National Identities: The Making and Politics of the 1943 National Pact (Oxford: Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1991).
Fellat, Fadlallah Mohammed. “Le Maroc et son émigration,” in L'annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord, Volume XXXIV (Paris: CNRS, 1995), 981–92.
Feldblum, Miriam. Reconstructing Citizenship: The Politics of Nationality Reform and Immigration in Contemporary France (Albany: State University Press, 1999).
Finnemore, Martha. “Norms, Culture and World Politics: Insights from Sociology's Institutionalism,” International Organization 50 (2) spring 1996: 325–47.
Fitzgerald, David. Negotiating Extra-Territorial Citizenship: Mexican Migration and the Transnational Politics of Community, CCIS Monograph 2 (La Jolla: University of California, San Diego, Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, 2000).
Freeman, Gary. “Migration Policy and Politics in the Receiving States,” International Migration Review 26 (4) winter 1992: 1144–67.
Freeman, Gary. “Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States,” International Migration Review 29 (4) winter 1995: 881–902.
Freeman, Gary. “Rejoinder,” International Migration Review 29 (4) winter 1995: 909–13.
Garcia Griego, Manuel. “The Importation of Mexican Contract Laborers to the United States, 1942–1964,” in David G. Gutierrez (ed.), Between Two Worlds: Mexican Immigrants in the United States (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1996): 45–85.
Gemayel, Pierre. “Libanais de l'étranger: le Congrès des Emigrés,” Cahiers de l'Est 2 1945: 171–73.
Gildas, Simon. L'éspace des travailleurs tunisiens en France: structures et fonctionnement d'un champ migratoire international (Poitiers: l'Université de Poitiers, 1979).
Goytisolo, Juan, and Sami Nair. El peaje de la vida: integración o rechazo de la emigración en España (Ediciones El País: Aguilar, 2001).
Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches appliquées de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, “Etude des mouvements migratoires du Maroc vers la Communauté Européenne. Résumé du rapport final.” Etude pour le compte de la Commission des Communautés Européennes, 5 January 1992.
Guarnizo, Luis Eduardo. “The Rise of Transnational Social Formations: Mexican and Dominican State Responses to Transnational Migration,” Political Power and Social Theory 12 1998: 45–94.
Guarnizo, Luis Eduardo. “The Economics of Transnational Living,” International Migration Review 37 (3) Fall 2003: 666–99.
Guarnizo, Luis Eduardo, Arturo Ignacio Sanchez and Elizabeth M. Roach. “Mistrust, Fragmented Solidarity, and Transnational Migration: Columbians in New York City and Los Angeles,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (2) March 1999: 367–96.
Hall, Rodney Bruce. National Collective Identity: Social Constructs and International Systems (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999).
Hanagan, Michael, and Charles Tilly (eds.). Extending Citizenship, Reconfiguring States (New York: Roman and Littlefield, 1999).
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Ministry of Planning. Five Year Plan for Economic and Social Development, 1986–1990 (Amman: National Press, n.d.).
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, National Planning Council. Five Year Plan for Economic and Social Development 1981–1985 (Amman: Royal Scientific Society Press, n.d.).
Hollifield, James F. Immigrants, Markets and States: The Political Economy of Postwar Europe (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).
Hourani, Albert, and Nadim Shehadi (eds.). The Lebanese in the World: A Century of Emigration (London: I. B. Tauris, 1992).
Humphrey, Michael. Islam, Multiculturalism and Transnationalism: From the Lebanese Diaspora (London: Center for Lebanese Studies and I. B. Tauris, 1998).
Hurewitz, J. C. The Middle East and North Africa in World Politics: A Documentary Reader (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979, 2nd edn.).
Institut de Recherche sur le Maghreb Contemporain. L'étranger: Actes des Journées d'études organisées dans le cadre du séminaire annuel de l'IRMC “Identités et territoires: les catégorisations du social,” Tunis, 16–17 fevrier 2002 (Tunis: IRMC, 2002).
International Migration Organization (OIM). Rapport final de l'atelier sur La migration tunisienne en Europe: enjeux actuels et futurs (Tunis: OIM, 2002).
Interviews de M. le Ministre Rafiq Haddoui, 1991–1993. Ministère des Affaires de la Communauté Marocaine à l'Etranger. Work produced by Mme. Alaoui Noufissa (photocopy, n.p., n.d.).
Ireland, Patrick R. The Policy of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Itzigsohn, José. “Immigration and the Boundaries of Citizenship: The Institutions of Immigrants' Political Transnationalism,” International Migration Review 34 (4) Winter 2000: 1126–54.
Itzigsohn, José, Carlos Doré Cabral, Esther Hernández Medina and Obed Vázquez. “Mapping Dominican Transnationalism: Narrow and Broad Transnational Practices,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (2) March 1999: 316–39.
Jacobson, David. Rights Across Borders: Immigration and the Decline of Citizenship (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).
Jones-Correa, Michael. “Under Two Flags: Dual Nationality in Latin America and Its Consequences for Naturalization in the United States,” International Migration Review 35 (4) Winter 2001: 997–1029.
Joppke, Christian. Immigration and the Nation-State: The United States, Germany and Great Britain (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Kennedy-Brenner, Carliene. Les travailleurs étrangers et les politiques d'immigration: le cas de la France (Paris: Centre de Développement de l'Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Economiques, 1989).
Kepel, Gilles. Allah in the West: Islamic Movements in America and Europe. Trans. by Susan Milner (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997).
Khader, Bichara, and Adnan Badran (eds.). The Economic Development of Jordan (London: Croom Helm, 1987).
Khagram, Sanjeev, James V. Riker and Kathryn Sikkink (eds.). Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks and Norms (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002).
Kharoufi, Moustafa. “Les effets de l'émigration sur les sociétés de départ au Maghreb: nouvelles données, nouvelles approches,” an article from Correspondances, bulletin scientifique de l'IRMC, from the website of l'Institut de Recherche sur le Maghreb Contemporain: www.irmcmaghreb.org/corres/textes/karoufi.htm.
Khater, Akram Fouad. Inventing Home: Emigration, Gender, and the Middle Class in Lebanon, 1870–1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).
Kingdom of Morocco, Prime Minister, Ministry Attached to the Prime Minister's Office in Charge of Planning, Directorate of Planning. Orientation Plan for Economic and Social Development, 1988–92 (Mohammedia: Imprimerie de Fedala, 1988).
Kingdom of Morocco, Royal Cabinet, Economic Coordination and Planning Division. Three-Year Plan, 1965–67 (Imprimerie Nationale, 1965).
Koslowski, Rey. Migrants and Citizens: Demographic Change in the European State System (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000).
Krasner, Stephen D. “Sovereignty: An Institutional Perspective,” Comparative Political Studies 21 (1) April 1988: 66–93.
Krasner, Stephen D.Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999).
Labaki, Boutros. “L'émigration depuis la fin des guerres à l'intérieure du Liban (1990–1998),” Travaux et Jours 61 spring 1998: 81–142.
Labaki, Boutros, and Khalil Abou Rjeily. Bilan des guerres du Liban, 1975–1990 (Paris: l'Harmattan, 1993).
Laguerre, M. S. “State, Diaspora and Transnational Politics: Haiti Reconceptualized,” Millennium Journal of International Studies 28 (3) 1999: 633–51.
Levitt, Peggy. “Transnational Migration: taking stock and future directions,” Global Networks 1 (3) 2001: 195–216.
López-García, Bernabé. Atlas de la inmigración magrebí en España. Taller de Estudios Internacionales Mediterraneos (Madrid: Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales, Dirección General de Migraciones. Observatorio Permanente de la Inmigración, 1996).
Mahler, Sara J. “Constructing International Relations: The Role of Transnational Migrants and Other Non-state Actors,” Identities 7 (2) 2000: 197–232.
Marshall, T. H. Class, Citizenship and Social Development (New York: Doubleday, 1964).
McMurray, David A. In and Out of Morocco: Smuggling and Migration in a Frontier Boomtown (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001).
Menassa, Gabriel. Pour une rénovation économique libanaise avec la collaboration du Liban d'outre mer (Beirut: Editions de la Société Libanaise d'Economie Politique, 1950).
Migration internationale et changements sociaux dans le Maghreb, International Colloquium, Hammamet–Tunisia, 21–25 June 1993 (Tunis: Université de Tunis I, 1997).
Moannack, Georges. “Libanais de l'étranger: point de vue d'un émigré,” Cahiers de l'Est 4 1946: 176–86.
Nielsen, Jørgen S. Muslims in Western Europe (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992).
Nielsen, Jørgen S.Toward a European Islam (New York: St. Martins, 1999).
Norton, Augustus Richard. Amal and the Shiʿa: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987).
L'Office de la Formation Professionnelle et de l'Emploi. L'Office de la Formation Professionnelle et de l'Emploi, brochure (n.d, n.p).
L'Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger. Compilation of press articles on the “Séminaire Nationale des Travailleurs Tunisiens à l'Etranger,” 1988 and 1989.
Ögelman, Nedim. “Documenting and Explaining the Persistence of Homeland Politics among Germany's Turks,” International Migration Review 37 (1) Spring 2003: 163–93.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Trends in International Migration (Paris: OECD Publications, 1999).
Østergaard-Nielsen, Eva. “The Politics of Migrants' Transnational Political Practices,” International Migration Review 37 (3) Fall 2003: 760–86.
Petran, Tabitha. The Struggle Over Lebanon (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1987).
Philpott, Daniel. Revolutions in Sovereignty: How Ideas Shaped Modern International Relations (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).
Portes, Alejandro. “Conclusion: Towards a New World – the Origins and Effects of Transnational Activities,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (2) March 1999: 463–77.
Portes, Alejandro, Luis E. Guarnizo and Patricia Landolt. “The Study of Transnationalism: Pitfalls and Promise of an Emergent Research Field,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (2) March 1999: 217–37.
Pries, Ludger (ed.). New Transnational Social Spaces: International Migration and Transnational Companies in the Early Twenty-first Century (New York: Routledge, 2001).
Public Culture 8 1996 (special issue on “Cities and Citizenship”).
Rabbath, Edmond. La formation politique du Liban politique et constitutionnel (Beirut: Librairie Orientale, 1986).
Ramadan, Tariq. To Be a Muslim in Europe (Leicester: Islamic Foundation, 1999).
Republic of Tunisia. Plan for Economic and Social Development, 1982–1986, Volume I (Tunis, n.d.).
République Libanaise, Ministère du Plan. Plan sexennal de développement 1972–1977 (n.p., n.d.).
République Tunisienne, Plan de développement économique et social, 1967–1972, rapport de synthèse, Volume I (Tunis, n.d.).
République Tunisienne,Plan de développement économique et social, 1973–1976 (Tunis, n.d.).
République Tunisienne,Plan de développement économique et social, 1977–1981 (Tunis, n.d.).
République Tunisienne,Septième plan de développement économique et social, 1987–91 (Tunis, n.d.).
République Tunisienne,Huitième plan de développement, 1992–1996 (Tunis, 1992).
République Tunisienne,Neuvième plan de développement, 1997–2001, Volume II, Continue sectoriel (Tunis, 1997).
République Tunisienne, Ministère des Affaires Sociales. Office des tunisiens à l'étranger (a brochure) (Tunis, 1995).
Rex, John, Daniele Joly and Czarina Wilpert (eds.). Immigrant Associations in Europe (Brookfield, VT: Gower, 1987).
Risse, Thomas, Stephen C. Ropp and Kathryn Sikkink (eds.). The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Risse-Kappen, Thomas (ed.). Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and International Institutions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Royaume du Maroc, Ministère de l'Economie Nationale, Division de la Coordination Economique et du Plan, Plan quinquennal, 1960–64 (Rabat, 1960).
Royaume du Maroc, Ministère de la Prévision Economique et du Plan, Direction de la Programmation. Le plan de développement économique et social, 2000–2004, Volume I, Les orientations et les perspectives globales de développement économique et social; Volume II, Le développement sectoriel (Sale: Print-Diffusion, 2001).
Royaume du Maroc, Premier Ministre, Ministère de la Prévision Economique et du Plan et L'Institut National de Statistique et d'Economie Appliquée (INSEA), Les marocains résidant à l'étranger: une enquête socio-économique (Rabat: El-Maarif al-Jadidah, 2000).
Royaume du Maroc, Premier Ministre, Ministère des Affaires Economiques du Plan et de la Formation des Cadres. Division de la Coordination Economique et du Plan. Plan quinquennal, 1968–72, Volume I (Mohammedia: Fedala, n.d.).
Royaume du Maroc, Premier Ministre, Ministère du Plan et du Développement Régional, Direction de la Planification. Plan de développement économique et social, 1981–85 (n.p., n.d.).
Royaume du Maroc, Premier Ministre, Secrétariat d'Etat au Plan, au Développement Régional et à la Formation des Cadres. Plan de développement économique et social, 1973–77, Volume I (Casablanca: Dar El-Kitab, n.d.).
Royaume du Maroc, Premier Ministre, Secrétariat d'Etat au Plan et au Développement Régional. Plan de développement économique et social, 1978–80, Volume I (n.p., n.d.).
Ruggie, John Gerard. “Continuity and Transformation in the World Polity: Toward a Neo-Realist Synthesis,” in Robert O. Keohane (ed.), Neo-Realism and its Critics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986).
Saade, Edmond Khalil. Le Liban dans le monde: guide des émigrés libanaises et syriens en Afrique Occidentale et Equatoriale (Beirut: Universelle, 1952).
Safa, Elie. L'émigration libanaise (Beirut: Université Saint-Joseph, 1960).
Saidi, Abdelatif. “Les stratégies des associations marocaines bruxelloises: une comparaison avec les Noirs Americains et les Franco-Maghrebins,” extracts from unpublished thesis, Namur, June 1997; www.users.skynet.be/suffrage-universel/bmar02.htm.
Salibi, Kamal. “Lebanon Under Fuad Chehab, 1958–1964,” Middle Eastern Studies 2 (3) April 1966: 211–26.
Salibi, Kamal. A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (London: I. B. Taurus, 1988).
Saouda, Joseph. “Importance de notre émigration, services rendus à la mère-patrie,” Cahiers de l'Est 1 1945: 162–63.
Sassen, Saskia. Globalization and its Discontents (New York: The New Press, 1998).
Schulz, Helena Lindholm. The Palestinian Diaspora (New York: Routledge, 2003).
Shadid, W. A. R., and P. S. van Koningsveld. Religious Freedom and The Position of Islam in Western Europe (Netherlands: Kok Pharos, 1995).
Shafir, Gershon (ed.). The Citizenship Debates (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998).
Shain, Yossi. Marketing the American Creed Abroad: Diasporas in the US and their Homelands (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Shami, Seteney. Emigration Dynamics in Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon, Paper no. 4, IOM/UNFPA Policy Workshop on Emigration Dynamics in the Arab Region (Geneva: IOM, 1996).
Smith, Michael Peter, and Luis Eduardo Guarnizo (eds.). Transnationalism from Below, Comparative Urban and Community Research 6 (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1998).
Smith, Robert C. “Migrant Membership as an Instituted Process: Transnationalization, the State and the Extra-Territorial Conduct of Mexican Politics,” International Migration Review 37 (2) Summer 2003: 297–343.
Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoǧlu. Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1994).
Spruyt, Hendrik. The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994).
Stoakes, Frank. “The Supervigilantes: The Lebanese Kataeb Party as a Builder, Surrogate and Defender of the State,” Middle Eastern Studies 11 (3) October 1975: 215–36.
Taamallah, Khemais. Les travailleurs tunisiens en France: aspects socio-démographiques économiques et problèmes de retour (Tunis: Imprimerie Officielle de la République Tunisienne, 1980).
Tell, Tariq (ed.). The Resilience of the Hashemite Rule: Politics and the State in Jordan, 1946–67, Les Cahiers du Cermoc 25 (Amman: Centre d'Etudes et de recherche sur le Moyen-Orient Contemporain, 2001).
Van de Laan, H. L. The Lebanese Traders in Sierra Leone (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1975).
Van Hear, Nicholas. New Diasporas (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998).
Waever, Ole. “Identity, Integration and Security: Solving the Sovereignty Puzzle in EU Studies,” Journal of International Affairs 48 (2): 389–431.
Walker, R. J. B. Inside/outside: International Relations as Political Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
Walker, R. J. B., and Saul H. Mendlovitz (ed.). Contending Sovereignties: Redefining Political Community (Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 1990).
Weil, Patrick. La France et ses étrangers: L'aventure d'une politique de l'immigration 1938–1991 (Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1991).
Weiner, Myron. “Security, Stability and International Migration,” International Security 17 (3) winter 1992/93: 91–126.
Weiner, Myron. The Global Migration Crisis: Challenge to States and to Human Rights (New York: Harper Collins, 1995).
Weiner, Myron. “Ethics, National Sovereignty and the Control of Immigration,” International Migration Review 30 (1) Spring 1996: 171–97.
Weiner, Myron, and Sharon Stanton Russell (eds.). Demography and National Security (New York: Berghahn Books, 2001).
Weiner, Myron, and Michael S. Teitelbaum. Political Demography, Demographic Engineering (New York: Berghahn Books, 2001).
White, Gregory. “Risking the Strait: Moroccan Labor Migration to Spain,” Middle East Report 218 Spring 2001: 26–29, 48.
Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. Les immigrés et la politique (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 1988).
Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. La citoyenneté européenne (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 1997).
Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. Faut-il ouvrir les frontières? (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 1999).
Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine, and Remy Leveau. La beurgeoisie: les trois âges de la vie associative issue de l'immigration (Paris: Editions CNRS, 2001).
Zamir, Meir. The Formation of Modern Lebanon (Dover, NH: Croom Helm, 1985).
Zevelev, Igor. Russia and Its New Diasporas (Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace Press, 2001).
Zolberg, Aristide. “New Waves of Migration: Migration Theory for a Changing World,” International Migration Review 23 (3) fall 1989: 403–30.

Reference Title: MATERIALS IN ARABIC

Reference Type: bibliography

Abu Jabir, Kamil, Salih Khasawnah and Mateus Bubeh. Suq al-ʿAmal al-Urdunni: Tatawwuruhu, Khasaʾisuhu, Siyasatuhu, wa-Afaquhu al-Mustabaliyyah (Amman: Dar al-Bashir, 1991).
Al-ʿAql, Jihad Nasri. Al-Hijrah al-Hadithah min Lubnan wa-Taʿati al-Muʾassasat al-Rasmiyyah w-al-Ahliyyah maʿaha 1860–2000 (Beirut: Dar wa-Maktabat al-Turath al-Adabi, 2002).
Awraq ʿAmal wa Munaqashat al-Muʾtamar al-Awwal l-il-Mughtaribin al-Urdunniyyin (Working Papers and Discussions of the First Conference for Jordanian Expatriates) (Amman, 1985).
Awraq ʿAmal wa Munaqashat al-Muʾtamar al-Thani l-il-Mughtaribin al-Urdunniyyin, (Working Papers and Discussions of the Second Conference for Jordanian Expatriates) (Amman, 1987).
Harfush, Nabil. Al-Hudur al-Lubnani f-il-ʿAlam, Volume I (Juniyyah: Dar Kurayyam, 1974); Volumes II and III (Beirut: Dar al-Funun, n.d.).
Al-Jumhuriyyah al-Lubnaniyyah, Majlis al-Nuwwab. al-Dawr al-Tashriʿi al-Thani ʿashr, al-ʿAqd al-ʿAdi al-Thani, 1992, Mahdar al-Jalsah al-Thalithah, 9–10 November 1992.
Al-Jumhuriyyah al-Lubnaniyyah, Majlis al-Nuwwab.al-Dawr al-Tashriʿ i al-Thaniʿashr, al-ʿAqd al-ʿAdi al-Awwal, 16 March 1993.
Al-Kitab al-Abyad: Wizarat al-Mughtaribin – matlab wa-ʿathirat wa-baramij ʿamal (Beirut: Ministry of Expatriates, 1994).
Al-Lajnah al-Qitaʿiyyah l-il-Tanmiyyah al-Ijtimaʿiyyah w-al-Tadamun al-Watani, Wizarat al-Shuʾun al-Ijtimaʿiyyah. Mutabiʿat Tanfiz al-Mukhattat al-Tasiʿ (1997–98) (Tunis, 1998).
Majlis al-Inmaʿ w-al-ʾIʿmar. Mashruʿ al-ʾIʿmar (Beirut: n.p., 1978).
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah, Majlis al-ʾIʿ mar al-Urdunni. Barnamij al-Sanawat al-Khamis l-il-Tanmiyah al-Iqtisadiyyah, 1962–67 (n.p., n.d.).
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah, Majlis al-ʾIʿ mar al-Urdunni.Barnamij al-Sanawat al-Sabiʿl-il-Tanmiyyah al-Iqtisadiyyah, 1964–1970 (n.p., 1965).
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah, Al-Majlis al-Qawmi l-il-Takhtit. Khittat al-Tanmiyah al-Thulathiyyah, 1973–75 (n.p., n.d.).
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah, Wizarat al-Takhtit. Al-Khittah al-Iqtisadiyyah w-al-Ijtimaʿiyyah 1993–1997 (n.p., n.d.).
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah, Wizarat al-Takhtit.Mulakhkhas Khittat al-Tanmiyah al-Iqtisadiyyah w-al-Ijtimaʿiyyah l-il-Aʿwam, 1999–2003 (n.p., n.d.).
Al-Mukhattat al-Rubaʿi, 1965–1968 (Tunis: Kitabat al-Dawlah l-il-Takhtit w-al-Iqtisad al-Watani, n.d.).
Al-Mukhattat al-Thulathi, 1962–1964 (Tunis: Kitabat al-Dawlah l-il-Tasmim w-al-Maliyyah, n.d.).
Al-Muʾtamar al-Khamis i-il-Urdunniyyin al-ʿAmilin f-il-Kharij (Amman: Ministry of Labor, n.d.).
Al-Muʾtamar al-Rabiʿ l-il-Mughtaribin al-Urdunniyyin (Amman: Ministry of Labor, Expatriate Affairs Bureau, n.d.).
Saʿadeh, Antun. Zad al-Muhajir (Beirut: Dar Fikr l-il-Abhath w-al-Nashr, 2002).
Salamah, Mazen. “Al-Fashl Yulahiq Muʾtamarat al-Mughtaribin,” Al-Urdunn al-Jadid 10 Spring 1988: 70–73.
Wizarat al-ʿAmal (w-al-Tanmiyah al-Ijtimaʿiyyah). Al-Taqrir al-Sanawi. (Amman: Daʾirat al-Abhath), 1980–97.
Wizarat al-Mughtaribin. Wathaʾiq min Mahfuzat al-Wizarah (Beirut: Manshurat Wizarat al-Mughtaribin, 1998).
Wizarat al-Thiqafah w-al-ʾIʿlam, Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hashimiyyah. Mujiz Khittat al-Tanmiyah al-Urdunniyyah, 1973–75 (n.p., n.d.).

Reference Title: NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS

Reference Type: bibliography

A dossier of brochures from La Fondation Hassan II describing its activities.
L'Action (Tunisia)
Al-ʿAlam (Morocco)
Al-Anbaʾ (Morocco)
L'Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord
Al-ʿAmal (Tunisia)
Al-Anwar (Lebanon)
Al-Bayan (Morocco)
Al-Bayane (Morocco-French)
Billedi (Tunisia)
Les Cahiers de L'Est (Lebanon)
Daily Star (Lebanon)
Demain (Morocco)
Al-Diyar (Lebanon)
L'Etoile du Nord (Morocco, Tangiers)
Al-Hadath (Tunisia)
Al-Hawadith (Lebanon)
Al-Hurriyyah (Tunisia)
Al-ʾIʿlam (Tunisia)
Al-Ittihad al-Ishtiraki (Morocco)
Jeune Afrique (Paris)
Jordan Times
Le Journal (Morocco)
Lettre d'Information du Ministère de la Communauté Marocaine à l'Etranger
Libération (Morocco)
Al-Liwaʾ (Lebanon)
Maghreb Resources Humaines
Al-Maghrib (Morocco)
Le Matin du Sahara (Morocco)
Al-Minbar
Al-Munʿatif (Morocco)
Al-Nahar (Lebanon)
L'Opinion (Morocco)
El País (Spain)
Parfum du Pays (Tunisia)
La Presse (Tunisia)
Al-Raʾy (Jordan)
Réalités (Tunisia)
Le Renouveau (Tunisia)
Rivages (Morocco)
Risalat al-Ummah (Morocco)
Al-Sabah (Tunisia)
Al-Safir (Lebanon)
Al-Sahara (Morocco)
Al-Sayyad (Lebanon)
Al-Shiraʾ (Morocco)
Le Temps (Tunisia)
La Vie Economique (Morocco)
Al-Wahdah (Tunisia)
Al-Wasat (Lebanon)
http://www.Emigrants.gov.lb (the Website of the Lebanese Ministry of Emigrants)

Reference Title: UNPUBLISHED SOURCES

Reference Type: bibliography

De Bel-Air, Françoise. “Expression, émigration, état rentier. Migration et politique en Jordanie depuis 1973.” Paper presented at the Third Mediterranean Social and Political Research Meeting, Florence, 20–24 March 2002, Mediterranean Programme, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute.
Hamdan, Kamal. “Lebanon: Emigration Policies, Trends and Mechanisms” [Lubnan: Siyasat al-Hijrah wa-Tayyaratuha wa-Anthimatuha]. Paper presented at the ILO/UNDP Seminar on Migration Policies in the Arab Labor-Sending Countries, Cairo, 2–4 May 1992.
Hernandez, Juan, Omar de la Torre and Julie M. Weise. “Mexico's New Public Policies for its Citizens Abroad.” Paper presented at the Metropolis Conference, Rotterdam, 28 November 2001.
Khasawneh, Saleh. “Labor Migration in Jordan: Policies, Flows, Organization.” Paper presented at the ILO/UNDP Seminar on Migration Policies in the Arab Labor-Sending Countries, Cairo, 2–4 May 1992.
Michalak, Laurence. “A Comparison of Morocco and Tunisian Labor Migration Policies in the New Global Economy.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Middle East Studies Association, Phoenix, Arizona, 19–22 November 1994.
Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger. “Nadwah Wataniyyah l-il-Tunisiyyin f-il-Kharij, Waraqat ʿAmal Lajnah: al-Ajyal al-Jadidah l-il-Hijrah bayna al-Muhafizah ʿala al-Hawiyyah w-al-Indimaj fi-Buldan al-Iqamah” (7 August 2002).
Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger.“Nadwah Wataniyyah l-il-Tunisiyyin f-il-Kharij, Waraqat ʿAmal Lajnah: Taʾthirat Ahdath 11/9/2001 ʿala Wadʿ al-Muhajirin bi-Buldan al-Iqamah” (7 August 2002).
Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger.“La politique d'encadrement des Tunisiens à l'étranger.”
Raad, Milad Raad. “The Participation of Lebanese Emigrants in the Legislative Elections of Lebanon.” Master's thesis, American University of Beirut, 1998.
Take, Khaled. “The Role of Lebanese Emigrants in the National Development of Lebanon.” Master's thesis, American University of Beirut, 1998.

Reference Title: INTERVIEWS

Reference Type: bibliography

ʿAbd al-Jabir, Taysir. Former Minister of Labor, Commissioner of the Jordan Securities Commission, Amman, 12 July 1999.
Abul-Hisn, Latif. Former Ambassador to Australia, Adjunct Professor, American University of Beirut, Beirut, 19 December 2002.
Abu-Odeh, ʿAdnan. Former Minister of Information, Court Chamberlain and Advisor to King Husayn and King ʿAbdallah II, Amman, 15 May 2003.
Ahaidar, Marzuk. Former MRE parliamentary representative, Tangier, 15 July 2002.
Amiyar, Jamal. Journalist and publisher of Les Nouvelles du Nord (Tangier), Tangier, 25 June 2000.
al-ʿAql, Jihad. Section head for Emigrés and Emigration, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates, Beirut, 28 October 2002.
Baouab, ʿAbdelmajid. Director-General of Consular Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tunis, 10 August 2002.
Belguendouz, Abdelkrim. Professor, Faculty of Law, Mohammed V University, Rabat, 11 June 2002.
Ben Feguir, Khaled. Director-Adjoint, Tunisian National Radio, Tunis, 12 August 2002.
Bouzaidi, ʿAbd al-ʿAziz. Responsible for TREs, Rassemblement constitutionnel démocratique, Tunis, 9 August 2002.
Cassarino, Jean-Pierre. International Migration Organization representative with the Fondation Hassan II Observatoire project, Rabat, 28 May 2002.
al-Ghazi, ʿAkka. Former MRE parliamentary representative, Rabat, 19 July 2002.
Ghurrah, Edward. Former Ambassador and former Director-General of the Mudiriyyat al-Mughtaribin in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beirut, 20 November 2002.
Gueddara, ʿAbd al-Moneim. Partenariat Pole, Fondation Hassan II, Rabat, June 2000.
Harfush, Nabil. Former Secretary-General of the World Lebanese Cultural Union, Beirut, 6 November 2002.
Hart, Laurence. Chargé de Programme, International Migration Organization, Tunis, 9 August 2002.
Ismaʿil, Fouad. Director of Marketing, Banque Populaire (al-Bank al-Chaabi), Tangiers, 28 June 2000.
El-Jemaʿi, Beshir. Director-General, Office des Tunisiens à l'Etranger, Tunis, 9 August 2002.
Jumʿah, Haytham. Director General, Ministry of Expatriates, Beirut, 21 October 2002.
Kalaʿi, Mondher. Director of Programs, Channel 7 (Tunisia's satellite channel), Tunis, 12 August 2002.
Khamlichi, Farideh. Ministry of Human Rights, Rabat, 13 June 2002.
Khiddar, Rachid. Head of Istiqlal Committee on MREs, Rabat, 3 July 2002.
Labaki, Butros. Emigration expert and Chairman, Lebanese Institute for Economic and Social Development, Beirut, 11 November 2002.
Lahlou, Rachid. Former Ambassador and MRE parliamentary representative, Rabat, 5 July 2002.
El-Mahdaoui, Kamel. Bureau of European Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rabat, 20 June 2002.
Messaouden, Djellal. Communications Pole, Fondation Hassan II, Rabat, 30 June 2000.
Rahahla, Naseem. National Competitiveness Team, Ministry of Planning, Amman, 23 June 1999 and 24 July 2000.
Snoussi, ʿAdel. Agence Tunisienne pour la Coopération Technique, Tunis, 12 August 2002.
Tabbara, Riadh. Former Ambassador to the United States, demographer and migration expert, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Beirut, 12 November 2002.
Tlili, Fathi. President, Union des Travailleurs Immigrés Tunisiens, Tunis, 14 August 2002.
Trabelsi, Mohammed. Assistant Secretary-General for International Relations and Immigration, Union Général des Travailleurs Tunisiens (UGTT), Tunis, 14 August 2002.
al-Turk, Fuʾad. Ambassador and former Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates, Beirut, 7 October 2002.
Yusuf, ʿAli. General-Director, Jordanian Businessmen's Association, Amman, 28 June 1999.
Zahi, Abderrahman. Director-General, Fondation Hassan II, Rabat, 21 June 2000.